Oregon Ducks Unveil New Nike Football Uniforms – SportsLogos.Net News
The Oregon Ducks unveiled new uniforms this week that pull elements from some of the program’s past designs while also remaining at the forefront of Nike’s innovation.
At first glance, there are several similarities between these uniforms and what Oregon has worn for the last two seasons, as the apple green, lightning yellow and white road sets are all on Nike’s Vapor Fusion template. The previous number font – which dates back to 2018 – remains intact, too, albeit with a new perforation pattern throughout.
That pattern is then carried over to a new shoulder and sleeve design that is supposed to mimic flying ducks and blends in with the green apple jersey but uses a contrasting color on the lightning yellow and white uniforms. This design is seemingly a callback to the diamond-plate uniforms the Ducks wore from 2006-09 and a handful of alternates worn in the 2016 Alamo Bowl and throughout the following season, as shown below.
Other small changes include the three-dimensional collar that is similar to a graphic inside the football facility that honors all of the former Oregon players in the NFL, as well as the Nike Swoosh returning to its traditional spot on the left shoulder. In a corresponding move, the Ducks’ primary logo is now back on the collar.
There’s also small circles under the armpits of the jersey and sides of the pants and a contrasting tag – which first appeared on the Los Angeles Rams’ current uniforms – on the back collar that features Oregon’s mascot, Puddles.
Last but not least, the Ducks introduced another helmet into the rotation, this one being an apple green shell with yellow-to-green gradient wings on both sides and a yellow “O” on the back.
The new uniforms will hit the field for the first time when Oregon hosts Fresno State on Sept. 4. Kickoff is set for 11 a.m. PT on Pac-12 Networks.
Photos courtesy of @OregonFootball and @GoDucks on Twitter.
College Football World Reacts To Oregon’s New Uniform
EUGENE, OR -SEPTEMBER 06: A general view of Autzen Stadium during the second quarter of the game between the Oregon Ducks and the Michigan State Spartans at Autzen Stadium on September 6, 2014 in Eugene, Oregon. (Photo by Steve Dykes/Getty Images)
In true Nike/Phil Knight/Oregon fashion, the Ducks have released yet another new uniform. And per usual, college football fans either love it or hate it.
No. 10 Oregon is gearing up for a marquee Pac-12 showdown this Saturday against Chip Kelly and the UCLA Bruins at the Rose Bowl. Even ESPN’s College GameDay will be in town for a visit.
As the Ducks typically do, they’ve released a shiny new uniform to boast in front of the college football world on Saturday. But Nike and Oregon’s design department might have taken things a bit too far with this one.
The Ducks’ brand new threads – called the “Eggshell uniform” – look like cookies n’ cream ice cream. The jersey and pants are white with black speckles all over. The helmet and number are dark green. Overall, this is a pretty stunning design and we’re not sure if that’s a good thing in this instance.
It is our nature to innovate.
Presenting @OregonFootball’s Eggshell uniform combo for Game 7. #GoDucks pic.twitter.com/Pq1fAF6NKJ
— GoDucks (@GoDucks) October 22, 2021
Here’s another look.
Change the game.
Week 8 uni combo. #GoDucks pic.twitter.com/OPwCWP2wXm
— Oregon Football (@oregonfootball) October 22, 2021
In today’s world of college football each and every team gets bright and shiny uniforms, perhaps outside Alabama and Penn State. So it’s tough to stand out because of uniforms anymore. But Oregon’s newest threads have caught everyone’s attention.
The ‘GoDucks’ Twitter account received over 4,500 likes and 1,000 retweets for its new uniform post. But as we previously noted, not everyone loves them.
Going out there looking like cookies and cream https://t.co/rsUHfZLYgf
— Bunkie Perkins (@BunkiePerkins) October 22, 2021
. @oregonfootball out here with a new speckled uniform, suggesting they’re “innovating” by introducing … cookies & cream. Have @nikefootball designers run out of ideas? https://t.co/nvTxewjvES
— Andy Lucas (@AndyLucas) October 22, 2021
These are crazy fire https://t.co/3ksIzRYpNf
— Cyrus Smith (@CoolCyWrites) October 22, 2021
Looks like an Oreo Blizzard to me. https://t.co/vt7cx4Sq8r
— Allen Andersen (@andersen_allen) October 22, 2021
Not a Oregon fan, but best jerseys ever? https://t.co/i2nWGid4PE
— D (@dRec_6) October 22, 2021
You know Nike might have went a bit too far with a uniform when even some Oregon fans can’t get behind them.
Who knows? Maybe these will look better on the field.
No. 10 Oregon takes on UCLA at the Rose Bowl this Saturday at 3:30 p.m. ET on ABC.
Best new college football uniforms for the 2021 season
That smell in the air, the crisp feeling while walking outside in the morning and those leaves beginning to turn from green to orange and red.
That’s college football season coming back.
As fans return to stadiums and back to their couches to watch their favorite teams, many will see their squads sporting fresh, new threads. Let’s take a look at some of the best ones so far this season. This story will continue to be updated as schools reveal new uniforms.
The Wildcats are opting to wear their “Desert Swarm” throwback uniforms full-time this season. It pays homage to the Dick Tomey era in the 1990s, which was the winningest in Arizona football history.
The Wildcats posted two top-10 finishes in the 1990s: No. 10 in 1993 and No. 4 in 1998.
New Year, New Threads. #DesertRising #ItsPersonal #BearDown pic.twitter.com/Be3ZZ9Dq82
— Arizona Football (@ArizonaFBall) August 4, 2021
Boston College Eagles
In mid-June, Boston College announced it was moving its uniform production to Adidas. With that came the news of new threads for the Eagles football team.
The color scheme remained the same, but BC went for a more retro, simple look.
Sometimes you just have to keep it simple pic.twitter.com/CHNab4sf3P
— BC Football (@BCFootball) June 16, 2021
BYU certainly has uniform options this year. With the addition of the new “Royal Rush” alternates, the Cougars have 26 — yes, TWENTY-SIX — uniform combinations.
Since it announces on a game-by-game basis, here’s a look at the Royal Rush it’ll wear for Game 1 against Arizona.
GAME ONE UNI COMBO 👀
BYU vs Arizona.
Allegiant Stadium (Las Vegas, NV).
Saturday, September 4.
Get your ROYAL gear at https://t.co/h5DE8q1hqr.
32 DAYS … pic.twitter.com/O9DE3g6WvG
— BYU FOOTBALL (@BYUfootball) August 4, 2021
The Florida Gators join the new uniform party with a special homecoming look. The Gators will switch up their uniforms for one week, wearing throwback uniforms for the homecoming game. The most notable change with this uniform is the switch to a ‘UF’ helmet decal from the usual ‘Gators’ helmet decal.
Florida is bringing back the throwback unis for Homecoming on Saturday 👀🔥
(via @GatorsFB) pic.twitter.com/KHSVC4SjGq
— SEC Network (@SECNetwork) October 4, 2021
Florida State Seminoles
This isn’t so much a uniform change, as it is honoring a legacy.
This season, Florida State will feature the late Bobby Bowden’s signature in garnet on a white background on the back of each helmet. During his legendary career, Coach Bowden and the Seminoles finished as an AP top-five team for 14 consecutive seasons from 1987-2000. That records stands to this day.
Honoring a Legend#NoleFamily
— FSU Football (@FSUFootball) September 1, 2021
Hawai’i Rainbow Warriors
Similar to BC, Hawaii recently made the switch to Adidas, too. The uniforms aren’t all that different, but there were a few minor tweaks in the transition from Under Armour to Adidas.
And @HawaiiAthletics reaches 4-year apparel deal with @adidas #HawaiiFB #HawaiiMBB #HawaiiWBB #HawaiiMVB #HawaiiWVB #StarAdvertiser pic.twitter.com/Bgs7L6qojK
— Stephen Tsai (@StephenTsai) July 21, 2021
The Hurricanes have some of the coolest colors in college football, and they display them well in these new uniforms that include minor changes.
One of those changes was going back to the Dade Bold font used by the squad from 2000-2016.
Merging old school tradition with new school threads.
Whether you’re an OG Canes fan or just steppin’ onto campus, there is always a sense of pride representing the orange & green. pic.twitter.com/op7qQsqwRE
— Canes Football (@CanesFootball) August 23, 2021
Minnesota Golden Gophers
For its Sept. 2 season-opening game with Ohio State, Minnesota will wear black alternate uniforms.
⚫️ New threads. Under the lights. See you Sept. 2 ⚫️#Gophers // #SkiUMah // #RTB pic.twitter.com/cc1Y9b9A2g
— Minnesota Football (@GopherFootball) August 21, 2021
The Tigers unveiled their first significant uniform change since 2012. The new design pays tribute to some of the school’s early conference championships.
🐅 these are our stripes 🐅#MIZ 🐯🏈 pic.twitter.com/sjQBYrZZ8K
— Mizzou Football (@MizzouFootball) August 13, 2021
Notre Dame Fighting Irish
The Fighting Irish will play the Wisconsin Badgers in the 2021 Shamrock Series. For the game, Notre Dame released a new uniform caked in small details from the history of the school and the venue — Soldier Field.
The Fighting Irish explained all those tidbits in this Twitter video.
It’s all in the 𝙙𝙚𝙩𝙖𝙞𝙡𝙨#GoIrish☘️ pic.twitter.com/005MJHo30l
— Notre Dame Football (@NDFootball) August 9, 2021
Oregon is in a league of its own when it comes to uniforms, and this new set is no different. The Ducks, with the help of Nike, have come to set the standard of what sleek, modern football jerseys could look like.
Look at that yellow one in the middle. Come on.
Tap in. #GoDucks pic.twitter.com/Vzien862m8
— Oregon Football (@oregonfootball) August 3, 2021
The Bruins made the switch this past offseason from Under Armour to Nike and Jordan. With that came new uniforms that aren’t all that different from last year’s threads.
The only big difference is the shoulder stripes stop at the seams rather than extending down to the armpits.
you love to see it 😈#GoBruins pic.twitter.com/vyAEQh8GqP
— UCLA Football (@UCLAFootball) July 22, 2021
These are really cool. The Utes will wear these beauties on Nov. 20 against Oregon.
The uniforms are a tribute to the USS Salt Lake City, which unofficially fought in more battles than any other ship in the World War II Pacific Fleet.
Details on the USS Salt Lake City uniforms.
Narrated by YN2(AW) @RynBrkr @SolomonEnis @Utah_Football | #USSSLC pic.twitter.com/uV6t7sDtVx
— UtesEquipment (@UtesEquipment) August 24, 2021
The Commodores unveiled two new jerseys. One is white with black trim and numbers, along with gold letters. The other jersey is the opposite — black with gold trim and lettering, along with white numbers.
Vanderbilt also made a switch to the helmets. Instead of the “V” being inside a star, the star is gone and the “V” stands out more on its own. Along with the star on the side, the chain down the middle was also abandoned in favor of black and white stripes.
Get your gear today. ⤵️
👕 https://t.co/rfIqdlkQlS#AnchorDown pic.twitter.com/69prqlhLsB
— Vanderbilt Football (@VandyFootball) August 9, 2021
The Badgers make this list because of alternate uniforms it’ll be rocking in the Shamrock Series game with Notre Dame. These jerseys are super sleek while also maintaining a simplicity that’s fun to look at.
One of the most notable parts is how it says “Forward” on the helmet.
— Wisconsin Football (@BadgerFootball) June 22, 2021
Oregon Ducks Helmets by Nike Made with LiquidMetal Technology
When college football’s Oregon Ducks played the Wisconsin Badgers in Monday’s 98th annual Rose Bowl, it wasn’t just a chance for the University of Oregon to claim its first win since 1917. It was also a chance for to make the historic Pasadena game a fashion show, a familiar rite for the Eugene, Ore.–based school. Flashy jersey-and-pants combinations have become de rigueur in the past—the school counts Nike co-founder Phil Knight as its biggest booster—but this week, the team introduced a helmet unseen in Rose Bowl’s century-plus history, one seemingly made of chrome and as shiny as a bumper from a ‘60s muscle car.
Drew Gereb of Newberg, Ore.’s Hydro Graphics, which assisted Nike with the helmet finish, handles the proprietary “LiquidMetal HydroChrome” technology used to produce the material finish on the helmet. Unveiled to the press shortly after Christmas, the new helmet for the Ducks was promoted by Nike as a “futuristic” innovation. But the technique is actually one that dates to the 1970s, Gereb explains.
“The technology was locked up in the automotive industry for years,” Gereb says. “It’s using the old Gravure printing drums. That’s how they did the wood grains on the dashboards. ”
The 12-step HydroChrome process is almost entirely performed with or under water, with each football helmet taking approximately seven days to be completed. Hydro Graphics adds a thin layer of translucent material that, once applied, gives the surface of the helmet a bright, mirrorlike appearance. The Ducks’ helmets went through the process twice, with a custom die-cut graphic of the team’s winged logo applied in between.
