Nation United Lacrosse Club | ConnectLAX
Nation United Lacrosse Club | ConnectLAX
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Nation United utilizes elite-level lacrosse to inspire diversity.
We aspire to foster long-lasting relationships that cross ethnic, socioeconomic and geographic boundaries, serving as the catalyst for increased participation in the lacrosse community.
Nation United hosts diverse, elite-level club teams.
Our goal is to provide an unparalleled lacrosse experience, under the direction of the country’s top coaches, while showcasing the talents of each Ambassador alongside with other elite players of diverse cultural backgrounds.
There are no coaches associated with this company.
|Trinity-Pawling||Wilton, CT||Mid, Faceoff, Att|
|The Bishop’s School||San Diego, CA||Def|
|Our lady of good counsel||Columbia , MD||Goal|
View @nationunitedlax on Instagram
Nation United Summit and Play Day Returns to USA Lacrosse
The Nation United girls’ lacrosse program announced its fall event schedule and released its 66-player roster Wednesday.
Nation United will hold its third-annual Fall Summit at USA Lacrosse Headquarters in Sparks, Md., on Sept. 17-19, selecting 66 elite high school players (below) to comprise upperclassman (2022/2023) and underclassman (2024-2025) teams and compete for spots on the final 24-player roster for each.
Nation United players hail from 14 states and were selected based on an application process in which they submitted video highlights, references, GPA and a written section as to why they want to be a part of the program.
The summit will feature two days of on-field and classroom sessions for the players, as well as a play day in which Nation United teams will compete against top club talent. The games will begin Saturday evening under the lights and finish Sunday morning, and college coaches are welcome to attend as well as view the live stream of games.
The Nation United girls’ program started in 2018 and is led by director Artie West (Towson ’08) and coach Jenny Collins Vela (Maryland ’10). Summit coaches bring accolades, diversity and experience to the players that is unmatched in the sport: Andrea McTaggart (Maryland ’20), Britt Brown (Penn ’17), Kayla Wood (UNC ’21) and Trinity McPherson (Hopkins ’21).
“The Nation United women’s program experienced so much growth in 2020 against all odds, with the addition of an underclassman high school team and a college team as well,” West said. “I am looking forward to what this year holds for the program, as we continue to expand our program and live out our mission to diversify the game. The summit will be a great opportunity to not only bring top talent from across the country together, but to continue to educate our players, learn from each other and grow as an organization. We have so many things in store for these girls and are excited to step on the field next month.”
2021-2022 SCHEDULE OF EVENTS
Event: 3nd-Annual Nation United Summit & Play Day
Date: September 17-19, 2021
Location: USA Lacrosse Headquarters (Sparks, Md. )
Event: Nation Combine
Date: January 2022, TBD
Event: Lake Placid Summit Classic
Date: August 4-7, 2022
Location: Lake Placid, N.Y.
Nation United Lacrosse Announces 3rd Annual Fall Summit & 2021-22 Event Schedule
(Photo Courtesy: Nation United)
Baltimore, August 16, 2021 Nation United Girls Lacrosse Program announced their fall event schedule and released their 64-woman roster. Nation United will be holding their 3rd Annual Fall Summit at US Lacrosse Headquarters in Sparks, MD on September 17-19, 2021. They have selected 64 elite high school players to comprise Upperclassman (2022/2023) and Underclassman (2024-2025) teams, and compete for spots on their final 24 player roster for each team. Nation players hail from 14 states across the country, and were selected based on an application process where they submitted video highlights, references, GPA, and a written section as to why they want to be a part of the program.
The Summit will feature 2 days of on-field and classroom sessions for the players, as well as a Playday where Nation United teams will compete against top club talent. The games will begin Saturday evening under the lights and finish Sunday morning, and college coaches are welcome to attend as well as view the live stream of games.
The Nation United Girl’s Program was started in 2018 and is lead by Director, Artie West (Towson ’08) and Coach, Jenny Collins Vela (Maryland ’10). Our Summit coaches bring accolades, diversity, and experience to the players that is unmatched in the sport: Andrea McTaggart (Maryland ’20), Britt Brown (UPenn ’17), Kayla Wood (UNC ’21) and Trinity McPherson (Hopkins ’21).
Nation United Director, Artie West stated, “Nation United Women’s program experienced so much growth in 2020- against all odds, with the addition of an underclassman high school team and a college team as well. I am looking forward to what this year holds for the program, as we continue to expand our program and live out our mission to diversify the game. The Summit will be a great opportunity to not only bring top talent from across the country together, but to continue to educate our players, learn from each other, and grow as an organization. We have so many things in store for these girls and are excited to step on the field next month.”
2021-2022 SCHEDULE OF EVENTS
Event: 3nd Annual Nation United Summit & Playday Date: September 17-19, 2021
Location: US Lacrosse Headquarters (Sparks, MD)
Event: Nation Combine Date: January 2022, TBD Location: TBD
Event: Lake Placid Summit Classic Date: August 4-7, 2022
Location: Lake Placid, NY
ABOUT NATION UNITED LACROSSE
Nation United utilizes elite-level lacrosse to inspire diversity. We aspire to foster long-lasting relationships that cross ethnic, socioeconomic and geographic boundaries, serving as the catalyst for increased participation in the lacrosse community. Our goal is to provide an unparalleled lacrosse experience, under the direction of the country’s top coaches, while showcasing the talents of each Ambassador alongside other players of diverse cultural backgrounds. The flagship Nation United national team is a top showcase lacrosse team, winning championships while demonstrating diversity in sport. Players from all over the US are selected through an application and evaluation process. Nation United is proudly sponsored by Nike Lacrosse.
A Unifying Effort Creates Opportunity from Nation United
Trailing by a goal late in the game, the Nation United 2023 girls’ lacrosse team forced a turnover and raced up the field. After a shot went wide, mere seconds remained. After a couple of quick passes, Kirra Crowley cut down the lane in front of the goal and scored to give Nation United a 9-9 tie against a Big 4 HHH club team from Pennsylvania.
Those are the moments that make it all worthwhile for Artie West, who along with Jenny Collins-Vela organized the three-day Nation United Summit that brought 79 girls, of all races and backgrounds, from 17 states to USA Lacrosse headquarters. The details of coordinating such an event can be overwhelming.
“I’m always like, ‘Why do I this to myself,’” West said. “And then today, 23 game, less than four seconds left. Tears, chills, tears.”
West, a player on three NCAA tournament teams at Towson, is now helping to create opportunities for more girls of color to play at the next level through the work of Nation United, where she is the girls’ director and a coach. This is the third time the summit has been held and was by far the largest.
After Friday evening activities at a hotel, the three Nation United teams held practice sessions on Tierney Field before playing a total of nine games from Sept. 18-19, facing competition from two highly-respected club teams in the region — Hero’s Lacrosse Club (Md.) and Big HHH (Pa.).
“We just had to figure out how we could get these girls together and to see if the level of play was there enough to put them in competition,” West said. “We knew the mission of this was always sisterhood.”
Diversity is key to the Nation United effort.
“When we do this event, we want diversity to shine all the way through in everything we do,” West said. “You’ll notice we had African-American refs. We want them to know, this game at every level has diversity and representation. We have refs, coaches. That’s a big thing. These girls will say, ‘I’ve never been coached by a woman of color. What does that feel like?’”
“This was honestly so amazing, it was even better than last year,” said Kendall Dean, a senior at Atholton (Md.) High School. “It’s so great to play on the field with so many people that look like me and have these diverse experiences.”
But a quick scan of the players will show it’s not just people of color represented.
“We’re also very big on allyship,” West said. “Everybody doesn’t have to be of color. If you’re here, that means you promote what we’re doing. You’re being understanding. You’re lending an ear. You’re learning. For those girls to kind of be the minority in this situation and still thrive and feel the love that we’re putting out.”
Autumn Rhoads, a senior from Hempfield (Pa.) High School, was one such player who was playing in her first event with Nation United.
“It was just amazing learning and playing with girls who I would never have gotten the opportunity to play with,” Rhoads said. “There’s also diversity with regions. My roommate was from Tennessee. My friends, my teammates they’re from California, Minnesota — I’m from Amish Country. It was really, really fun to play with girls who are like me and don’t come from lacrosse hotbeds and then with it to have a Black woman coach, it was just the best experience ever.”
Colleen Magarity, a former U.S. U19 gold medalist and a three-time national champion at Northwestern, brought her Big 4 HHH program to the event for the second straight year.
“I think it’s such a cool event for our girls to be a part of — beautiful facility, great turf, great atmosphere and great competition,” Magarity said. “I think it’s just one for them to get perspective and see how much the game is growing, to see this type of team and what they stand for, what they’re doing. I hope some of my girls will also apply to be a part of this Nation United team. They’re so talented, it was fun to watch them.”
Nation United relies on an application process to find the best of the best and players that can truly be ambassadors.
