Boys Lacrosse / Equipment and Rules
-Lacrosse shoulder pads (no hockey or football pads)
-Lacrosse Elbow Pads (no hockey pads)
-Lacrosse Gloves (no hockey gloves)
-Protective cup and supporter (same as hockey or football)
-Colored mouth guard (same as hockey and football)
-Field cleats (lacrosse or football, NO baseball cleats)
Optional Items: Rib pads and arm pads
Men’s Lacrosse Rules
Men’s lacrosse is a contact game played by ten players: a goalkeeper, three defensemen, three midfielders and three attackmen. The object of the game is to shoot the ball into the opponent’s goal. The team scoring the most goals wins.
• Each team must keep at least four players, including the goalie, in its defensive half of the field and three in its offensive half Three players (midfielders) may roam the entire field.
• Generally, high school games are 48 minutes long, with 12 minute quarters. Each team is given a two minute break between the first and second quarters, and the third and fourth quarters. Half-time is ten minutes long.
• Teams change sides between periods. Each team is permitted two time-outs each half. The team winning the coin toss chooses the end of the field it wants to defend first.
• Men’s lacrosse begins with a face-off. The ball is placed between the sticks of two squatting players at the center of the field. The official blows the whistle to begin play. Each face-off player tries to control the ball. The players in the wing areas can release; the other players must wait until one player has gained possession of the ball or the ball has crossed the goal line.
• Center face-offs are also used after a goal and at the start of each quarter.
• Players may run with the ball in the crosse, pass and catch the ball. Only the goalkeeper may touch the ball with his hands.
• A player may gain possession of the ball by dislodging it from an opponent’s crosse with a stick check, which includes the controlled poking and slapping of the stick and gloved hands of the player in possession of the ball.
• Body checking is permitted if the opponent has the ball. However, all contact must occur from the front or side, above the waist and below the shoulders. An opponent’s crosse may also be stick checked if it is within five yards of a loose ball or ball in the air.
• If the ball or a player in possession of the ball goes out of bounds, the other team is awarded possession of the ball. If the ball goes out of bounds after an unsuccessful shot on goal, the player nearest to the ball when and where it goes out of bounds is awarded possession.
• An attacking player cannot enter the crease around the goal, but may reach in with his stick to scoop a loose ball.
Men’s Lacrosse Field Positions
• ATTACK: The attackman’s responsibility is to score goals. He generally restricts his play to the offensive end.
• MIDFIELD: The midfielder’s responsibility is to cover the entire field playing both offense and defense.
• DEFENSE: The defenseman’s responsibility is to defend the goal. He generally restricts his play to the defensive end of the field.
• GOAL: The goalie’s responsibility is to protect the goal and stop the opposing team from scoring.
Men’s Lacrosse Personal Fouls
The penalty for a personal foul is a one to three minute suspension from play and possession to the team that was fouled. Players with five personal fouls are ejected from the game.• SLASHING: Occurs when a player’s stick contacts an opponent in any area other than the stick or gloved hand on the stick.
• TRlPPlNG: Occurs when a player obstructs his opponent at or below the waist with the crosse, hands, arms, feet or legs.
• CROSS CHECKING: Occurs when a player uses the handle of his crosse to make contact with an opponent.
• UNSPORTSMANLIKE CONDUCT: Occurs when any player or coach commits an act which is considered unsportsmanlike by an official, including taunting, obscene language or gestures, and arguing.
• UNNECESSARY ROUGHNESS: Occurs when a player strikes an opponent with his stick or body using excessive or violent force.
• ILLEGAL CROSSE: Occurs when a player uses a crosse that does not conform to required specifications. A crosse may be found illegal if the pocket is too deep or if the crosse was altered to gain an advantage.
• ILLEGAL BODY CHECKING: Occurs when any of the following actions take place: (a) body checking of an opponent who is not in possession of the ball or within five yards of a loose ball: (b) avoidable body check of an opponent alter he has passed or shot the ball; (c) body checking of an opponent from the rear or at or below the waist; (d) body checking of an opponent by a player in which contact is made above the shoulders of the opponent. A body check must be below the neck, and both hands of the player applying the body check must remain in contact with his crosse.
• ILLEGAL GLOVES: Occurs when a player uses gloves that do not conform to required specifications. A glove will be found illegal if the fingers and palms are cut out of the gloves, or if the glove has been altered in a way that compromises its protective features.
Men’s Lacrosse Technical Fouls
The penalty for a technical foul is a thirty second suspension if a team is in possession of the ball when the foul is committed, or possession of the ball to the team that was fouled if there was no possession when the foul was committed.
• HOLDING: Occurs when a player impedes the movement of an opponent or an opponent’s crosse.
• INTERFERENCE: Occurs when a player interferes in any manner with the free movement of an opponent, except when that opponent has possession of the ball, the ball is in flight and within five yards of the players, or both players are within five yards of a loose ball.
• OFF SIDES: Occurs when a team does not have at least four players on its defensive side of the midfield line or at least three players on its offensive side of the midfield line.
• PUSHING: Occurs when a player thrusts or shoves a player from behind.
• STALLING: Occurs when a team intentionally holds the ball. without conducting normal offensive play, with the intent of running times off the clock. WARDING OFF: Occurs when a player in possession of the ball uses his free hand or arm to hold, push Men’s Lacrosse FAQ
• What is the object of lacrosse?
o The object is to put the ball into your opponent’s goal.
• How does the game begin?
o A lacrosse game begins with a face off at the midfield line at the X spot in the center of the field.