Besides football helmets, Hydro Graphics produces materials for an eclectic list of clients and applications. The company’s process replicates not only the look of shiny metal but virtually any other material. “One company did paper towel and toilet paper dispensers. They wanted the curb appeal of plastic, but the look of brushed aluminum. So we had a brushed aluminum print made and applied it to the dispensers,” Gereb says. “Another company does the rubber bumpers and trim pieces for hospital beds and gurneys in different types of wood-grain prints. One of our bigger customers makes laser-sighted plastic gun grips with wood-grain prints. I was just contacted by a company that makes slot machines, wondering if the HydroChrome technique would work on their steel panels. Anything we can get adhesion on it will work.”
Poor Gereb has had to suffer as a sports fan for Hydro Graphics to succeed as a business. His alma mater is Oregon State, chief rival to his most recent high-profile client, University of Oregon. And when Texas Christian University introduced a special helmet for its season opener in 2010, Gereb was on the sideline to test how its lizard-skin pattern held up. TCU officials insisted he wear team gear—even though the opponent was, once again, Oregon State.
Still, he’s happy about how an athletics giant, and college football’s most fashion-conscious team, has taken his company along for the ride. Materials have frequently transformed the game of football in its century-plus history, from AstroTurf to cleats to breathable fabric. And helmets themselves have undergone the most continuous change, from leather helmets in the sport’s infancy to single-bar face masks of the midcentury. Nike hasn’t gone without its share of ridicule for Oregon’s continually bold kits over the past decade. But it takes a true innovator to transform the style of the game.
The best college football uniforms in Week 5 — Throwbacks, blackouts, and some serious helmet heat
Week 5 of the college football season is here, and many games scheduled this weekend could impact the playoff race. As fans, analysts and experts prepare for an exciting slate of matchups across the college football landscape, some exceptional uniform combinations have teams heading into their respective contests in style.
Throwbacks take center stage
Stanford takes a trip back to the 1970s with its threads this week. The school honors Jim Plunkett and the 1970-71 team, bringing its throwback uniforms to center stage. A minimalistic “S” design is present on the helmet, and Cardinal red is the jersey color and is also seen in the stripe pattern on the white bottoms. Plunkett is the only Stanford player to win the Heisman Trophy, doing so in 1971. He also won the Rose Bowl that same season.
A modern take on the classic Cardinal look.
Honoring Jim Plunkett and our 1970 and 1971 teams on Saturday with special throwbacks 👀#GoStanford pic.twitter.com/2TU7XQx6WL
— Stanford Football (@StanfordFball) September 30, 2021
Color coordination at its finest
The South Florida Bulls continue to make waves with their amazing outfits. This week, they opted for an all-white look, highlighted with accents of green on the shoulder and pant legs. The helmet is where the uniforms stand out, as the school put a gold version of their logo on the side. That shiny look pairs well with the white helmet, giving USF a classy yet stylish look. Gold is used throughout other parts of the ensemble, giving the Bulls a premium look for their game on Saturday.
𝐆𝐀𝐌𝐄 𝟓 – 𝐚𝐭 𝐒𝐌𝐔
⚪️#US2F 🤘| @Burnowt5 pic.twitter.com/pDuU78YkpX
— USF Football (@USFFootball) September 29, 2021
Color coordination is essential to a fire game day outfit, and the No. 7 Cincinnati Bearcats hit the mark with their Week 5 threads. A red helmet with a metallic, matte finish brings some pop and fierceness to the uniform combo. The white jersey offers a light and fresh look that complements the helmet nicely. The fit is completed with some black pants, which brings the Bearcats’ wardrobe together. The Bearcats social media team considers this a “top-10” fit this week — and they might be right.
⚫️ THREADS#Bearcats pic.twitter.com/hMG9RbPxBM
— Cincinnati Football (@GoBearcatsFB) September 29, 2021
The TCU Horned Frogs use purple as the primary color for their face masks this week. They also implement a solid black color on the pants, using their signature horned frog logo on the right hip section. White is the filler hue for the jerseys numbers and decals on the jersey. The helmets’ black, glossy finish gives TCU one of the sleekest uniforms for Week 5 of the college football season.
𝐖𝐞𝐚𝐫 𝐏𝐮𝐫𝐩𝐥𝐞 ⚫️🟣⚫️
Game 4️⃣ Uni Combo ⬇️ pic.twitter.com/YRuK19DGwm
— TCU Football (@TCUFootball) September 30, 2021
Contrasting colors work well in any football fit, and the Coast Carolina Chanticleers exemplify that with their Week 5 ensemble. They opt for black jerseys, with their signature teal hue as the pants color. It also fills in the jersey number and other decals on the uniform. Finally, a black helmet wraps up their game-day outfit, and Coastal Carolina has a fresh fit that hopefully catapults it to victory.
Turn and Burn🔥#BEL1EVE | #STRIKETHESTONE | #TEALNATION pic.twitter.com/t3mVTkTopp
— Coastal Football (@CoastalFootball) September 30, 2021
When you think of premium uniforms, the Oregon Ducks immediately come to mind — and understandably so. However, the Oregon State Beavers unleashed their own outfits that rank among the best this weekend in college football. Orange is the prevalent color throughout this week’s fit, taking an NFL color rush approach to their wardrobe. Black highlights the bold orange, being used as the helmet and shoulder stripe color. It seems like the Beavers have made sure their threads were ready for a matchup with Washington.
Show up. Show out. Wear Orange. pic.twitter.com/RfjPtJbVS9
— Oregon State Football (@BeaverFootball) September 29, 2021
It’s a blackout
There have been many white out uniforms this season, but Utah State decided to go the opposite direction for Week 5. It will brandish its blackout uniforms, which are sleek and imposing. As you might expect, black is the relied upon color for the helmet, jersey and pants, but white is used as a solid complementary color. With a 3-1 record, the Aggies hope their all-black fit leads to a win against No. 13 BYU.
Blackout 🔜 Fri Oct 1#BeatBYU pic.twitter. com/065lKoUCKP
— USU Football (@USUFootball) September 29, 2021
The University of Missouri comes into this weekend with an all-black fit. The look is fierce, as yellow is a secondary color for the number and stripes on the shoulder and helmet. There’s not much to say about this fit, except the Tigers are ready for business against inner conference rival Tennessee.
𝘄𝗮𝘆 𝘂𝗽#MIZ 🐯🏈 pic.twitter.com/9U5MCaCTz0
— Mizzou Football (@MizzouFootball) September 30, 2021
The Maryland Terrapins keep the blackout theme going with their gear this week. The yellow and red used for the jersey number and helmet decals pop against the dark black. The uniform has a menacing look, and hopefully, Maryland will bring that same mindset to the field against No. 5 Iowa.
Its helmets are honoring a special cause this week, as Maryland’s headgear sports green ribbons honoring mental health. Although it’s now October, September is Mental Health Awareness Month in the United States.
Friday. Wear Black. pic.twitter.com/OJqC0hfWby
— Maryland Football (@TerpsFootball) September 30, 2021
Change the Narrative.
We will wear green ribbons, the international symbol for mental health awareness, on Friday night. pic.twitter.com/kGwiGuFEFF
— Maryland Football (@TerpsFootball) September 29, 2021
Eastern Washington pulled out some slick threads that pairs with its red turf field perfectly. It’s the school’s blackout week — so Eastern Washington’s uniform is all black, as you might expect. However, the matte finish on the helmet adds a sense of grit and feistiness to the Eagles’ ensemble. Red is the bold accent color used for the helmet logo and decals on the jersey and pants. The look is quite intimidating, meaning EWU is ready to handle its business this weekend.
Week 5 Threads:⚫️⚫️⚫️ #GoEags pic.twitter.com/rCok3Brm6o
— No. 6 EWU Football (@EWUFootball) September 30, 2021
Stylish, yet simple
Western Kentucky takes a simple yet effective approach to its uniform combos this week. It went with black pants, white jersey fit for its contest against No. 17 Michigan State on Saturday. The upper, lower combo is impressive, but the helmet is where the Hilltoppers set themselves apart. A silver chrome helmet is a welcomed addition to WKU’s attire, bringing a luxury aesthetic to it equipment. Hopefully, the threads help the Hilltoppers get a victory after losing two straight games entering this weekend.
𝗚𝗲𝗮𝗿𝗲𝗱 🆙 𝗳𝗼𝗿 𝗚𝗮𝗺𝗲 4️⃣#GoTops | @WKUEquipment pic.twitter.com/xHA6mXJPS9
— WKU Football (@WKUFootball) September 29, 2021
UCF has kept the new gear coming all season, and it debuts another design change in its uniform this week. UCF will wear its third new helmet of the year, this one brandishing the Knights logo on one side. This is the first time this art will be on the headgear, matching perfectly with the solid white color.
The half-and-half design is evident here, as the Knights decided on an all-white top with an all-black bottom. On the other side of the helmet, the traditional gold UCF logo is there, an important touch to this look. The Knights have had fire wardrobe selections in 2021, and this is just another example of it.
The return of the Knighthead ⚔️
⚪️⚪️⚫️ for @UCF_Football at Navy pic.twitter.com/MBkR6NZWDm
— UCF_Equipment (@UCF_Equipment) September 30, 2021
Outside of the fire fits this week, these teams certainly have some outstanding helmet designs:
It’s homecoming week for Boise State, and the university is throwing it back in a big way. It will bring back its old-school logo that was first used in 1974 — with a few minor updates. A bolder outline around the image of Idaho and a sharper image of the bronco give this timeless logo a modernized look. The orange helmet is the perfect canvas to show off the Broncos updated team emblem. Hopefully, the football team can honor its school’s not only with these stylish new helmets — but with a win.
𝘍𝘪𝘨𝘩𝘵 𝘰𝘯 𝘤𝘰𝘶𝘳𝘢𝘨𝘦𝘰𝘶𝘴𝘭𝘺 𝘧𝘰𝘳 𝘽𝙤𝙞𝙨𝙚 𝙎𝙩𝙖𝙩𝙚 pic.twitter.com/kUplqDKSU2
— Boise State Football (@BroncoSportsFB) September 28, 2021
#WhatsNext 👀 pic.twitter.com/YKmfskyjEX
— Boise State Football (@BroncoSportsFB) September 28, 2021
Texas Southern University received a special gift from one of its most famous alumni. Michael Strahan, who played for the school from 1991 to 1993, donated new helmets to the university. The new headgear has the school emblem on the right side, with the player’s number on the left. Tigers coach Clarence McKinney posted the news to social media, thanking Strahan for the donation. The helmets come right before TSU’s homecoming game against North American University.
Michael Strahan paying it forward to his alma mater👏🏾
The former Tiger donated new helmets to the football team at Texas Southern University.
(via @CoachMckinney3) pic.twitter.com/TL0bFLTqXA
— The Undefeated (@TheUndefeated) September 29, 2021
This might be the unofficial week of throwbacks, and the Duke Blue Devils are riding the wave with their vintage decals. The school is bringing back the “Hellraiser” emblem, first used during the 1966 to 1969 seasons. The last time the Blue Devils used this logo was in the 2015 Pinstripe Bowl. The blue logo contrasts well against the all-white wardrobe the team selected this week as well.
Knockout threads for Saturday’s main event. 🥊❄️#DukeGang | #GoDuke pic.twitter.com/CZmAwaSYTa
— Duke Football (@DukeFOOTBALL) September 30, 2021
Oregon drops uniform combo for UCLA showdown
Ahead of a showdown against UCLA that will have the nation’s attention, the Oregon Ducks revealed a unique new uniform combination.
Featuring an iridescent helmet that shifts between matte dark green and black, Oregon’s new uniforms are unique from head to toe. The jersey and pants are white with black speckles and feature green-black iridescent numbers. The uniform is Oregon’s eighth unique combination of the season.
Oregon, sitting at 5-1 on the season, is coming off a tough two-week stretch which saw the Ducks lose its first game of the season, to Stanford, and barely fend off Cal, 24-17. Now Oregon faces likely their biggest test left on the schedule in UCLA.
The Bruins started their season with dominant wins against Hawaii and then-No. 16 ranked LSU. After vaulting up to a No. 13 ranking, UCLA was upset 40-37 by unranked Fresno State in Week 3. The Bruins’ pain didn’t stop there. After a win over Stanford, they lost again in Week 5 to the underdog Arizona State Sun Devils at home.
Now, all eyes will be on the Ducks and Bruins as College Gameday travels to Los Angeles for the matchup, marking a first in quite some time — GameDay has not traveled out west for a single show this season, and the Pac-12 is the only remaining Power Five conference that has not yet hosted the live show.
UCLA head coach Chip Kelly understands the the impact GameDay can have on fans, recruit and players alike.
“I think it’s cool. I think it’s great for our fans, I think it’s great for our student body, especially after last year, when nobody could go to games,” Kelly said ahead of the matchup with Oregon. “And the fact that now we get to come back, everybody gets to attend — we’ve had some unbelievable settings there [at the Rose Bowl Stadium]. The win over LSU and the crowd that we had there was memorable, and you start to think about it — it’s an early kick, so I think we’re going to get a lot of people there, a lot of kids there. I think it should be fun. So, I think it’s a great opportunity for our fans and a great opportunity for our students.”
