Career Development – Choosing a Major
Career and Personal Development
How to Choose a Major
What Is a Major?
A major is the basic component of the undergraduate curriculum, usually consisting of a number of courses in one or more subject areas.
Majors differ in a variety of ways:
- The number of courses required by the major
- Whether there is room to take courses that interest you outside your major department
- The amount of flexibility that exists within the major: Do you have some choice in the courses that you take to complete the major, or are you required to take specific courses only?
For information on various majors, consult Neumann University’s Undergraduate Programs
Considerations in Choosing a Major
- Some students pursue a program that prepares them for a specific career, such as nursing.
- Others want their education to give them a basis for pursuing a graduate or professional degree.
- Keep in mind that knowledge and skills gained from a major can be transferable to a variety of occupations.
- Your choice of a major should be based on your own personal needs and interests.
- Areas of special interest often suggest an aptitude.
- Decide what courses/majors may be of interest to you and test them out by enrolling in introductory courses within these major fields.
The Relationship between College Major and Career
- You do not necessarily have to decide on a career goal before you choose your major.
- In some cases, a major provides course work to train you in a specific field, such as education or accounting, but knowledge learned from all majors is transferable to different careers.
What Is the Status of the Current Labor Market?
- A general overview of the economic and employment situation may provide helpful information in the process of choosing a major. A good place to start this research isThe Occupational Outlook Handbook.
- Although employment trends may influence your choice to varying degrees, you should not exclude majors that truly interest you. Instead, complement your major with elective coursework or practical work experience, which will give you a greater degree of flexibility when seeking employment following graduation.
Preparation for Graduate Study
- A graduate degree may be a prerequisite for a variety of careers. You should determine as early as possible whether a graduate program will be helpful or necessary for entry into the field of your choice, as many programs may require specific course work.
- An early choice of a major should be considered tentative. Many students change majors at least once before graduation.
- Remember that career perceptions often change as well, and it is likely that you will change careers at several points in your life.
- Start exploring majors and careers early on in your undergraduate education. Seek out Internet resources to gain information. Ask your fellow students about particular majors and courses.
- Start exploring different careers utilizing the resources available on the Career and Personal Development Office website.
- Arrange some informational interviews with individuals in career fields of interest to you.
Remember, not to decide is to decide. The longer you wait to explore these issues, the narrower your choices may become. After considering some of the issues raised here, complement your choice of a major with wise career planning and make use of the services at Neumann to assist you in this process.
Neumann University – The Princeton Review College Rankings & Reviews
Neumann College, a small Catholic school outside of Philadelphia, specializes in providing undergraduates with “a personalized educational atmosphere based on Christian beliefs and moral values. ” The curriculum “emphasizes respect for individuals, concern for the environment, and social responsibility.” Students praise “the service-learning that is stressed because this is a Franciscan school.” As a result, “the volunteer opportunities and events held on this campus are remarkable.” So, too, are academic offerings in nursing, education, communications, and criminal justice, as well as “one of the best” sports management programs in the region. No matter what you study here, you’re sure to find “every professor and administrator in the Neumann College community is so friendly and very approachable.” In particular, Neumann “is great for students who do not want huge lecture classes” that might be more common at bigger schools. Professors “go the extra mile to help in any way,” and “the Academic Resource Center offers free tutoring in all subjects.”
Most of Neumann’s population-two-thirds, to be precise-“is girls. ” The same proportion of the school belongs to the Roman Catholic Church, and “a lot of the students here are religious.” Men and non-Catholics need not worry about fitting in here, though. At Neumann, “Everyone is friendly and gets along.” There is a 16 percent minority population, a sizable non-traditional student group, and, as the years pass, “the campus is growing more and more diverse.” Fortunately, “It’s easy to make friends,” and a friendly vibe pervades the school. It’s the kind of place where “students hold doors open for you. Even if you are steps away from the door, they wait until you get there.”
You’ll find a “quiet environment” at Neumann. The campus is dry, and residence halls are “strict with alcohol,” so there are “no big parties” on campus. Students admit, “it does get a little boring”-so much so that many of “those living on campus leave on the weekends. ” Others head to “parties off campus” or simply enjoy “hanging out with friends” in the dorms. The Student Activities Board “offers a good amount of events for students to have some fun on campus,” including novelty nights, dances, and black-light volleyball. Hockey games are also extremely popular. “There are shuttles to the rink for games,” so students don’t have to worry about driving or parking. In addition, “the school provides transportation to the malls and other places.” Still, many here feel “having a car is a must” because “there is not much to do in the immediate area surrounding the college.” There is, however, “a lot to do within a 15 to 30-minute drive off campus” including “three malls, a number of movie theaters, clubs, [and] bars.”
Neumann University Academic Overview | UnivStats
2021 Tuition & Fees
For undergraduate school, in the academic year 2020-2021, tuition and fees of Neumann University are $32,960. For graduate schools, its 2021 tuition and fees are $13,860 on average.
[Chart] 2020-2021 Tuition & Fees
Key Academic Statistics
The following chart illustrates the 2021 key academic statistics at Neumann. The acceptance rate of Neumann is 62% and the yield (enrollment rate) is 18%. The average graduation rate is 52% and no students have transferred out from the school. The average received amount of financial aid is $14,738 and 80% of undergraduate students received grants or scholarship aid. A total of 2,598 students is attending including both undergraduate and graduate students, and the student to faculty ratio is 14 to 1.
