HEAD Liquid Fit: The revolutionary customisation system
When you think of premium sports equipment, HEAD has been around for a long time. So founded in 1950, the company is considered a leading manufacturer of high-quality and high-performance sports goods. The quality, performance and innovation of the HEAD-made equipment are the focus of the company. And of cause, quality is also – and above all – around in the competitive field of elite sports. Therefore it’s not surprising that the brand HEAD enjoys wide acceptance among numerous top athletes who represent the company with complete conviction in their respective disciplines.
A COMBINATION OF WORLD-CLASS RACING BOOTS AND INDIVIDUAL FIT MAKES FOR THE PERFECT FORMULA
Formula is HEAD‘s new ski boot series in the performance segment. It is a completely new development and its concept is based on the experience gained from racing with the Raptor WCR racing boot. The shell construction and technical details have been developed based on the findings from working with athletes and, after the Raptor WCR, have now been transferred directly to the Formula. The Formula is for skiers who do not want to compromise on fit, comfort and performance.
The Formula is a high-end piste ski boot that is close in performance to the Raptor race boot, but offers more comfort and a wide range of adjustment options. The construction is based on the Raptor WCR and important design features, such as the extended toe box for more stiffness and space in the forefoot, are also found in the Formula. The series is based on a 2-last concept and therefore the Formula is also available in a 100mm version in addition to the 98mm RS version. The Formula is designed for skiers who do not want to compromise on fit, comfort and performance. The Formula is available in both a women’s and men’s series.
The Formula toe box in particular has been completely redesigned with its 12mm extension and has two key effects: The torsional stiffness has been improved, making the shoe more torsionally rigid in the forefoot area. This means that the feedback from the shoe is transmitted more consistently, which increases stability and creates confidence in the shoe. In addition, the forefoot gets more space, which improves blood circulation and heat regulation and ensures a comfortable climate in the shoe. Cold feet and pressure points are thus reduced to a minimum.
Liquid Fit: 100% flexible, comfortable and performance-oriented
HEAD looks far beyond the top athletes. After all, the philosophy of the Vorarlberg company is not only to take professional athletes to the next level, but also to make recreational athletes even better in their respective disciplines. That’s why Head never stops inspiring the market with high-end equipment and new, innovative products. One of the best examples of this is the LIQUID FIT ski boot fitting concept, which also plays a major role in Formula. We would like to introduce it to you in more detail:
Liquid Fit technology includes additional adjustment options beyond thermal adjustment. With the help of injection tubes, a paraffin-based, absolutely non-toxic material can be added to the ankle and heel area in 4 steps. With Liquid Fit, volume can also be added for the first time and better support in the heel and ankle region can be achieved. Annoying play in the heel and unsafe skiing due to too little support are thus a thing of the past. This process does not require a lot of time and the client does not have a constricting feeling. Immediately after the injection is finished, the boot is ready for use.
The process is carried out with a paraffin-based gel, which is injected into a padding around the ankle area. For this purpose, the customer goes in shoulder-width position with a slight template in the ski position. Subsequently, the material is injected into the shoe in constant dialogue with the customer. The injected paraffin material is temperature resistant from -20 ° C to + 60 ° C and non-toxic. If the shoe is too tight and the wearer has a tight feeling, excess material can be easily and simply removed from the shoe. For this, the shoe is heated to 80 °, whereby the paraffin in the shoe becomes more fluid and can be removed with the help of a syringe. With HEAD-Fit HEAD achieves the ultimate in comfort and support. In combination with Perfect-Fit 3D and the form-fit technology, a completely personalized ski boot can be made for everyone.
Liquid Fit is used at On-Pist ski boots (such as the Nexo LYT), but also at Freeride / Tour and Allmountain models (such as the Kore 1). You can find a selection of boots in our shop:
Formula RS 120
You save 50,95 €
You save 70,95 €
Raptor WCR 120
You save 50,95 €
Formula 95 W
You save 40,95 €
The Liquid Fit adjustment takes place directly at our shops in Penzberg or Garmisch-Partenkirchen. In order to find the perfect fitting ski boot for you, you can choose different → bootfitting services. such as the → 3D foot measurement. If you have bought your ski boots at Sport Conrad, the service plus advice is free. And so that you can also get the most out of your ski, our → ski service is happy to make a ski-makeover for the next season.
Head Liquid Fit | SkiTalk
Welp I’ve gotten about 40 days on the current Raptor 140 s Pro(bought them beginning of January 2021) Thought I’d pass along some thoughts/experiences on them.
My shell fit is pretty tight. Left foot no-mods, right foot has big toe punch. I’m around 7-9mm barefoot without a footbed. Both boot board dropped a pinch. I constantly struggle with bony heels and heel slop in every boot I’ve owned, particularly my right. Left foot we were able to do a small heel wedge, but my right(the tricky foot) couldn’t because Ive broken that foot/surgery and the top of my arch is VERY sensitive. The raptors have similar heel hold struggles. The shop pumped alot of liquid fit into the liners to help with this. Maybe 5 cartridges between the 2 boots, more in right. All of this was to take up slop around my ankles and the back 1/2 of my foot. We got the liners dialed and the shells were awesome. I really like the ‘suspension’ the boots have, and the flex is very nice. They are stiff, but I don’t find them uncomfortably initially very stiff it’s more of a gradual ramp up as you travel into the flex. I LOVE the edge feel and control.
Everything was going great, then about day 35 I noticed my left boot was feeling loose. No big deal a mid-day adjustment, and all would be ok. BUT then I saw the goop dripping down the side of my boot. My liner had sprung a leak. My local shop was VERY attentive to my issue. Quick call to Head found they had zero liners in stock to replace, but luckily the shop had a similar pair of boots in stock they could rob the liners out of. Not sure what exact model they were, but the liner is slightly different, more looks than function. So we had to go through the entire pumping of the liquid fit into the liners over several days. I’m currently running about 3-4 cartridges in these. The fit isn’t as great as the original liners, but I find that paraffin takes some time to move around and it’s been very cold the past few days here which slows the movement process and Im not skiing 4-5 hours a day in this cold.
I’ve found the liquid fit changes positions everyday, probably alot having to do with taking foot in and out of boot. So the first lap or two I’m not that comfortable as that stuff moves around into it’s home. I’ve recently put a few strips of UHMW tape down the spine and boot board so I can put the liners on first and then slide into the shell. I’ve only got a few days with this and I can’t report any big changes, perhaps minor help but Im concerned about liners getting beat up.