“We want to have real representation of diversity in lacrosse, on and off the field,” West said. “Different ethnicities, different socio-economic backgrounds, all of that. We want to have a well-rounded program. It’s important for these girls to meet other girls that are not like them. The uniqueness is when they come together, they don’t miss a beat. They’re like sisters before and after and they just love each other so much and make us love them. ”
One of the coaches for this year’s summit was Kayla Wood, who was a starter on North Carolina’s powerhouse team and then starred with the sport’s best players in Athletes Unlimited this summer. She’s a living proof example for players to emulate.
Of the 12,913 women that played NCAA lacrosse in 2020, just 3.4 percent identified as Black, a small increase from the 2.8 percent total from 2012, the oldest published data from the NCAA. West hopes that Nation United can help create more opportunities for players at the next level.
“That’s why this event is so helpful to the college coaches,” West said. “No offense to them, but they always say, ‘We can’t find black players.’ Well, we’ve got 67 of them for you. We’re all on the same field. Come holler at us. That’s what we’re trying to do. The game is getting diverse and we’re going to help make this easier for you.”
Get to know Tommy Stallworth and Nation United Lacrosse
Web: http://www. nationunitedlc.com/
Facebook: Nation United Lacrosse
Back in February at the Detroit Mercy vs Jacksonville game, I happened to be standing next to a young family…father, mother, and young daughter who were there to watch their family member Christian’s first college lacrosse game. The dad (Tommy) happened to mention that he had started a travel lacrosse club called “Nation United,” a “diversity showcase team.” I hadn’t heard of Nation United previously, so I did some Googling when I returned home after the game to learn more about the program.
His job in the Navy recently brought Tommy and his family back to his native Michigan from San Diego. His son Christian (D/LSM; here is Christian’s high school summer highlight video on YouTube) played his senior year of high school ball at Brother Rice and was a freshman on the lacrosse team at Detroit Mercy for the 2019 season (#15. played in 3 games). Tommy’s family has deep roots in public service (a grandmother, his dad, an uncle, and a sister have all held elected office including on Detroit’s Board of Education and in the Michigan state legislature), so I guess it is no big surprise that Tommy found a way to turn his family’s interest in lacrosse into an opportunity to make a positive impact in a big way.
Nation United’s mission is to utilize “…elite-level lacrosse to inspire diversity,” and they “…aspire to foster long-lasting relationships that cross ethnic, socioeconomic and geographic boundaries, serving as the catalyst for increased participation in the lacrosse community.”
What I’d learned about Nation United and the Stallworth family was certainly very intriguing and interesting, so I couldn’t resist contacting Tommy to learn a little bit more…so few days later, I got in touch with Tommy and he agreed to chat with me about Nation United. I’m just now (4 months later) getting around to summarizing that interview (hey, what can I say? spring lax season is a hectic time)…so here it goes (better late than never):
ME: I saw Christians’s college commitment tweet where he said that he “…only started playing lacrosse so [he] didn’t have to run track…” so I assume that you don’t have a strong lacrosse background. I’m interested in how you got into lacrosse and then how you went from there to starting something like Nation United. ..
TOMMY: I had zero lacrosse background. I grew up here. I played football for Saint Martin de Porres High School and then ended up playing in college down at Florida A&M, so I had zero lacrosse background. Christian got introduced to it through a close friend of mine Brian Dawson whose son is Isaiah Dawson who is at Harvard now and was arguably the number 1 or 2 midfielder out of the 2018 class last year. Brian asked us to come out to a lacrosse clinic. Christian didn’t really want to go, but I kind of made him go. He tried it. He said, “Hey, if I do this, do I have run track still?” because he hated track practice. I was like, “No, because the seasons conflict, so you couldn’t do track and lacrosse.” And he was like, “I’ll just do lacrosse.” That’s where it started and then rapidly went from that to him getting better and falling in love with it. He made better club teams and then as we got more involved in the club circuit I just kind of noticed…and obviously being from a football, basketball, and track background. ..it was new for me to be on the sideline and be the only guy of color in a two-mile radius. I thought “this is just odd.” There were some other guys who played or whose sons played, and they all said similar things. So Brian and I sat down one day…we had done some research on the Morgan State team…and we were in California at the time…and he doesn’t have a lacrosse background either…and we wondered what it would look like if we put together a team of primarily high-level minority players. How would that happen? It was really two dads thinking it would be a good idea, and we put it together over the course of a year and a half working with Chazz Woodson who we had met at another event. The first team I believe we took out the summer of 2016, and that team was just insanely good…and it just kind of grew from there. We really had no intention for it to become as big as it seems to be becoming. We were just trying to do something cool for our kids and something we thought would be cool, and this is kind of the end result of that.
Only started playing lacrosse so I didn’t have to run track but hey I️m D1BOUND @UDMLAX #blessed pic.twitter.com/7KCmkjHCL0
— Christian stallworth (@christianSFC101) November 21, 2017
ME: I saw on the web that you run a camp, but how many events per year do you typically play?
TOMMY: We typically do one event per season, so one summer and one winter. We do it that way because; 1) we both have full-time jobs and 2) we really try not to conflict with the other major club schedules. All of our guys play for other…you name it…major club teams. It’s one thing to pull them away for one event. It’s another thing to pull them away for multiple events. We can’t offer the same interaction on a regular basis that a normal club team can offer. We typically go to the Inside Lacrosse Invitational in the summer, and then the winter event had been Dick’s Tournament of Champions…and it’d be us, FCA, Grand River, Resolute, and a few other kind of high caliber teams. ..and we’d just repeat each year.
ME: Typically do guys just hear about you somehow and contact you via the web site or do you looks for guys or how does that usually work?
TOMMY: The first team was a lot of cold-calling and just kind of bumping into dads or seeing players’ highlight films and calling their dads and saying “hey, we have something you might want to do.” That’s kind of how we built the first team. After the first team, word of mouth is probably our strongest promoter. We do a lot on Instagram. Our web page is pretty nice. We spend a lot of time on social media promoting. We have an application pool of approximately 600 players who want to play for us. Of that number, maybe 10-15 % will get rostered. Obviously, when kids leave from playing with us, they go and then tell all of their friends. Then their friends apply, and their friends apply…and it grows from there.
ME: I noticed on the web site that you refer to the players as “ambassadors. ” Can you describe what that means to you for them to be ambassadors?
TOMMY: We approach lacrosse from a wholistic type of whole-kid point of view. Obviously, wins and losses are important. Truth be told, a diversity showcase team is awesome, but if we aren’t winning games then nobody is really talking about us. That’s an unfortunate fact, but it is a fact. Our competitive level is paramount. As important as that is building whole young men, so we take GPA and community service into account. At every event they do a community service project. Typically at our summer events we host a camp for an under-privileged program or just youth in the area in general who want to see what we’re all about…and our players and typically our graduates come down and help coach those kids and take them through a clinic. The ambassador piece is…we didn’t really know this going in…but from doing it these last couple years we have relationships now with some of the top African American and minority players in the game, and none of them knew each other in college. That’s kind of sad from the standpoint of…imagine if you’re a kid that shows up in the locker room and you’re the only black kid there. You really don’t have anyone to advocate for you. I’m not saying you necessarily have to have that, but depending on the locker room you may. These kids are so focused on just trying to be a part of the group that they kind of lose sense of themselves and things that could potentially be detrimental to their development. Our ambassadors are a group of young men that really try to go out and support not only themselves but potentially everybody that could be in need of….whether it is someone to talk to, someone to coach, someone to say to “this happened, what do you think about it?” The other key to that is that we are not an all-black team. Our number is roughly 70% minority among the applicants that we accept. We intentionally do that because we want the team to be diverse. A huge key to that is that for every young white kid who comes to play for us. ..depending on his exposure his perspective of the world gets changed overnight. He now sees maybe what his buddy was talking about that he never saw before or never experienced before. He also develops new friends and new relationships, and that guy becomes an advocate just as a good human being. If you’re in the locker room and something is going on that shouldn’t be going on…maybe someone is making a racial joke or some off-color comment, that kid is now comfortable to stand up and say “hey, that’s not cool…we don’t do that…I don’t appreciate that, etc.” We’ve seen that happen in locker rooms from our players.
ME: Describe a little bit about why you think that diversity is such an important ideal to be promoting by an approach like this.
TOMMY: Overall I think that diversity is important…diversity of thought, diversity of dollars, diversity of experience. If you lined up two organizations together and one was diverse and one was not, I would argue that the diverse organization will be more successful. ..because you have different perspectives, and with different perspectives comes different ways of doing things. That benefits everybody. From a sports perspective, I think in order for lacrosse to grow, it has to be diverse. It has to be inclusive. Players have to feel comfortable playing the sport. If you’re a 6’2” black kid in inner city Detroit who can play lacrosse or football and you’ve never seen a lacrosse player that looks like you or moves like you or plays like you, there’s no real motivation for you to try that sport. Even if you do try the sport, what’s the likelihood that you stick with it if you’re around a bunch of guys who can’t relate to you and don’t really know what you’ve been through and what you’re going through? Obviously, I’m not saying that white kids can’t support black kids, but it helps to have everyone having different exposure and different experiences to have a wide lens when they see the world versus a kind of singular point of view.