• What is a face off?
o A face off consists of the two center players at the mid-field line crouching down and placing their sticks on the ground so that the heads of the sticks have their backs to each other. The official then places the ball on the ground between the heads of the sticks, steps back and blows a whistle which signals to the players they can fight for possession of the ball.
• When are face offs used?
o At the beginning of a game, at the beginning of each quarter and after each goal is scored.
• How many men are there on a lacrosse team?
o Squads range from 25 to 30 men normally.
• How many men are there on the field for one team?
o There are ten men consisting of one goaltender, three defense men, three midfielders, and three attack men.
• What are the goaltender’s special privileges?
o He uses the largest stick on the field with a maximum width of 12 inches. He is the only one allowed to use a stick this large. He cannot be checked if he has gained possession of the ball within the crease are nor is an opponent allowed in the crease area.
• What is defined as “in the crease area”?
o A goaltender is considered in the crease as long as he has one foot on or within the 18-foot diameter circle. If he lifts his foot up and puts t back down while in the possession of the ball, it is called “out and in” and he loses possession of the ball.
• How long can a goaltender stay in the crease with the ball?
o A goaltender has four seconds to step out of the crease or throw the ball to a teammate. If he does not do this, he loses possession of the ball.
• or control the direction of an opponent’s stick check.
Lacrosse Rules UK | Sticks Regulations for Beginners
This section explains the simplified lacrosse rules UK for beginners. Follow this basic guide to lacrosse equipment, team tactics, and player strategies.
LACROSSE STICKS UK: Competitors play field lacrosse as a team game.
Teammates use a stick with a mesh or net at one end to pass a ball to each other. As a rule they do so around an outdoor rectangular playing field.
The sport originated around a thousand years ago in Native American communities. They used lacrosse as a training ground for tribal warriors battling for victory.
French Jesuit missionaries first witnessed (and documented) the earliest versions of the game. But in fact, the ‘Laws of Lacrosse‘ got codified in Canada around 1867.
The present day game is fast paced and a frenetic contact sport. It requires the use of protective padding and helmets for the players.
Less common variations of the outdoor pastime are box lacrosse and intercrosse. But, this beginner section focuses on the basic rules and regulations for playing field lacrosse in the United Kingdom.
Rules of Lacrosse UK
Aim of playing Lacrosse Game
The simple aim of the game is to shoot a ball into your opponent’s goal using a lacrosse stick – called a ‘crosse‘. Of course, you want to score more goals than they do to win the game.
Players use the stick to catch, carry, and pass the ball. Other player tactics include trying to stop the opponents from gaining possession. You also use the lacrosse stick to dispossess opposing players of the ball when they have possession.
Rules of Lacrosse Playing Field
Lacrosse’s playing field should be a rectangle with white markings for boundary lines. The measurements should have 110 yard sidelines (100.58 meters) long by 60 yard end lines (54.86 meters) wide.
A heavy white line should mark the centerline (midfield line) of the pitch. The midfield line must be perpendicular to the sidelines. There should be a goal at either end measuring six feet by six feet. A circular ‘crease‘ should surround each goal with a diameter of 18 feet.
Lacrosse Equipment UK
- A lacrosse ball is usually made of solid rubber measuring a diameter of eight inches.
- Players should wear helmets and mouthpieces for protection. They also use shoulder pads and arm pads. Wearing lacrosse gloves UK is highly recommended.
- There are 2 different lengths of mens and womens lacrosse sticks UK:
- Short sticks (crosse) must measure between 40 and 42 inches in length.
- Long sticks (crosse) must measure between 52 and 72 inches in length.
- The head must be no less than six inches and no more than 10 inches at its widest point.
- The goalkeeper’s stick may be anything between 40 and 72 inches in length and up to 15 inches in width.
- Lacrosse rules UK say no more than four players can carry a long stick (excluding the goalkeeper).
Rules of Lacrosse UK Players
A lacrosse team consists of ten players in total. There will be one goalkeeper, three defenders, three midfielders and three attacking players.
General Lacrosse Regulations
- As a rule the duration of the game gets played over four quarters of 20 minutes each quarter. But, the game may get paused if a team calls a time-out.
- Games get started and restarted after stoppages for goals and at the start of each quarter. Each start and restart begins with a ‘face-off‘.
- During a face-off a player from each side lays their stick horizontally next to the ball until the official blows their whistle. At that point, the players battle for possession of the ball.
- Team players must ensure the ball progresses beyond the midfield line within 20 seconds once they are in possession of the ball. This lacrosse sticks ruling helps to encourage a fast-flowing game.
- Players may receive periods of time in the penalty box for rules’ infringements. They include getting caught offside or for a physical hold onto an opponent.
- Time punishments in the penalty box usually last for 30 seconds or up to one minute.
Scoring in UK Lacrosse
Team members must propel the ball from their lacrosse stick into the goal such that it fully crosses the goal line to score a legal goal.
Players are not allowed to score from inside the goal crease area. In this case the goal gets disallowed if a player enters the ‘crease‘ before the ball crosses the goal line.
Lacrosse Referees and Officials
Lacrosse games get controlled by 3 referees as a rule and one will officiate as the head referee. Referees share equal duties. But, the settlement of any dispute gets decided by the head referee and his decision is final.
Winning a Game of Lacrosse
The winning team is the one scoring most goals within the allocated time frame of the game. An extra period of ‘sudden victory overtime‘ may ensue if scores remain level after the game time is up.