The last time College Gameday went to California was on Jan. 1, 2020 (the 2019 postseason), when it traveled to Pasadena for a Rose Bowl matchup between No. 6 Oregon and No. 8 Wisconsin; the last time it went out west for a regular-season Pac-12 game was Sept. 22, 2018 for No. 7 Stanford at No. 20 Oregon.
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Earphones: Civilian Military
Communication Ear Plugs None CEP Helmet Kit Installed +$65.00 Complete CEP Kit Installed +$185.00
Microphone Assembly: Civilian Mic w/ Wire Frame Boom Civilian Mic w/ Half Flex Frame Boom +$20.00 Military Mic w/ Wire Frame Boom Military Mic w/ Half Flex Frame Boom +$20.00 Civilian Cobra Mic w/ Wire Frame Boom (Windscreen/Muff not recommended) +$195.00 Civilian Cobra Mic w/ Half Flex Frame Boom (Windscreen/Muff not recommended) +$215.00 Military Cobra Mic w/ Wire Frame Boom (Windscreen/Muff not recommended) +$195.00 Military Cobra Mic w/ Half Flex Frame Boom (Windscreen/Muff not recommended) +$215. 00 No Boom Microphone Assembly -$-75.00 Bose A20 Boom Microphone +$20.00
Please Choose Boom Microphone Mount: Helmet Mounted Round Mount Cast Bayonet Receiver Mounted Round Mount +$25.00 Removable Bayonet Receiver Mount +$60.00 Removable Helmet Mounted Round Mount +$20.00 No Boom Microphone
Comm Cords: 24″ Straight w/ U-174 Single Plug 36″ Straight w/ U-174 Single Plug +$3.00 48″ Straight w/ U-174 Single Plug +$6.00 36″ Straight w/ G/A Dual Plugs +$30.00 48″ Straight w/ G/A Dual Plugs +$33.00 60″ Straight w/ G/A Dual Plugs +$36.00 3-6′ Coiled w/ U-174 Single Plug +$20.00 3-6′ Coiled w/ G/A Dual Plugs +$50.00 CX-4708 (Oxygen mask use) -$-25.00 Short Cord w/ U-174 Single Plug
Cord and Mic Configuration Mic on left (recommended) with helmet cord on left Mic on left (recommended) with helmet cord on right Mic on right with helmet cord on right Mic on right with helmet cord on left
Volume and Mil/Civ Impedance Controls None Helmet Mounted Volume Control +$45. 00 Helmet Mounted Mask / Boom MicrophoneSwitch +$175.00 Helmet Mounted Volume Control and Mask/Boom Microphone Switch +$220.00 Helmet Mounted Volume Control and Mil/Civ Impedance Switch +$250.00 Helmet Mounted Volume Control and Mask/Boom Microphone Switch and Mil/Civ Impedance Switch +$375.00 Cord Mounted Volume Control +$45.00 Cord Mounted Volume Control and Mil/Civ Impedance Switch +$250.00
BlueLink Blue Tooth Device Adapter and Controller: None Civilian (Inline / Built into cable) +$260.00 Civilian (Connects as a separate adapter) +$260.00
Oxygen Mask Bayonet Receivers: None Cast White (J Bayonets) +$115.00 Cast Chrome (J Bayonets) +$175.00 Cast painted same color as helmet (J Bayonets) (not available for factory white helmet color, carbon fiber finish or leather covered helmets) +$115. 00 Lightweight (J Bayonets) +$75.00 Cast White (Straight T Bayonets) +$115.00 Cast Chrome (Straight T Bayonets) +$175.00 Cast painted same color as helmet (Straight T Bayonets) (not available for factory white helmet color, carbon fiber finish or leather covered helmets) +$115.00 Lightweight (Straight T Bayonets) +$75.00
Adapters and Quick Disconnects: None 18″ Straight U-174 to G/A +$50.00 18″ Straight G/A to U174 +$52.00 3-6′ Coiled U-174 to G/A +$62.00 3-6′ Coiled U-174 to U-174 +$50.00 Non-ANR Quick Disconnect Installed +$70.00 ANR Quick Disconnect Installed +$90.00 Mil/Civ Converter U-174 to G/A +$95.00 Mil/Civ Converter U-174 to U-174 Plug +$95.00
Oxygen Mask or Ag Respirator: None Agricultural Respirator with built-in microphone +$525. 00 Mountain High Oxygen Mask with built-in microphone +$684.00 MBU-20 +$749.00 MBU-20 with Mountain High Oxygen Mask Conversion Kit +$1144.00
Please Choose Oxygen Mask Cord: None Microphone Cord (to helmet), no amplifier +$22.00 CX-4707, no amplifier, U-174 plug +$85.00 Microphone Cord (to helmet), with amplifier +$95.00 CX-4707, with amplifier, U-174 plug +$195.00 CX-4707, with amplifier, G/A plugs +$220.00 CX-4707, with amplifier, U-75/U plug +$265.00
Custom Embroidery Options None Name Only +$10.00 Name and Wings/Rank/Rate Badge / Small Logo +$15.00 Name and Large Logo +$25.00 Name with Wings/Rank/Rate Badge and Large Logo +$35.00 Other (provide details for pricing)
Custom Embroidery Details:
Helmet Special Instructions:
90,000 Russian engineers created an ice helmet against stroke
The use of a cooling device in the first hours after a stroke or traumatic brain injury will help to reduce the death rate of patients by almost half.
The device, created by Skolkovo residents, allows you to keep individual organs and body parts, for example, the head, at a low temperature for a long time.
According to the senior project manager of the Skolkovo fund, Vladimir Yegorov , the developed apparatus is aimed at selective cooling of various parts of the body (primarily the head) with the ability to control the brain temperature using non-invasive methods, and to control the intensity of heat release with high accuracy.
More than 600 patients took part in the clinical testing of the device. The result showed that the use of the device in the first hours after a stroke or traumatic brain injury can reduce the mortality of patients by almost half.
In addition, studies have shown that a moderate decrease in the temperature of the brain, and not the whole body, can prevent or weaken the development of Alzheimer’s and other neurodegenerative diseases.
The creators have already patented the device. It is also planned to be used in narcology, neurology, neonatology, arthrology and sports medicine, Izvestia writes.
Earlier, American scientists have found a new way to treat malignant tumors that are not amenable to therapy.
Russian and Swedish scientists have figured out how to make chemotherapy more effective. Experts believe that the discovery will create a means that can fight “invulnerable” versions of cancer.
Earlier, researchers at the Oregon University of Science and Health developed a drug that stops the spread of four types of cancer – breast, prostate, colon and lung.
Retrospective of glasses and virtual reality helmets / Habr
To the deep disappointment of many, the VR industry is experiencing an alarming calm. The first generation of consumer helmets was not accompanied by impressive content or a carryover of existing AAA video games (Skyrim and Fallout 4 do not count), and VR arcade games remain a rarity to this day.
Of course, the process of adapting a new technology takes time. Even the iPhone did not immediately conquer the whole world.According to Andrey Ivashentsev, Director of Innovation at Game Insight, VR technologies are now at the stage of attracting their first followers.
Gartner New Technology Maturity Cycle 2017
Others are not so optimistic. Take the consulting firm Gartner, which very accurately describes the current situation with its concept of the maturity cycle. Now VR-helmets are at the stage of reaching the “productivity plateau”, and at best, it remains from 2 to 5 years until the technology is adopted by the masses.
In fact, the VR headset development cycle is repeating itself. Even Palmer Luckey did not invent anything new, but took old ideas and re-implemented them. Virtual reality will truly “take off” only if the experience of the past is taken into account and mistakes are corrected. It’s time to familiarize yourself with this past.
Homo habilis virtual glasses: 19th century stereoscope
What is it:
The stereoscope, the very first “virtual reality headset”, was created by the English physicist and inventor Sir Charles Wheatstone in 1838.A strange device demonstrated the importance of binocular human vision: two mirrors placed at an angle reflected two images so that the observer saw a three-dimensional object. The Scottish physicist Sir David Brewster then improved the concept by getting rid of the mirrors and replacing them with lenses. To work, his stereoscope required a slide from a stereo pair – two images taken at a small distance from each other for the effect of volume.
A photograph suitable for creating such images was just invented in those years.Brewster traveled to Paris, where he met with photography pioneer Jules Dubosque, who first began making stereo daggerotypes and stereoscopes. The new “gadget” was presented to the general public at the World’s Fair in 1851, after which it gained incredible popularity (more than 1 million stereoscopes were sold in England alone in 1953).
How it ended:
Inexpensive and easy to use, the stereoscope was a technological breakthrough for its time. All the necessary technologies for it appeared on time, and there were no competing devices, so consumers had nothing to compare with.Simple stereoscopes still exist, but, most importantly, the basic principle of their operation is the basis of all glasses and virtual reality helmets. They are even outwardly similar, like people to their upright ancestors.
Stereoscope 2.0: View-Master
What is it:
In 1935, the American company Eastman Kodak launched the production of Kodachrome color film. Just four years later, Sawyer’s, a small Oregon photography service, developed the View-Master color stereoscope, which has long become one of the most beloved and recognizable gadgets in the United States.
The stereoscope worked with special cardboard disks, into which 14 color slides were mounted, that is, seven stereopairs. Since Sawyer’s produced postcards with scenic views and sights, the same images were on discs. During World War II, the US government commissioned the company with millions of View-Master disks that would train military personnel to identify enemy ships and aircraft at firing range. The action became the most successful advertisement that Sawyer’s could dream of, so the glory of the device faded only in the 70s.After that, the View-Master transformed into a typical toy. Gadgets under this brand are still being produced, but we are no longer talking about stereoscopes, but VR headsets for smartphones.
In the 1950s, the USSR had its own, “Soviet View-Master” – Stereoscope-1, produced in Leningrad at the factory of photographic accessories. He, like the subsequent improved models Stereoscope-2 and Stereoscope-3, worked with square-shaped cards. A more common model was the Salyut stereoscope and its modification Salyut-M.
How it ended:
A successful military order provided the gadget with wide recognition in the United States. A lot of content was produced for the View-Master, after slides with beautiful views and outlines of enemy vehicles, Sawyer’s began to release discs with frames from TV series and films. The deal with Disney was especially successful, because the children loved the color images of cartoon characters and the photographs of Disneyland. An equally decisive role was played by the invariability of the format and size of the media.The View-Master models changed, but the old discs fit all the same.
The first real VR gadgets: Sensorama and Telesphere Mask
What is it:
Back in 1935, science fiction writer Stanley Weinbaum described a virtual reality helmet in his story Pygmalion Glasses. A year later, the writer died of lung cancer and did not have time to see how the figment of his imagination was very accurately embodied in reality. This was done by the American filmmaker and inventor Morton Hellig, who built and patented the Sensorama virtual machine in 1962.She blew air on the viewer, sprayed perfume, showed the first-person recording on two separate screens, and the sound changed depending on how his virtual source moved.
Sensorama later became Hellig’s most famous invention, but in 1960 he patented video glasses that did much the same. The Telesphere Mask gadget was equipped with miniature picture tubes for image transmission, an audio system, and some kind of device for conveying the smell and effect of the wind.
Hellig’s virtual reality required special films, and the inventor made five demos on his own. Four of them were dedicated to motorcycle riding, go-kart, cycling and helicopter flying. In the fifth, designed for potential Hollywood investors, the audience was entertained with a belly dance performed by a New York dancer.
How it ended:
The production of VR machines was very expensive, and shooting the right material for them was not cheaper.In addition, the technique was fragile and required careful handling. One Sensorama prototype was installed at Universal Studios, and the commercial success of early virtual reality ended there. Hollywood bonuses had no idea how to market this new type of entertainment. The pioneer of virtual reality came too early into a world that was neither technologically nor morally ready.
The prototype of the futuristic Telesphere Mask helmet is still kept by the inventor’s widow, Marianne Helig.
Sutherland’s Sword of Damocles
What is it:
Yes, in the 60s and 70s, the Western public was completely unprepared for an alternative reality (except for the one that Hunter Thompson so colorfully described). Therefore, many developments exclusively appeared and remained within the walls of the institutes. The virtual / augmented reality helmet “Sword of Damocles” by the famous scientist Ivan Sutherland was no exception to the rule.
The formidable setup was only partially a helmet.A significant part of it was too bulky for a human head, and hung from the ceiling, which earned its nickname. The system included a computer that generated a simple wireframe model.
Despite the lack of graphics, the device was able to track the position of the user’s eyes and head. The Sword of Damocles was built in 1968 by Sutherland and his student Bob Sproul as a science project. They hardly saw any use of the dangerous colossus in real life, so it remained an interesting scientific artifact of the era.
Sutherland, among other things, is to be commended for the object-oriented approach to programming, the expertise in graphic displays and computer graphics. The professor had his own vision of what we today call virtual reality: “The limit of the development of the display will be a room in which a computer can control the existence of matter. A chair in such a room is quite suitable for sitting on it. Handcuffs created in such a room will shackle, and a bullet created in such a room will be fatal. ”Maybe it’s not bad that he didn’t finish the Sword of Damocles.