ME: Based on your experience, do you have any advice for other coaches or players or organizers in Michigan who are interested in making a difference in a way like this. ..do you have any advice about practical things that they could do?
TOMMY: Honestly, I think touch points are the most important. Get involved. Go volunteer with Detroit Youth Lacrosse. Come support Nation United. Host a camp. Host a clinic. I think the interesting thing is that there is a lot of grassroots approaches which I think are really good. The other reason we designed Nation United the way we did as more of a top-down approach, is that we felt it was really important for players to have somebody to aspire to be or something to aspire to as opposed to this kind of nebulous idea of what it could be. We literally have little kids wearing the jersey numbers of our high school players. That’s kind of how impactful it is for these young athletes. So, aside from the grassroots stuff, you’ve got to hit it from both angles. You’ve got to show both sides and give them something to look forward to and something to grow towards. From a coaching perspective, don’t be intimidated by the thought of “I’ve never coached black kids before, I don’t know about this”. ..honestly the effort is worth more than anything. You never know what is going to happen if you never try. You’ve just got to be willing to step out there and see what happens. People would be surprised at what the results are and what they get from that. I would say that in Michigan it is probably pretty challenging. Growing up in Michigan and then moving to California and the west coast…Detroit is changing, but growing up here it’s a pretty polarized state racially and economically, right? If you grew up in Detroit, you didn’t have to see a white guy if you didn’t want to. You literally could just stay in your neighborhood. If you grew up in Hamtramck or Downriver or Midland, right? You probably never had to see a black guy if you didn’t want to…so I think there’s a challenge in Midwestern states in terms of exposure, but I really do think that organizations are doing the right thing and trying to get out there and see what happens.
ME: Yep, my wife was from Sterling Heights, and I remember when I came to visit and we went downtown and she said “We never go downtown unless someone comes to visit. ” So that was interesting.
ME: Anything else that you want to mention that I should have asked?
TOMMY: I think you got it all, man. Like I said, I appreciate the call. I appreciate the exposure. Anyone who is interested in working with us, please let me know…whether that’s something here in Michigan…we’d love to get more players from the Midwest involved…promoting it to other players in the area. That’s a big point. Obviously, as I said, of all those kids that apply there’s only a certain number that are really good enough to make that top-level team, but we are looking at some other ways to kind of expose guys…which is kind of why we’re doing this camp..for skills and development but also to be able to touch more players in an impactful way than just our top guys.
ME: What brought your family back to Michigan? What kind of work do you do?
TOMMY: My current job…I’m a naval officer and pilot by trade and now I’m the commanding officer of the naval operation support center in Detroit which is at Selfridge Air National Guard Base. That’s how I ended up moving back to Michigan, and it happened to be a coincidence that my son committed to play lacrosse here at the same time.
ME: How did you resist running for office? It seems like you have pretty strong heritage in that area.
TOMMY: Well, you know, that’s not necessarily out of the question…but I have a number of years left in the navy before I can collect my pension.
ME: So politics might be a second career.
TOMMY: Possibly. Possibly.
ME: OK, thanks very much. I was glad to talk to you. It was pretty cool to meet you and hear about what you’re doing. Just let me know if there’s any way I can help promote or support anything.
TOMMY: I’ll put you in touch with our director of outreach, Jeremy Ardrey. He kind of works more in the “grow the game” space. I’m more in the team building and event space…but we all work together hand in hand.
ME: Thanks for your time!
TOMMY: Thanks a lot, man. Enjoy your day!
Nation United Lacrosse Launches Texas Regional Program to Spread Diversity and Inclusion in Lacrosse
Houston, TX, November 17, 2020 –(PR. com)– Nation United Lacrosse Launches Nation United-Texas, a regional extension of the national Nation United Lacrosse Club, a select program modeling excellence through diversity.
Nation United Texas serves athletes in the state of Texas and surrounding areas, utilizing elite-level lacrosse to inspire diversity and increased participation in the lacrosse community. The organization’s goal is to make lacrosse scholarships available to student-athletes of color.
“Nation United-Texas represents the mix and diversity of society, and thus the mix and diversity of what lacrosse could look like,” says Director and Head Coach Mike Song.
NU-Texas will compete in two (2) regional showcase tournaments: the Best of Texas Showcase Tournament by Victory Events in winter 2020 (December 13, 2021 Cy-Fair Sports Complex, Houston, TX) and the Texas Lax Festival II by Bitter Lacrosse in summer 2021 (June 26-27, 2021, Round Rock Sports Complex, Austin, TX).
The program is led by director and head coach Mike Song (Westside High School Head Coach, 2019 THSLL Division III Coach of the Year, Korea National Team ‘01), Taylor Brooks (Atascocita High School Head Coach, Le Moyne ‘12), TJ Kemp (Atlanta Blaze, University of North Carolina ‘14), plus additional volunteer assistant coaches and staff. Nation United-Texas operates under the direction of Nation United leadership, including co-founder Chazz Woodson (Hampton University Head Coach),
To try out for the team, applicants must submit a highlight video and references, as well as meet minimum academic requirements.
Application Deadline: 8.28.20
Tryout: 9.13.20 (Houston, TX)
Selection Announcement: 9.14.20
Registration Deadline: 9.18.20
For more information, follow @nationunitedtx on Instagram and Facebook. For media contact, please email nationunitedtx at gmail.
Nation United LC
Lacrosse – Lacrosse – www.
This article is about a team sport. For other uses, see Lacrosse (disambiguation).
Lacrosse is a team sport played with a lacrosse stick and a lacrosse ball. It is the oldest organized sport in North America, dating back to the 17th century in Canada. The colonialists changed the game a lot, reducing the violence to create its current collegial and professional form.
Players use the head of a lacrosse club to carry, pass, catch and hit the goal. This sport has four versions that have different sticks, fields, rules and equipment: field lacrosse, women’s lacrosse, box lacrosse and intercrosse. The men’s games, field lacrosse (outdoor) and boxing lacrosse (indoor), are contact sports and all players wear protective gear: helmet, gloves, shoulder pads and elbow pads. The women’s game is played outdoors and does not allow contact with the body, but does allow stick-to-stick contact.The only protective equipment required for female players is goggles, and goalkeepers wear helmets and protective pads. Intercross is an indoor mixed non-contact sport that uses an all-plastic golf club and a softer ball.
Modern sport is governed by World Lacrosse and is the only international sports organization that recognizes indigenous groups and Indian tribes as sovereign nations. The organization hosts the Men’s World Lacrosse Championship, the Women’s World Lacrosse Championship, the Indoor Boxing World Lacrosse Championship and the Men’s Under-19 World Lacrosse Championship for both men and women.Each is held every four years. The Summer Olympics lacrosse was contested at two Summer Olympics, in 1904 and 1908. It was also held as a demonstration event at the 1928, 1932 and 1948 Summer Olympics.
Lacrosse is based on games played by various Native American communities as early as 1100 AD. By the 17th century, the version of lacrosse was widespread and documented by Jesuit missionary priests in what is now Canada.
In the traditional Canadian Aboriginal version, each team consisted of 100 to 1,000 people on a field several miles (kilometers) long. These games lasted from sunrise to sunset for two to three days in a row and were played as part of a ceremonial ritual, a kind of symbolic war, or as a token of gratitude to the Creator or Teacher.
Lacrosse has played a significant role in the social and religious life of tribes throughout the continent over the years. Early lacrosse was characterized by a deep spiritual engagement that matched the spirit of the combat in which it was fought.Those who took part did so in the role of warriors with the aim of bringing glory and honor to themselves and their tribes. This game was said to be played “for the Creator” or called the “Creator’s Game.”
Ball Players by George Catlin.
French Jesuit missionary Jean de Breeuf saw the Huronian tribes play the game in 1637 in present-day Ontario. He called it la crossse , which in French means “stick”. The name appears to be derived from a French term for field hockey, le jeu de la crossse .
James Smith described at some length a game played by the Mohawk people in 1757, “in which they now used a wooden ball about 3 inches (7.6 cm) in diameter, and the tool they used to move it was sturdy a staff about 5 feet (1.5 meters) in size. m) long, with a net at the end, large enough to accommodate the ball. ”
The English-speaking residents of Montreal noticed the Iroquois playing the game and started playing it themselves in the 1830s.In 1856, Canadian dentist William George Beers founded the Montreal Lacrosse Club. In 1860, Bierce systematized the game by shortening the duration of each game and reducing the number of players to 12 per team. The first game played by Bierce’s rules was at Upper Canada College in 1867; they lost 3–1 to the Toronto Cricket Club.
The new sport proved to be very popular and spread throughout the English-speaking world; by 1900, there were dozens of men’s clubs in Canada, USA, England, Australia and New Zealand.The women’s game was introduced to Louise Lumsden in Scotland in 1890. The first women’s club in the United States was started by Rosabelle Sinclair at Bryn More School in 1926.