During the extra period of play the first team to score a goal becomes the outright winner.
Advanced Lacrosse Rules
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FIL Lacrosse Rules Book PDF: [Free Download Option]
English Lacrosse Rules and Regulations Played in the United Kingdom
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2022 high school girls lacrosse rules changes continue efforts to improve the flow of the game
Story LinksINDIANAPOLIS — Aligning rules to match the flow of the game established by free movement was a major theme within the high school girls lacrosse rules changes, which also featured notable clarifications to player position and self-starts from out-of-bounds as well as alterations to substitution frequency, field fouls, equipment and goalkeeper placement.
The 19 rules changes, which come following a one-year hiatus from the rules-making process as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, were proposed by the National Federation of State High School Associations (NFHS)/USA Lacrosse Girls Lacrosse Rules Committee at its virtual rules meeting held June 21-23. All 19 proposals were later approved by the NFHS and USAL Boards of Directors.
“The rules committee had a huge task,” said Lindsey Atkinson, NFHS director of sports/communications associate and liaison to the Girls Lacrosse Rules Committee. “After adding self-starts and free movement to the high school game followed by a year without play, the committee was asked to examine several other areas impacted by the increased pace of the game and they certainly rose to the challenge.”
The focus allowing the rules to compliment free movement shows up most prominently in the committee’s edits to several sections of Rule 4 – “Time Factors, Substitutions and Scoring.”
To reduce the potential for false starts during the last two minutes of each half, the game clock will no longer be stopped in every instance that the official blows the whistle to stop play (Rule 4-1-2). A similar change was made to Rule 4-6, mandating that in overtime, the clock will only stop during official time-outs or fouls committed in the critical scoring area.
Rule 4-2-2 now includes additional situations where an official’s time-out must be taken. Previously, officials stopped play in case of illness, accident or injury, for the issuance of a card, to check a crosse and any time a draw had to be retaken. Now, stoppages will also occur in the event of an offside call, an inadvertent whistle, alternate possession, and for fouls in the critical scoring area during the last two minutes of each half (unless there is a 10-goal differential). Rule 4-6 eliminates the requirement to stop the clock during the last two minutes of each half and overtime on every whistle except for officials’ time-outs and fouls in the critical scoring area, reducing the potential for false starts.
New criteria were added to Rule 4-3-3 that dictates where play will be resumed following a possession time-out. If the goalkeeper has possession of the ball in the goal circle, play will now be restarted in the goal circle. If the game is to resume with a free position, play will be restarted at the location of the free position. Additionally, no player will be allowed within 4 meters of the player with the ball when play is being resumed.
Substitution restrictions were removed from several sections of Rule 4 and Rule 2. Prior to these changes, substitutions were prohibited during various stoppages in play including those required for player injury (Rule 4-2-3e), player ejections (Rule 4-7-6), replacing an illegal or broken crosse (Rules 2-4-7b and 2-5-2d), and re-draws during the overtime period (4-7-5b).
“While there are 19 rules changes passed this year, the majority of them are tweaks and minor adjustments as the game evolves in the free movement era,” said Caitlin Kelley, women’s game director at USA Lacrosse. “The committee did a great job of looking through the details of the game and modifying substitution rules, equipment allowances, and penalty administration to better allow for the flow of the game and the student-athlete experience.
Rule 2 also underwent several alterations regarding equipment, including the new Rule 2-7-7, which permits participants to wear secured, non-abrasive head coverings for religious or cosmetic reasons without first obtaining state association approval.
Beyond a pair of changes permitting hair ties and other soft, non-rigid materials worn on the arm and securely fastened hair adornments (Rule 2-7-5), the other major equipment-related modifications are found in Rule 2-7-3, which allows face masks that are soft and non-abrasive.
“The rules committee reviewed both the permissibility of headwear for religious and cosmetic reasons and securely fastened hair adornments that do not endanger other players and agreed that eliminating barriers to participation was important for the growth of the game,” Atkinson said.
Under Rule 2-6-1a, goalkeepers are no longer required to wear shin protectors, as there is no standard for those pieces of equipment. Goalkeepers still have the option to wear shin protection with padding up to one inch in thickness, which also creates consistency with boys lacrosse. Additional changes to Rule 2-6-1 detail the additional equipment options for goalkeepers, including a clear, molded and non-rigid helmet eye shield, as well as tinted or clear eyeglasses.
A new equipment option for officials was added as new Rule 2-8-5 offering the ability to use audible wireless communication devices as a means of adjusting to the increased speed of the game.
The goalkeeper was also the focal point in Rules 7-2-1d and Rule 10-1 PENALTIES 1 and 5.
Within Rule 7-2-1, a goalkeeper only needs to keep one foot inside the goal circle in order to reach out her crosse and bring the ball back inside the goal circle. Previously, the goalkeeper could not execute this move with any part of her body grounded outside the goal circle.
Rule 10-1 PENALTIES was modified to include language on the assessment of a false start penalty committed by the goalkeeper or her deputy in the goal circle. PENALTY 5 of the rule now states that a free position will be taken at the closest dot in that instance, with the goalkeeper and her deputy remaining in the goal circle and no defensive player placed behind the free position.
The final major rule change for the 2022 girls lacrosse season is the addition of Rule 9-1k, which lists the “Illegal Exchange of the Crosse” as a minor field foul. Under the new rule, an acceptable exchange of a field crosse with a crosse from the bench area can only be done with both crosses entering and exiting through the substitution area.