VR helmet NASA VIEW
What is it:
In addition to scientists from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the military, and, of course, NASA also dealt with displays for virtual or augmented reality. In 1985, the space agency showed off the VIEW VR helmet and DataGlove, touch-sensitive gloves for it.
The system was connected to a separate computer, after which a generated three-dimensional color image was transmitted to the helmet, significantly exceeding Sutherland’s early developments.The helmet was equipped with LCD displays with a viewing angle of 120 degrees in all directions, and tracked the movement of the user’s head. The input device was either a “three-dimensional cursor” or gloves.
How it ended:
NASA’s development looked very impressive, almost like the Daft Punk helmets. Despite this, she remained a prototype. According to Stephen Ellis, head of the Spatial Awareness Lab at the Ames Research Center, the technology of the 1980s was not mature enough.Early VR systems featured overly heavy helmets, overly slow computers, persistent touch-glove failures, and users suffering from headaches and motion sickness. As a result, work in this direction was resumed only 20 years later.
Helmet from “Lawnmower”: Eyephone
What it is:
VPL Research helped NASA to develop the virtual reality system, whose founder Jaron Lanier coined the term “virtual reality”.
Lanier worked for Atari, but after its split in two in 1984 he lost his position. The gifted programmer and musician focused on his own projects, one of which turned into a full-fledged company. Over the years, VPL has released the DataGlove touch glove, DataSuit touch suit, AudioSphere surround sound system, Isaac virtual reality engine and programming language for it, and, most importantly, EyePhone virtual reality glasses.
A total of three versions of the EyePhone have been released.The first had LEEP lenses, a 90 by 60 degree field of view, and an LCD resolution of 184.7 x 138.6 pixels per eye. Starting with the second version, Fresnel lenses were used, the viewing angle increased to 100 degrees with a small, and the resolution eventually increased to 416×277 pixels. The first version weighed 2.4 kilograms, the second 1.1 kilograms.
How it ended:
The first two Eyephone models cost $ 9,000 each, the third – already $ 49,000. Despite the very high price, they were indeed sold to the mass consumer.In 1992, Eyephone became one of the “stars” of the cult film “The Lawnmower Man”, forever entrenched in the mass consciousness as the correct image of virtual reality glasses. In 1999, VPL filed for bankruptcy and sold all of its patents to Sun Microsystems. However, a spit into eternity was made.
Robocop Helmet: Sega VR
What It Is:
In 1991, the Japanese company Sega joined the virtual arms race and announced the development of the Sega VR helmet for the Sega Genesis and Saturn consoles.The promising project heralded a whole new technological era for bored gamers and cost only $ 200. The helmet itself combined two separate 300 x 200 dot LCDs, built-in headphones for surround sound, and a well-designed head tracking system. The sensors updated the position of the helmet 100 times per second, and the picture on the displays changed accordingly.
The most notable feature of the ambitious device from the 90s was its design, which was largely inspired by the 1951 film The Day the Earth Stood Still, the legendary Star Trek TV series and, of course, Paul Verhoeven’s RoboCop.Four games were released for the helmet, including one called “Matrix Snatcher” – six years before The Matrix was released.
How it ended:
The prototype was presented at the international electronics exhibition CES-1993, the presentation was held behind closed doors. Those who were able to try out the novelty were not particularly impressed, so the loud launch was followed by an ominous silence and oblivion. Sega officials said they scrapped the project out of concern for the safety of players, especially children.According to rumors, 40% of testers simply could not use a helmet due to motion sickness. As a result, VR helmets were sent to Japanese arcades.
Red and Black Era’s Sunset: Nintendo Virtual Boy
What It Is:
Japanese gaming giant Nintendo is no stranger to Sega’s daring challenge like a virtual reality headset. The answer was the Nintendo Virtual Boy helmet, perhaps the strangest VR gadget since the Sword of Damocles.
The basis was the development of the Massachusetts company Reflection Technologies, the Private Eye headset, and the monochrome display they invented.Instead of a full-fledged matrix, it consisted of a line of 1×224 LEDs and oscillating mirrors that formed an image with a mechanical scan of 50.2 Hz. The cheapest red LEDs were chosen for the display, resulting in a resolution of 384 x 224 dots per eye. The device was also equipped with a built-in speaker, and it worked either from the mains or from 6 AA batteries.
The main designer of the Gunpei Yokoi system originally planned to create a lightweight headset that attaches to the head.Alas, his vision could not be translated into reality. Nintendo’s lawyers feared the company would be sued if a child wearing such a helmet had an accident on the road and shards of the device stuck in his eyes. Due to the precautions taken, the helmet became overweight, and as a result, it was put on its legs. The height of the legs was not adjustable, which did not add convenience to the system. I had to forget about tracking, portability and aesthetics.
The corporation was simultaneously preparing for the release of the Nintendo 64 console, for which the legendary game designer Shigeru Miyamoto worked tirelessly.He couldn’t deal with the VR console either, so the games for the Virtual Boy were in charge of the developers at Intelligent Systems. In addition, the deadlines were tight, so that less experienced programmers had to try to do something. Space pinball, the Teleroboxer revenge boxer simulator, and Mario Tennis have become something of that.
How it ended:
The system generated a lot of interest when it was officially unveiled in November 1994. The public turned to the Virtual Boy immediately, testing the first devices at Shinoshikai (Nintendo Space World) that same month and at CES in January 1995.In Japan, sales of the console started in June 1995, in the United States – in August, it cost $ 179.95. In the American press, the device was restrainedly called the evolution of the View-Master, without expressing any special enthusiasm. In total, they managed to sell about 770,000 devices, which was the biggest failure for Nintendo. The VirtualBoy fiasco has long cooled the interest of gaming companies in virtual reality.
VR for MS-DOS: Forte VFX1
What is it:
Of course, experiments with VR glasses did not end with a loud failure of Virtual Boy.Sony, Siemens and many small companies continued to create their own projects throughout the second half of the 90s and into the first decade of the new century. All such developments remained either prototypes or niche entertainment – like the VFX1 helmet of the New York company Forte.
A distinctive feature of this device was thoughtfulness, which was so lacking in the deceased brainchild of Nintendo. Despite the solid 1.1 kilogram weight, the helmet was well balanced and did not feel heavy. Both lenses and the distance between them were adjusted to fit the eyes of the person, the pillows and lining provided a comfortable fit, and the AKG stereo headphones provided high-quality surround sound.The “visor” of the helmet was lifted up so that it was not necessary to remove the entire unit as a whole, which is very convenient. Cyberpuck, a washer-shaped joystick, was provided to control the game.
VFX1 was designed to work with a PC, it even came with a special ISA VIP-card, which was inserted into the computer before directly connecting the device. The kit included drivers and compatible games. Yes, this helmet worked with 90s hits like Doom, Quake, Heretic and Descent, not to mention great flight sim compatibility.
The resolution of the LCDs themselves was 263×230 pixels, slightly less than the standard 320×240. The tiny viewing angle left much to be desired: 35.5 degrees horizontally and 26.4 degrees vertically. But the device perfectly registered head turns along three axes thanks to the built-in gyroscope and the sensor of the earth’s magnetic field. Playing Doom, one could quite imagine himself as a kind of spacemarine in a tight helmet, trapped in a Martian hell.
How it ended:
The initial cost of the VFX1 helmet was about a thousand dollars.The huge amount was the first obstacle, and the second was the need to deal with settings, hardware and drivers. With all the prevalence of DOS, not every user of those times was able to deal with the command line. Alas, this real miracle of technology turned out to be too complicated and expensive for the average gamer.
A promising Oculus Rift
What it is:
Another spiral in the history of VR headsets began in 2012, when an unknown startup Oculus VR launched a campaign on Kickstarter to fund a new VR headset called Rift.The insanely successful campaign raised $ 2.5 million.
The founder of the company, 20-year-old Palmer Luckey, has been interested in technology since childhood and experimented with it. He collected various HMD devices and dreamed of a helmet in which, say, he could play the VR version of Chrono Trigger.
In the end, he went so far as to make such a helmet on his own. The Oculus Rift is truly a dream come true: the latest OLED displays, 1080 x 1020 pixels per eye, 90Hz refresh rate, 110-degree viewing angle, built-in headphones with 3D sound.Most important: the Constellation camera system, which helps track the position of the user’s head and the Oculus Touch controllers (the headset itself contained the accelerometer and gyroscope, the heart of the system). It took four years of Lucky’s life to develop: the Oculus Rift was released in March 2016.
How it ended:
In March 2014, Facebook acquired a successful startup for $ 2 billion. Immediately after that, ZeniMax Media filed a lawsuit against Oculus VR for allegedly stealing the technology.The jury ruled that the young innovator violated a non-disclosure agreement and fined Oculus $ 500 million in favor of ZeniMax. In 2016, Lucky’s reputation suffered once again, already due to support for the presidential campaign of Donald Trump, who eventually won the US election. In 2017, he left Facebook and his brainchild with him.
These events had a somewhat negative impact on the public perception of the Oculus product. However, really serious problems were created by two factors: a) the need to purchase a powerful computer with a new video card for a rather expensive helmet; b) a limited choice of entertainment content.The developers involved in the creation of the latter faced difficulties in adapting the existing genres and the limitations of the helmet to the new format. Video is a little better, but few are willing to spend a thousand dollars for equipment to watch movies and pornography in 3D.
Google Cardboard & Friends
What It Is:
Google is the next major stop on the VR journey. In 2014, while the Rift was still in design hell, weird cardboard boxes were handed out to attendees at the Google I / O conference.
It turned out that they form angular-looking masks with a separate slot for a smartphone. Putting it on his face and pulling the magnet, the person was instantly transported into virtual reality according to Google.
Cardboard at that time seemed the most logical step that could be taken. Smartphone displays got better day by day, as did the power of small processors. Even the gyroscope was in place. Mobile gaming was gaining momentum. All that remained was to add a pair of lenses and an attachment.
Many have followed Google’s example. Samsung, Xiaomi, Mattel, and dozens of smaller startups hoping to ride the rising tide have unveiled their VR headsets for smartphones.
How it ended:
Most smartphones are not designed to be held up to your nose and, in addition, enlarge the screen with a healthy lens. Because in this case, the illusion of a beautiful color display is broken in a very crude way: the thinnest lines between pixels become visible.
The so-called mosquito net effect is perhaps not the most serious defect for long-suffering VR technology. Smartphones do not run serious games, as they are optimized for other purposes (but a change of generations and the emergence of devices like the iPhone X can improve the situation). By the way, the Rift also has a mesh, but in the case of more complex hardware, there are ways to improve the image quality. However, this happens against the background of devices where the boundaries between pixels are not visible.
As an educational tool, the headset has no equal. But now there are so many entertainment tools that it is difficult for a VR accessory to compete with them. Even the initial enthusiasm is often replaced by indifference, which is why the device is sent to gather dust on the shelf.
Free HTC Vive
What It Is:
American Valve Corporation, the creator of Half-Life, Dota 2 and the Steam platform, joined the new historical era of VR in 2015.Then it became known that the company announced that, together with the Taiwanese HTC Corporation, it was working on the HTC Vive virtual reality glasses for PC.
The development was very similar to the Oculus Rift. The resulting resolution, scanning frequency, and viewing angle coincide completely. The display is most likely produced at the same Samsung factory, and the requirements for the computer even exceeded Oculus’ immodest claims.
The difference was in such an important detail as tracking.Instead of optical sensors, it was equipped with a Lighthouse system, consisting of “laser towers” with infrared LEDs. The principle is similar, the light serves as a guide for the helmet and controllers. As a result, the user can not only spin in place, but also take several steps in a space of 3.5 x 3.5 meters. For a home VR device, this distinction was revolutionary, because technology did not allow anything like this before.
How it ended:
Since the successful launch of the consumer version of the HTC Vive in April 2016, the good news has become less and less frequent.According to some reports, Valve’s development was selling much better than Oculus glasses, but already in August 2017 HTC began to think about getting rid of its VR division. Either way, in an effort to win the hearts of consumers, both competitors have slashed their headset prices and are continuing to develop new helmets. There are still no games worthy of the powerful Vive “stuffing”.
Hidden Dragon: PlayStation VR
What It Is:
Sony has been involved in virtual reality since at least the 90s and even sold Glasstron glasses at one time.In 2014, the company announced the Morpheus VR helmet project, its answer to the challenges of the new millennium.
In 2015 it became known that the helmet will be called Playstation VR. In October of the following year, the gadget was launched at a price of $ 399 in the US and 399 € in Europe.
In terms of characteristics, the glasses were slightly inferior to their competitors from Valve and Oculus. The resolution of OLED displays is 960 x 1080 pixels per eye, the viewing angle is 100 degrees, but the refresh rate is higher – 120 Hz. The most important advantage in the eyes of consumers was the absence of the need to buy an expensive computer, which was replaced by the Playstation 4.The camera, released for the PlayStation back in 2013, is responsible for tracking.