Acceptance Rate for Neumann University is 62 %.
Graduation Rate for Neumann University is 52 %
Retention Rate for Neumann University is 71 %
Student Population for Neumann University is 2,598
Student to Faculty Ratio for Neumann University is 14 to 1
Student to Faculty Ratio
14 to 1
The average received amount of financial aid is $14,738 at Neumann University.
Financial Aid Amount
Neumann offers 40 major programs through online and on-site education where 5 programs are available through distance learning. The following table lists the number of programs by offered degree with online class availabilities.
|Award Level||Total Number of Programs||Available Online Class|
|One but less than two years certificate||1||0|
|Post Bachelor’s Degree||2||0|
|Post Master’s Degree||3||0|
|Doctor’s degree – research/scholarship||2||0|
|Doctor’s degree – professional practice||1||0|
Special Learning Opportunities
Neumann University offers online education (distance learning opportunities) for both undergraduate and graduate programs. The school provides ROTC, teacher certification and study abroad – opportunity which a student completes part of the college program studying in another country programs to its students. It also offers weekend/evening classes which is a program that allows students to take a complete course of study and attend classes only on weekends or only in evenings.
|Online Class||Undergraduate , Graduate|
|ROTC||Army, Air Force|
(Typical Annual Charge: $5,180)
Neumann University has programs, benefits and/or services to veterans, military service members, or their families.
|Yellow Ribbon Program
(officially known as Post-9/11 GI Bill, Yellow Ribbon Program)
|Credit for military training||✔|
|Dedicated point of contact for support services for veterans, military service members, and their families||✔|
|Recognized student veteran organization||✗|
|Member of Servicemembers Opportunity Colleges||✔|
Northeast College and Neumann University Partner to Guarantee Student Admission
Northeast College and Neumann University Partner to Guarantee Student Admission
August 13, 2021
Northeast College of Health Sciences
Northeast College of Health Sciences (formerly New York Chiropractic College) and Neumann University (Penn. ) have announced a new educational partnership to help students secure their admission to Northeast College.
The partnership provides two articulation tracks for biology majors at Neumann University to guarantee admission into Northeast College’s Doctor of Chiropractic program, as they earn their bachelor’s degrees. With guided support from both institutions, students can avoid spending time and money on unnecessary coursework and begin their path to Northeast College by submitting a Letter of Intent, signed by their undergraduate advisor.
The 3+3 articulation track saves students the cost of one year of tuition by allowing students to earn their bachelor’s degree from Neumann University and a graduate degree from Northeast a full year more quickly than it would take to earn the degrees individually. The 4+3 articulation track lets students complete their degree at Neumann University and gain acceptance to Northeast College when requirements are met.
ABOUT NORTHEAST COLLEGE: Northeast College of Health Sciences, formerly New York Chiropractic College, in Seneca Falls, N. Y., offers an education like no other to build professionals who have no equal. The College is recognized as a leading institution for the education and training of natural healthcare professionals and academicians, and its graduate programs in areas such as chiropractic, nutrition, and health sciences education are rooted in a commitment to academic excellence, leadership, and professional best practices. For more information about educational partnerships at Northeast College, visit www.nycc.edu/admissions/articulation.
ABOUT NEUMANN UNIVERSITY: Neumann University is a private, Catholic college, committed to providing students with opportunities for success through rigorous academic majors, leadership opportunities, and professional internships. The campus culture emphasizes respect for individuals, concern for the environment, and social responsibility. Undergraduate programs are available in Arts and Sciences, Business, Education and Human Services, and Nursing and Health Sciences. By providing financial aid to 99 percent of its undergraduates, Neumann has been recognized for social mobility by U.S. News & World Report. Learn more about Neumann University at www.neumann.edu.
Neumann University – College Confidential
Neumann University is a private, religious school that was founded in 1965. It is slightly difficult to get into Neumann University. It enrolls around 2,506 students a year, including 1,942 undergrads.
Neumann University offers early action and does not offer early decision.
Acceptance Rate for Neumann University
Around 80% of applicants get into Neumann University each year. In 2021, 2,684 out of 3,341 total applicants were accepted.
Neumann University Application Deadlines
The deadline to apply regular decision to Neumann University for Fall 2022 is August 1. All regular decision applicants should hear back from Neumann University by September 1.
Early Admissions at Neumann University
Neumann University does not offer early decision. Neumann University offers early action.
Mark Your Calendar!
The EA deadline is on December 1, 2021, which is coming up soon!
|2021 Admissions Facts|
|Overall Acceptance Rate||80%|
Visit the Admissions tab above to for more on how to apply to Neumann University.
Financial Aid at Neumann University
Neumann University meets 75% of the demonstrated financial need for undergraduates. The average financial aid package for a full-time, first-year student is around $26,927 a year.