A complete listing of the girls lacrosse rules changes will be available on the NFHS website at www.nfhs.org. Click on “Activities & Sports” at the top of the home page and select “Lacrosse-Girls.”
According to the most recent NFHS High School Athletics Participation Survey, 99,750 girls participate in lacrosse in 2,877 high schools across the country, making it the nation’s 10th-most popular girls sport.
FAQ’s | BC Lacrosse Association (BCLA)
Since there is no contact for Mini Tyke or Tyke players, players will only require some basic hockey equipment: hockey helmets with facemask, mouth guard, shoulder pads, gloves, athletic support and cup, and elbow pads. A lacrosse stick and running shoes are also required. Knee pads are recommended. Pee Wee, Novice, Bantam and Midget divisions require the same equipment along with lacrosse arm pads and kidney and back protectors. Field/Box lacrosse gloves offer excellent protection and flexibility. Short cuff hockey gloves can be used, but they don’t offer the same grip or flexibility. Boy’s/Men’s Field lacrosse equipment requirements are somewhat similar to box lacrosse. Girl’s/Women’s field lacrosse is a non contact game so equipment is minimal. A mouth guard and stick are all that are required to play.
Sport Stores will generally carry lacrosse equipment. Some sport stores carry used lacrosse equipment as well. Some lacrosse associations also run equipment rental programs. Most associations provide the equipment necessary for goal tenders.
Box lacrosse is played in hockey arenas once the ice is removed and the floor dries. It is also played in outdoor lacrosse boxes. Field lacrosse is played outdoors on soccer type fields.
Each association establishes their own rates to cover the cost of player jerseys, floor or field rental, referee payment, coaching certification and BC Lacrosse Association fees. Initial box equipment cost will be approximately $150 (arm pads, gloves, back/kidney pads and stick) Most box lacrosse equipment can be used for 2-4 years before the player will outgrow it.
Please refer to the current AGE GROUPS listings in BCLA General Policies.
The BCLA insurance provided is a generic insurance package that all sport organizations provide. Your registration fee includes the costs of insurance. This insurance is Extended Medical Insurance, not basic health care insurance. All BC residents carry their own basic BC Medical Insurance. As well, there is $5 Million Liability insurance coverage, and $1 Million Executive Liability insurance coverage.
All coaches and referees will be certified at a clinic prior to season start. All coaching and referee/umpire programs will follow the Canadian Lacrosse Association standards. Anyone with or without a lacrosse background is welcome to apply for a coaching or assistant coaching position. People with previous experience coaching basketball or hockey will find it easy adjusting to the game of lacrosse. New referees/umpires and referees/umpires from other sports are always welcome to join.
Lacrosse has long been referred to as the fastest game on two feet. The sport is characterized by intense action, strategy, finesse and power. To make long looping passes at one end of the floor or field and short bullet like shots at the other end; to catch a pass over the shoulder while running at full stride; to hit the top corner at the net while in full flight; or to stop a shot aimed low through a maze of players requires a range of skills unsurpassed in any other sport. The promotion of speed, stamina, sportsmanship and team play in lacrosse provides excellent cross training for other sports like hockey, basketball and soccer. The wide-open nature of the game makes it a very good spectator sport.
here are three forms of lacrosse: Box, Field and Inter-Lacrosse. Box Lacrosse, which is similar to hockey and basketball, is the most common form played in Canada. Six players per team compete on an arena floor with three periods of play. Men’s/Boys Field Lacrosse is more common internationally. Ten players per side compete on a 100 metre by 55-metre field with four quarters of play. Girl’s/Women’s Field Lacrosse is a quick, free flowing game which is easy to understand and watch. The game is played on a field 100m x 55m with 12 players aside on the field. A full roster is 16-20 players. Co-Ed Inter-lacrosse may by played indoors or out and is aimed at younger aged players, often being played in the school system. It uses a softer ball and plastic sticks and encourages fitness, fair play, cooperation and safety.
Definitely not! Many of the infractions that are accepted in the professional league would result in a penalty and/or suspension in ANY minor lacrosse association (example, slashing and cross checking). The BC Lacrosse Association stresses fun, fair play and a safe playing environment.
Crosschecking in box lacrosse is legal in the higher age groups but not to the degree that you see on television. Players are taught to use their sticks to push or steer their opponent away from the primary scoring area, prevent them from getting a good shot on net, make a bad pass or to simply drop the ball. Referees are directed to strictly enforce rules regarding illegal crosschecks. Note: There is no checking at all in the Mini Tyke and Tyke divisions. In mini tyke and tyke, the emphasis is on passing, catching, shooting, equal play, fairness and most of all FUN!
Box Lacrosse programs start in April or May and end in late June, with Provincials in July or early August. Players will have at least one game and one practice a week. Games and practices will be held throughout the week. Dates and times will vary depending on the area.
Boys Youth/Men’s Field Lacrosse usually starts in late August. Some areas of the province end in early November, other at the end of December, while other go throughout the winter.
Girls/Womens Field Lacrosse has two playing seasons. The traditional season is the spring. Some areas of the province play in May and June. Other areas of the province are starting to play in September and October.
Yes. Wayne Gretzky is among a long list of NHL players that honed their hand-eye co-ordination and physical endurance by playing lacrosse in the summer. Other players include: Brendan Shanahan, Doug Gilmour, Cliff Ronning, Joe Sakic, Steve Larmer, Collin Patterson, Tim Hunter, Paul Kariya, Don Cherry, Gary Roberts, Adam Oates, Paul Coffey, Joe Nieuwendyk. …and many more! When the media started speculating where Wayne Gretzky might play after Edmonton, Walter Gretzky, Wayne’s father, is quoted as saying, “What’s safe to say, though, is Lacrosse was the key in the development of the greatest scorer in the hockey history.”