Of all the three “main” VR headsets of the new millennium, Playstation VR has achieved the most success. Sony has sold over 1 million units, favored by price, ease of installation, and a large library of games. Having a large number of PlayStation users didn’t hurt either.
The next generation of virtual reality: Pimax 8K
What is it:
Let’s go back to Kickstarter, where the “virtual wave” of the XXI century started.Since the days of Oculus, VR headsets for smartphones have appeared on the platform more than once. However, in the second half of September, Chinese startup Pimax launched a campaign of a full-fledged 8K ultra-high resolution helmet (3840 x 2160 per eye).
Such a huge number of pixels fit on the screens due to the fact that the engineers from the Middle Kingdom changed their orientation. The Vive, Oculus and Playstation VR have nearly square displays. The Pimax has horizontally elongated, due to which an impressive panoramic view is obtained at all 200 degrees, and the “mosquito net” disappears almost completely.It is noteworthy that instead of OLED, Pimax uses liquid crystal displays, which, according to the helmet’s creators, are produced using technology adapted for VR.
For tracking, Pimax uses Lighthouse technology, the same as in the Vive, so you can walk around the room and in the virtual space at the same time with such a helmet on your head.
How it ended:
It is too early to say whether Pimax 8K will find its place in the history of virtual reality gadgets.Since the device is just getting ready for release, only a small number of strangers managed to test it in action, including at the IFA 2017 electronics exhibition held in September. We ourselves are waiting for our test sample to take a closer look at it and then share our impressions.
Pimax Crowdfunding Campaign Breaks Oculus Rift Record and Raises $ 3.2 Million. For a Chinese campaign that does not hide its roots, this is a very worthy result. There are still three days left until the end of the fundraising, so everyone has the opportunity to order the first VR headset with a giant resolution on the campaign page on Kickstarter and get it one of the first.
What do you think about the endless struggle of the VR industry for a place in the sun? Have we missed out on the history-making retro VR headsets? Share your opinion in the comments.
“The only way to end a toxic culture is to reboot”
At HBR’s request, Traeger CEO Jeremy Andrews talked about how to get rid of a toxic culture
On an October morning in 2014, I arrived at the office and saw that the parking lot was surrounded by fire trucks.Before that, I just made an important announcement: Traeger, the Oregon grill company I recently became CEO of, should close the warehouse and transportation divisions and outsource those functions to UPS. This was an important strategic move, and we have tried to mitigate the impact by offering generous severance pay and employment assistance to dozens of laid-off employees. Nevertheless, the news was received with hostility. When I got out of the car, I saw that one of our trucks was on fire.We did not find the culprit, but there was no doubt that it was arson.
I brought together top managers to discuss next steps. Then one of them saw in their news feed a message that an angry employee of our office in Alabama had shot two colleagues. It got us thinking: how far could the situation go? An hour later, one of the old-timers of the company looked into the office: “There are rumors that something serious will happen today.” I understood that decisive action was expected of me, and I felt uneasy.For the first time in my life, I became scared to be in my own office.
Business schools don’t teach you what to do if employees start to burn your assets or start a riot. Alas, these were all just symptoms of a more serious illness: a toxic culture of mistrust, ill will and disunity formed within the company. After taking office, I spent months trying to find the key to solving the problem. The day when our truck burned down became a turning point: I realized that it was necessary to completely destroy the existing way of life and create a new one from scratch.
My path to the top job at Traeger was, to put it mildly, winding. Like many young people, I have been trying for a long time to understand what I want to do in life. After graduation, I worked as a management consultant for three years – I learned a lot, but I never really liked the job. Then I worked as a day trader on the stock exchange for six months, and it was the most nervous and exhausting job in my life. Then he worked part-time in a hotel company.Finally, I went to study at Harvard Business School – but in 2002, when I graduated, the economy was still recovering from the dot-com crash and I was invited exclusively to those areas where I already worked: management consulting and real estate. But I wanted something new.
After living with my parents for several months, I moved to Dallas and became a partner in a small frozen drinks firm. For the first time in my career, everything went well: I worked on a warehouse forklift, negotiated with bankers, traded with distributors.I liked to delve into all the intricacies of the company’s work, and I finally realized that I wanted to be an entrepreneur.
A few years later I was introduced to Rick Alden, the founder of Skullcandy. Back then, the firm was still small – its sales were only $ 500 thousand (they already built speakers into snowboard helmets, but they had not yet become famous for their headphones). In 2005 I moved to Skullcandy as VP of Operations. We grew so fast that I constantly felt one step behind; but I learned a lot.Rick was not always able to attract outside investors, he had to build a brand very economically. Eventually, I grew to CEO, worked for eight years, raised revenues to $ 300 million, and took the company to an IPO. It was no longer so interesting to manage a public company: the shareholders were playing for a fall, and besides, to be honest, we were still too small for the stock exchange. In early 2013, I left Skullcandy for a private investment fund: I wanted to find a small business to buy and manage myself.
I looked at 40-50 options and studied about a dozen of them in more detail. I was especially interested in consumer-oriented companies. Growing up, my dad was in brand management – and I have always been closer to the consumer goods industry. I love to penetrate the thoughts of clients and create a brand and product for them. At one time I was thinking about buying a manufacturer of sweets made from natural ingredients, then I looked closely at a manufacturer of blenders … In each case, I first of all thought about how I could significantly expand the business.
I learned about Traeger in the spring of 2013 – as soon as I started searching. The company was already 26 years old and had a patent for a wood pellet grill, but I had never heard of her or her products before. Traeger’s history goes back to the 1970s, when people started looking for alternative fuels during the oil crisis. Demand for wood pellet stoves grew, and in the early 1980s, Oregon-based heating company owner Joe Treger applied the technology (where the pellets are fed into the firebox by an electric motor that rotates an auger) to a street grill.Thanks to the use of thermostats to control heating, pellet grills have proven to be very convenient for smoking meat at a constant temperature. I contacted the company, talked for half an hour and decided that it was not mine. Braziers seemed to me to be primitive consumer goods, and I did not see prospects in these pieces of metal. After finishing the conversation, I put Traeger out of my head.
But a few months later I got another call from an investment fund that recommended this company. It turned out that the fund bought Traeger shares and began to cooperate with its CEO, but they did not get along – and now the investor was looking for a new head for the firm.By that time, I had been unsuccessfully looking for a company for 10 months and was pretty tired, so I decided to listen to the proposal. The Foundation has taken a closer look at Traeger. The brand had some kind of fantastic loyalty index: literally everyone who bought their grill began to actively advertise it to everyone they knew. It seemed that the brand had some kind of magic that the current owners simply could not turn into decent growth. I was intrigued.
We created a structure in which I became a minority shareholder and CEO.I went to the company headquarters in Oregon; however, the closer I got to know her culture, the more I regretted getting involved in this business.
Bruise on the chest
On my first visit, I focused on two points: sales growth potential and management competence. There was something to work on. Until 2010, the company made its own grills (which, in terms of strategy, was not entirely correct), but then the production was transferred to China.However, warehousing, processing and delivery of orders by 2013 were still under the control of the company, although most competitors outsourced these functions long ago. Traeger even owned trucks herself and kept drivers on staff. In total, the firm employed about 240 people: 120 in the Oregon office, 30 in the sales office in Utah, and another 90 contracted salespeople across the country. I lived with my family near the Utah office and traveled from there to Oregon.
I almost immediately sensed the scale of the cultural problem.The investment fund, like me, was a minority shareholder, and most of the shares belonged to a serial entrepreneur from Florida. He owned the firm for eight years, and during that time seven CEOs have quit; I was eighth. Later I found out that the staff called me “ocho” (“eight” in Spanish) behind my back and thought that I was about to leave too. Their behavior betrayed it. When I asked for certain data, I was simply ignored. One day, when I arrived at headquarters, I asked for a meeting with the CFO.I was his boss, but he said he was too busy (and ended up carving out just half an hour for me). I encouraged people to work together on projects, and they just refused.
The majority shareholder did not participate in the management of the company, but every day he actively communicated with employees of all levels – and they perceived him as a boss. He created a culture of fear: everyone was afraid of him, and he liked it. I recently re-read our correspondence with him during the first three months of work – and I am proud of how discreet and discreet I was.He pressed and showed aggression, and this style was unwittingly adopted by employees.
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90,000 Ice Age. Red Bull Helmet and Leggings in …
Ice hockey surrounded by Diplodocus and Triceratops? Easily. On February 11, Yurkin Park hosted the “Helmet and Leggings” yard hockey tournament from the company Red Bull . We went and looked at the most daring people in the world according to Nikolai Dobronravov.
Red Bull’s amateur sports philosophy is simple: take the sport out of comfortable stadiums onto the streets and make it more accessible. And in this they succeed. The streetball competition has grown into the Battle of Alcatraz, and Red Bull’s street football is advertised by Neymar himself. The turn of hockey has come, and it will not be surprising if the winners of the Helmet and Leggings tournament will be awarded by Alexander Ovechkin.
Yard sport is the mainstay of all domestic sports. Ever since the days of the Soviets, thousands of children stuck out on sports grounds near their homes and schools.Not much has changed in our time. With the arrival of young coaches, the approach to training in children’s sections has changed, but outdoor sports can never be eradicated. And you don’t need to do that. In Canada, for example, pond hockey is played as opposed to professional hockey. No goalkeepers, no boards, instead of box gates and no power struggle. Only skates, stick and technique.
The 25th player arranged a real scoring extravaganza
The tournament in “Yurkin Park” was something similar.Open ice, four sites and every second with a stick in hand. To prevent the puck from flying away with each inaccurate throw, the site was fenced with a side 15 centimeters high, and instead of the gate, a pyramid of tires, in which two slots were made. The teams gathered are motley, but mostly young guys aged 18-22. That is why adult teams, which consisted of some men, looked strange, but added color to the competition. The organizers limited the lower age threshold to 16 years old, and the oldest participant went on the ice at 55 years old.The number of teams was also decided to be limited to 64. Those who managed to register went out on the ice.
One got the feeling that it was on a hockey analogue of a comic-con. I’ve never seen so many fans of the same game in one place. The players were full of sweaters from different clubs: Vityaz, Neftekhimik, Red Wings, Slovakia National Team and, of course, Ak Bars. Team names often brought a smile. Some breathed with the Soviet past, a la “Virage”, “Pennant” and “Seagull”, while others showed a smile on their faces: “8th Bath”, “Vegetablelar” and “The Lord of the Rings”.
There was no aggression. The players talked nicely with the referees and joked in between periods
The players did not skimp on goals, and the total score of each match rarely turned out to be less than ten points. There was absolutely no aggression and rough play, and even if episodes flashed, the judges on the spot decided the conflict.
Of course, these are not professional games, and hardly any of the players will play in the best leagues in the world. But the fact that such competitions are held and that there is such attention to them speaks volumes.They love sports in Kazan, and he reciprocates this.
Yegor Yarko, edition Include
All about Scotch whiskey
Many whiskey connoisseurs call it the drink of alchemists. Indeed, it is based on only 3 components: water, malt and yeast – and the output is a drink with hundreds of thousands of combinations of taste and aroma.
One of the main suppliers of whiskey is Scotland. The authors of multi-page monographs on the history of this drink claim that the best whiskey in the world is produced in the Scottish Highlands.It is to scotch (as Scotch whiskey is also called) that we decided to devote our material to.
Scotch Whiskey History
The history of Scotch whiskey is now almost 6 centuries old
The history of Scotch tape begins in the 15th century AD, when Irish monks arrived in Scotland. The Holy Fathers brought with them not only the word of God, but also the well-developed technologies for distilling malt wort in copper cubes.The word “ whiskey” comes from the Gaelic uisge beatha – the modified term aqua vitae “water of life”. This is how brandy was called in Europe, which was distilled from wine by the same monks.
Whiskey as medicine
For the first time in the written tradition, whiskey is mentioned in the scrolls of the Treasury of Scotland in 1494-1495, then King Jacob IV ordered “to give 8 balls of malt to brother John Cora for the preparation of aqua vitae.” In the 16th century, most of the Scottish monasteries were dissolved, so the monks applied their knowledge and skills to the regular production of whiskey.In this case, the drink was used as a healing agent.
Local farmers soon adopted the monastic technology. After all, it was grain from their fields that was the main ingredient for whiskey. There was also a purely practical necessity in this. At that time, they did not know effective ways of long-term storage of grain. So the harvest left for the winter was often moldy. Farmers used the surplus grain for whiskey instead of throwing it away.
In just a few years, whiskey distillation has become commonplace on farms throughout Scotland.The owners of the distilleries not only perfected the technology, but also improved it with the help of a special pear-shaped copper container. And to increase the condensation of alcohol, they used cold running water.
In the 16th century, a Scottish law was passed, which for the first time affected the production of whiskey. In 1505, the Guild of Surgeons and Barbers in Edinburgh, now known as the Royal College of Physicians, gained a monopoly on the production of the “water of life” as a medicine.
Criminal prosecutions for violating the Guild’s license became common at the time. Whiskey became so popular that there were many who wanted to do artisanal distillation and smuggling of the drink. Another harsh restriction on whiskey producers was the alcohol tax in 1644.