In the United States, lacrosse was primarily a regional sport in the late 1800s and early 1900s, centered around the Mid Atlantic states, especially New York and Maryland. However, in the second half of the 20th century, the sport spread beyond this region and can now be found throughout most of the United States.There are over 825,000 participants nationwide, according to a 2016 survey by US Lacrosse, and lacrosse is the fastest growing team sport among NFHS member schools.
Varieties of lacrosse
Men’s College Lacrosse Field Outline
Field lacrosse is an outdoor sport for men. Each team has ten players: three forwards, three midfielders, three defenders and one goalkeeper. Each player has a lacrosse stick.The short stick is 40 to 42 inches (100 to 110 cm) long and is used by strikers and midfielders. A maximum of four players on the field per team can wear a long stick between 52 “and 72” (130 and 180 cm) long, which is used by three defenders and sometimes one defensive midfielder. The goalkeeper uses a stick with a head that is 12 inches (30 cm) wide and 40 to 72 inches (100 to 180 cm) long.
The size of the playing field is 110 by 60 yards (101 by 55 m). The gate measures 6 by 6 feet (1.8 by 1.8 m) and is 80 yards (73 m) apart.Each target is located within a circular “fold” with a diameter of 18 feet (5.5 m). The goalkeeper has special privileges within the court to avoid checking with the opponent’s stick. The attackers or their clubs may not enter the fold at any time. The midfield line divides the field into an offensive and defensive zone for each team. Each team must keep four players in its defense zone and three players in the attack zone at all times. It does not matter which positional players satisfy this requirement, although usually three forwards remain in the attacking zone, three defenders and a goalkeeper remain in the defending zone, and three center players play in both zones.The team violating this rule is offside and either loses possession of the ball, if it has one, or is subject to a technical foul if it does not.
The statutory playing time is 60 minutes, divided into four periods of 15 minutes each. The game begins at the beginning of each quarter and after each goal with a throw-in. During a throw-in, two players place their clubs on the ground parallel to the centerline with the two clubheads on opposite sides of the ball.On the whistle, the throw-in players take the ball, often “pinching” it under their stick and throwing it to their teammates. When one of the teams has possession of the ball, they carry it into their attacking zone and try to score a goal. According to the offside rule, the calculated game involves six forwards against six defenders and a goalkeeper.
If the ball goes out-of-bounds, possession is awarded to the team that touched it last. The exception is when the ball hits the goal.Missed out-of-bounds shots are awarded to the team with the player who is closest to the ball when and where the ball goes out. During the game, teams may substitute players entering and exiting if they leave the field and enter the field through the substitution zone, sometimes referred to as “on the fly”. After penalty kicks and goals, players can be freely substituted and must not go through the substitution area.
Penalties are awarded for violation of the rules and result in the offending team losing possession of the ball (loss of ball possession) or temporarily losing a player (serving time).While serving the sentence, the penalized team plays with one less player for the duration of the penalty. Time penalties may or may not be canceled. Upon serving a penalty that can be lifted, the offending player may resume play if the ball is scored by the opposing team during the penalty period. Irrevocable penalties prevent this from happening and the player must serve at all times. Under the offside rule, the opponent can play six forwards against five defenders and the goalkeeper of the penalized team.The team that took the penalty kick is considered to be playing against a person, and the other team is playing as a person. Teams will use a variety of lacrosse strategies to attack and defend while the player is being penalized.
There are two classes of rule violations for which penalties are awarded: technical fouls and personal fouls. Technical fouls, such as offside, pushing and holding, result in either a loss of possession or a 30-second penalty, depending on which team is in possession of the ball.Personal fouls, such as cross-checks, illegal body checks or chopping, involve actions that endanger the safety of a player. A cross check is when a player hits another player with the stick between their hands. A slash is when a player hits another player with the end of a stick anywhere other than gloves. These fouls incur penalties of 1 minute or more; the offending player must leave the field.
NLL Boxing Lacrosse Game.
Boxing lacrosse is played by teams of five runners and a goalkeeper on a hockey rink where the ice has been removed or covered with artificial turf, or on an indoor soccer field. An enclosed playing field is called boxing, as opposed to an open playing field in a traditional game. This version of the game was introduced to Canada in the 1930s to promote the hockey arena business outside the ice hockey season. For several years, it nearly supplanted field lacrosse in Canada.
The gate in box lacrosse is smaller than in field lacrosse, traditionally 4 feet (1.2 m) wide and high.In addition, the goalkeeper wears much more protective padding, including a massive bib and armband combination known as the “top”, large shin guards known as leg pads (both of which must comply with strict measurement rules), and goalkeeper masks in hockey style.
The style of play is fast, accelerated due to the tightness of the court and the shot clock. The shot clock requires the attacking team to shoot at the goal within 30 seconds of gaining possession of the ball.Lacrosse with a box is a much more physical game. Since cross-checking is legal in boxing lacrosse, players wear rib pads and the shoulder and elbow pads are larger and stronger than those worn by field lacrosse players. Boxing lacrosse players wear a hockey helmet with a lacrosse box cage. There are no offside positions in lacrosse for boxing, players are freely replaced from their benches, like in hockey. However, most players specialize in offense or defense, so it is common for all five runners to replace teammates when their team transitions between offense and defense.
When a penalty is awarded, the offending player is sent to the penalty area and his team must play without him or without a man throughout the penalty. Most fouls are minor penalties and last two minutes, major penalties last five minutes. What sets lacrosse (and ice hockey) apart from other sports is that at the highest levels of professional and youthful lacrosse, engaging in a fight does not automatically result in a bailout, but a five-minute major penalty is given.
Boxing lacrosse is played at the highest level in the National Lacrosse League and in the upper classes of the Canadian Lacrosse Association. The National Lacrosse League (NLL) uses some minor rule changes compared to the Canadian Lacrosse Association (CLA) rules. Notably, the gate is 4ft 9 “(1.45m) wide instead of 4ft (1.2m) wide, and games are held in winter. NLL games consist of four fifteen-minute quarters compared to three twenty-minute periods in CLA games.NLL players can only use hollow shaft clubs, while CLA allows solid wood clubs.
The rules for women’s lacrosse differ significantly from men’s lacrosse, primarily in terms of equipment and the degree of physical contact allowed. Women’s lacrosse rules also differ significantly between the United States and all other countries that play by the International Federation of Lacrosse (FIL) rules. Women’s lacrosse does not allow physical contact, the only protective equipment used is mouthguard and eye protection.In the early 21st century, there was talk of the need to wear a hat to prevent concussions. In 2008, Florida was the first state to introduce a mandatory headgear for women’s lacrosse. Stick testing is permitted in the women’s game, but only at certain levels of play and within strict rules. Women’s lacrosse also prevents players from having a pocket or loose lacrosse net. The women start the game with a draw instead of a throw-in. The two players stand up and the ball is placed between their club heads while their golf clubs are horizontal at waist level.On the whistle, the players raise their clubs in the air, trying to control where the ball goes.
The first modern women’s lacrosse game was held at St Leonards’ School in Scotland in 1890. She was introduced by the headmaster Louise Lumsden after a visit to Quebec where she saw how she was played. The first women’s lacrosse team in the United States was formed at the Bryn Mawr School in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1926.
Field scheme in women’s lacrosse
Both the number of players and the lines on the field are different from the men’s lacrosse.There are 12 players in women’s lacrosse, and players must adhere to certain boundaries that are not in the men’s game. The three specific boundaries are the 8m “fan” in front of the gate (11m [36ft 1in] internationally), the 12m (39ft 4in) (8m [26ft 3in] international) semicircle, the surrounding 8-meter fan, and the draw circle in the center of the field, which is used for the draw before the start of the quarter and after the goal. The goal circle is also slightly closer to the endline in women’s lacrosse compared to men’s.In women’s lacrosse, both offensively and defensively, players other than the goalkeeper cannot enter the goal circle; this becomes a “circle violation”. However, at the women’s collegiate level, a new rule was established to allow defenders to pass through the goal circle.
The 8m fan in front of the gate circle has several limitations. Defenders cannot stand inside an 8m fan for more than 3 seconds without sticking stick distance from the attacking player they are defending.This is very similar to
the three-second rule in basketball. For a three-second offense, a player of the other team takes a free throw at the goalkeeper. If you are a striker trying to score the ball into the goal, you must not shoot while the defender is in the shot area. To make sure that you, the defender, are safe, you must lead your lacrosse club, and once you are in club distance, you may be in front of it.
Intercross, or soft stick lacrosse, is a non-contact form of lacrosse with a standardized set of rules using modified lacrosse equipment.The intercross golf club is different from a regular lacrosse club in that the head is made entirely of plastic rather than the leather or nylon pockets found in traditional lacrosse golf clubs. The ball is larger, softer, and hollow compared to a lacrosse ball, which is made of hard rubber.