Anyone else with time in these liners? How are you finding them? I love the shells, probably will do some zip fits when the pocket book allows.
Precise head fit prevents uneven loading and excess cover wear
The precision of the fit between the network of machine components is critical to the success of a papermaking operation. Nowhere is this more clearly illustrated than at the head fit – the interface between the head and shell. Head fits are one of the most misunderstood concepts for a successful roll repair program. Two thousandths of an inch (.050 mm) could be the difference between a good press fit and a loose fit.
Many years ago, most plain press and suction rolls had straight head and shell fits and relied on an interference fit. This meant that the head was larger than the mating shell.
This interference, along with the head bolts and studs, provided the mechanical means that held the head and shell together. Over time, as these rolls are disassembled for inspection and maintenance repairs, the contact between the head and shell can wear and the head and/or shell may need to be rebuilt to restore the proper fit.
For several years now, most suction and many controlled crown (CC) rolls have been equipped with tapered head fits. Many tapered head fits have a .375 inch (9.5 mm) per foot taper on diameter cut into the shell and a duplicate taper cut into the mating head. Because the contact between the head and the shell wears over time, shim packs for the tapered head fits were developed for suction rolls to maintain a proper head fit. As the head and shell wear, shims can be removed to increase the fit.
A proper, tight head fit between the head and shell maintains roll integrity and immobilizes the roll core as the shell rotates around the core at high speed. If the fit wears beyond acceptable tolerance, it has a detrimental effect on paper quality by causing uneven loading and unnecessary roll cover wear. Avoiding the pitfalls associated with poor head fit is accomplished through regular inspections.
Most suction rolls are disassembled every six months or once a year, while CC rolls are disassembled less frequently. Each time a roll with an interference fit is disassembled, the shell and head fits should be thoroughly inspected. These maintenance inspections provide insurance against damage caused by poor head fits.
Unfortunately, because there are few external indications of a poor head fit, the roll must be disassembled to inspect the interface. Proper inspections can detect and correct poor head fits long before external signs appear or damage occurs. A head fit inspection should include the following steps:
- Clean both head and shell surfaces.
- Ensure the head comes out straight, even and square to avoid distorting the shell bore’s shape, which causes a loose fit and increases wear. Also, protect the shell and head from scratches.
- Use bluing to check the taper on the shell and head fit. Use a sine bar to ensure a minimum of 60% contact exists between the head and shell.
- If the original scribed lines are not found, scribe measuring lines on both head and shell once the head has been removed. Take four readings for an average measurement of the fit.
- Use the readings to calculate the press required for a proper head fit. Press, the pressure exerted between the head and shell bore, increases as the tapered head is pushed further into the shell bore. (To obtain the correct press, see the chart and caption below.)
- Calculate the amount of shims that may need to be removed or, in some cases, added to obtain the proper press.
- Ensure all high-tensile studs, used to bolt the head in place, are in good shape and have been properly torqued in the shell prior to reassembly.
- Keep accurate records of all dimensions and maintenance performed to achieve the correct head fit.
Calculating proper press. To demonstrate how to use this chart, consider a bronze roll with a 34 inch outside diameter. To calculate the interference fit, scribe a line on the inside diameter 1/2 inch from the edge of the shell to find R. To find S, measure the shell inside diameter at Y distance or 3 inches from R. To calculate head measurements, scribe the outside diameter of the head at X distance or 1 inch from the flange to find V. To find W, measure the outside diameter at Y distance or 3 inches from V. The measured diameters of W to S and V to R should be within .001 inches. For a 34 inch bronze shell, the Z distance is 1/2 inch. For a like new fit, the 1/2 inch will consist of a 3/16 inch shim pack and 5/16 inch pull in for a press fit of .010 inches.
Even with proficient maintenance practices, it may be necessary to rebuild the head or shell. Eventually these components wear to the point that maintenance becomes insufficient. This happens when the maximum number of shims that allow a tight fit have been removed.
At this point, material must be added to the head to restore its original dimensions. However, because both the head and shell may wear, it may be necessary to rebuild the head larger than its original specifications. (It is easier to add material to the head than the shell. )
Three repair methods can restore the head and shell: plating, spraying and installing sleeves.
- Plating. Up to .040 to .050 inches (1.00 to 1.25 mm) on diameter can be nickel plated economically.
- Metal spraying. A thin metal coating up to .125 inches (3 mm) on diameter can be applied to the surface.
- Sleeve installation. The head is cut and a metal ring is installed.
Many mills install a sleeve to restore the necessary fit between the head and shell. However, because a sleeve can weaken the head, roll specialists recommend plating first, metal spraying second and installing sleeves third. Because sleeves are the last recourse, it is recommended that a new head be ordered once a sleeve is installed.
These three repair methods offer quick, affordable solutions to prolong head and roll life. Good roll performance will continue if maintenance inspections and appropriate repairs are made to preserve head fit.
For more information about getting the correct head fit, contact your Valmet representative.
Head to Toe
Accessories are often considered ancillary to clothing in women’s fashion, yet they
have always been integral to the overall ensemble. Public historian Ariel Beaujot
notes that, from the nineteenth century, accessories “helped women create a sense
of who they were, with important consequences for how they experienced gender, class,
and race.” Head to Toe explores more than two hundred years of women’s dress from 1800 through the early
twenty-first century, focusing on the role that accessories play within the total
ensembles of Western women’s fashion, as well as the messages that they communicate
about social and cultural values.
In her book Accessories to Modernity: Fashion and the Feminine in Nineteenth-Century France (2011), French cultural historian Susan Hiner writes that in nineteenth-century France,
“A cashmere shawl might obliquely refer to imperial conquest in Algeria but openly
indicate married status in Parisian society. A silk parasol could whisper racial and
cultural supremacy but loudly proclaim the delicacy of the fairer sex. A painted fan
might conceal aesthetic and social inauthenticity but also reveal the uncontested
power of social status buttressed by wealth.”
The consumer revolution of the mid-nineteenth century led to an explosion of available
fashion goods at increasingly affordable prices. More middle- and even working-class
women could buy industrially produced accessories; however, this accessibility created
class tensions between the aspirational and those who had traditionally participated
in luxury fashion. These anxieties were expressed in intricate rules of dress that
dictated how and when proper ladies should wear certain garments and accessories.
Social commentators judged women as extravagant or ruinous by the style of their hats,
marked morality by the cleanliness of their gloves, and condemned by the vulgar color
of their shoes. Etiquette books were created to aid women new to fashion’s intricacies.