The 2022-2023 FAFSA Opened on October 1st, 2021
Some financial aid is available on a first-come, first-serve basis, so fill out the FAFSA early. Visit the FAFSA website to apply for student aid. Remember, the first F in FAFSA stands for FREE! No one should ever pay to fill out the FREE Application for Federal Student Aid, (FAFSA), so don’t give your money (or info!) to any website that claim you do..
Dorms at Neumann University
Most Neumann University students live off campus.
The most popular organizations for Neumann University students to join are Student Nurses Association, Student Activities Board and Boogie Nights. Best Day Ever, Spring Formal, and and Homecoming and Family Weekend are the best-attended events on campus.
Click the Student Life tab above to learn more about the student body and campus life at Neumann University.
GPA and Test Scores for Neumann University
Neumann University is considered slightly difficult to get into, but how hard a school is to get into depends on a lot, including your GPA, test scores, activities, recommendations and essays. Admitted students have an average high school GPA of 3.1 on a 4.0 scale.
Does Neumann University Require the ACT or SAT?
Neumann University does not have a test optional admissions policy. Test optional schools allow students to choose if they want to submit ACT or SAT scores with their applications or not.
Out of all applicants, 87% submitted the SAT. 9% submitted the ACT.
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Neumann University Waitlist 2021
Neumann University reports that no students were waitlisted or admitted off the waitlist in the most recent year.
Is Neumann University a Good School?
The definition of a “good school” is different for different people. Admissions difficulty and admitted student statistics can give you a sense of how competitive a school is, but they don’t say much about the quality of the education or the student experience. There are a few statistics that can give you a good idea of how satisfied students are and how well a school supports its students.
Retention, graduation, and job placement statistics all give valuable information about the quality of the student experience, before and after graduation.
Retention and Graduation Rates at Neumann University
About 77% of students who start at Neumann University return for their second year of college. Out of the 415 students who started at Neumann University as first-time freshman, 127 graduate within four years.
Neumann University’s six-year graduation for undergrads is 51%. Compare this to the average six-year graduation rate for colleges and universities in the U.S., which is around 61% for public schools and 67% for private.
Job Outcomes and Student Debt
Job placement and student debt statistics for recent graduates can give you a sense of the return on investment a school offers. Graduates in the class of 2021 had an average of $47,230 in student loans per borrower. For context, compare this number with the average national debt, which is around $36,000 per borrower.
Based on this information, how does Neumann University sound? Remember, the best school for one person may not be the right school for someone else! So ask yourself: Is Neumann University a good school for you?
How Big is the Endowment for Neumann University?
Neumann University’s endowment was valued at $30,752,163 in 2021. For each full-time student, Neumann University spends about $7,118.
Applying to Neumann University for Fall 2022?**
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Read on to find out more about the admissions requirements and deadlines, student life, academics, majors and more.
Still Doing Your College Research?
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Where is Neumann University Located?
Neumann University is located in the suburban setting of Aston, Pennsylvania, less than an hour from Philadelphia.
If you want to see Neumann University for yourself, plan a visit. The best way to reach campus is to take Interstate 95 to Aston, or book a flight to the nearest airport, Philadelphia International.
You can also take a virtual campus tour to get a sense of what Neumann University and Aston are like without leaving home.
Considering Colleges and Universities in Pennsylvania?
See a full list of colleges in Pennsylvania and save your favorites to your college list.
NU – Neumann University
The History of Neumann University
Founded in 1965, Neumann is a private, Catholic university in the Franciscan tradition, which emphasizes respect for individuals, concern for the environment, and social responsibility
The University offers undergraduate degrees in a broad variety of subjects, three doctoral programs, six master’s degree programs, and an accelerated bachelor’s degree program for adults.
Neumann now fields 24 NCAA athletic teams, is home to eight arts groups, and has three residence halls that accommodate more than 750 students. The student-faculty ratio of 15:1 allows professors to provide the personal attention for which Neumann is famous.
Neumann University is made up of five academic divisions: the Division of Arts and Sciences, the Division of Business and Information Management, the Division of Nursing and Health Sciences, the Division of Education and Human Services, and the Division of Continuing Adult and Professional Studies.
Life in Neumann University
Neumann University is a member of the Atlantic East Conference as well as the United Collegiate Hockey Conference (UCHC). It competes in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), Division III. In 2009 Neumann University’s Men’s Ice Hockey Team won the NCAA Division III National Championship In the summer of 2012, Neumann University constructed the Mirenda Center, a 72,000 square foot athletic complex which houses an indoor track, NCAA Division III regulation basketball court, dance studios, student lounges, a classroom, weight and cardio rooms as well as the Center for Sport Spirituality and Character Development.
Neumann University’s ranking in the 2020 edition of Best Colleges is Regional Universities North, #129-#170
Neumann University is a private institution that was founded in 1965. It has a total undergraduate enrollment of 1,995, its setting is suburban, and the campus size is 68 acres.
- Jordan Harris
- Tim Perry
- Mike Hedden
- Brett Leonhardt
- Neil Trimm
Neumann University acceptance rate 96.3%
Neumann University Information | Neumann University Profile
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90,000 John von Neumann is … What is John von Neumann?
John von Neumann in the 1940s
John von Neumann (English John von Neumann or Johann von Neumann , German Johann von Neumann ; at birth Janos Lajos Neumann (Hung. Neumann – János Lajman), 28 December 1903 February 8, 1957, Washington) is a Hungarian-American mathematician who made important contributions to quantum physics, quantum logic, functional analysis, set theory, computer science, economics and other branches of science.