Intercross is a competitive adult sport popular in Quebec, Canada, as well as in many European countries, especially the Czech Republic. Teams typically have five players on each side, and the field is 20 m (66 ft) wide and 40 m (130 ft) long.The adult gate is the same size as the boxing lacrosse gate, 4 feet or 1.2 m in height and width. The international governing body, the International Cross Country Federation, hosts the World Championships twice a year.
Soft stick lacrosse is a popular way to introduce young people to the sport. It can be played outdoors or indoors, and has a fitness program.
Lacrosse has historically played mostly in Canada and the United States, with small but dedicated lacrosse communities in the United Kingdom and Australia.Recently, however, lacrosse has begun to flourish internationally and teams have been created all over the world, especially in Europe and East Asia.
In August 2008, the men’s international governing body, the International Lacrosse Federation, merged with the women’s, the International Federation of Women’s Lacrosse Associations, to form the International Lacrosse Federation (FIL). FIL changed its name to World Lacrosse in May 2019. There are currently 62 countries participating in the World Lacrosse.
World Lacrosse sponsors five World Cup events: the Men’s World Lacrosse Championship, the Women’s World Lacrosse Championship, the Boxing World Indoor Lacrosse Championship and the Men’s Under-19 World Lacrosse Championship for both men and women. Each is held every four years.
The World Lacrosse Championship (WLC) began in 1968 as a four-team invitational tournament sponsored by the International Lacrosse Federation.Until 1990, it included only the United States, Canada, England and Australia. With the expansion of the game internationally, 38 countries took part in the 2014 Lacrosse World Cup. The WLC was dominated by the United States. Team USA won 9 of the 12 titles, while Canada won three others.
Women’s World Lacrosse Championship (WLWC) began in 1982. The US won 8 of 10 titles, while Australia won two others. Canada and England have always been in the top five. The 2017 tournament was held in England, 25 countries took part in it.
The first World Indoor Lacrosse Championship (WILC) was held in 2003 and is contested by six countries at four sites in Ontario. Canada won the championship by defeating the Iroquois Nationals 21–4 in the final. The 2007 championship, organized by the Onondaga Nation, featured 13 teams. Canada dominated the competition, winning all four gold medals and never losing a single game.
In Iroquois Citizens are the men’s national teams representing six nations in the Iroquois in the international lacrosse field competition.The team was admitted to the FIL in 1987. It is the only First Nations team qualified to compete internationally in any sport. The Nationals finished fourth at the 1998, 2002 and 2006 World Lacrosse Championships and third in 2014. The indoor team has won silver medals in all four Indoor Lacrosse World Championships. In 2008, the Iroquois women’s team was admitted to the FIL as National Haudenosaunee Champions. They finished 7th at the 2013 Women’s Lacrosse World Championship.
Lacrosse Field was a sports medal in the 1904 and 1908 Summer Olympics. In 1904, three teams competed at games held in St. Louis. It was attended by two Canadian teams, the Winnipeg Shamrocks and the Mohawk team of the Iroquois Confederation, as well as the local St. Louis Athletics Association team representing the United States. Winnipeg Shamrocks won the gold medal. The 1908 Games, held in London, England, were attended by only two teams representing Canada and Great Britain.The Canadians again won the gold medal in the only match of the championship by a score of 14-10.
At the 1928, 1932 and 1948 Summer Olympics, lacrosse was a demonstration sport. The 1928 Olympics in Amsterdam featured three teams: USA, Canada and Great Britain. The 1932 Los Angeles Games was an exhibition of three games between the Canadian star team and the United States. The United States was represented by Johns Hopkins at the 1928 and 1932 Olympics.The 1948 Games were an All England team exhibit organized by the English Lacrosse Union and the Collegiate Lacrosse Team from Rensselaer Polytechnic representing the United States. This exhibition match ended with a score of 5-5.
Attempts have been made to include lacrosse as an exemplary sport at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia, and the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia, but have not been successful.
Insufficient international participation is an obstacle to the return of lacrosse to the Olympic Games. To qualify for the Olympic Games, the sport must be played on four continents and in no less than 75 countries. Lacrosse is played on all six continents, but as of August 2019, when Ghana joined it, only 63 countries were playing the sport.
The player makes a dive throw.
European Lacrosse Federation (ELF) was established in 1995 and hosted the first European Lacrosse Championship this year.The event was originally held annually, now it is held every four years, in between the men’s and women’s FIL championships. In 2004, 12 men’s and 6 women’s teams took part in the tournament, making it the largest international lacrosse event of the year. The last men’s tournament was in 2016, when 24 countries participated in it. England won the ninth gold medal out of ten played tournaments. 2015 was the last women’s tournament with 17 teams participating in the Czech Republic. England won their sixth gold medal, Wales won silver and Scotland won bronze. These three countries from the UK have dominated the women’s championships, earning all but three medals since the tournament began in 1996. The ELF currently has 29 members and constitutes the majority of the nations in the FIL.
The Asia Pacific Lacrosse Union was founded in 2004 by Australia, Hong Kong, South Korea and Japan. It currently has 12 members and hosts the Asia Pacific Championships every two years for both the men’s and women’s teams.
For the first time, lacrosse was played at the World Games at the 2017 World Games held in Poland. Only women’s teams took part in the competition. The United States won the gold medal by beating Canada in the final. Australia won the bronze medal match. Howdenosauni CITIZENS The women’s lacrosse team may not participate.
Lacrosse in the US
Lacrosse for men in college
Collegiate lacrosse in the United States is played at the NCAA, NAIA and club levels. There are currently 71 NCAA Men’s Division I lacrosse teams, 93 Division II teams, and 236 Division III teams. There are 32 schools participating at the NAIA level. 184 men’s club teams compete in the men’s student lacrosse association, including most universities and colleges outside the northeastern United States. The National College Lacrosse League and the Great Lakes Lacrosse League are the other two bottom divisions of the league. In Canada, 14 teams from Ontario and Quebec play field lacrosse in the fall as part of the University of Canada Field Lacrosse Association.
The first US intercollegiate men’s lacrosse game was played on November 22, 1877 between New York University and Manhattan College. The sport’s organization, the United States National Lacrosse Association, was founded in 1879 and the first intercollegiate lacrosse tournament was held in 1881 when Harvard beat Princeton 3-0 in a championship game. The annual end-of-season championships in the 1930s were awarded by various early lacrosse associations. From 1936 to 1972, the US Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association awarded the Wingate Memorial Trophy to the best college lacrosse team each year.
The NCAA began sponsoring the men’s lacrosse championship in 1971 when Cornell won his first title over Maryland, 12-6. Syracuse holds 10 Division I titles, Johns Hopkins 9 and Princeton 6. The NCAA National Championship Weekend draws over 80,000 fans.
Lacrosse Women’s College
There are currently 112 Division I women’s lacrosse teams, 109 Division II teams and 282 Division III teams.There are 36 NAIA women’s lacrosse teams in total. The NCAA began sponsoring the Women’s Lacrosse Championship in 1982. Maryland has traditionally dominated the women’s intercollegiate game, producing many head coaches and US national team players. The Terrapins have won seven consecutive NCAA championships from 1995 to 2001.The Princeton women’s teams have made it to the final game seven times since 1993 and have won three NCAA titles, in 1993, 2002 and 2003. In recent years, Northwestern has become a force, winning the national championship since 2005 to 2009.Maryland ended Northwestern’s streak by defeating the Wildcats in the 2010 finals, however Northwestern won the next two titles in 2011 and 2012. Maryland competed for the national championship again in 2014, 2015, and 2017.
The Women’s Collegiate Lacrosse Associates (WCLA) is a collection of more than 260 college club teams that are organized in the US by Lacrosse. The teams consist of two divisions and different leagues.
Major League Lacrosse
Major League Lacrosse (MLL) is a semi-professional field lacrosse league founded in 2001 by six teams in the northeastern United States.The league currently has nine teams in the US East and Denver, with a 14-game season from April to August. The MLL rules are based on the NCAA rules for men with a few exceptions such as the 16-yard two-point line and 60 second shot timer.
MLL venues range from small stadiums with up to 10,000 seats to the 76,000-seat NFL stadium in Denver. Overall, the league has average attendance of about 4,000 per game, but since its founding in 2006, Denver has averaged about 10,000 per game.The rookie salary is $ 7,000 per season, and most players earn between $ 10,000 and $ 20,000 per season. So the players have other jobs, often unrelated to lacrosse, and they go to games on weekends.
Chesapeake Bayhawks, who have played in the Annapolis-Baltimore-Washington, DC area since 2001, are the franchise’s most successful five championships.
National Lacrosse League
The National Lacrosse League (NLL) is the men’s semi-pro lacrosse boxing league in North America.The NLL currently has nine teams, five in the United States and four in Canada. The regular season with 18 games runs from December to April; games are always on weekends. In early June, the champion is awarded the National Lacrosse League Cup.