In 1860, author Florence Hartley advised that “white kid gloves, full trimmed, a fine
lace trimmed handkerchief, and a fan are indispensable” at a ball, while the book
Practical Etiquette (1899) admonished that “necklaces and jewels in the morning are monstrous, no matter
what the fashion of the moment may be.”
The communicative properties of fashion accessories did not diminish into the twentieth
century. The “new woman’s” straw boater hat indicated her vitality and independence
as surely as a flapper’s embellished compact and cigarette case displayed her modern
urbanity. During periods of hardship, such as the Great Depression and the world wars,
when fashion goods were less available, accessories provided flexibility by changing
the look of simple garments to suit multiple occasions. A jaunty hat or fanciful purse
also played the important function of raising morale and creating an outlet for social
anxieties. Elsa Schiaparelli’s circus-themed brooches and Marcel Rochas’s flower petal
sunglasses were deliberately bizarre in defiance of Europe’s unravelling political
situation, while the hats and shoes created during World War II ranged from the patriotically
staid to creative flights of fancy that made use of unrestricted materials to a farcical
These accessories contrasted with the ultra-feminine and historically inspired bags,
hats, and shoes of the “New Look.” Post-war prosperity encouraged women to return
to traditional gender roles and nineteenth-century ideals of fashion and etiquette.
However, the lady-like fashions of the couturiers in Paris were challenged by a sportier
femininity embodied in the “American Look,” as well as by the growing influence of
youth culture on mainstream style. During the following decades, young subcultural
styles found expression in accessories such as the bright opaque tights and flat Mary
Janes of the Mods, the sleek metal-link purses and futuristic sunglasses of the Space
Age style, and the home-crafted, ethnically inspired hippie look. Music was a major
influence on fashion, expressed by metallic disco platform sandals; asymmetrical,
post-modern New Wave sunglasses; the gender- bending styles of the New Romantics;
and the heavy work boots made fashionable by grunge.
As women gained social freedoms during the late twentieth century, accessories helped
mark their move into the workforce and proclaimed their financial independence. Fashions
from designer labels such as Gucci and Manolo Blahnik were prominent symbols of success
that women bought for themselves. By the 1980s, a new attitude toward flaunting one’s
wealth was articulated by over-the-top accessories such as Versace’s bold handbags
that screamed affluence and status — almost to the point of vulgarity. As fashion
moved toward the new millennium, shoes and handbags dominated as the most coveted
accessories — a concept reinforced by popular culture. They continue to be the most
lucrative products sold by fashion houses around the world.
Over the past two centuries, accessories have maintained the power to communicate
vital information about women’s lives and their roles in society. Today, a pair of
exclusive sunglasses has superseded the luxurious parasol of the nineteenth century,
yet both convey aspirational status as they shade their wearers. Likewise, a designer
cell phone case may have replaced a bejeweled makeup compact of the twenties, yet
both speak to ideas of modernity and progress in a continually evolving world.
Honda Fit 1.5 DOHC CYLINDER HEAD CASTING # 5R1 2009-2014
Honda Fit 1.5 DOHC CYLINDER HEAD CASTING # 5R1 2009-2014 REBUILT
CORE RETURN REQUIRED.
PLEASE INCLUDE YOUR AREA CODE AND TELEPHONE NUMBER
Clearwater Cylinder Head, Inc. thoroughly cleans, inspects, and pressure tests all our cylinder heads. All seat and guide work is performed as needed on the lastest state of the art Serdi or Sunnen seat and guide machine. The head then moves on to a Rottlier CBN resurfacing machine where it is cut to the required RMA finish. We then install a quality valve seal and pull a vacuum on each valve to insure there is a perfect seal between the valve and the seat. All machine work performed on the latest state of the art equipment. Head is complete and ready for installation.
WE ARE A HUGE CYLINDER HEAD SHOP WITH THOUSANDS OF HEADS IN STOCK. WE DEAL WITH ALL MAKE AND MODEL CYLINDER HEADS. IF YOU DO NOT SEE THE CYLINDER HEAD YOU NEED PLEASE CONTACT US 1-800-572-1963.
HAVE A RARE OR HARD TO FIND CYLINDER HEAD? LET US REBUILD YOUR CYLINDER HEAD FOR YOU.
Hours of operation Monday – Friday 8 AM to 5 PM EST
SHIPPING RATE APPLIES TO CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES ONLY. ALASKA, HAWAII, GUAM, VIRGIN ISLANDS, AND PUERTO RICO PLEASE E-MAIL OR CALL FOR SHIPPING RATES
SHIPPING INFORMATION: We ship worldwide.
Insurance, packaging, and handling are all included in the shipping price.
International Bidders, when inquiring about shipping fees please include city, country AND POSTAL CODE.
YOUR OLD CYLINDER HEAD:
We have no up-front core charge and we give you 30 days to return the core.
We make it easy for you to return your core as we provide you with a prepaid UPS peel and stick return shipping label located with the invoice on the outside of the box behind the plastic. Just put your core head in the box that you received your new/rebuilt head in and attach the prepaid peel and stick label. You may then give the box to any UPS driver you may see, or take the box to any UPS pickup point. We will accept your old cylinder head no matter what is wrong with it as long as it includes all the parts that the new head came with. You will never be charged extra because your old head is damaged. Cracked head? OK! Bent valves? NO PROBLEM! Head taken apart? UNDERSTANDABLE! (as long as you put all of the parts in the box). We have no up-front core charge.
WARRANTY INFORMATION: Clearwater Cylinder Head, Inc. provides a FIVE(5) year unlimited mileage warranty. A copy of the warranty card will be enclosed with your invoice.
Clearwater Cylinder Head, Inc.
5100 Ulmerton Road #2
Clearwater, FL 33760 USA
Clearwater Cylinder Head, Inc. is dedicated to quality craftsmanship and is pleased to offer this warranty. We invite you to read this entire document carefully prior to installing your cylinder head.
Please do not hesitate to contact us should you have any questions.
1) Acceptance of this head constitutes acceptance of this warranty.
2) Heat tab must be in place on head, not altered or melted.
3) Any claim must be returned to Clearwater Cylinder Head, Inc. for inspection. A copy of invoice must accompany head. A Return Authorization number must be obtained.
4) Only 1 (one) warranty per purchase.
5) Warranty begins at the date of purchase.
6) No incidental, consequential, punitive or over the road damages.
N O L A B O R
Parts Warranty only – All original cylinder heads must be returned for warranty.
WARRANTY DOES NOT COVER:
1) Damage caused by improper installation, accidental over heating, abuse or neglect.