One of the main licensed producers of the period was Ferintosh on Black Island north of the port city of Inverness.The company was founded by Duncan Forbes around 1670. During the Jacobite uprising in 1689, the distillery was burned down. However, a year later, Forbes rebuilt itself, and at the same time received the privilege of duty-free distillation of whiskey as a reward for loyalty to the English crown.
Ferintosh whiskey quickly gained an excellent reputation for excellent quality, and the Forbes empire grew steadily every year. A century later, 2/3 of all legally distilled Scotland whiskey was produced at 4 Forbes distilleries in the village of Culloden.
In the 18th century, after the introduction of the gin tax in 1736, the demand for whiskey increased. For 30 years, the production of the drink has increased from 100 to 275 thousand gallons. By this time, the now known name was finally established: uisge beatha → uiskie → usky → whiskey.
In the same century, it became common for large farms and estates to have their own alembic, in which whiskey was distilled for personal use, which means that the drink was not taxed. Farmers actively used volumetric cubes of 190 liters for processing surplus barley.
The Braga Act of 1784 divided Scotland into high and low excise zones
In 1779, the volume of distillation stills in personal ownership was legally reduced to 7.5 liters. Compliance with the rules was strictly monitored by excise officers who had the right to confiscate and destroy larger cubes. Another 2 years later, private distillation of whiskey was banned altogether. This led to an explosion in illegal distillation.Underground whiskey was driven in the Northern Highlands: on the banks of rivers, in huts, caves and basements of houses.
It turns out that the famous Scottish poet Robert Burns worked for some time as an excise official. He received this position in 1789.
In 1784, the Braga Act was issued, which divided Scotland into two excise zones. North of the Highland Line, lower excise taxes were imposed, which should have motivated underground moonshiners to obtain an official license.Correspondingly, in the south, excise taxes remained high.
Northern production was limited to one cube per 76 liters, and the tax was calculated from the annual number of gallons of whiskey produced. The result of the separation was an active increase in the number of licensed producers in Highland, so that free trade had to be limited by a law of 1785, which prohibited the export of whiskey from Highland to Lowland and beyond.
Massive distillery construction has now begun in Lowland.Despite the high excise taxes, the distillery owners received very substantial profits from the sale of whiskey in Scottish cities and England.
However, legislative measures did not finally solve the problem of smuggling. Illegal whiskey was secretly transported along forest paths in agricultural carts and even under the skirts of women. The Cromdale and Ludder hills above Glenlivet are now home to ancient trails and abandoned clandestine distilleries. Some of the surviving alembic stills are exhibited in the museums of the Blair Athol, Glenfarclas, Glengoyne, Highland Park and Royal Lochnagar distilleries.
of 1784 removed the duty-free distillation privilege from Ferintosh, so the Forbes factories soon closed. However, the memory of them remained not only in the annals of the history of whiskey smoking, but also in world literature. Robert Burns dedicated several lines of his poem “The Scottish Drink” to the famous producer:
About Ferintosh! The hero is dead!
The scots are crying over you!
Oh woe! Damn stuck, my friend,
We have a pitchfork in the side –
Henceforth, Forbes must pay
Big, like everyone else, the tax!
How illegal whiskey conquered the whole country
Scotland’s illegal whiskey flourishes in Edinburgh
In August 1822, King George IV visited Edinburgh to attend a gala hosted by Sir Walter Scott and the City Council.When the king arrived at the port of Leith, the writer toasted his health and offered the best illegal whiskey he could find.
This drink was brought from Glenlivet. George IV announced that Glenlivet was his favorite whiskey, and issued a decree that in the future, all royal toasts were to be raised only with this brand. Unsurprisingly, demand for Glenlivet in Edinburgh has grown at a colossal level, so the local municipality urgently demanded additional supplies from the Highland.
Since that time, there has been a clear taste difference between the drinks of the highlands and Lowland.Many contemporaries noted the milky taste of whiskey aged in oak barrels in the Highlands. Whereas the alcohol produced in the Scottish lowlands was harsher and more straightforward.
The secret of the mountainous whiskey was the production technology. The Lowland distilleries were equipped with large stills, in which the distillation took place very quickly, which made the alcohol at the exit not very strong.
Illegal Highland stills were small and portable so that they could be hidden in a new location at any time.The copper of the cube and condenser accelerated the conversion of alcohol vapors into ethers and aldehydes with delicate fruit flavors and aromas. In a smaller cube, the alcohol was in contact with the metal for a longer time, which means that further catalytic reactions proceeded. The result was an alcohol with a rich floral or fruity flavor and aroma. And the quality was consolidated by aging in oak barrels, while many licensed producers bottled the drink directly from the cube.
Royal patronage whiskey
Scotch tape remained the favorite of two more generations of monarchs.So, in 1835, the Royal Brackla distillery received the first royal certificate from William IV, and the king himself declared that this was his favorite whiskey. In 1848, Queen Victoria and Prince Albert traveled through Scotland to many cities and villages and tasted all Scottish drinks, including whiskey. To be closer to production, the royal couple erected Balmoral Castle on the banks of the River Dee, which still remains a summer residence for many members of the royal family.
During the legendary royal hunt, Queen Victoria ordered each guest to be handed a bottle of whiskey, and everything that remained in it at the end of the hunt was given to the hunters.And the royal coachmen were obliged to keep a bottle of whiskey under the seat of the carriage when traveling.
It was not only royal grace that influenced the prosperity of Scotch whiskey. In 1860, a wine crisis erupted in Europe due to the phylloxera aphid, which came to the Old World from North America. Aphids, feeding on the roots of the vine, have almost completely destroyed the vineyards on the largest plantations. Left without wine from the mainland, the inhabitants of the British Isles switched to whiskey.
Flourishing of blends
Tommy Dewar was the first whiskey maker to sell his drink worldwide
Despite its popularity, single malt whiskey still had a fickle character. In the mid-19th century, Perth spirits Thomas Dewar and Arthur Bell discovered that consignments of consistent flavors and aromas came from a combination of different distillations. Then came the classification of malts by taste and the rules for mixing them to maintain a balance of taste and quality.
The spirit merchant Andrew Usher came up with the idea of adding grain whiskey to the blend, which was distilled from unmalted barley, wheat or corn. Such raw materials were cheaper to manufacture, and the distillation process itself took place in a patented distillation still, which was invented in 1830.
Later, the design of the mixers was constantly improved, the production of blends grew continuously. So by the end of the 19th century, all of Scotland knew the brands of William Lowry, Charles McKinley, John Haig, Johnny Walker, Charles McKay, William Teacher, the Chivas brothers and James Buchanan.
The brands of blends were so popular that they soon entered international markets. For example, in 1891-1893. Tommy Dewar has opened 32 whiskey sales agencies around the world. The total stock of malt in all warehouses increased from 7.5 million liters in 1892 to 340 million liters in 1898.
Whiskey production crisis
The first 50 years of the 20th century were the harshest for Scotch whiskey producers
At the turn of the century, whiskey production experienced major upheavals.In 1889, the Pattison brothers’ company, producing the popular Finest Glenlivet blend, went bankrupt. Not only had their firm been caught scamming the accounting department, it turned out that low-quality grain whiskey with dyes was being supplied to the markets in large quantities. Whiskey and stock prices fell, and Robert and Walter were convicted of fraud and jailed.
The next blow to the industry was the Anglo-Boer War of 1899-1902 on the African continent, which interrupted foreign trade.At the same time, production was crippled by the pan-European economic crisis. Moreover, King Edward VII suddenly changed the royal tradition, abandoning scotch in favor of French wine and brandy.
A real war broke out between the producers of blends and single malt brands. Everyone believed that it was he who made the real and correct whiskey.
In 1905, Islington City Council charged two traders with selling whiskey that was not “nature, content and quality.”The merchants lost the court and appealed. The conflict was resolved only in 1915, when the Law on Unaged Spirits was passed, according to which the whiskey had to be aged in barrels for at least 3 years. By the way, this rule is strictly observed to this day.
The 1915 Act was enacted with the active assistance of the completely non-drinking Treasury Secretary David Lloyd George. The official said that whiskey would become a more deadly enemy in the First World War than Germany and Austria.He significantly increased the license fee for producers, as well as the tax on whiskey. The aim of the law was also to move from the consumption of whiskey to the consumption of beer.
During the First World War, the distilleries were closed to preserve the supply of barley for food production. In 1917, the export of whiskey was banned, and a year later, the duty on the drink was doubled. After the end of the war, manufacturers hoped to revive the industry, but faced only another increase in duties in 1919.
In the 1920s, the temperance movement was widespread in Britain. At the same time, the United States banned the import of whiskey and introduced a dry law.
The same yacht Cutty Sark that William McCoy used to transport whiskey to the United States is now dry docked in Greenwich
For about 10 years, a light blended premium whiskey Cutty Sark has been actively imported into the States. It got its name in honor of the fastest sailing ship of the time under the control of Captain William McCoy, a bootlegger based in the Bahamas.His smuggled whiskey was so popular that shop and bar owners demanded “the real McCoy,” that is, exclusively Cutty Sark. As a result, the name Real McSou came into use on both sides of the Atlantic.
However, at that time there was also a completely legal import of whiskey, albeit in the form of a medicine. American doctors during the Prohibition period prescribed servings of Laphroaig and White Horse to patients for medicinal purposes.
All this affected the colossal drop in the production of Scotch whiskey.If in 1899 there were 161 distilleries in the country, then in 1924 there were 84, and in 1933 – only 2.
Production completely stalled again during the Second World War. In 1945, it seemed that the industry was finally buried by wars, crises and high taxes.
The revival of production took place in the 1960s. Then the distilleries were restored, expanded and modernized throughout Scotland. The industry was consolidated in two directions.On the one hand, all production processes were concentrated in one industrial area, on the other, marketing departments were strengthened, which promoted trade operations.
United Distillers, now known as Diageo, bought over 60 distilleries and used wholesalers to age the produce. Several factories were acquired by the large companies Pernod Ricard, Edrington Group, Suntory, Bacardi and Moet Hennessy. Automation was pervasive, reducing labor costs.
In 1960, the management of William Grant & Sons, which produced the popular Glenfiddich and Balvenie malt brands, put part of the shares on the international market. Despite the big players in the industry betting on blended whiskey, the grants have paid off. In the 1980s and 1990s, the share of sales of malt brands was actively growing.
In 1975, a group of enthusiasts formed the Scotch Malt Whiskey Society. Membership in it gave the opportunity to get acquainted with a wide range of flavors of malt brands and become a true connoisseur of the ancient drink.
Whiskey production in Scotland is subject to statutory requirements
The production of whiskey, like any other product of mass consumption, must comply with strict requirements. They are enshrined at the state level in the relevant legislative acts.
Scotch distillation is governed by the United Kingdom Scotch Whiskey Act 1988:
- Produced in a distillery in Scotland from water and malted barley.
- Unmalted cereals may be added to barley which:
- turned into wort at a distillation plant;
- processed into wort through the conversion of carbohydrates to alcohol and fermentation products;
- are fermented with yeast only.
- Distillation is carried out at a strength of not more than 94.8 volume fractions of alcohol, which allows the distillate to preserve the aroma and taste of the feedstock.
- The distillate is aged in an excise warehouse in Scotland in oak barrels with a volume of no more than 700 liters.
- The holding period must be at least 3 years.
- The product must retain the color, aroma and taste of the raw materials, as well as the characteristics inherent in the preparation and aging method.
- Whiskey should not contain anything other than water and caramel color.
In addition, the law prohibits the production of other types of whiskey in Scotland, except for Scotch, and limits the minimum strength of the product – 40%.
Another document to streamline the release of scotch is the Scotch Whiskey Production Regulation Act of 2009, which approves only 5 types of drink:
- Single Malt whiskey made from single distillery spirits.
- Single Grain from the spirits of the same distillery.
- Blended Malt from a variety of distillery alcohols.
- Blended Grain from a variety of distillery alcohols.
- Blended or blended whiskey (Blended Scotch).
The most popular and affordable – blended whiskey. However, on sale you can also find an elite blend – Deluxe whiskey, aged for over 12 years.
Regions of Scotland Whiskey
The unique combination of soil, climate and terrain determines the huge variety of flavors and aromas of Scotch whiskey
The Scotch Whiskey Association identifies 5 whiskey producing regions in Scotland.It is:
- o. Isla.
However, this geographical distribution is difficult to justify in terms of the proliferation of malt whiskey distilleries. Many researchers attribute to the Isla geofence the territory from Arran to the Orkney Islands, which the ASB classifies as the Highland region. At the same time, the vast Speyside zone is referred to the Highland.
Now only 2 permanent factories operate on the territory:
- Auchentoshan. Located in the Dalmaer area of West Dunbartonshire. Produces a triple distilled whiskey, traditionally light on the palate with complex herbal aromas.
- Glenkinchie . Distillery 25 kilometers southeast of Edinburgh. The local whiskey has a spicy aroma and taste.