Games are held on skating rinks with artificial ice cover. Venues range from 19,000 seat NHL arenas to smaller arenas with less than 10,000 seats. In 2017, average attendance ranged from 3,200 per game in Vancouver to over 15,000 in Buffalo.Overall, the league averaged 9,500 people per game.
With an average salary of about $ 20,000 per season, players have regular jobs, mostly unrelated to lacrosse, and live in different cities, flying to town to play. Canadians and Native Americans make up over 90% of the players.
NLL began operations in 1987 as the Eagle Pro Box Lacrosse League. Teams from Philadelphia, New Jersey, Baltimore and Washington DC played a 6-game season. The league operated as the Major League of Indoor Lacrosse from 1989 to 1997, with six teams playing on a 10-game schedule.The current NLL name began in the 1998 season, which featured the first Canadian team.
The most successful franchises were Toronto Rock and the now defunct Philadelphia Wings, each of which won six championships.
Premier League Lacrosse
In October 2018, former MLL player Paul Rabil split from MLL and created the Premier Lacrosse League. PLL is focused on becoming a roving lacrosse league that brings the world’s best players to different cities across the United States.
United Women’s Lacrosse League
The United Women’s Lacrosse League (UWLX), a four-team women’s lacrosse league, was launched in 2016. Teams: Baltimore Ride, Boston Storm, Long Island Sound and Philadelphia Force. Long Island won its first two championships.
Women’s Professional Lacrosse League
In Women The Professional Lacrosse League is a 5-team women’s professional lacrosse league that began in 2018.
Women’s lacrosse stick
A lacrosse stick consists of two parts: a head and a shaft. The head consists of three parts: a scoop, a sidewall and a pocket. The scoop is the top of the club that affects the ground ball rebound as well as the pass and throw. The sidewall is the side of the head that affects head depth and stiffness. The pocket is a leather or nylon mesh attached to the sidewall and scoop. A wider pocket makes balls easier to catch, but also reduces ball control.A narrower pocket makes it harder to catch, but provides a more accurate hold on the ball.
Shafts are usually made of hollow metal. They are octagonal rather than round for better grip. Most are made from aluminum, titanium, scandium, or alloys, but some shafts are made from other materials, including wood, plastic, carbon fiber, or fiberglass.
The length of the club, both the handle and the head together, is governed by NCAA regulations, which requires men’s golf clubs to be 40 to 42 inches (100 to 110 cm) long for hitters and 52 to 72 inches (130 to 180 cm ) for defenders.and 40 to 72 inches (100 to 180 cm) long for goalkeepers.
Ladies’ clubs shall be 35.5-43.25 inches (90.2-109.9 cm) overall length. The head should be seven to nine inches wide, and the top of the ball should remain above the sidewalls when it falls into the pocket. The goalkeeper’s stick must be 35.5-48 inches (90-122 cm) long. The goalkeeper’s stick head can be up to 12 inches (30 cm) wide and the pocket can be mesh.
The ball is made of durable rubber.It is usually white for men’s lacrosse or yellow for women’s lacrosse; but also produced in a wide variety of colors such as yellow, orange or lime green, in accordance with the Rules and Interpretations of Male Lacrosse. At the college level, the lacrosse ball is orange.
Men’s Field Protective Gear
Men’s Field Lacrosse Protective Gear includes a pair of gloves, elbow pads, shoulder pads, helmet, mouthguard and cleats. Pads vary in size and protection from player to player based on position, ability, comfort, and preference.For example, many attacking players wear larger and more protective elbow pads to protect themselves from checks thrown to them, while defenders usually wear smaller and less protective pads due to their less chance of being checked, and goalkeepers usually do not wear elbow pads due to the very limited verification capabilities. The goalkeeper must also wear a large chest protector to cover his stomach and chest, and a plastic neck guard that connects to the chin of his helmet to protect him from blows into his windpipe.In addition, male goalkeepers are required to wear a protective cup.
Men’s Boxing Protective Gear
Men’s boxers wear more protective gear than fielders due to more frequent physical contact and stricter screening rules. Rear cross-check is permitted by the rules. Runners wear larger, heavier elbow pads and stronger shoulder pads that extend to the back of the player. Ribbed pads are also worn by most players. Goalkeepers wear equipment very similar to hockey goaltenders, with slightly smaller foot blockers, although the shoulder pads are larger than hockey pads.
Womens Field Protective Gear
Women field players are not required to wear protective equipment other than goggles and mouthguards. The glasses are a metal cage that covers the eyes, attached with a strap at the back of the head. In recent years, there has been a debate about whether or not soft headgear should be used to protect against concussion. Female goalkeepers wear a helmet, gloves and chest protectors.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to lacrosse.|
90,000 Caverns shed light on Cherokee history, religion and culture
April 30, 1828: A group of Cherokee people gather in a cave near present-day Fort Payne, Alabama for a secret pre-packball ritual.To record the event, the team leaders inscribed words and phrases on the walls of the cave using a writing system invented by the Cherokee seer Sikvoya.
In a recent article in the British academic journal Antiquity, Talking Stones: Cherokee Syllables in Manitou Cave, Alabama, Cherokee and non-Aboriginal scholars interpret the inscriptions to explain the meaning of the ancient game.
“The early Cherokee were really smart,” said Bo Duke Carroll, co-author and member of the East Cherokee Group in North Carolina.Carroll, an archaeologist for the tribal heritage conservation department, explained why the hockey stick is called the “little brother in war.”
“They would admit that if someone was killed in the war, no matter what skills he had, no matter what service he did to the tribe and family, they would no longer be provided,” he said. “They realized that they would rather find another way to resolve conflicts over land or other disputes – and I’m sure opposing tribes and communities felt the same way.”
This “other way” was the hockey stick, one of the roughest sports on the planet.
The rules change, sometimes from game to game, but follow the general rules: Team members, historically wearing only a loincloth, and today shorts, carry a pair of long wooden sticks with woven cups at one end to dig up and direct the small ball to the target at either end of the playing field.
In one variation played by the Cherokee nation in Oklahoma, players score points by hitting a wooden fish icon that sits on top of a 7.5-meter (25-foot) pole in the center of the field.
Players cannot use their hands to catch the ball, but they can use them to block and grab opponents. Since players are not wearing safety gear or shoes, injuries are common – “at least bruises and bruises,” Carroll said.
To see modern players in action, watch the video below:
“Stickball is not just a game,” Carroll added. “It’s a ceremony.”
Ahead of the match, players engage in solitary prayer led by a religious leader to weaken their opponents and ensure victory.Although these rituals have been described by historical ethnographers, Carroll only refers to some of them, as others are considered sacred and confidential.
“Basically, they performed the same rituals as before the war,” he said. Part of the ceremony, called “walking in the water,” involved emotional and physical cleansing with water before, during, and after the game.
“This is a ritual that is part of everyday life – even today,” he said.
By 1828, the Cherokee in Alabama had already been driven out of their original homeland in North Carolina and were under great pressure from the US government, missionaries, and members of a Christianized tribe to abandon traditional beliefs and ceremonies.
The stakes were high if caught in ceremonies. “If they decided that you weren’t Christian enough, they would take over and your entire family would starve to death,” Carroll said.
The Manitou Cave was an ideal place for illegal ceremonies: it was secluded; it was also spiritually important, it was considered a portal to the underworld, inhabited by the spirits of ancestors and other supernatural beings.
Inscriptions engraved in charcoal or scratched into the dark charcoal surface appear throughout the cave.
One set identifies the date of the game. Another identifies the players as “those with bleeding from the nose and mouth,” suggesting that they did not feel well in the game. This set of inscriptions is signed in English by group leader “Richard Hess”, believed to be the son of Sequoia.
Authors believe the Manitou Cave inscriptions are important because they open a window at a time when Cherokee culture clung to survival. They are also important because while it was not local scholars who first discovered the inscriptions, it was the Cherokee who taught them about context and meaning.
Which teams played – and who won – is lost to history. Two years after the game, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act, and in 1838 government agents forcibly removed thousands of Cherokee living east of the Mississippi River west into what is now Oklahoma. Several thousand people died on the “trail of tears” from exposure, disease or hunger.
The small Cherokee group from which Carroll was descended managed to remain in North Carolina and are today known as the Eastern Cherokee Group, based on the 23,000 hectare (57,000 acres) Kualla border.
The Cherokee Nation and the United Kitowawan Cherokee Group, the only other federally recognized Cherokee tribes, are based in Oklahoma – and today they play table football.
Europeans embraced the game that became today’s Lacrosse. Unlike their predecessors, the lacrosse team members have defined positions and wear
heavy protective clothing
“They had to change that,” Carroll said, “to better suit people who cannot tolerate injury.”
Blue-eyed blondes and fictitious gods: testing our knowledge about the Slavs
Who are the Slavs?
Russians, Ukrainians and Belarusians; Czechs, Poles and Slovaks; Bulgarians, Serbs, Slovenes, Macedonians … The Slavs are the largest ethno-linguistic community in Europe, that is, a group of peoples united by the kinship of languages (according to the same principle, for example, Arabs, Turks or Germans are distinguished).