2) Loss of time, use of vehicle, phone calls, inconvenience or consequential charges.
3) Fluids, tow charges, rentals or diagnosis.
4) Repairs made without prior authorization will void all warranties.
5) No warranty on Commercial, Industrial Racing/ Pro stock or Marine Use
If you are not in the United States and you want a shipping quote please include your country and postal/zip code when inquiring.
How to measure and fit a riding helmet
A properly fitted helmet is essential to riding safely. Our quick fitting tips and size conversion chart will help you get the correct sizing. We’ll also share a video to show what happens during a professional hat fitting, and lastly touch on advice for buying a kids helmet.
Charles Owen’s helmet range caters for every head shape. If one helmet model doesn’t feel quite right, try a Round Fit version or another model.
Before buying a helmet, check which international equestrian safety standards it meets. A helmet that meets multiple standards is guaranteed to offer protection in a wider range of accident scenarios.
How to size your head for a riding helmet
Using a soft fabric measuring tape, wrap it around the widest part of your head (over your hair).
It should follow a line about 3/4 inch above your eyebrows, just above the ear line and around the bump at the back of your head.
Take the measurement in centimetres (cm) and repeat a couple of times for the most accurate sizing.
Unlike most other helmet brands which rely on adjustable or broad size ranges (small/medium/large), Charles Owen sizing is very specific because that ensures the safest and most comfortable fit.
Riding helmet size chart
Use the size chart table below to convert your head size into a standard riding hat or jockey skull cap size.
|Head size (cm)||Helmet size||Skull cap size|
|50||6 1/8||000 1/2|
|52||6 3/8||00 1/2|
|54||6 5/8||0 1/2|
|56||6 7/8||1 1/2|
|58||7 1/8||2 1/2|
|60||7 3/8||3 1/2|
|62||7 5/8||4 1/2|
|64||7 7/8||5 1/2|
Sizes 55cm and below are classed as children’s and are VAT exempt in the UK.
If you are between two sizes, round up to the larger size, or ideally try on helmets in both to determine which one gives the most snug fitting.
How to put a riding helmet on
When putting a helmet on, we are looking to get ‘the lock’. This is a sensation of the helmet latching and gripping onto the back of your head, which means it is on properly, secure and safe.
- Hair should ideally be worn in a low pony tail (if applicable)
- Place your forehead into the front of the helmet
- Using a rolling motion, push backwards to feel the helmet lock into the base of the skull (listen for a suction sound)
- Run a finger around the rim of the helmet to check for gaps or loose points. If there is any movement or gaps you may need to try a different size or a Round Fit
- Always adjust the chin strap first, then tie the back laces with a knot and bow (if applicable).
How should a riding helmet fit?
A new helmet will break in as you wear it and mould to the shape of your head. It should fit like a new pair of boots: snug, with a firm and even pressure all the way around.
Things to c
- A snug fit with even, firm pressure around the entire head
- No specific pressure points or gaps
- Helmet locks onto the back of the skull
- Helmet sits level on the head, covering the forehead leaving about an inch above the eyebrows
- With the harness unfastened, the helmet should not rock forwards nor backwards
- The chinstrap should sit just under the chin and gently touch the bottom of the ear lobe, avoiding the throat
- You should be able to put a finger between the strap and your chin
- The harness laces at the back of the helmet should be secured tightly
- Wear the helmet for 5 minutes to give time for it to mould to your head and reveal any pressure points.
Most people have an oval shaped head but some have a rounder shape. The shape of your head can effect how a helmet fits and its comfort.
Determining head shape – bird’s eye view
If you have a rounder shaped head, you may need to be open to trying on a variety of different helmets because models can fit slightly differently.
Most of our helmets now come in a Round Fit size. Find out how to tell your head shape.
VIEW FITTING POSTER
Watch a professional helmet fitting
Professor Roy Burek of Charles Owen demonstrates how to find the correct helmet size for your head and ensure it fits you comfortably and safely.
Buying and fitting a child’s helmet
You can follow the same steps as above when measuring or fitting your child with a riding helmet, however there are a few extra important considerations.
Don’t be tempted into buying your child a helmet that’s a size too big so that it lasts longer. As with adults, a kid’s riding helmet must fit snug on their head for every ride otherwise it is simply not safe.
Children often wear riding helmets too loose which compromises the safety of the product. If possible, we recommend children are professionally fitted. At the very least parents should follow the steps above every time their child goes riding.
In particular, check the helmet is sitting level on your child’s head, not falling back or too far forward. Their forehead should be covered, about one inch above the eyebrows. Also ensure the harness is done up properly, but not too tight. You should be able to get a finger between their chin and the strap.
It’s a good idea to let your child choose the helmet they like best, as they are more likely to wear it properly, but always check it has the latest safety standards.
Most of our riding hats do come in small sizing but we also have a kids range specifically designed and engineered for them.
In the UK, kids riding helmets (55cm and below) are VAT free.
We want you to find the Charles Owen helmet you love, so feel free to ask our knowledgeable fitting experts any questions here.
Book a helmet fitting with your local stockist or browse our riding helmets.
Best selling helmets
See our guide to the best riding helmets for each discipline.
How Does A Large Head Fit Through A Small Exit?
It’s the question most pregnant women have pondered at some point.
How on earth does a baby’s head fit through such a small exit?
After hearing all the comparisons between a baby’s head and a large fruit, they might have concerns about how the physics will work during labour and birth.
Although it can be hard to imagine, especially if you haven’t given birth before, in almost all cases, a baby’s head is perfectly able to fit through the birth canal.
In the rare situation where the pelvis is too small for the baby, there is usually a known reason, such as severe injury, or congenital abnormalities.
So if you’re worried about how your baby’s head is going to fit, read on. Find out why a c-section doesn’t have to be your only option.
What Happens During Labour?
During labour, your baby’s head will pass through a gap in the pelvic bones before it reaches the vaginal opening. At this point, the size of the baby’s head is less important than the position the baby is in.
A baby in the occiput position (back facing the mother’s belly) is in the optimal position for birth. As the baby descends through the pelvic outlet, the smallest part of the head presents first. This makes the descent through the pelvis much easier.
A baby in another position might not present the smallest part of the head first. Some babies are in posterior position (back facing the mother’s back) or have their heads flexed, rather than tucked in. This means the largest part of the head is leading the way.
Women who are free to move about in labour tend to adopt positions that help the pelvis remain ‘open’ and flexible. A woman who is lying on her back, or is semi-reclined on a bed, immobilises her pelvis. This reduces the amount of space the baby has to move through.