The border between low and high distilleries runs across the country between the Clyde and Tay rivers.The local whiskey is dense and strong, with an impressive palette of taste and aroma: from resinous cedar to soft caramel. Now there are about 80 factories in the region.
Traditionally, this geofence is divided into 5 zones:
- Southern Highlands . Only one Deanston distillery is active here.
- Eastern Highlands . Notable among the local distilleries are Edradour, the smallest distillery in Scotland, and Glenturret, built in a traditional farm style.Also worth a visit are Aberfeldy and Blair Athol in Perthshire, where whiskey has a particularly fruity flavor.
- Speyside . Distilleries are located along the banks of the Spey River, as well as in the area from Aberdeen to Inverness. In particular, it is here that one of the world’s most famous factories, Glenlivet, is located.
- Northern Highlands . Stretches from Inverness to the East Coast. The local whiskey has a slightly salty flavor.
- Western Highlands .The extreme northwest is cut by mountains and rocks, so only 4 factories operate on a rather large territory: Ben Nevis, Oban, Loch Lomond and Glengoyne.
There are 7 large factories here. There are 7 islands in the region:
Island whiskey is distinguished by its salinity with a slight admixture of pine needles, peat and haze.
The smallest region in the southwest of Scotland near the Isle of Arran. The territory is dominated by Springbank, which produces 3 whiskeys using its own malt.
The secret of taste and aroma of Scotch whiskey
Whiskey connoisseurs believe that the organoleptic properties of the drink depend on the terroir – the peculiarities of geology, climate, soil and even flora of geographic zones. Whiskey culture researcher Michael Jackson identifies 7 key factors that make Scotch whiskey unique:
- Rock .Depending on the content of minerals and iron in it, the taste of the drink changes. For example, water flowing through granite and quartz makes the whiskey softer and lighter. And the water, rich in calcium, gives the drink a drier flavor.
- Snow . Pure melt water from high mountains abundantly saturates rivers and springs, from where it is taken for distilleries.
- Water quantity and quality . Distilleries require huge volumes of water for fermentation and distillation, cooling and rinsing.It is important here to monitor its stable supply. Drying up the source can interrupt production, and the slowly flowing water becomes too dirty and unsuitable for whiskey smoking.
- Peat . The basis of the local terroir. Since ancient times, it has been used to dry barley and heat pot stills. Peat malt contains about 80 compounds that give the whiskey a range of complex flavors and aromas.
- Heather . Gives the whiskey a floral and honey aroma.
- Barley . Legendary grains developed after World War II infuse the whiskey with rich herbal-nutty aromas and a slightly sweet taste.
- Algae . The source of iodine in malt.
Scotland’s temperate climate is generally favorable for the cultivation of barley, although excessive dampness and sea winds can pose problems for its maturation. And yet, local distillery owners prefer native raw materials, buying only small quantities of barley from England and Denmark.The Scots themselves say that only their grain gives the whiskey a real pure taste.
It is wrong to think that single malt whiskey is better than blended one. The tradition of whiskey smoking knows great mixed varieties that are aged up to 12 years
Scotch whiskey is classified in several ways. Some connoisseurs suggest distributing the types of drink by region and producer. However, the generally accepted and basic classification is considered to be based on raw materials.
Obtained from pure barley, less often rye malt. Alcohol is released from the finished wash after 2-3 times of distillation. Malt whiskey is divided into 3 types:
- Single Malt . Produced by one distillery. According to the rules, it can be sold after 3 years of aging. But most often it is aged from 8 to 15 years in already used oak barrels, which significantly complements and strengthens the bouquet.
- Barrel .A blend of single malt whiskeys from different distilleries with a softer taste.
- Single barrel . Single cask malt whiskey diluted with water to 40%.
- Natural strength whiskey . The drink is not diluted with water, alcohol evaporates naturally during aging.
The grain for such a drink is not germinated or dried, but only saccharified with malt when preparing the wort. Barley, wheat, rye, corn and other cereals are used as raw materials.Before fermentation and distillation, the wort is not filtered, and the distillation of whiskey in some cases occurs through continuous rectification of the mash. Because of this, a very small amount of impurities is present in the final product, but alcohol has a mild taste and aroma.
Grain whiskey is divided into 3 main types:
- Single grain produced in one plant.
- Barrel – a blend of whiskey from different distilleries.
- Single-barrel – whiskey taken from one barrel.
Since the costly malting stage is excluded from the process, grain whiskey is cheaper. It ripens faster than malt.
This whiskey is produced by mixing malt whiskey with grain in large proportions from 10 to 90%. The quality and price is determined by the volume of malt whiskey in the blend: the more it is, the more expensive and quality the drink is.
Whiskey is not blended in order to weaken the flavor of the varieties of the malt part.Here we are talking about complementing taste and aroma, bringing their combination to harmony.
Classification to taste
In 2009, at the Royal Statistical Society meeting, a classification for malt Scotch whiskey brands was presented based on the taste of the beverage. Whiskey researchers suggested 10 flavor clusters:
- Cluster A . Full-bodied, sweet, pronounced sherry with fruity, honey and spicy notes.
- Cluster B .Full-bodied, sweet, pronounced sherry shade with fruity, floral and malt notes, with light honey and spicy undertones.
- Cluster C . Full-bodied, moderately sweet, pronounced sherry with fruity, nutty, honey and smoky notes.
- Cluster D . Full-bodied and sweet, with fruity, floral and nutty notes that are somewhat spicy, as well as a smoky undertone.
- Cluster E .Medium-bodied, moderately sweet, with fruity, honey and wine notes, as well as a hint of smoke and spice.
- Cluster F . Full-bodied, sweet and malty, with fruity, spicy and smoky notes.
- Cluster G . Light, sweet and honeyed, with floral, fruity and spicy notes, mostly without peaty undertones.
- Cluster H . Very light, sweet and malty, fruity and floral.
- Cluster I . Medium-bodied, with medium sweetness, smoky and low medicinal notes are very noticeable, as well as spicy, fruity and nutty undertones.
- Cluster J . Full-bodied, dry, pungent, with medicinal notes, hints of burnt peat, spices, malt and fruit, as well as polished leather and book cover.
Scotch whiskey production
Simple ingredients are used for the production of whiskey: barley, water and yeast.The entire process, including mixing, fermentation and distillation, remains unchanged in any production. However, manufacturers use their tricks to make the product unique.
The best whiskey to use is high starch barley such as Chariot and Optic. They give the maximum alcohol yield. Regardless of the variety, the barley must be dry, whole, free of mold and parasites.
The complete technological process of whiskey production includes 6 stages:
- Barley malting.
- Mashing malt.
Let’s analyze each step in order.
True single malt whiskey is made only from malted barley
At the first stage, the grain germinates, its core opens and releases starch, which is further converted into maltose. She also gives alcohol during fermentation.The barley is thoroughly soaked and then dried.
In traditional distilleries, drying takes place in special hangars, malt houses, where the grain is regularly mixed with wooden shovels. But this process is quite laborious, therefore manual drying is everywhere replaced by mechanical one.
Next, the malt is dried over a fire in an oven. In many factories, like centuries ago, peat is used for this purpose, which gives malt a special smoky-earthy flavor. Progressive producers are replacing peat with coke and coal.At the Glengoyne and Auchentoshan factories, malt is dried with hot air, which is heated by electricity.
Most Scotch distilleries now buy ready-made, malted barley from industrial plants. The order must indicate the amount of peat that must be used in the drying process to maintain smoky aromas. As an experiment with organoleptic properties, the amount of peat in different batches is changed.
Distilleries prefer the top when cutting peat.It contains more roots, from which the peat smokes more. By the way, peat and peat are different. For example, there are few trees on the Orkney Islands, so the peat here consists of decomposed sweet heather. This is clearly heard in Highland Park whiskey. On the other hand, peat on Islay is made up of decayed wood. Therefore, in the same Lagavulin you will find a clear woody aroma.
At the next stage, barley is cleaned on sizing machines and ground into coarse flour – malt grits.It is mixed with hot water in a mash tun. The quality of the water is important here: soft or hard – it will make the whiskey taste appropriate.
Water is added to the mash tub in three portions, with the next hotter than the last, to achieve the maximum concentration of maltose from the starch. The result is a sweet liquid – wort, which is drained from the vat. The color of the wort depends on the duration of the brew. Slow yields clear malt, fast yields cloudy. In the latter case, the whiskey gets a pronounced malt flavor.
Sweet wort is cooled and pumped into fermentation tanks, where yeast is added to it to start the fermentation process. The vats are made from Oregon pine, Siberian larch, and stainless steel. Traditional whiskey makers prefer wooden vats, believing that they enhance the flavor of the mash. But most factories use stainless steel, which is valued for its properties and ease of maintenance.
During fermentation, the liquid in the vat boils and foams.Therefore, the containers have special defoamers that prevent the valuable mash from spilling over.
Sugar in the wort is separated into carbon dioxide and alcohol, they react with malt acids. The result is esters and aldehydes that give the alcohol floral and fruity aromas. For example, ethyl acetate smells like raspberries, while amyl acetate smells like pineapple.
The entire fermentation process takes 2 days, although some manufacturers stretch it up to 60 hours to add aromas through additional bacterial fermentation.The longer the fermentation, the more pronounced the fruity aromas will be.
GlenDronach Distillery Distillation Still
After fermentation, the liquid in the vat resembles a rough beer with a 7-9% alcohol content. The distillation process begins. The first distillation is carried out in large stills at the boiling point of alcohol – about 78 ° C. Esters, alcohols, acids, aldehydes and most of the water are separated from the yeast.The alcohols rise into the neck of the cube and enter the condenser through the steam pipe.
The taste of alcohol strongly depends on the shape and size of the cube. The longer the neck, the lighter and cleaner the alcohol will be.
For example, this technology is actively used in the production of Glenmorangie whiskey, where alcohol vapors pass through the longest 5-meter neck in Scotland. And at the Macallan and Balmenach factories, on the contrary, they use low cubes, where the alcohol is denser and richer.
At the Glengoyne, Ardbeg and Glen Grant factories, a helmet-shaped neck is used, in which the vapors are cooled more intensively. Due to this, heavy impurities flow off abundantly in the form of reflux, and the purified alcohol vapors go into the condenser.
As a rule, cubes are equipped with indirect heating using a built-in coil. However, to this day in Scotland, some manufacturers heat cubes the old fashioned way over an open fire, which makes the alcohol heavier. In this case, hard carbon deposits form on the walls of the vat, which must be removed.
The lightness of alcohol is also influenced by the angle of inclination of the steam outlet pipe. If you raise it horizontally higher, heavy alcohols will more intensively return to the vat. Fully inclined pipes condense all alcohol without residue.
What kind of alcohol you get at the outlet depends on the type of capacitor. Traditional ones consist of a copper coil immersed in a vat of cold water, while modern shell and tube condensers have narrow copper pipes through which a continuous stream of cold water passes.
In the former, closer contact with copper occurs, on which heavy compounds are deposited, which means that the alcohol is also lighter. Secondly, there is less contact with copper, so the alcohol comes out more dense.
After the first run, a coarse oily liquid is formed, containing about 17% alcohol – “low wine”. It is pumped into an alcohol still for final distillation. Here the so-called “heart of alcohol” is selected. This is one of the most important processes in whiskey making, so the whiskey is carefully monitored by a master using a transparent alcohol safe.
The strongest first spirit, “head”, is combined with a batch of low wine for re-distillation. When the alcohol reaches the required strength and quality, the master sends it to the alcohol receiver. Here comes the key moment – the selection of the main fraction of alcohol. With early selection, the alcohol is lighter and more aromatic, with late selection – dense and oily.
By the end of the distillation of alcohol, the temperature in the distillation still rises, the alcohol strength drops to 60% and below. “Tails” – heavy oily components begin to evaporate.They are combined with head selection and re-distilled with the next batch of low wines.
The distillation master takes only the middle run from the entire alcohol stream, and this single fraction of pure alcohol is sent to a warehouse, cooled and poured into oak barrels.
In a barrel, whiskey matures and gains a bouquet of taste and aroma
Aged in barrels began to be used in Scotland relatively recently – from the middle of the 19th century.Before that, whiskey was poured directly from the distillation still. However, it turned out that storing the drink in sherry or port barrels gives the whiskey a softer and more enveloping taste.
The main thing for a barrel is type and size. Whiskey matures fastest in a small barrel. The dense structure of American white oak containers preserves the character of the spirit better. In a barrel made of more porous European oak, woody notes are added to the aroma of the whiskey.
Despite the fact that the barrels are carefully sealed, approximately 2% of the alcohol evaporates through the pores of the wood.If the whiskey is aged for 8 years, almost 15% of the drink is released into the air. And after 20 years, the volume of the contents of the barrel is reduced by a third. These vapors are called the “angel’s share”, and they explain the delicious aroma of aged alcohol, which is felt in wine warehouses.
Whiskey matures in low stone cellars with earthen floors, where the barrels are in triple rows. Even here, the external environment can affect the taste of the drink. For example, if a warehouse with a cellar is by the sea, humid salty air enters the room and the whiskey has salty notes.