The quickest way to find out how to register is to email: [email protected] The BC Lacrosse Association will put you in touch with someone in your nearest lacrosse association.
New Standard For Lacrosse Shoulder & Chest Pads (ND200)IMPORTANT NOCSAE ND200 RULE CHANGE DATES: January 2021, all goalie chest pads must meet the NOCSAE ND200 standard for commotio cordis and must contain an SEI certification mark.
January 2022, all shoulder pads must meet the NOCSAE ND200 standard for commotio cordis and must contain an SEI certification mark.
Shop All ND200 Certified Shoulder & Chest Pads
The Full Scoop on Commotio Cordis & NOCSAE ND200
“Beginning in January 2021, US Lacrosse boys’ and girls’ youth field lacrosse rules will require that all goalie chest protectors must meet the NOCSAE performance standard ND200 in order to be deemed legal for play. In addition, beginning in 2022, all field players in boys’ lacrosse must wear protection for commotio cordis that also meets the same NOCSAE performance standard… All goalie and field player equipment meeting the NOCSAE performance standard must contain an SEI (Safety Equipment Institute) certification mark.” Via US Lacrosse
US Lacrosse has stepped up in a big way with this rule change to help protect every player out on the field and especially those who may not even have even known about the risks of Comotio Cordis. It is never easy to make a sweeping change across an entire sport at every level of play but a rule change like this will help keep lacrosse safer for all and help to continue its growth.
The while Comotio Cordis is very the seriousness of it’s possibility should never be ignored. All protective shoulder & chest pads meeting the new NOCSAE ND200 standard will feature a noticeably larger and more robust chest plate specifically designed to help shield the cardiac system from ball impact. All shoulder and chest pads meeting the new ND200 standard must have an SEI certification mark like below to be considered legal for play in 2021 & 2022.
(SEI Certification Mark for NOCSAE ND200 Standard)
New ND200 Certified Shoulder & Chest Pads
Luckily, the best manufactures in the game such as Maverik, STX, Nike, Warrior and more have stepped up to deliver some amazing new ND200 certified shoulder & chest pads to help prevent Comotio Cordis. One of the more interesting developments from the new rule change is seeing how each of the manufactures approached designing new ND200 certified shoulder & chest pads. While all share some similarities in order to meet the new ND200 certification, most have uniquely different designs and products which creates a wide variety of options when looking for new ND200 certified protective.
Beginner Packages90,000 Stories of hockey brands: Cooper – Media portal SPbHL
- Date of origin: 1949
- Founders: Jack Cooper and Cecil Weeks
- Country of Origin: Canada
Cooper was created in 1949 after Jack Charles Cooper and his partner Cecil Weeks bought out General Leather Goods, a company that had existed since 1905. of the year. Initially, General Leather Goods specialized in the manufacture of skis, snowshoes, mountain equipment and ski equipment made of leather.
In June 1932, General Leather Goods recruited Jack Cooper, who had previously worked with the company to supply leather goods to Canada’s largest department store at the time, Eaton. Cooper has long admired the quality of General Leather Goods’ products and once proposed his candidacy to Cameron, who approved of her. In the same year, Cameron’s nephew, Cecil Weeks, joined the company.
Cooper and Weekes were among those who suggested to General Leather Goods, to overcome the crisis, to concentrate on the production of more cost-effective, at the time, hockey protection.The first hockey products of the company were shin guards and leggings produced in 1933 and 1935.
In 1949, Cooper and Weeks bought General Leather Goods from Cameron and renamed it Cooper Weeks. After the purchase of the company by Cooper and Weeks, it quickly became famous and began to conquer the hockey market, thanks to close work with consumers and introduced innovations. In the 1950s, Frank Selke, general manager of the Montreal Canadiens, worked closely with Cooper. Thanks to his advice, the company was able to create lighter, more durable equipment options.
In 1969, Cooper introduced a plastic hockey stick that could be changed as needed. The firm borrowed the idea of replacing the hook from street hockey. In the 1970s, Cooper created several innovations for goalkeepers by developing neck guards. In this and other similar matters, the firm was assisted by Dave Dryden, brother of the legendary Canadiens goalkeeper Ken Dryden. The company also made a name for itself in the production of lacrosse equipment. In June 1971, Cecil Weeks sold the company to Jack Cooper and it was renamed Cooper of Canada.
In July 1972, Cooper acquired the club and baseball bat manufacturer Hespeler-St. Mary’s Wood Specialties Ltd. and turned his attention to the baseball market. The most successful products of the brand were baseball gloves and bats.
Cooper has always been distinguished by innovative ideas: they were the first to come up with colored equipment, and they were also among the first to use materials such as nylon, foam and plastic in the manufacture of hockey protection.
One such product was the Cooperalls hockey pants, which protected the entire surface of the hockey player’s leg.They began to be actively used, first in children’s hockey, and then incrementally: in junior, youth and adult hockey.
The development of Cooper was soon adopted by another well-known manufacturer of hockey equipment – CCM. As early as 1981, long pants began to be used by NHL teams. The innovators were the Philadelphia Flyers and the Hartford Whalers.
But the Cooperalls had one major flaw. Due to imperfect materials, the long pants were slippery and the player could fall in them more dangerous than in the classic outfit.After the end of the 1982/1983 season, the NHL banned the use of long pants, citing this one drawback.