Best known as the forefather of modern computer architecture (the so-called von Neumann architecture), the application of operator theory to quantum mechanics (see von Neumann’s Algebra), as well as a participant in the Manhattan Project and as the creator of game theory and the concept of cellular automata.
Janos Lajos Neumann was born the eldest of three sons into a wealthy Jewish family in Budapest, which at that time was a city of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.  His father, Max Neumann (Hung.Neumann Miksa, 1870-1929), moved to Budapest from the provincial town of Pécs in the late 1880s, received a doctorate in jurisprudence and worked as a lawyer at a bank. Mother, Margaret Kann (Hungarian Kann Margit, 1880-1956), was a housewife and the eldest daughter (in a second marriage) of a successful merchant Jacob Kann, a partner in the Kann-Heller company specializing in the sale of millstones and other agricultural equipment …
Janos, or simply “Yancy”, was an unusually gifted child.Already at the age of 6, he could divide two eight-digit numbers in his mind and converse with his father in ancient Greek. Janos has always been interested in mathematics, the nature of numbers and the logic of the world around him. At the age of eight, he was already well versed in mathematical analysis. In 1911 he entered the Lutheran Gymnasium. In 1913, his father received a title of nobility, and Janos, along with the Austrian and Hungarian symbols of nobility – the prefixes von ( von ) to the Austrian surname and the title Margittai ( Margittai ) in the Hungarian name of János became von Neyman or Neiman Margittai Janos Lajos. While teaching in Berlin and Hamburg, he was called Johann von Neumann. Later, after moving to the United States in the 1930s, his name in the English manner changed to John. It is curious that the von Neumann brothers, after moving to the United States, received completely different surnames: Vonneumann ( Vonneumann ) and Newman ( Newman ).
Von Neumann received his Ph.D. in mathematics (with elements of experimental physics and chemistry) from the University of Budapest at age 23. At the same time, he studied chemical engineering in Zurich, Switzerland (Max von Neumann considered the profession of mathematician insufficient to ensure a reliable future for his son).From 1926 to 1930, John von Neumann was assistant professor in Berlin.
In 1930, von Neumann was invited to teach at the American Princeton University. He was one of the first invited to work at the Institute for Advanced Study ( Institute for Advanced Study ) founded in 1930, also based in Princeton, where he held a professorship from 1933 until his death.
In 1936-1938, Alan Turing defended his doctoral dissertation at the institute under the direction of Alonzo Church.This happened shortly after the publication in 1936 of Turing’s article “On Computable Numbers with an Application to the Entscheidungs problem”, which included the concepts of logical design and a universal machine. Von Neumann was undoubtedly familiar with Turing’s ideas, but it is not known whether he applied them to the design of the IAS machine ten years later.
In 1937, von Neumann became a US citizen. In 1938 he was awarded the M. Bocher Prize for his work in the field of analysis.
Von Neumann was married twice. He first married Mariette Kövesi ( Mariette Kövesi ) in 1930. The marriage broke up in 1937, and already in 1938 he married Clara Dan ( Klara Dan ). From his first wife, von Neumann had a daughter, Marina, in the future a famous economist.
In 1946, John von Neumann proved the density theorem for numbers in positional number systems with different bases.
In 1957, von Neumann developed bone cancer, possibly caused by radiation exposure while researching the atomic bomb in the Pacific Ocean, or perhaps during subsequent work in Los Alamos, New Mexico (his colleague, nuclear pioneer Enrico Fermi, died from bone cancer in 1954).A few months after the diagnosis, von Neumann died in great agony. Cancer also hit his brain, making it virtually impossible for him to think. As he lay dying in Walter Reed Hospital, he shocked his friends and acquaintances by asking him to speak to a Catholic priest.
Cellular Automata and Living Cell
The concept of creating cellular automata was a product of anti-vitalist ideology (indoctrination), the possibility of creating life from dead matter.The arguments of the vitalists in the 19th century did not take into account that in dead matter it is possible to store information – a program that can change the world (for example, Jacard’s machine, see Hans Driesch). It cannot be said that the idea of cellular automata turned the world upside down, but it has found application in almost all areas of modern science.
Neumann clearly saw the limit of his intellectual capabilities and felt that he could not perceive some higher mathematical and philosophical ideas.
Von Neumann was a brilliant, inventive, efficient mathematician, with an amazing breadth of scientific interests that extended beyond mathematics.He knew about his technical talent. His virtuosity in understanding the most complex reasoning and intuition were highly developed; and yet he was far from absolute self-confidence. Perhaps it seemed to him that he did not have the ability to intuitively predict new truths at the highest levels, or the gift of an imaginary understanding of proofs and formulations of new theorems. It’s hard for me to understand this. Maybe this was due to the fact that a couple of times he was ahead or even surpassed by someone else.For example, he was disappointed that he was not the first to solve Gödel’s completeness theorems. He was more than able to do this, and alone with himself, he admitted the possibility that Hilbert chose an erroneous course of decision. Another example is J. D. Birkhoff’s proof of the ergodic theorem. His proof was more convincing, more interesting, and more independent than Joni’s. [Ulam, 70]
This problematic of a personal relationship to mathematics was very close to Ulam, see.for example
I remember how at the age of four I frolicked on an oriental carpet, looking at the wondrous ligature of its pattern. I remember the tall figure of my father standing next to me and his smile. I remember thinking: “He smiles, because he thinks that I am still quite a child, but I know how amazing these patterns are!” I do not claim that exactly these words occurred to me then, but I am sure that this thought occurred to me at that moment, and not later. I definitely felt, “I know something that my dad doesn’t.Perhaps I know more than he does. ” [Ulam, 13]
Compare with Grothendieck’s Crops and Crops.