At some distilleries, a final exposure is used. 10-15 years after the first maturation, the whiskey is poured into a new barrel, which previously contained sherry, port, Madeira, cognac or calvados.
How to taste scotch tape correctly
Like any complex alcoholic beverage, whiskey should be tasted by its taste and aroma. Professional tasters trust their nose more, as there are 10,000 olfactory receptors in the nose for one taste bud on the tongue.
Whiskey must be poured into special glasses. This way you can more accurately assess the color, aroma and taste of the drink.
Scotch Whiskey Glasses
Correct Whiskey Tasting Glass
Most often, whiskey is served in a glass with a thick bottom – a tumbler. It comes in many shapes, with and without edges – but it’s not the perfect whiskey vessel. Best of all, the drink will open in a glass, shaped like a tulip. The narrowed neck will keep the aromas in the most concentrated form.
You get the first impression through a visual assessment. Watch the whiskey through the clear glass of the glass. The light color of the alcohol will indicate young or barrel-aged whiskey. A dark color is a sign of aging in a sherry barrel.
Rotate the whiskey in the glass so that stripes appear on the walls – legs. Slowly flowing legs indicate a viscous, full-bodied and aged whiskey, quickly flowing down – a light one.
Now inhale the drink deeply and appreciate the whole palette of smells.Add some spring water and take a shallow breath to define your individual scent.
Then take a generous sip and listen to the sensations in your mouth. What shades are felt? Creamy, smooth, fatty, or alcoholic. You can even “chew” the drink a little to distinguish between dominant and hidden flavors. Be sure to appreciate the aftertaste – how intense it is, goes away in a few minutes, or lasts for many hours.
In order to objectively evaluate whiskey, it is better to compare several varieties and categories.For completeness, write down your feelings and observations. It will not be superfluous to conduct a tasting in a company so that several people compare their feelings.
Scotch Whiskey & Cooking
Whiskey, like good wine, is an excellent companion to culinary dishes. Keep in mind that you are not just eating hard liquor. Food should not interrupt the taste of the drink, but only slightly shade it.
Dried fish or meat are suitable for Scotch whiskey. The Scots prefer to consume their favorite drink with red smoked fish and oysters.These dishes go well with White Horse, Jameson, or Glen Grant. Seafood works well if you have a bottle of Glenmorangie on your table, which has a herbal flavor.
Whiskey goes well with melon, it softens the taste of the aged drink. Forget citrus fruits. Orange, lemon or grapefruit will kill the taste of the drink and neutralize its aroma.
In addition, whiskey is a good ingredient for cooking meat or fish, sauces, gravies and even flour dishes.Of course, the main thing here is not to overdo it.
And don’t forget that whiskey is also a cocktail drink. It is mixed with vermouth, rum, liqueur, coffee and hot chocolate.
What scotch to try
Where to start acquaintance with Scotch whiskey? We have selected several interesting options for you from our catalog.
Inexpensive Catto`s whiskey. Blended, 3-year-old with a bright bouquet, distinct fruity notes and a persistent aftertaste.The aroma has notes of honey and malt, candies, toffee and crème brulee.
10 Years Old Single Malt Speyburn. In its palette, you will hear notes of raspberry, nut, banana, kiwi, milk chocolate, apple and rhubarb. And the aftertaste will open with shades of eucalyptus and menthol.
Another 10-year-old is the Balblair single malt. Its peculiarity is the double aging of spirits in American oak barrels of the second filling and from under sherry. The aroma contains notes of apples, leather, citrus and smoke. And in the taste hints of honey and vanilla are guessed.
Let’s conclude our acquaintance with the aged single malt An Cnoc, which has been maturing in a barrel for 12 years. Its bouquet, with notes of malt and Scottish herbs, is complemented by hints of fruit and grapes. Behind the layering, you can clearly catch the notes of peat and oak wood.
90,000 Danish Design in Milan • Interior + Design
Mindcraft is the annual flagship exhibition of Danish design hosted by the Danish Art Foundation as part of Milan Design Week. This year the focus of the exhibition is on the very essence of design and craft.
Related: Cecilia Manz, Queen of Danish Design – 2018 Designer
Fifteen Mindcraft18 participants, both well-known and novice designers, will show practical interaction with the material, focus on the aesthetic and tangible properties of objects.
The curator of the exhibition is Ditte Hammerström.
“I decided to showcase an experimental scene – an area where Danish craft and design are pretty strong today,” says curator Ditte Hammerström.“It’s important for me to highlight the experimental and uncompromising nature of design and craft, constantly exploring new ways of dealing with material. These are important properties for the preservation, protection and further development of the industry. ”
LMA (Lick My Ass), design. Magnus Pettersen and Lea Hein, Pettersen & Hein. Sculpture chair made of cast concrete blocks, iron pipes, fiberglass and anodized aluminum. The challenge is to explore the role furniture plays in shaping our identity.
Sun Disc, design.Cecilie Bendixen. Sound-absorbing wicker panel. The threads are stretched over a laser-cut plywood frame. A functional object is seen as an architectural, decorative element, poetic and expressive.
Black Matter, diz. Anya Van Krag. The textile sculpture with the proportions of the human body looks like an abstract black volume. Sources of inspiration are 20th century constructivist sculptures, primitive ritual masks and haute couture.
Carbon Black, diz. Petra Dahlström.Thin porcelain plates resembling burnt paper, patterned with soot by the flame of a candle. The author views fire as a sculptural material, but alive and uncontrollable.
Half Pieces, diz. Carl Emil Jacobsen. Six objects on polystyrene and steel frames. Above – fibrous concrete, painted with gray-black natural pigments from the Hanklit rock. Color depth and hue change depending on the angle of view.
Aurora Borealis, diz. Iben Hoi. Knitted acrylic sculpture.Some threads with phosphorescent properties – charged with light during the day, shine in the dark. The work was created using several hand knitting machines at once.
Sakyu, dis. Rasmus Fenhann. A wide bench in solid Oregon pine. The undulating structure of the seat can be calculated mathematically or found in nature, as in the Japanese dunes to which the model name refers.
All is Flux, dis. Gitte Jungersen. The objects are covered with layers of ceramic glazes. When fired and quenched, they behave differently, forming a bubble-like surface.The difference between black and blue shades is noticeable only upon close examination.
A Family, diz. Kasper Keldgor. The five objects were created using a variety of techniques, including metal turning, casting and strapping. Each has a unique personality, but all are clearly connected, like members of the same family.
Knock them down with a feather, diz. Katrina Borup. Chainmail helmet made of jewelry wire. The drawing resembles monastery arcades and bird feathers, referring to the legend of the martyrs who, in the form of pigeons, helped the Italians to win the battle in 1176.Billy, diz. Kevin Hweed. Round bench with seating for two people on opposite sides. The steel frame is sheathed with wooden battens. The source of inspiration was the cactus, with its rounded shoots and its ability to survive in harsh conditions.
Field of flowers (long winter poem), diz. Louise Campbell. Paper panel with hand-printed linocut. The elements are cut and glued by hand to form an openwork fabric.
Botanical Furniture Species, diz. Lysé Bierre Schmitt and Sophie Trier Mörk, Wednesday Architecture.Sculptural outdoor furniture made of solid oak. Thanks to the thin slats, it does not obstruct the views, and the polished brass plates reflect the beauty of nature.
Dissolved into the fabric, diz. Isabel Berglunn. Hand-knitted sculpture made of blue, yellow and white threads. The work focuses on shapes and colors that are the result of the decay process and reflect the course of life.
Follow Me, diz. Maria Koshenkova. The sculpture was created using the classic lost wax technique.The rope is covered with material to create the shape and burned, leaving a void, which is then filled with molten glass.
• The exhibition, as in the previous year, will be held in the Milan monastery of San Simpliciano. Piazza Paolo VI, 6, from 17 to 22 April.
The longest-living animal on Earth
Here we are walking along the seashore, kicking live mollusks with our feet, but any of them may well be 500 years old!
Arctica islandica is the general name for bivalve molluscs of the Arcticidae family.This species is native to the North Atlantic Ocean and is harvested for food. Molluscs live in water at a depth of 7 to 400 meters. In the northern part of their habitat, they settle in shallow waters closer to the coast.
In 2006 and 2007, shell layering analyzes of several samples of this mollusk collected off the coast of Iceland showed a maximum age of about 500 years, making Arctica islandica the longest-living animal on Earth.
The age was established by the sclerochronological method, i.e.That is, by drilling a shell and counting the number of its layers (similar to the dendrochronology method for trees) It is a relatively warm-water North Atlantic mollusk that also lives in the western part of the Barents Sea and in the warmest areas of the White Sea. Tsiprina has a rather large (up to 12 cm long) shell, covered with a glossy brown periostracum.The lock is complex, with well-developed teeth. The mantle edge forms two short siphons, the holes of which are surrounded by delicate papillae. The leg is short but powerful; the animal quickly burrows into the ground with its help.
Due to its association with relatively warm waters, cyprinus serves as a good indicator of the distribution of warm Atlantic waters in the past. In the era of the warm Littorin Sea, the species was wider than now, and in the east it reached Taimyr. Young cyprines feed on many bottom fish, while adults feed on seabirds such as herring gulls.She cannot split the shell with its beak, so the seagull, diving, takes out the shell and, taking off, drops it on the coastal stones, on which even the largest and thickest shells break. After that, the seagull pecks up the body of the mollusk without hindrance.
In general, there are a lot of long-livers among mollusks. You will say, yes they do not really pull on animals, but there is someone “livelier” 🙂 Well, for example:
A new study showed that the Red Sea sea urchin is a small spiny invertebrate that lives in small coastal waters, is the longest-living animal on Earth.They can live for about 200 years or even more than , and die only from predators and diseases. They are not susceptible to aging and reproduce at any age, and the older, the more active.
This is the conclusion made by marine zoologists at Oregon State University.
Found these long-lived invertebrates of the Red Sea due to the fact that one of the specimens caught had a mark from 1805 that “Lewis and Clark arrived in Oregon”, and this sea urchin still had excellent health and could even reproduce.This discovery may have important implications for the management of commercial fisheries and our understanding of marine biology, as well as challenge some erroneous assumptions about the life cycle of this marine invertebrate.
It was believed that Red Sea sea urchins live only about 15 years. But after the discovery of this specimen, more detailed studies were carried out, based on the use of two completely different methods for determining the age of sea urchins – one biochemical and the other isotopic.They showed identical results and significantly increased the age bar for these animals. Research shows that Red Sea sea urchins can have a longer lifespan than virtually any animal on the planet and appear to show almost no signs of aging, or age-related dysfunction. One gets the feeling that they die only from external interference (when eaten by predators, from diseases or from fishing). Thus, if it were possible to create a favorable environment for sea urchins, excluding predators and diseases, it is not even known how many hundreds of years they could live.
No animals other than these sea urchins have such abilities to stay old and in fact to be immortal. A detailed study of animal samples has shown that a 100-year-old sea urchin is as healthy and reproductive as a 10-year-old sea urchin.
Moreover, the more mature sea urchins of the Red Sea are even more prolific producers of seed and caviar. They don’t have any periods of menopause.
This new data could open up a lot in understanding the ecology of marine animals.In particular, it is now becoming clear why in the 1960s in the United States, sea urchins were considered a scourge of the sea and as a real threat. They ate marine plants and algae, and multiplied unusually quickly.
The development of sea urchins from the larval stage to the adult takes only a month. At the age of 2 years, the sea urchin doubles in size – from 2 to 4 cm.The hedgehog reaches its maximum size by 6-7 years, but continues to grow by 0.1 cm even up to 22 years, when it reaches about 19 cm.
But an interesting fact came across to me while I was here looking for long-lived animals. Look!
Huge meadows of “sea grass” Posidonia, which according to scientists from 80 to 200 thousand years , were discovered by biologists from Australia in the Mediterranean Sea. The organism with the longest lifespan in the world reproduces itself by cloning, as evidenced by the genetic identity of individual individuals, abundantly growing in kilometers from each other at the bottom of the sea.
A seemingly common seagrass of the species Posidonia oceanica is capable of producing offspring in several ways at once.”Reproduction in this plant occurs sexually, as usual, passing through the flowering stage with further mixing of the male and female genomes, or asexual, that is, cloning, when the genome of an individual is passed on to the offspring without any noticeable changes,” said Dr. Sophie Arnod. Haond, Research Fellow at the Institute of Marine Research in France.
More DNA of a mysterious marine plant was studied by Carlos Duarti, a researcher from the University of Western Australia. Not far from the island of Formentera, the biologist came across a giant meadow of a grass-like marine plant, which spreads for 15 kilometers, while representing a single organism.He collected several samples of grass genetic material from 40 different locations during an expedition from Cyprus to Spain. DNA, as shown by analysis, was identical in all samples.
However, scientists are concerned that human activities could negatively affect the future of this long-lived herb. “Currently, dramatic changes are taking place at an unprecedented rate, and the decline in the population of Posidonia oceanica and other species of seagrass raises doubts among researchers about the ability of these species and clones, which have gone through a long and difficult path of selection, to survive,” the authors noted.