Also criticized the famous Cooper XL7 helmet, which, at one time, was called the worst hockey product of all time. This was due to insufficient security. However, it is now the pride of many hockey collectors.
In 1979, Jack Cooper was inducted into the US National Sporting Goods Industry Hall of Fame, and in 1989 into the Canadian Business Hall of Fame.
Cooper’s fame declined in the late 1980s, and in 1990 the company was acquired by the owners of Bauer. In 1999, the managers of the baseball division of the firm bought out the corresponding production facilities and founded the firm KR3, specializing in the production of baseball equipment.
Golf – description, essence and basic rules in golf
A well-known, even aristocratic sport – golf, is valued for the simplicity of the rules, the ability to use not only strategy, but also perfectly honed skill.Golf competitions are held at various levels around the world. The sport has its own federation and prestigious tournaments. What makes golf exciting is the particular grace of the players.
Golf: What It Is
From the outside, golf can seem bizarre, interesting, exciting and somewhat incomprehensible. Golf is a separate sport, not like other games, as it has its own characteristics and nuances that you need to know about. In most cases, it is a solo sport.
What golf is can be understood from just one game, when athletes not only hone their skills, but also methodically bring the strategy to perfection. The principle of the game is clear even to those who first encounter golf. There are holes, a club, a ball. Gradually, at different distances with the help of a club, the player scores the ball as close to the hole as possible.
Golf what it is: first of all, the game is on the Olympic list. The sport is considered masculine. There are games for teams and competitions for individual players.The complexity of the site, the distance to the holes also allow you to make a conditional division of the game.
Unlike other sports, golf focuses more on results rather than number of shots. If speed and quick reaction are appreciated in football, in tennis, for example, player’s mobility, then such a sport as golf requires special concentration.
The main goal of the player is to hit the ball in the hole, but within a short period of time. At its core, golf is a kind of balance between the number of throws, the speed of the ball, the accuracy of hitting the hole.Faster on a question like this does not mean better.
Modern sport is considered to be the lot of wealthy people. Competitions and tournaments are held according to a different principle. Individual teams and even national teams participate in it. Tournament games aren’t just part of the fun. Abroad there is a separate golfing culture, a large number of elite golf clubs.
History of the origin and development of golf
There is no exact data on when golf was created. Only isolated stories have survived, which are not supported by evidence.According to one version, shepherds became the creators of the game. A stick, a traditional shepherd’s inventory, was used as a club. Instead of a ball, the shepherds threw stones at a conditional goal, a hole. Often, as the story goes, rabbit holes were used as a hole.
The first story is often questionable. According to the second version, the game was created in Rome. What is known from the legends:
- curved sticks were used as a club;
- The ball was a bag filled with feathers.
There is no historical confirmation of the second version. The following story tells about the origins of golf in ancient China. The sport is attributed to the reign of the Ming dynasty. There is even a scroll from those times, which depicts a game that resembles golf. The figure shows the emperor with a kind of club in his hands. He is trying to hit the ball into the hole.
Despite a large number of different legends, golf, as such, officially appeared in Scotland. The first mentions of the game can be found after 1400.Almost 50 years later, the fact of the existence of golf confirms the ban on such a game. At that time, many sports were banned in Scotland. According to the government, which was controlled by the church at that time, sports were unacceptable fun, distracting from important matters.
When the ban eased slightly, golf began to develop again. Then the first rules appeared, even small equipment. Gradually, golf came to the same level with football and handball. In the early 90s, he was included in the Olympic list.
The Rules of Golf (in Brief)
The first game of golf is not as difficult as you might think. The first thing a player should do is familiarize himself with the “local” rules. Only after preparation, the game can officially begin.
Basic rules for how golf is played:
- A mark is placed on the ball before the game starts. It is needed to correctly calculate the result. In a game, especially with multiple teams, marking is mandatory.
- If there is no mark on the ball, then it does not belong to anyone.With its help, it will not be possible to correlate the victory with any player.
- A certain number of clubs is allowed for the game, up to 14 pieces.
- There is a launch pad to start the game.
- The ball is installed on a special support.
- Further, the rules of the game assume the first throw. In the best case scenario, the player should get the ball into the main area.
- Then the player has a couple of throws to overcome the main zone.
- The next zone consists of greenery and is called “green”.
- A separate hockey stick is required for the green zone.
Golf, unlike many sports, has additional rules. They are often referred to as golf etiquette. What is included in the list of additional rules:
- You can start making a throw when the opponent or another group is at a safe distance;
- it is better not to slow down, which will interfere with other players;
- it is better for team players to act together, not to split up and not disperse throughout the field;
- if there is a group behind, which is playing faster, it is better to skip ahead;
- After the game, the impact marks on the grass must be leveled.
Flags, other inventory must be left carefully. Distinctive golfing manners are very important. Players on the other team must be treated with respect.
It is hard to imagine a large golf course. Usually, in team games, it is customary to use a limited amount of space, but in golf, skill can only be shown from a distance. For this reason, the golf holes are well spaced apart.
Any golf course is not suitable. She must have certain markings, dimensions and coverage. The space should be divided into holes, the space around them. Each hole has its own launch pad. 2 markers are installed separately on the site. They allow you to follow the rules of the shot when the stick and the ball are at the correct distance from each other.
Additional site areas:
- smooth pitch;
- field without smooth coating;
- additional obstacles.
Obstacles on the pitch provide an environment for players to show skill outside a smooth pitch.