German Minister of Culture demanded a ban on violent computer games | Analysis of events in political life and society in Germany | DW
German Minister of Culture Bernd Neumann (Bernd Neumann) intends to demand a legislative ban on computer games that promote violence.He stated this in an interview with Cicero magazine.
“Prohibitions will not solve the whole problem”
Responsibility for the emergence of such games is primarily in the hands of special commissions for the control of entertainment software. According to the Minister of Culture, “the commissions’ capacities are not fully used.” And this is not so much about new laws as about the degree of responsibility in the fight against cruelty and violence.
Is there a connection between virtual and real violence?
According to Neumann, “the results of violence on a TV or computer screen are felt in school.Prohibitions do not solve the whole problem, young people lack knowledge about how to use the huge amount of information offered by the new media. “
Olaf Wolters, director of the German Interactive Applications (BIU) He suggested that the information industry should cooperate more closely with regional youth offices
Green faction against the ban
Debates on the prohibition of violent computer games have been going on in Germany since the Erfurt tragedy in 2002 year.In the same year, the Bavarian parliament passed a law prohibiting the distribution of films and computer games containing particularly violent scenes. Four years later, the bloody drama was repeated at a school in Emsdetten.
A similar federal law has not yet been adopted. The opposition of the “greens” doubts the effectiveness of the ban method, arguing that young people are more interested in the “forbidden fruit”, as well as the lack of evidence of a direct connection between violence on the screen and in real life. (ke)
90,000 DEGREE EQUATION – English Translation
Finally, in 1954, someone realized that 1950- and had become old-fashioned.
Finally in 1954, someone woke up and realized that 1950 had gotten somewhat passé.
And then we jump to von Neumann, in 1945- and , when he kind of reinvents the same thing.
And then we jump to Von Neumann, 1945, when he sort of reinvents the whole same thing.
When I stopped eating sweets for 30 days, 31- th day looked like this.
When I gave up sugar for 30 days, day 31 looked like this.
Which took place in Europe from 1650 to 1750 – and .
which was indeed the case in Europe between 1650 and 1750.
Mo ( th / i) spouse – citizens (in / ka) [country-adjective].
My spouse is a [nationality adjective] citizen.
14 th Man: Let’s say we like each other.
14th Man: Let’s say that you and me like each other.
This is a logarithmic scale – 10 to 8- th degrees.
This is a logarithmic scale, 10 to the eighth power.
1- th man: we had fun, rode bicycles.
Fifth Man: we were having fun, biking.
(2- th man: I will never forget these words.)
(Sixth Man: I will never forget those words.)
I remind you, ladies and gentlemen – 1960- .
Bear in mind, ladies and gents, this was 1960.
90,000 Collapse of the state.US war in Afghanistan. At the cemetery of empires [liters]
Collapse of the state
In 1967, Ronald Neumann completed his studies at the University of California-Riverside, received his Master’s degree in Political Science and went to Afghanistan, where his father, Robert Neumann, served as the US Ambassador. Neumann Sr. was a professor at the University of California when President Lyndon B. Johnson invited him to become an ambassador. “I became interested in politics under my father’s influence,” Ronald Neumann recalled many years later.“Because of him, in the tenth grade, I decided to go to the foreign policy service” 11 .
This trip to Afghanistan was for Ronald Neumann the first and the last before, almost forty years later, he followed in his father’s footsteps and also became the American ambassador to this country. Neumann traveled to Afghanistan with his wife. They drove from Herat to Kabul. Part of the same route was repeated many years later by Rory Stewart, who described it in his 2001 bestseller The Places in Between 12 .In Badakhshan, a mountainous region in northeastern Afghanistan in the heart of the Hindu Kush, Neumann hunted the famous Marco Polo ram (Pamir argali). Returning from his trip to Asia at the end of the 13th century, the great Italian described these animals weighing under one hundred kilograms as “wild rams of enormous size” with horns “six palms long” 13 (Venetian palm is a measure of length, equal to 0. 3774 m ). “It was an exotic adventure, a true journey into the past,” Neumann recalled 14 .
He also drove through the Salang tunnel, carved in the Hindu Kush mountains and connecting the north and south of Afghanistan. In 1955, the Afghan government signed an agreement with the Soviet Union to build a tunnel, which was opened in 1964. It remained the highest mountain road tunnel in the world until 1973, when the Eisenhower Memorial Tunnel was opened in the Rocky Mountains in the United States. was slightly longer and slightly higher. For tourists and travelers in those days, the Salang tunnel was one of the main wonders of the country, if not all of Central Asia.