How Your Baby Helps
We often think of babies as being the ‘passengers’ in the journey of labour and birth. But they are not simply ‘waiting’ to be born; they participate actively.
Babies can wriggle into a good position for birth. They twist and turn, and sometimes they push with their feet. They can also fall asleep! But most importantly, their heads are amazingly designed to fit through the birth canal.
A newborn baby’s skull isn’t a fixed bony structure. It is divided into several plates. These plates are separated by soft areas, which allow the plates to move and overlap as the head is squeezed through the pelvis and vagina.
So essentially, your baby’s head can adjust to fit the size of your body.
What Happens To My Body?
During pregnancy, your body releases a hormone called relaxin. As its name suggests, this hormone encourages the ligaments in your body to relax and loosen, in preparation for giving birth.
The pelvis is not a fixed bony structure, either. There is a joint at the front called the symphysis pubis which connects the two halves of the pelvis. This joint is made up of fibrocartilage – a tough and very strong tissue, found in ligaments and tendons.
During birth, this joint is flexible and allows more space for the baby to move through the pelvis. If you are able to squat, kneel with legs wide apart, or assume a lunge position, you allow the baby even more space in the pelvis.
As your baby moves down through the dilated cervix, the bones in his skull will shift to fit through. As this is the widest part of the baby, it leads the way for the rest of the baby’s body.
At the same time, thanks to another hormone called estrogen, the tissues of the vagina will begin to stretch. This increases blood flow to the vagina, so the connective tissues can expand during the second stage, when your baby is descending.
Most women are surprised (and often disappointed) to feel their baby’s head come down, and then go back up during the pushing stage. While this can cause frustration, it is perfectly designed to allow your body to stretch gently.
As the baby’s head begins to move further down, the perineum starts to stretch. This is the area of skin and connective tissue found between the vagina and anus. The perineum is capable of stretching to allow the baby’s head through, especially if the mother is in a free position (not lying down), and relaxed (tight muscles can hinder this stretching).
When women push instinctively with each contraction, the perineum is more likely to stretch gently, and without tearing. It will unfold and stretch until it becomes paper thin. This can be a very intense sensation, and many women describe it as a burning or stinging feeling. Warm water can help the tissues to stretch with little pain, and warm compresses can relieve any pain.
What Does My Care Provider Have To Do With It?
When it’s a question of a large head fitting through a small exit, choosing a care provider who supports normal birth can make all the difference.
If the person who supports you during pregnancy and birth has faith in you, you are more likely to feel confident and prepared to work with your body during labour.
A care provider who has restrictive policies about movement, positions, time limits, and so on will undermine your ability to let your labour unfold. You will be look for external motivators rather than just listening to your body and working with your baby.
Doubt is powerful. It can get in the way of your belief that your body is perfectly designed to create a baby, and to give birth to that baby. Choose your birth support team wisely, with that in mind.
Small Pelvis? Big Baby? Here’s The Truth About CPD
Active Birth – 8 Big Benefits For Mother and Baby
90,000 Psychologist’s blog: clarification of the relationship – is it useful or not?
- Elena Savinova
Don’t like to argue? You just don’t know how to do it right!
A typical situation is: people live quietly and peacefully, do not quarrel. And suddenly, because of a broken cup or a recklessly thrown mocking word, one of the partners collects things and slams the door. The other remains shocked: was the cup really that important, or he (she) was just looking for an excuse.
From a broken cup to a “broken trough”
There is a misconception that if disputes begin between people, this indicates a deterioration in relations and the beginning of the end of love.
In fact, by avoiding conflict, we build psychological defense, avoiding frank communication with each other.
Giving preference to innuendo and closeness, we subconsciously try not to let anyone into our inner “cocoon”.
This allows, on the one hand, to keep your own ideas about the world and yourself in it unchanged.On the other hand, to please a child’s desire to be good, that is, to meet the expectations of others, and to hide their desires, and most importantly, unwillingness and discontent, as “bad” emotions. And then suddenly it turns out that we, and not a partner, need to change our outlook on life. And this is a painful procedure, because it requires leaving the comfort zone.
Of course, he cannot arrange everything. Therefore, irritation suppressed due to unspoken negativity accumulates until a grandiose explosion occurs, allegedly caused by some “trifle”.
To prevent this from happening, it is even necessary to argue, oddly enough, to maintain the mental hygiene of the relationship. You just need to follow certain rules.
The first and most important thing has already been determined – not to suppress discontent, but to transform it into a positive in a general conversation as a conflict situation arises. Because if one conflict is not completed, it will carry over to other situations.
It is necessary to speak in the “here” and “now” mode, operating with concrete facts, and avoiding phrases like “You always do this” or “You never have me… “. Because it will keep the partner at a dead end of guilt.
Refuse evaluations and comparisons, because they affect the partner’s dignity, in favor of your own feelings and experiences. That is, instead of” You are a callous idol “say” I was it’s unpleasant to hear from you … “,” I felt pain when you … “and so on.
Objective and subjective logic
Remember, most of the conflicts and suspicions are not based on real facts, but on our interpretations of some completely innocent words or events.
For example, a simple “text message” on the day off on the wife’s phone screen with the text: “Hello, how are you?” raises the darkest suspicions of adultery.
And from the mere fact that a man came home late in the evening, his wife draws a number of conclusions: “You are not alone!”
So, guided by objective logic, we arrange the facts in a certain sequence, as a result of which the event itself and its causes become obvious.But it turns out better in the protocols of the investigator.
In human relations, unfortunately, this kind of logic prevails, when events, which most likely did not happen, are built in the virtual space of an unfolding imagination. And they reproduce not reality, but rather neurotic states and complexes of a person, in whose head all this is happening. The disadvantage of subjective logic is that certain meanings are ascribed to neutral facts, depending on the unmet needs and desires of the one who does it.
For example, a man who, because of his own personal problems, began to think that his wife had lost interest in him, silently collected “evidence” of her inattention and indifference. The woman noticed the estrangement of her partner, but decided not to ask anything, thinking that he was either tired or “he has someone.”
Therefore, a message from a colleague who wanted to change shifts fell on the prepared ground and became in the man’s imagination a material “confirmation” of his far-fetched suspicion of his wife’s infidelity.She, in turn, decided that when a loved one raised a butch because of a neutral SMS message, it means he was cheating and was only looking for an excuse to “move the arrows”.