The court must have a final zone. It is always flagged. The final, decisive hole is located on it. It is located in the green zone. Especially for playing in the area with grass near the hole, the lowest level of grass.
Other grass areas vary in height. This nuance creates additional barriers. The more difficult it is for the players to pass the court, the higher the level of the game is considered.
Holes should be positioned so that they are not so difficult to find. A separate condition is set for holes that are deliberately placed on the sides. Their name includes the words “left”, “right”. There are double holes which are considered by the players to be the most difficult. The distance to them bends not once, but twice.
The standard golf course consists of 18 alternating holes. The smaller courts have up to 9 holes and are, in fact, half the size.To complete the game, 2 moves are made. As a result, the golfer goes 18 holes. The material of the ball is the same for all parts of the courts. For the convenience of the player, only the clubs change. Their shape, composition depends on the surface relief, on the presence of different heights of grass.
Basic Golf Terms
Like any sport, golf has its own terminology. In addition to the names of the holes, which are pronounced like English words, there are other terms:
- match – match play;
- putt – a certain type of blow that produces a “green” on the site;
- obstacle – an object blocking the path to the hole;
- pool – the blow goes to the left;
- push – the blow goes to the right.
A set is a set of clubs that a player brings with him to the field.
Golf equipment and equipment
There are 2 basic equipment in golf: a golf club is used not one, but 14, golf balls. A golf ball comes in standard sizes, shapes, and the material from which it is made. The least amount of requirements is set for the ball. The club types are more complex. They have different shapes and, accordingly, their purpose.
Golf club types:
- Long distance golf clubs.In most cases, it is the long distance strikes that are the first. They are simpler in terms of the structure of the site. The name of the golf clubs comes from the English word tree. They have a solid wooden head.
- The modern long-distance golf club no longer has wooden heads. They are made of durable metal, alloy, but the name has been retained for the convenience of separating the clubs.
- Universal sticks. They are used for any blows, regardless of distance. The name of the golf clubs comes from the English word for metal.The weight of a multi-purpose golf club has a metal, and therefore very durable, head.
How golf is played: Not only the material of the club head is important in the game, but also its shape. Such golf equipment with different curves ensures the correct overcoming of obstacles on the course.
A stick called a wedge is used for short distances. The club has its own angle of inclination. If the site, its defined area, is made of sand, a special stick is selected.She has a heavier head. The putter is a classic option for the final throw. The stick is only suitable for flat, smoother surfaces.
In addition, angles are used to separate the clubs. The lower the number of the club, the further you can throw the ball from one shot. The difference between the shots is 10 m.
Special attention is paid to the ball. The weight of a golf ball is between 41 and 46 g. The diameter of the golf ball is standard. It measures 4.27 cm. The surface of the ball is uneven.It has dents on it. According to the laws of physics, the more cavities there are, the higher the ball can fly.
Golf balls are scored by compression. It represents the damage that a club strike inflicts. The balls can either deform very much and then the compression is about 0, or they retain their shape. The compression in this case is almost 200.
Balls can be thinner or multi-layered. The more layers a ball has, the more it is protected from damage. Thin balls are cheaper but less reliable.Double-layer balls have a core. They are considered to be durable and are used many times. Three-layer balls have additional protection in the form of elastic winding. They last the longest. Pros also use 4-layer balls.
Basic golf equipment consists of a bag, clothing. The bag should contain equipment, including golf clubs. Special durable shoes are used for the game. They have a high level of grip on the ground. There are no special requirements for clothing. Players often choose white clothing.
There are many golf games taking place around the world. The Olympic Games are prestigious, where each champion, among other things, brings honor and glory to his country. Since 2016, the sport has been included in the list of regular sports.
The Masters is a Grand Slam in tennis. The tournament is considered very prestigious. Championships in the USA are also very prestigious. It takes place in the United States on a regular basis. The British Open is considered one of the oldest tournaments for golfers.
The International Golf Federation is active since 1958. It was recognized by the Olympic Committee. The federations are controlled by organizations from more than 100 countries in which golf tournaments are held. It has over 20 professional members. Initially, the federation bore the title of “amateur golf council”, but later changed its name.
[PDF] in Russian.- Moscow Lacrosse | Moscow LacrosseLACROSS Laws of the game
Laws of lacrosse lacrosse
Goal area (Crease) •
Offensive players cannot be in the goal area (except: sticks)
Defensive players can be in their goal area, but only without the ball.It is prohibited to bring the ball from the field into the goal area. The same goes for the goalkeeper.
Passing back to the goalkeeper if he is in the goal area is legal.
When the goalkeeper is in the goal area, it is prohibited to attack him. The goalkeeper is considered to be in the goal area if at least one of his feet is in the goal area.
The goalkeeper has 4 seconds to be in the goal area with the ball (must go outside the goal area or pass)
Violating any of these rules will result in a change of possession.
Positions of the players on the field • 10 players on the field: 3 forwards (usually located in the opponent’s half of the field) 3 midfielders (usually running around the entire field) • 3 defenders (usually located in their own half of the field) 1 goalkeeper • All players can run all over the field, while respecting the offside rule • There can be no more than 4 long clubs on the field at the same time • Players can receive penalties for a while, leaving their team to play in the minority.