The country Ronald Neumann traveled in 1967 enjoyed several decades of stability and a fairly strong government. Every year, crowds of tourists from America and Europe came to Kabul. The Afghan capital was a fashionable destination for young savage tourists filling the city’s coffee shops and carpet shops. King Zahir Shah introduced a representative form of government, for which he received the highest marks from the American leadership. In a top secret (“in person only” note) sent by Vice President Spiro Agnew to President Richard Nixon in 1970, the king was characterized as “a seasoned serious man, deeply devoted to his country” and “seems to be very sophisticated in foreign policy issues” 15 . He was then about 55 years old, he had a large bald head, a neat mustache. The impression was that he felt better in European clothing than in traditional Afghan clothing.
In 1964, the king convened the Loya Jirga (Grand Council), one of the freest and most influential in the history of the Afghan state. The Loya Jirga drafted a new constitution for Afghanistan, establishing a bicameral legislature and an independent judiciary.The constitution also established a system of “checks and balances” based on the separation of the executive, legislative and judicial powers. State Department reports endorsed Zahir Shah’s activities, dubbed it “a program for moving towards democracy” and noted that the king effectively maintains stability in the country 90,019 16 90,020. The central government of Afghanistan was weak, but Zahir Shah maintained law and order in the country using the method of division of responsibility.In urban areas, such as Kabul, the state was responsible for maintaining order and meeting the needs of the population. In rural areas, tribes, clans or communities were responsible for order and security. In cases of serious conflict in rural areas, government security agencies could intervene. Consequently, peace and stability in the country were maintained through the division of powers between the center and the periphery.
However, by the beginning of the 70s, signs of increasing economic and political instability appeared in the country.In August 1971, Ambassador Robert Neumann had a difficult conversation with Zahir Shah. Reacting to remarks about growing tensions in relations, Neumann “decided to strongly remind about the lack of progress in the country, especially about the worsening economic situation.” He warned Zahir Shah, saying that the political environment was becoming increasingly unhealthy and the population was feeling hopeless. “In the four and a half years I have spent here, I have not yet heard so many statements at all levels of society about the feeling of hopelessness regarding the ability of the new government to do anything” 17 .There were also reports of government corruption and tribal unrest undermining public safety 90,019 18 90,020. Public opinion began to turn against Zahir Shah, who was increasingly viewed as arrogant and out of touch with life. In an end-of-term memorandum, Ambassador Neumann wrote about the king:
King, are best characterized by the difficulties faced by observers, both Afghan and foreign, trying to assess this man and his deeds.He did not write his memoirs or autobiography, and his official speeches were rare and usually boring. When meeting with representatives of different strata of Afghan society, he preferred not to speak, but to listen. For this reason, no one really knew about his views 19 .
In 1972, rumors of a possible coup began to reach American diplomats in Afghanistan and their intelligence contacts. During one of the meetings, Wahid Abdullah, director of the information department of the Afghan Foreign Ministry, asked Ambassador Neumann how the United States would react to the transfer of power to Muhammad Daoud Khan.Daud, who served as prime minister from 1953 to 1963, was known for his progressive policies, especially on women’s rights issues. Wahid Abdullah was eager to learn about the possible US reaction and evasively remarked that “[Daoud] knows that I am here” 20 . The coup seemed inevitable. In April 1972, the State Department received information that the coup could happen within “a couple of weeks” and that it would be headed by Daoud 21 . Throughout 1972 and 1973. American and Soviet intelligence collected information on a possible coup 22 .
On June 26, 1973, Zahir Shah flew to London to receive treatment for a hemorrhage in the eye, according to the State Department, “while playing volleyball” 23 . After completing his treatment, Zahir Shah went to Italy, where he planned to spend a short vacation. The “vacation” was much longer than anyone could expect – the king was able to come to Afghanistan only in April 2002, when the Taliban regime fell. On July 16, 1973, Daoud staged a coup d’etat with the support of the Afghan army.The United States’ response has been mixed. For example, a National Security Council report to Henry Kissinger noted that during Daud’s tenure as prime minister in the 1950s, he proved to be a “strong leader” and “made significant efforts to modernize the economy and the military.” The report also said that Daoud had turned to the Soviet Union for economic and military assistance, and warned that he “could go to closer cooperation with the Soviets” 24 .
At the time, Afghanistan was in the backyard of United States foreign policy. “The United States had practically no interest in Afghanistan,” admitted Graham Fuller, who headed the CIA station in Kabul from 1975-1978. “But there were good opportunities to recruit Soviet diplomats and KGB officers, as well as Chinese. ” Fuller graduated from Harvard University and received his first bachelor’s and then master’s degrees in Soviet and Middle Eastern Studies. He studied there with respected Russian historian Richard Pipes and future national security adviser to the President of the United States Zbigniew Brzezinski.Fuller never worked in Moscow and behind the Iron Curtain, but he was increasingly looking for the weaknesses of the Soviet Union. “I was interested in the situation in the” soft underbelly “of the Soviet Union, so I wanted to serve in Afghanistan.” Throughout the 1970s, the CIA monitored Daoud’s contacts with the Soviet Union and the Afghan communist parties with increasing concern. “We knew Daoud had very close ties to the Soviets,” Fuller recalled. “Moscow’s involvement in Afghan affairs grew stronger and stronger.” 25 .