Neither one nor the other was true, but during a quarrel, when the consciousness is clouded and emotions go off scale, few people care. People do not exchange logical arguments, but ready-made distorted interpretations like “you don’t love me” or “you ruined my life” – in the case of low self-esteem.
Fear of abandonment turns into jealousy, suppressed aggression manifests itself in accusations of cruelty and indifference.Needless to say, there is no question of any constructive solution to the conflict situation in such conditions.
Therefore, one should not silently endure and suffer, ostensibly in order to preserve the illusion of consent. If our heroes calmly talked to each other in time about their doubts and fears, this would allow them to avoid a destructive scandal and groundless mutual grievances.
Why argue with the past
But why are adults and people successful in social life not able to resolve conflict situations with their loved ones as effectively?
The reason is that at work our roles and attitudes are the same: adults communicate with adults.In marital relationships, we often move to parent-child positions.
Psychologists believe that in this way we are trying to “correct” those shortcomings in our relationship with a partner that prevented us from communicating normally with our parents. If we still have conflicts there, we subconsciously “work out” them already in our own family.
When communicating with a spouse, we seem to still continue to prove something to our father or mother. So, imperceptibly for ourselves, we are moving from the social, adult level to the childish, emotional one.This is what prevents you from arguing in an adult way, without hysterics and resentment.
What is the difference? For a child, love is above all, therefore, often people in adulthood avoid disputes, fearing punishment by deprivation of love. Adults are oriented toward understanding, so they usually cope with fluctuations in the intensity of love.
The child reacts to gestures, the timbre of the voice, the meaning of the conversation is important for an adult. During upbringing, emotional sanctions are often used: resentment, aggression, coldness. In married life we are dealing with an established personality, therefore such “education” is inappropriate.
Arguing, children ultimately and rigidly defend their point of view (all or nothing), they do not take into account the desires of others. Adults, on the other hand, take a more flexible position, tend to give in and compromise.
So you can see for yourself which line of behavior is inherent in you when you sort things out. And if the childish, spontaneously infantile prevails in it, then isn’t this standing in the way of the search for a common language, isn’t it worth it to finally grow up?
In any case, respect your partner.After all, the subject of the dispute will quickly evaporate from consciousness, but the offensive words will be remembered for many years. 90,011 90,000 Early children. Features of adaptation and development of premature babies
The first year of life of any child has the most intensive growth and rapid development. But during this period, the body is extremely vulnerable, the defenses are weak and imperfect, especially for children who were born prematurely and are considered premature.
Premature babies are children born at a gestational age of 28 to 37 full weeks, weighing from 1000 to 2500 grams., height 35 – 45 cm.
The reasons for their premature birth are varied: too young age and, accordingly, the mother’s body; hemolytic disease of the fetus, which develops as a result of Rh-conflict; pathological (abnormal) course of pregnancy; previous abortion, illness, physical and mental trauma; harmful working conditions, the use of nicotine and alcohol.
What a premature baby looks like. Anatomical and physiological signs.
There are 4 degrees of prematurity, depending on the weight of the child:
1 degree: 2500 -2001 grams 3 degree: 1500 – 1001 grams
Grade 2: 2000 – 1500 grams Grade 4: 1000 grams or less.
Since body weight may or may not correspond to the gestational age at the time of birth, premature babies are divided into 2 groups also according to these characteristics.
• children whose physical development corresponds to the gestational age at the time of birth;
• children whose physical development lags behind that at a given gestational age.
In premature infants, the subcutaneous fat layer is insufficiently developed, i.e. they suffer more from overheating and hypothermia. The skin is thin, dry, wrinkled, abundantly covered with fluff. Insufficient maturity of the blood vessels is manifested by the “Harlequin” symptom. If you put the baby on its side, the skin acquires a contrasting pink color.
The bones of the skull are malleable; not only the large, but also the small fontanel is open.
The auricles are soft – the cartilage in them has not yet formed, pressed to the head, and not separated from it, like in full-term.
The nails do not reach the edge of the phalanges of the fingers, the umbilical cord is located below the middle of the body, and not in the center.
The underdevelopment of the genitals is indicative: in girls, the labia minora are not covered with large ones. In boys, the testicles are not descended into the scrotum.
The child does not suck well, swallows with difficulty.The cry is weak, breathing is not rhythmic. Physiological jaundice often lasts up to 3-4 weeks.
The umbilical cord falls off much later, and the umbilical wound heals more slowly.
Has its own characteristics and physiological weight loss. It is restored only by 2-3 weeks of life, and the timing of the restoration of the mass is in direct proportion to the maturity of the child, i.e. not only the date of his birth, but also the degree of adaptation of the baby to environmental conditions.
In premature babies, the nerve centers that regulate the rhythm of respiration are not fully formed. The formation of lung tissue is not completed, in particular, a substance that prevents the “collapse” of the lungs – Surfactant. Therefore, their breathing rate is not constant. With anxiety, it reaches 60-80 per minute, at rest and during sleep it becomes less common, and respiratory arrest may even be observed. The expansion of the lungs due to an insufficient amount of Surfactant is slowed down, the phenomena of respiratory failure may be observed.
Heart rate also depends on the child’s condition and environmental conditions. When the ambient temperature rises and the child is anxious, the heart rate rises to 200 beats per minute.
Premature newborns are more likely to experience asphyxia and cerebral hemorrhage. They are more likely to suffer from acute respiratory diseases, intestinal infections, which is due to weak immunity and insufficient development of many adaptive reactions.
These babies are more likely than full-term babies to develop anemia (anemia).
Especially during the period when intensive growth and weight gain begins (2-3 months). With proper nutrition of the child and mother, if she is breastfeeding, these phenomena quickly disappear. In the case when the anemia is protracted, it is necessary to prescribe iron supplements.
The further development of a child is determined not only by the degree of prematurity, but also, in many respects, by the state of his health at a given period of time.
If a child is practically healthy, from the 2nd month of life he gains weight and height in the same way as full-term ones. By the end of the 1st year, the weight increases by 5-10 times compared to the birth weight.
The average height is 70-77 cm.
The nervous system of premature babies is also more immature. The development of various skills, their intellectual development lags behind by 1-2 months.
These children sit down later, later begin to walk, they may have anomalies in the structure of the foot, curvature of the legs, and the spine.If babies are born deeply premature and often get sick, their development slows down by about a year. In the future, it levels off, approximately to preschool age.
If you have suffered intrauterine hypotrophy, i.e. the nutrition of the fetus was disturbed for some reason – mother’s diseases, anomalies in the development of the child himself, anomalies in the development of the umbilical cord and placenta, then its central nervous system can recover over time (therefore, the supervision of a neurologist is very important).