Equipment Requirements • • • • • •
Helmet with 4-point chin strap Gloves Elbow pads Shoulder protectors (shoulder pads) Jaw protector Goalkeeper: chest protector, instead of shoulder protectors throat protectors Groin protectors • Stick
Permitted sizes hockey sticks Age
Short stick Long stick
Up to 9 years old
37 “- 42” (94 cm – 107 cm)
Up to 11 years old
37 “- 42” 47 “- 52” (94 cm – 107 cm) (119 cm – 132 cm)
Up to 15 and over
40 “- 42” 52 “- 72” (102 cm – 107 cm) (132 cm – 183 cm)
Goalkeeper stick: 40 ” – 72 ”(102 cm – 183 cm)
Eligible Club Pocket • The depth of the pocket is legal if the top of a ball placed in a horizontal club is not lower than the bottom edge of the sidewalls.
• The ball must fall freely out of the pocket when the club is turned over.
OUT OF PLAY AND OUT RULES
Out ricocheted by a player or his stick – Out of bounds The team that last touched the ball before it left the field of play loses possession. • Play is restarted from inside the field (the player can immediately run with the ball.It is not necessary to restart play with a pass from out-of-bounds, as in most sports)
Ball out-of-bounds • If the ball goes out-of-bounds as a result of an inaccurate shot at goal, then the team whose player was closest to the ball gains possession. , at the moment it leaves the field. … Therefore the attacking team must always keep the player outside the goal • Again, play restarts within the field of play!
RULES FOR SUBSTITUTION OF PLAYERS
Substitutions • The number of substitutions is not limited • Substitutions can be carried out during the game • All substitutions of players must be carried out through a special zone of substitutions lines
Substitutions during the game
ATTACK OF Opponents (CHECKING)
Allowed techniques • Attack of the stick (stick) – blows on the opponent’s stick or the hand holding the stick.• Power techniques – pushing from the front or from the side into the torso area between the shoulders and hips, with two hands placed together on the stick. • Stick checks and power moves can be carried out within a radius of 9 feet (2.74 meters) of a free ball on the ground or in the air
Personal fouls • This is a more serious type of violation. depending on the severity of the offense • The player who receives 5 personal fouls is sent off for the rest of the game.
Personal fouls • Illegal stick (illegal pocket) • Unsportsmanlike behavior • Hit with a stick (slashing) – uncontrolled swinging of the stick with a clear intention to harm the opponent – Hit with a stick in the body of an opponent, on the head, etc. (the hand on the club is considered part of the club) • The push with the club (cross-check) – Attacking or holding the opponent with a part of the handle between the player’s hands • Tripping
Personal fouls • Illegal power move – not performed within 9 feet (2.74 m) of the ball – both hands are not on the stick – drawn from behind – held below the hips and above the shoulders – blocking a player with the head (a foul may be given to a player with the ball) – carried out on a player lying on the ground – carried out on a player who has already parted with the ball, despite the fact that the move could have been avoided – carried out too aggressively than necessary (take-away move) • Excessive rudeness – A player with the ball may be given a foul if he deliberately tries to run through a defender (this is not American football)
Technical fouls • This is a less severe type of violation • Penalized by a change of possession if the ball is free or at the time of the foul the offending team was in possession of the ball • Penalized with a 30-second suspension.If a goal was scored at the gate of the offending team, then the penalty ends and the player can return to the field.
Technical fouls • Offside • Push from behind – no pushing from behind – pushing from the side and front is allowed when the opponent is in possession of the ball or is within 9 feet (2.74 m) – usually occurs in a free ball fight • Improper screening (screening) in motion, like in basketball) – an attacker blocks a defender or moves him when his team is in possession of the ball – appointed only if the team is in possession of the ball – fixed screens allowed
Technical fouls • Delay – holding an opponent with hands or stick • Blocking – obstructing the movement of an opponent not within 9 feet (2.74 m) from the ball – general interference: obstructing the defender of the pursuing player with the ball, preventing an opponent not in possession of the ball from moving freely, interfering with the attacking player when organizing a screen • Push – The player in possession of the ball pushes the defender or changes direction defensive sticks – using the free hand as a stationary “backboard”, permitted
Technical fouls • Holding the ball – it is forbidden to sit, lie on the free ball or press it to the ground with the stick for too long than necessary to gain possession • Passive attack – the team in possession does not attempt to attack the goal – the referee must first give a warning • Goal area rule violation • Illegal procedure – incorrect substitution, violation of the size of the field, etc.• Illegal equipment and stick (length)
Fouls – delayed whistles • “Play-on” – When fighting for a free ball, a player of one team commits a technical foul. If the injured player has already taken possession of the ball or the stoppage of play will worsen his position on the field of play, the referee does not blow the whistle and allows play to continue • Delayed whistle (Flag) – If the team on which the rules were violated retains possession, then the referee calls a foul by throwing a flag (not whistle) – play continues until possession is lost or the ball leaves the attacking area
GAME SITUATIONS Throw-in
Throw-in • A throw-in takes place at the beginning of each period and after every goal scored • The wing player must be behind the line flank areas on either side of the center line • Forwards and defenders must remain outside the goal area line until the command “Possession” is issued. from the head of the club, the clubs are parallel to the center line and not touching the ball
Formation on throw-in Throw-in
Formation on Throw-In
Formation on Throw-In
GAME SITUATIONS Majority / Minority
6-5 Majority / Minority
5-4 Majority / Minority
6-4 Majority / Minority
“Minority” – Return player on the field
“In the minority” – The player returned to the field
“In the minority” – The player returned to the field
“In the minority” – The player returned to the field
“In the majority / in the minority” – Situations at the end of the period • If the penalty time has not ended at the end of the period, the remaining penalty time is carried over to the next period.