“When the Slavs appeared, they still argue about this and will always argue, because in those days there was no written language, the Slavs could only declare themselves orally, colliding with people strangers to them.These people were Greeks, – says Vladimir Petrukhin, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor at the Higher School of Economics, Chief Researcher at the Institute of Slavic Studies. – When the Slavs reached the Danube (and the Danube was considered the border of the Roman Empire, then the Eastern Roman Empire, we call it Byzantium), then there, as a new people who found themselves on the border, they had to somehow call themselves the Greeks, and they called themselves “Slovene”. This meant that they had a normal, understandable word, or, as linguists now believe, that they had a reputation, were verbal (famous, glorious – approx.TASS) by the people. “Slavs” is a term that later appeared in the science of the 19th century. “
The meeting of the Slavs and Greeks, according to archaeologists, took place at the turn of the 5th and 6th centuries. By this time, the Slavs had already occupied a fairly vast territory on the Balkan Peninsula and in Central Europe, including the Middle Dnieper region, where Kiev later arose, which, during the time of Christian Rus, became the “mother of Russian cities”.
Blonde and blue-eyed
Considering the number of peoples united by the term “Slavs” and the vast territory in which these peoples lived and live, it is surprising that one of the most widespread stereotypes about the Slavs is the idea that they are all blue-eyed blondes.
© Alexey Durasov / TASS
“I think this is one of those stereotypes that formed from the impressions of non-Slavic peoples, who somewhere faced a large concentration of blue-eyed blondes. Although if we look at the South Slavs, then blue-eyed blondes we will see an absolute minority. And in the Russian people they are The Finns, for example, have more blue-eyed blondes than all the Slavs, ”explains Yuri Borisenok, Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Faculty of History at Moscow State University.“These stereotypes have been taking shape for centuries in conditions when communications were not so developed, then initial impressions turn into stable representations.”
One of the most important ancient authors who left detailed descriptions of the Slavs was the early Byzantine historiographer Procopius of Caesarea. “Yes, and in appearance they are no different from each other, because they are all tall and very strong, in body and hair they are not too light and not red, they do not at all tend to black, but they are all a little reddish,” Thus, the author wanted to say that the Slavs he met had light brown hair.
Warriors and Farmers
While some stereotypes take many centuries to form, others take several decades.
“The fact that the Slavs are a peaceful people is a fairly recent stereotype. The Soviet Union could have had only one, peaceful foreign policy. And this stereotype about the peacefulness of the Slavs penetrated the historical canvas,” says Yuri Borisenok. The Slavs actively interacted with the surrounding peoples – Scandinavians, Germans, Byzantines and Arabs – they traded, taught and studied, entered into conflicts.
“We all know about the military campaigns of the ancient Russian prince Oleg against Constantinople or Svyatoslav. The militancy of the Slavs was well known in Europe at that time. Not a single nation, especially as large as the Slavs, could do without military campaigns,” the historian explains.
© Alexey Durasov / TASS
Nevertheless, Vladimir Petrukhin notes that in comparison with other peoples, the Slavs were rather weakly armed. If a horse or a stuffed animal and a large number of weapons (sabers, spears and arrows) were often found in the burials of nomads, then this was not found among the Slavic peoples, probably because the main occupation for them was agriculture.
All forces were directed to feed their tribe. To do this, they, who lived in the forests, had to clear the forests, burn them, plow the arable land. The field became scarce, so we had to leave it and move on. All forces were spent on the conquest of this space. Hence the vast territory, which was eventually seized by the Slavs. Agricultural colonization is the main historical intention of at least the Eastern Slavs
Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Higher School of Economics, Chief Researcher of the Institute of Slavic Studies Vladimir Petrukhin
Procopius of Caesarea, already known to us, writes about this:
“And they live in miserable huts, located far from each other and each changing as often as possible the place of settlement.Entering the battle, most of them go to the enemies with shields and darts in their hands, but they never put on shells; some do not wear shirts (tunics) or raincoats, but only pants, pulled up by a wide belt at their hips, and in this form they go to battle with the enemies … “
Lel, Perun and Persephone
“The Tale of Bygone Years” – the earliest surviving in full Russian chronicles, one of the main sources on the history of Ancient Rus – tells about the deities whose idols Prince Vladimir, trying to streamline religion, put in Kiev, next to his terem palace.They were Perun, Khors, Dazhdbog, Stribog, Simargl and Mokosh.
Perun with a golden beard and a silver mustache was the main one, the thunderer, the same was for all Indo-European peoples. Then there was Khors, what it is – until now philologists argue. One of the remarkable Slavic philologists, academician Vladimir Nikolaevich Toporov, believed that this name was Iranian in origin.
The next already Slavic god – Dazhdbog – the sun god, he is mentioned in this role in “The Lay of Igor’s Host”, in addition, there are chronicle comments that he looks like Helios, the ancient sun god.
Then Stribog, also quite understandable. In the same “Lay of Igor’s Campaign,” the arrows are the grandchildren of the Stribes. This is an atmospheric god, the embodiment of his function could be the winds.
Next comes some kind of Simargl. Also, in all likelihood, an Iranian name. Very similar to Simurg from Iranian myths. A strange, chimerical creature, like with the body of a fish and wings. Simargl could reach any space and be, thus, the messenger of the gods.
The only woman in this entire assembly is Mokosh, a wet female deity.In our folklore, the character of the Mother of Cheese Earth is known.
Narrated by Vladimir Petrukhin
So, we know the names of the six gods chosen by Vladimir as the main ones, we can guess about their functionality and powers. But we know practically nothing more. Slavic paganism has never been a single system of ideas, legends and myths have been lost, and even the information that we have is contradictory and questionable.
“The lovers of antiquity perceive with great resentment that we do not have our own” Odysseus “or” Iliad “, there is nothing even similar to the” Elder Edda “, we do not have our own Aryan Vedas. Why we did not have this, one can say quite Cyril and Methodius created writing for the translation of Holy Scripture. It was blasphemous to write down pagan myths in this language, so they did not write anything down, “explains Vladimir Petrukhin.
On this topic
This resentment pushed people to try to fill the void.The ancient Slavic history was supplemented and decorated with new gods for many centuries. So, Lomonosov insisted on the most ancient version of the origin of the Slavs, since “other peoples are looking for honor and glory for themselves.” The writer and translator of the XIX century Grigory Glinka in the book “The Ancient Religion of the Slavs” asked the question: “Is it not better than Fidasov’s Venus with hands and feet forged in the taste of this famous ancient master than when only her torso remained, and then maybe , still knocked out in places? ”
Counterfeits were inextricably intertwined in the mass consciousness with real grains of knowledge.In the 18th century, inspired by the imperial perspectives and the “Greek project” of Catherine II, for whom it was profitable to represent Russia as the direct heir of not only Byzantine Christianity, but also of ancient antiquity, historians began to invent gods and demigods for the Slavs, focusing on Greek models. This is how the “armchair mythology” developed. The god of love Lelia was invented by analogy with Cupid and Eros, distorting the chorus of the wedding song “oh-lyuli-lel”, the goddess of spring and flowering Zimtserlu (similar to Persephone) – distorting the name of the god Simargl.
More modern counterfeits are also widely known. So the author of the “Veles Book” which supposedly came down to us by a miracle from the ancient Magi, was no longer guided by antiquity, but rather by Christianity and came up with his own, never seen before, the concept of “Reveal, Navi and Rule” – the visible, invisible and world of laws. The falsification was written in an ancient pre-Cyrillic script – in fact, a mixture of distorted Cyrillic and Glagolitic. You can read more about this here.
Not a single kokoshnik
When it comes to history, the main thing is to be critical of any information and to double-check your ideas about culture, even with regard to seemingly quite obvious things, including the national costume.
For example, those Russian or Ukrainian costumes that we see today, for example, at folk festivals, are very different from what the Slavs wore in the 5th or even 15th centuries. This, of course, is largely due to the reforms of Peter I, who forced the nobles to wear German on weekdays, and French on holidays. Kichka, povoinik, ichigi, pistons, shushpan and poneva – even the names of traditional clothing items have practically disappeared from the language and from our memory.
Specific differences and features were not only in the clothes of different peoples (Bulgarians, Macedonians, Belarusians, and so on), but also in outfits from different cities and villages.
“What we are used to, for example, a sundress with a yoke, is a fashion brought, one might say, by Napoleon. French fashion – dresses with a yoke of the empire era. The peasants imitated the gentlemen, looking at what they wore. In ancient times, everything was simpler – dresses of simple cut. Of course, we know very little about their clothes. We know that the Slavs did not like to adorn themselves with all sorts of different trinkets. This is the specificity of Slavic culture, “says Vladimir Petrukhin.
Where does memory come from?
The most reliable source of knowledge about life that took place many centuries ago is not written evidence, often embellished or created by people who did not understand and condemn a foreign culture, but archaeological data.