Lability of the nervous system may be noted (mood changes easily, often gives in to emotions, conflicts with people around them are frequent), night fears, enuresis (urinary incontinence), lack of appetite, and a tendency to nausea.
However, in general, premature babies grow up as completely normal people.
Care for a premature baby after discharge from the hospital.
For a child born prematurely, dispensary observation is established at the place of residence for up to 7 years.
Periodic consultations of specialists are obligatory, first of all – a neurologist, as well as a surgeon, otolaryngologist, ophthalmologist
From the age of 2-4 weeks, prophylaxis of rickets is carried out (ultraviolet
irradiation – quartzing, adding vitamin D to food, massage, hardening).
The most adequate type of nutrition for a premature baby is breastfeeding.But given that the baby can suck out an insufficient amount of breast milk, you can supplement him with expressed milk or adapted formulas.
From 4 months – vegetable purees, 5 months – porridge, 6 months – give a meat soufflé.
Correction of protein and fat deficiency is carried out by adding the required amount of kefir and cottage cheese, starting with 5 ml, gradually increasing the dosage.
The room in which the premature baby lives should be light, dry and thoroughly ventilated.The optimum room temperature is 20-22 *. C. Walking is very important. Adequate exposure to fresh air prevents the development of pathological conditions.
In winter, walks begin at 2 months of age at an air temperature of at least -8, -10 * C. The duration of the walk is from 15 minutes to 2 hours. In summer, the child can spend all the intervals between feedings in the fresh air. On windy, rainy and very hot days (more than 30 * C), it is better for children to sleep indoors with open windows or on the veranda.
Daily warm baths are helpful. When bathing premature babies, the water temperature should be at least 37 * C.
Vaccination of premature babies is carried out strictly according to an individual schedule, it depends on the state of health, physical and neuropsychic development of the child.
When organizing the care of a child born prematurely, the functional characteristics of the body should be taken into account.
In conclusion, let us say: as long-term observations show, despite all the peculiarities, with good care, due attention of parents and doctors, premature babies develop successfully and after a year they catch up with their peers.
“I will shoot a block in my head for 10 km and get ready for Paris”
Anastasia Kirpichnikova: “I will shoot a block in my head for 10 km and prepare for Paris”
Russian Anastasia Kirpichnikova said that in December she intends to perform in Abu Dhabi both at the World Short Course Championships and at the starts as part of the Open Water World Cup, as well as the need to remove the block in my head about the 10 km distance.
In Kazan, Kirpichnikova for the first time in her career won the European championship in the individual distance, winning gold in the 800 m short course with a Russian record.
– Nastya, this is your first title at the European and World Championships. How does it feel?
– Nice ones, I’ve dreamed about this for a long time.
– We sang the anthem on the pedestal with inspiration!
– From childhood I dreamed about it and I did not have such an opportunity. So we will assume that I am starting now.
– What does this European Championship mean for you, considering that it is post-Olympic and in short course?
– All starts are important. For me, this is experience and preparation for the World Cup.
– In addition to the World Championship itself, Abu Dhabi will also have a Water Festival combined with open water competitions. Are you planning to perform there?
– I have a relay race in open water, 10 km and after that another start in the pool. 800 m freestyle and if I qualify – also 400 m.
– France entered Russia into the red zone. How difficult did it make your travels?
– It is not so difficult to get to Russia, I hope there will be no problems with entering France either.
– Did you manage to rethink everything that happened at the Olympics?
– I can say that I have a block in my head about 10 km, but I am trying to get rid of it. There are two and a half years ahead, I will gain experience and I will normally sail open water to Paris, ”Kirpichnikova said in an interview with Match TV….
90,000 US Visa Application | Photos and fingerprints
Photos & Fingerprints
On this page:
As part of the DS-160 application filling and submission process. on the issuance of a nonimmigrant visa is the transfer of a photograph of the applicant to the website.The photo must be taken no earlier than 6 months before the date of filling out the application. You must also take a printed copy of the photo with you to the US Embassy or Consulate for your interview. Fingerprints are taken during an interview at the US Embassy or Consulate.
Part of your visa interview is to have your fingerprints taken at the US Embassy or Consulate. During the visa application process, usually during an interview, a quick digital fingerprint scan is performed without the use of ink.A number of applicants, including the individuals listed below, are not required to be fingerprinted:
- Applicants entering the United States on behalf of government authorities.
- Applicants under the age of 14 and over the age of 79.
A photograph for a visa must meet certain requirements regarding the size and nature of the image. Submitting a photo that does not meet these requirements may slow down the process of processing your visa application. Photo must have been taken within the last 6 months. If you are applying for a new visa instead of an expired one, then you need to take a picture again and provide a new photo.
Even if an inappropriate photograph is accepted by the electronic application system, a new photograph must be submitted to apply for a visa.
The photo should show your entire head, from the top, including hair, to the bottom of your chin.In order for a photograph to be taken, the height of the head in the image must be 25-35 mm (1-1-3 / 8 inches), or 50% -70% of the photograph, as in the picture:
Photo must be square (length is equal to width), 5x5cm. Minimum image resolution: 600×600 pixels (height x width). Maximum image resolution: 1200 x 1200 pixels (height x width).
The position of the head in the photograph is very important…. The photo must show the entire face. When taking pictures, look directly into the camera and do not close your eyes.
For best results, the background of the photo should be white or close to white.
Your photograph or digital image must meet the following requirements:
- Color image.
- Made in the last six months and matches what you look like at the moment.
- Facial expression should be neutral, eyes open.
- The clothes that fall into the frame should be casual:
- Photos of applicants in the form will not be accepted. An exception is clothing worn every day for religious reasons.
- Photos of applicants wearing a headdress that obscures their hair or hairline will not be accepted. The exception is headgear, which is worn every day for religious reasons.The face must be fully visible, the headdress must not obscure the face.
- Photos showing the applicant with headphones, wireless headsets and similar devices will not be accepted.
- If you constantly wear hearing aids or similar devices, you can take pictures with them.
- Do not take pictures with glasses. No such photos will be accepted from 1st November 2016. For more information on photography requirements, see https: // travel.state.gov/content/travel/en/us-visas/visa-information-resources/photos.html
For more information on visa photography requirements, visit the Department of State’s website.
The Department of State has posted answers to frequently asked questions about photographs on this page.