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Continuation for liters
90,000 history of the microphone in the mirror of the 20th century
This year all fans of vintage, warm, tube, expensive studio sound – ideal sound, dream sound – are celebrating together the 90th anniversary of the famous microphone brand Neumann and the 120th anniversary of the birth of the amazing engineer Georg Neumann. Long and full of the most surprising twists and turns, the history of Neumann is not only about engineering solutions; in the history of the brand, politics and business, war and peace, recording technologies and musical fashion have been combined in a bizarre way. Neumann are the very microphones that have brought to us the voices of Louis Armstrong, Ella Fitzgerald, Bing Crosby, Frank Sinatra, of course, The Beatles. The history of Neumann is to some extent the entire XX century: high-tech, revolutionary and controversial.
Georg Neumann’s career began in the 1920s when, as a very young engineer, he joined AEG (Allgemeine Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft): it was a huge concern, a pioneer in many areas of electrical engineering and electronics.At that time, Eugen Ries was the director of the AEG microphone laboratory, and it was under his leadership that Georg Neumann realized his first inventive ideas. When Rice left the company in 1923, Neumann left with his boss. The famous Marconi-Rice carbon microphone with a marble body, popular with show business stars in the late 1920s and early 1930s, was more than half the brainchild of Neumann.
Georg Neumann founded his own company in 1928 (we celebrate the anniversary of this date in 2018).The main idea of the new company was the establishment of the world’s first serial production of condenser microphones. Instead of carbon powder sandwiched between two membranes, the membranes were turned into capacitor plates: movable and fixed.
As a result, the microphone acquired an absolutely fantastic clarity and naturalness of speech transmission for that time. In 1936, at the Olympic Games in Berlin, the CMV3 microphone was demonstrated for the first time, based on the legendary M7 capsule, which will become a trademark of Neumann for many years.This microphone has been nicknamed the “Neumann Bottle”. A little later, in 1940, the famous logo with a stylized letter “N” was born.
The Neumann company was based in Berlin, but during the war, in 1943, several incendiary bombs hit its main building on Michaelkirchstrasse, and it was decided to evacuate to the small town of Gefell in Thuringia. The new production was established in the building of a former textile factory. Gefell, unlike large cities, was practically not bombed – but in the conditions of war, the extraction of materials for the assembly of capsules and microphones was a very difficult task.
According to Neumann, the factory employees even once secretly dismantled to the last screw a four-engine plane that crashed near the town! The main “star” of the company, without a doubt, remained the M7 capsule and the revolutionary idea of switching the microphone directivity pattern for that time. In the future, based on the M7, Neumann will release a real “army” of amazing microphones: U47, U48, M49, CMV563, UM57, UM70, UM71, UMT71S, MT71S, UM921S, UM92S, UMT800 and UMT900!
In 1947, Georg Neumann developed a process for the production of miniature nickel-cadmium batteries that did not generate excess gas.One of the “by-products” of the Neumann process was electrolytes from cadmium, cadmium oxide and a nickel anode. Depending on the size, the electrolytes varied in comparative capacities from 100 to 160,000 microfarads at a frequency of 50 Hz. Neumann used them as heating voltage regulators for condenser microphones.
In the same year, the first genuine diamond from Neumann was born – the U47 condenser microphone, which was based on the Telefunken VF14 vacuum pentode.By the way, the VF14 radio tube was one of the main components of the U47 – when the production of this tube was discontinued, Telefunken was simply forced, by numerous requests, to launch analogs, especially for the U47 microphones!
U87 M 147
For audiophiles, musicians and sound engineers around the world, the U47 is above all the Beatles microphone.The U47 was George Martin’s favorite microphone, and all studio recordings of the Liverpool Four from 1962 to 1970 were made with this model: and the U47 recorded not only Lennon and McCartney’s vocals, but also Lennon and Harrison’s guitar amps. In addition, The Beatles made extensive use of the later Neumann U87 as well as the compact Neumann KM84 (think of the famous Apple Corps rooftop concert in 1969).
But let’s go back a bit. In 1956, the GDR authorities turned the Gefell company into a “state-run enterprise.”Georg Neumann made every effort to maintain the cooperation between the two companies of his name, but it became harder and harder to do so. The crisis of 1961, the construction of the Berlin Wall – all this did not affect the business of companies in the best way. Finally, in 1972, the Georg Neumann & Co. in East Germany it was nationalized and renamed “VEB Mikrofontechnik” and began to produce microphones under the RFT brand. Georg Neumann & Co. continued her work behind the wall in West Berlin.
Georg Neumann died in 1976 at 78 years old and left behind a rich technical legacy. He was truly a great man and a brilliant engineer.
In 1989, the Neumann family decided to transfer the entire company to another family-owned German company with a similar structure and significant experience in the studio market – Sennheiser Electronic GmbH & Co. KG.
And since 1991, Neumann has become a very important and completely independent part of the Sennheiser group of companies, retaining its headquarters and engineering center in Berlin.At the same time, the most modern production of equipment under the Neumann brand was specially organized in Hanover, including a sterile line for manual assembly of microphones.