© Alexey Durasov / TASS
“I am an archaeologist by education and I understand well the standard of living of the Slavs during the initial Slavic colonization. Quite primitive dugouts, there was a stove in the corner. Quite a simple level of the settlement, on the other hand, it was not difficult to abandon these settlements if it was necessary to leave and plow new ones. fields. Of course, the Slavs knew and crafts. The main thing that now goes to archaeologists is earthenware, which was molded by hand. Basically, the Slavs are famous for the dishes, which is called a pot.This is a very ancient creation of Slavic culture. It could be put in the oven and cooked into porridge. “Porridge is our mother” – this is not a catchphrase, it is something that could be saturated in a forest not very adapted to develop animal husbandry, the ancient Slavs had a shortage of meat food “, – says Vladimir Petrukhin.
Of course, a lot of knowledge has been lost, and it may never be possible to get it back. And yet, scientists sometimes manage to reconstruct fragments of ancient history or learn something new about periods of time about which we already have a relatively detailed idea.
“For over 70 years, since 1951, when the first birch bark letter was found in Veliky Novgorod, preserved in the unique Novgorod soil, we can recreate in sufficient detail some moments of even the everyday life of Novgorodians. Their experiences, inner world, everyday activities, trade, words and expressions that are not always censorship. <...> It turned out that the world of Novgorodians of the XI, XII, XIII centuries was much more complicated, more interesting and closer to us than we imagined, “says Yuri Borisenok, adding that to date, more than a thousand letters have been found.
Who knows, maybe other discoveries are still ahead of us, and our knowledge about the life of the Slavic peoples in the X, V centuries, and maybe even earlier, has yet to be replenished.
90,000 This is also the Olympics: rope, lyacrosse and pelota – Other sports news
Wondering what roller skates or rock climbing can get to the Games? Whether it was still!
The exclusion of wrestling from the Summer Olympic Games program shocked the sports world.She left the “family” before, but then came back, after all, this is a classic competition. And now, along with her, seven exotic species of varying degrees, from roller coasters to rock climbing, claim to be included in the Games program.
But 55% of visitors to the site sport.segodnya.ua would like to return to the Games program, namely wrestling, where Ukraine has 14 Games medals.
14% for karate is a good option, from the 2012 World Cup Ukrainians brought 48 medals, taking the second place in the team after the United States.In rock climbing (9%) during the period of independence, Ukrainians became world champions nine times and European champions five times. In baseball (8%) our juniors became European champions twice (1996 and 2004), and the cadets were “bronze”. There are four teams in our top division, and six in the second. There are six softball teams in Ukraine.
In wushu (5%), we can also count on the medals of the Games – the 2012 World Cup brought us 20 medals, six of which are of the highest standard. But the Ukrainian roller skating federation (4%) was registered only in November last year, and just a month ago the ministry entered this sport into the register of non-Olympic sports in our country.At international competitions, Ukrainian skaters do not appear very often.
On squash (3%) in Ukraine every year the national championship is held, and international tournaments are also organized. Our juniors are in the top 10 of the European rankings. Winning the European Nations Cup in 2009 is the main success of Ukrainian squash players so far. The men’s team, in which representatives of Kiev and Dnepropetrovsk mainly shine, is represented at almost all major international competitions.
Finally, our wakeboarding federation (2%) actively popularizes this sport in the vastness of our country.In August last year, the European and African Championship was held on Obolonskaya Embankment in Kiev, which brought together more than 200 athletes from 25 countries. This was the first event of this level in the whole of Eastern Europe. Our wakeboarders took one gold and three bronze medals.
In general, since 1896 the Games have not seen so many things – jumping from a spot, and diving to a distance. These are only disciplines, and there is a special conversation about some unusual sports.
PARIS 1900. BEFORE THE WAR PLAYED ON HORSE FIVE TIMES
If we take the species that have dropped out of the Olympic family, polo is one of the main long-livers.The game with hockey sticks on horseback has been featured in five Games! For the first time – in 1900: 5 teams participated, the lineups were mixed, in three there were representatives of Great Britain. Then in 1908 only three teams participated – all from Great Britain. In Antwerp-1920, the “gold” was taken by a full-fledged British team. But in Paris-1924, both Argentina and the United States surpassed the Britons. The last polo event took place in Nazi Berlin-1936, where the competition, along with equestrian sports, was watched by 75 thousand spectators. But after the war, polo did not return to the family.
PARIS 1900. PULLED INTO THE “GOLD” TEAM … JOURNALIST
Tug of war – this is where strength and team spirit are manifested! This simple and straightforward sport has been present at five Games. For the first time – in Paris-1900, where only two teams of six people participated. The Americans also showed up, but three of them (half a team!) Reached the final in hammer throw, where they eventually occupied the entire pedestal, and the entire “stars and stripes” tug-of-war team withdrew.There remained France and the combined team of Swedes and Danes. Moreover, the winner of the “gold” in the composition of the latter, the Dane Oybe, originally came … as a journalist to cover the Olympics. But at the last moment he replaced a sick athlete in the united team.
LONDON-1908. FIGURINE BEGINS – CRAZY WINS
Figure skating, familiar to the Winter Games, made its debut at the 1908 Summer Olympics in London. Competitions were held outdoors, okay, at least in October.The men’s champion was Nikolai Panin from the village of Khrenovoe, who won the first “gold” for Russia in the history of the Games. And before the Winter Games appeared in 1924, they competed in hockey, ice skating and combined skiing in the summer of 1916.
PARIS 1900. WOMEN’S DEBUT AND ONE TICKET SOLD
No, this is not golf, but croquet – a game of gentlemen and ladies. Task: to bring the balls through the frames on the field with hammers. It was in croquet in 1900 that women made their debut at the Olympics – Madame Brochy, Madame Despres and Mademoiselle Ohnier, but they dropped out after the first round.For the entire tournament, only one ticket was sold – to an elderly English gentleman traveling from Nice.
SAINT LUIS 1904. THE FUN OF THE INDIANS MADE TO LONDON
At the first Olympics in the New World – in St. Louis 1904 – the national game of the Canadian Indians appeared: lacrosse. This team fun, in which you have to hammer a rubber ball into the opponent’s goal, wielding a net, is the main summer game in Canada. It is here, as well as in the United States, that it is most popular, although at the end of the twentieth century, about three dozen national federations were created in Europe.Actually, only Canada and the United States competed for medals in 1904. And in London-1908, only Canadians and the hosts competed. That was the end of it.
PARIS 1924. PELOTA – BASQUE SQUASH
Behind the name Basque Pelota is a game with a racket that originates from the Basque Country and is the prototype of modern squash. In Paris-1924, she was in the official program, as many as two couples participated – the Spanish won the French. Then the Basque pelota was only in the demonstration program – in Mexico-68 and Barcelona-92.
LONDON-1908. HELLO FROM THE GREAT FRENCH REVOLUTION
There were a great many racket games that became the prototype of tennis in the world. The French same de pom is one of them, it was included in the program of the 1908 Olympics, and there were demonstration performances at the 1928 Games. The game will not be forgotten, at least due to the fact that in 1789, during the French Revolution, the fighters for the idea took an oath in the hall for the Gede-de-Pome, which became historic.
LOS ANGELES 1932.CUBERTEN WON IN LITERATURE UNDER PSEUDO
According to ancient tradition, an arts competition was held at the 1916 Games in Stockholm (later in 1932 and 1936). Works of architecture, painting, sculpture, music and literature dedicated to the Olympic movement were presented. In literature, Horod and Eshbach’s “Ode to Sport” won – this pseudonym was signed by the father of the modern Olympics Pierre de Coubertin.
PARIS 1900. “SILVER” FOR CHAMPION IN CRICKET
This game with a bat and a ball, incredibly popular in England and its former colonies, was lit up at the Olympics once, in Paris-1900.The British and French played a two-day match, which was won by representatives of Albion. For which they first received … silver medals, and the French – bronze. Later they changed to “gold” and “silver”, respectively.
SHOOTED PIGEON AT THE SHOW
Demonstrations at the Olympics were even more pretentious and unusual. The Olympics in Paris-1900, stretched out for five months, delighted with a whole festival. There is a hot air balloon race, gliding, grass bowling, fishing, firefighter, life saving! And from shooting at live pigeons, the current “green” would simply faint at one name.Who would have thought that this is exactly what modern clay pigeon shooting came from.
Militarist Germany in 1936 really wanted to include gliding in the official program, but the NOC agreed only to demonstration performances. 15 pilots from 7 countries took part, and another Austrian crashed the day before – the glider wing broke.
In 1952, the Finns showed the pesapallo to the world in Helsinki. Behind the outlandish name was a local version of baseball, with such success in Moscow-1980 they could show rounders.By the way, at our Olympics there was no unofficial demonstration program at all. And finally it was canceled after Barcelona-1992, where they showed Basque pelota, taekwondo and roller hockey.