90,000 A new regulation of the Ministry of Internal Affairs for the issuance and replacement of passports has come into force – Rossiyskaya Gazeta
“It is not allowed to present a photograph of a citizen with an edited image in order to improve the appearance of the person depicted or its artistic processing.The image must reliably reflect all the features of the face of the person being photographed, “- stated in the regulations.
You cannot continue to bring photographs taken in lenses that change the natural color of the eyes. He is allowed, but under two conditions
You can only take pictures with glasses without tinted glasses. In addition, the frame must not close your eyes
Another important point is the prohibition on photography in uniform.This technique, by the way, is used by swindlers.
Legal aspects of obtaining a passport are examined by RG experts in the heading “Legal Consultation”
According to the administrative regulations of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, a photograph in a passport of a citizen of the Russian Federation must “correspond to the age of the citizen on the day of filing the application.” In this case, the photo can be black and white or color. The face image should be in focus from the tip of the chin to the hairline and from the nose to the ears. In the photo, the person is depicted strictly from the front view and looks straight with a neutral facial expression and a closed mouth.But the eyes, on the contrary, should be open and not obscured by hair.
It is also prohibited to be photographed in outer clothing and in scarves that cover part of the chin. Headwear is allowed only for religious reasons and on condition that it does not hide the oval of the face. “The photo should fit the head and the top of the shoulders, and the distance from the top of the head to the chin should not be more than 80 percent of the vertical frame. The free top margin above the head should be 5 (+/- 1) millimeters.The background must be white, even, without stripes, spots and images of foreign objects and shadows, “- says the regulation. To apply for a passport or a replacement passport, you must bring two photographs to the MFC. If you need a temporary ID, please bring a third photo
In a photograph for a passport of a citizen of the Russian Federation, a person is depicted strictly full-face and looks straight with a neutral expression on his face and a closed mouth
And one more innovation – for citizens who issue a passport through the website of state services.It is possible to suspend the procedure for issuing a passport for a period not exceeding 30 calendar days. This will happen if the applicant does not appear at the migration department within three calendar days after his invitation to the appointment.
Also, the administrative regulations were supplemented with annexes of sample applications in case of loss of a passport and identification of citizens for the subsequent receipt of state services for issuing a passport.
Administrative regulations of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia entered into force on January 11, 2021.But the Ministry of Internal Affairs decided to remind about it now, when people actively, in connection with the weakening of antiquarian security measures, went to change and receive new passports. Explanations about the new requirements in recent days have been actively published by the press services of the regional central administrations of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
What is chronic migraine?
Chronic migraine – a disease in which the head hurts 15 days a month or more. Moreover, attacks typical of migraine occur at least eight times a month .This is the description given by the III International Classification of Headaches.
How does chronic migraine occur?
As a rule, before a person develops a chronic migraine, he suffers from more rare attacks (episodic migraine). When the disease becomes chronic, the headache may lose its migraine features. It can become bilateral, compressive rather than pulsating. The accompanying symptoms become weaker – vomiting, light and sound phobia.Nevertheless, although chronic migraine is less similar to the classic one, it is also sensitive to specific anti-migraine drugs – triptans.
What is the problem with the treatment of chronic migraine?
Up to 3-4% of people worldwide suffer from chronic daily or almost daily headache. The main reason for which is chronic migraine. However, it is usually difficult for doctors to diagnose. They take it for a chronic tension headache, they believe that the pain is caused by osteochondrosis or insufficient blood supply to the brain (which does not at all correspond to modern scientific ideas about the nature of migraine).
What Really Causes Chronic Migraine?
Large studies were carried out, which revealed that the development of chronic migraine is influenced by:
- Excessive use of drugs for relieving headaches (pain relievers),
- depression, stress and / or increased anxiety,
- Increased frequency of episodic migraine attacks.
One of the significant factors in the transition of migraine to chronic migraine is also considered previous, even for many years, physical or emotional abuse.
However, whether this is all a cause or a consequence of chronic migraine is still under discussion. What is scientifically proven: at the initial stage of the development of chronic migraine, when rare attacks become more frequent, certain biochemical changes occur in the brain. The brain learns pain. If preventive treatment is started at this stage, chronic migraines can be prevented. If more than 6 months have passed since the onset of chronic migraine, the chances of success decrease. Therefore, it is important not to delay treatment.
What if you suspect your migraine attacks are more frequent?
- Start keeping a headache diary. For example @ Migrebot in Telegram. You need to consider how many days a month you “fall out of life” due to migraines, what medications, including over-the-counter ones, and how much you take, what events preceded the increased frequency of attacks (head injury, started taking a new medication, etc.) ). Try to remember how many times a month you had a headache before
- Contact a specialist.Chronic migraines are much easier to prevent than to cure. Don’t wait until it becomes daily!
- If you are taking pain relievers with opiates / opioids (codeine, hydrocodone, meperidine, tramadol, oxycodone) and drugs containing butalbital, you will need to stop or reduce their intake.
If the headache has already become chronic
- Do not tolerate a headache, relieve attacks quickly and aggressively (take a sufficient dose of the drug at the beginning of the attack).At the same time, avoid taking the drug of the same class too often. Ask your doctor to advise you on several drugs of different pharmacological groups;
- actively use non-drug methods of treatment;
- if you are overweight, try to get rid of it;
- Ask a specialist for help in treating comorbidities, if any. It is necessary to treat depression, anxiety, sleep disorders.
In the treatment of chronic migraine, openness and honesty between doctor and patient is especially important.Thanks to partnerships, early treatment of developing chronic migraine can give remarkable results.
- “International classification of headaches, 2nd edition (full Russian version)” , 2006, 380 p.
- Nikitin S.S., Artemenko A.R., Kurenkov A.L. “Treatment of chronic migraine.” // Journal of Neurology and Psychiatry named after S.S. Korsakov. – 2011. – N 5. – S. 85-89.
- Tabeeva G.R., Yakhno N.N. “Migraine”. // GEOTAR-media. – 2011 .– 624s.
- Barbanti P., Aurilia C., Egeo G., Fofi L. “Migraine prophylaxis: what is new and what we need?” // Neurol Sci. – 2011. – v.32. – Suppl 1. – S111-115
- Manack A.N., Buse D.C., Lipton R.B. Chronic migraine: epidemiology and disease burden. // Curr Pain Headache Rep. – 2011. – v. 15. – p.70-78.
- Rothrock J.F. “Migraine” chronification “”. // Headache. – 2008. – v.48. – p.181-182
- Rothrock J.F. “Migraine” chronification “: what can you do”. // Headache. – 2009. – v.49. – p. 155-156