Georg Neumann GmbH and Sennheiser emphasize that all Neumann microphones are handcrafted to high quality standards and that each capsule undergoes more than 50 tests before being installed inside the microphone.By the way, the company recently released on sale an absolutely exact copy of the legendary U67 model with a proprietary “Neumann” sound.
In 2010, Neumann entered the electro-acoustic emitter market, launching highly accurate and true-to-life studio monitors for on-air TV studios, as well as recording and mixing studios. It is quite logical that a company that knows a lot about how to work with a sound source knows exactly how to reproduce it correctly.
For many musicians, sound engineers and music lovers, the divine, soft, clean, vintage, tube “Neumann” sound is the ideal and standard of sound that lives in old recordings and continues to live and delight people in new ones.SaveSaveSaveSaveSaveSaveSave
July 24 at 15:49
Microphones and radio systems
2 2018 (93)
German Minister of Culture Bernd Neumann intends to achieve a legislative ban on computer games that promote violence / News / Patriarchia.ru
June 29, 2007 13:01
German Culture Minister Bernd Neumann intends to demand a legislative ban on computer games that promote violence.He stated this in an interview with Cicero magazine.
Responsibility for the emergence of such games is primarily in the hands of special commissions for the control of entertainment software. According to the Minister of Culture, “the commissions’ capacities are not used to the full.” And this is not so much about new laws as about the degree of responsibility in the fight against cruelty and violence.
According to Neumann, “The results of violence on a TV or computer screen make themselves felt in school.Prohibitions do not solve the whole problem, young people lack knowledge about the use of a huge amount of information offered by new media. ”
Olaf Wolters, director of the German Interactive Computer Application Development Union (BIU), reacted to the demands of reforms to control and ban especially violent computer games, Deutsche Welle reports. He suggested that closer cooperation between the information industry and the regional youth affairs offices be ensured.
Since the 2002 Erfurt tragedy, debate has been going on in Germany to ban violent computer games.Then a young man, armed with pistols and a pump-action gun, opened fire in the Gutenberg gymnasium, shooting 17 people, and took more than 20 students hostage. During the storming of the building by the police, the offender shot himself. It turned out to be a 19-year-old boy who had recently been expelled from the gymnasium. In the same year, the Bavarian parliament passed a law prohibiting the distribution of films and computer games containing particularly violent scenes.
Four years later, the bloody drama was repeated at a school in Emsdetten.Seventeen-year-old Bastian came to get even with the teacher for the old humiliations with a pistol in his hands. Having injured two teachers, Bastian took primary school students hostage and locked himself in the office with them. He blew himself up when the commandos broke down the door.
A similar federal law has not yet been adopted. The opposition of the “greens” doubts the effectiveness of the ban method, arguing that young people are more interested in the “forbidden fruit”, as well as the lack of evidence of a direct connection between violence on the screen and in real life.
90,000 MIT has created a way to develop “brains” for robots to speed up their work
Modern robots can move quickly. However, in difficult situations, such as when interacting with humans, robots often slow down or freeze. Engineers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have created an automated way to design custom hardware, or “brains,” for robots that make them work faster.
Perceiving stimuli and calculating responses requires “a lot of computation,” which limits reaction times, explains Sabrina Neumann, who recently received her Ph.D. from MIT. Neumann found a way to combat this discrepancy between the “mind” and the body of the robot. The new robotic computing method uses the physical design of the robot and the intended applications to create a specialized computer chip that minimizes response times.
The new development will spur a variety of robotics applications, including possibly first aid for infectious patients.“It would be great if we had robots that could help reduce the risk to patients and hospital workers,” stresses Neumann.
A study describing the design will be presented at the April International Conference on Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems.
There are three main stages in the work of a robot. The first is perception, which involves collecting data using sensors or cameras. The second is mapping and localization: based on what the robots saw, they must build a map of the world around them, and then define themselves on it.The third step is planning and managing traffic, in other words, building an action plan.
These steps can take time and enormous computing power. For robots to be deployed in the field and operate safely in a dynamic environment around humans, they must be able to think and react very quickly. The algorithms currently available cannot run on the current CPU hardware fast enough. ”
Yes, researchers are now working on better algorithms, but software improvements alone are not the answer, Neumann says.It’s time to move beyond the standard CPU that powers the robot’s brain with hardware acceleration.
Hardware acceleration refers to the use of a specialized block to more efficiently perform certain computational tasks. An example of a hardware accelerator is a graphics processing unit (GPU), a microcircuit designed for parallel processing. These devices are convenient for working with graphics because their parallel structure allows them to simultaneously process thousands of pixels.Most robots are designed with a given set of applications and can benefit from hardware acceleration. Therefore, engineers at MIT created robomorphic computing.
The system creates an individual hardware design to best suit the computing needs of a particular robot. The user enters parameters of the robot, such as the position of the limbs and the movement of the various parts. The new development translates these physical properties into mathematical matrices. They are “sparse”, which means they contain many zero values that roughly correspond to movements that are impossible given the specific anatomy of the robot.Likewise, the movement of a person’s hand is limited because it can only bend at certain joints.