Forrester Wood Shafts – HomeI will help you carefully select a shaft that meets your needs in both a dynamic spine element (matched to your bow weight/draw length) and an aesthetic sense to compliment the artistry of your bow and the shooting goals of you the archer. Many times through the shaft consultation process I will help you select a shaft that is spined less than the manufacturers of softwoods recommend. This is due to the speed of which hardwoods can recover from “archers paradox”. The options are almost endless when choosing a hardwood shaft for your individual needs. Please feel free to send me an email or call me for any questions.
Spines to match your needs in ranges from 25-140 lbs and weights 270 grains up to 850 gr.
All sizes available up to 34″ long.
“Heavy Hitters” are in Leopardwood, Hard Rock Maple, Jatoba, (Brazilian Cherry) and
NEW: LIGHT WEIGHT HARDWOODS with interlocking grain that won’t split like spruce,
cedar, or fir after a “Robin Hood” shot.
Light weight hardwood: (See shaftwood options page for full list)
* MAHOGANY…5/16, spines 33-53#, 280-400 grains.
(11/32, spines 54-70#, 420-500 grains).
*Match grade competition shafts: +/- 5 lbs spine and +/- 5
grains per dozen shafts.
RED BALAU…9/32, spines 45-50#, 425-480 grains.
Price: $80/doz. Teak & Puprpleheart
$70/doz. Leopardwood, Hard Rock Maple, Red Balau, Lacewood
$60/doz. Matched Grade Mahogany
Add $15/doz. for larger point footing.
Add: Shipping is $10-15.00 for 12-24 shafts.
(Call for outside continental U.S.)
7 sample shafts for $30
Add: Shipping $10
NEW: NATURAL FOOTINGS are now available on 9/32 and 5/16 for larger field points
and broadheads for an additional $15/doz.
Tapering (custom) is now available for Mahogany and Lacewood for an
Extended length shafts from 33″ – 36″ shafts available in Mahogany for
an additional $10. 00
I guarantee my work with free exchange if needed. As these are ‘custom’ shafts, I’ll work with you personally to make sure we find the best combination for you.
I’ll need to know your bow type, draw length, point weight, hunting big game or smaller game, target shooting, and distance you are comfortable shooting.
List of bows and matching shafts are recommendations based on testing. Different combinations can be done based on preference. Arrow material is based on availability. Spines and weights listed are approximations depending on section of tree being harvested. Each dozen arrows ordered are cut from the same section of board to ensure the best match possible.
Spines are matched +/- 8 lbs and +/-10 grains.
Match grade competition shafts: +/- 5 lbs spine and +/- 5 grains per dozen shafts.
Order completion and delivery time will be determined at time of actual order.
To learn more about my approach: http://www.forresterwoodshafts.com/news-release. html
A Comparison of Swab Handle Materials
The handles or shafts of swabs and applicators have distinctly different attributes. How do you know which is best for your business or work? Start with this primer. In this article, we compare the different types of swab handle materials so you can make the best choice for your application.Wood Applicator Shafts
Wood is about as basic as it gets when it comes to swab shafts. Puritan’s wood shafts are sticks milled from Northern White birch. They are economical, sturdy and rigid, and well-suited for applying to or cleaning in basic patient care or industrial applications.
A natural material, wood may introduce dust and can fracture in use. Applicators with wood shafts are not suitable for microbiological collection applications. Standard lengths are 3” and 6”.Plastic Applicator Shafts
This material comes in many forms and is desirable for its clean, non-porous and non-dusting properties.
Plastic applicator shafts are commonly found in patient care and specimen collection, and also used in industrial cleaning applications. Standard lengths are 3” and 6”, but these can be scored to break at a predictable point.
Polypropylene, also a synthetic plastic material, is durable and resistant to fracture. This shaft is suitable for patient care, specimen collection, and a broad range of industrial applications where greater durability is required.
Applicators with wire shafts are often used in medical settings. Made of aluminum or stainless steel, these fine-diameter flexible shafts are useful in specimen collection where standard swabs are simply too big. They’re also an ideal choice in specialty industrial applications where conductivity is not a concern.Paper Applicator Shafts
Paper is a familiar shaft material for lollipops, but can also be found in tipped applicators. Paper is smooth, white, and somewhat flexible. It is available in fine diameter for critical cleaning applications and in longer lengths for medical applications. The range of standard applicators with paper shafts is limited when compared to wood or plastic shaft products.
Custom Swab Handles and Shafts
Looking for something else? When your application requires shaft properties that are beyond basic, contact Puritan’s product specialists to discuss the possibilities. There are many shaft material options in the Puritan line, and more available to create your custom product.
The Art of Making ShaftsThe Art of Making Shafts – Wapiti Archery POC Skip to content
We harvest all of our own arrow bolts in the Pacific Northwest from properties owned by our families.We pick the best snags or downed logs that we can find. Most of this wood has either been standing dead or laying on the ground for 50-100 years. All of these bolts are cut to 36″, hand split in half, then into quarters, and then hand packed out to the road and loaded on the truck.
The bolts are then put inside our milling facility to dry. Once dried down to a certain moisture content, they are then run through a Baker resaw/bandsaw where they are cut down into 2″ planks for easy handling.
Then they will be moved into a state of the art dehumidification kiln to be brought down to the right moisture content. We will then move them to a room with big fans and room temperature to set for 2-3 weeks to stabilize.
Once the planks are dried to a certain moisture content, we then take them to a planer. They are run through the planer to be prettied up so that we can see the grain more clearly. Once we have decided the plank has good, straight grain, because here at Wapiti Archery POC, we believe a premium shaft has good, straight grain from end to end.
To find the grain in the plank, we run an awl, which is a long pointed spike, down the grain line on the plank. This tells us how much we have to take off with the jointer to line the grain up. This is so we have grain end to end on our shafts. Straight grain is very important for a good, durable port orford cedar shaft.
Then we take the board to the jointer and joint down to that line, to line up the grain. The grain will be checked several times in the next couple phases to make sure the grain stays straight on the board.
The gang saw is a 3 bladed saw, which is used to cut the planks into smaller 3/8″ wide planks. After running the board through the gang saw one time, the grain is checked on the plank to make sure we did not go off of grain line. If so, it goes back to the jointer to be straighted up. These little planks, once cut, are put into a cart and left for 2-3 days to stabilize.
Once we are done gangsawing all of our wood into smaller planks, it is then taken to the bandsaw where it is turned into squares.These squares are put into buckets and left for 1-2 days to stabilize and make sure the moisture content is correct before running into shafts.
We are now ready to turn the squares into the world’s finest tapered port orford cedar shafts. This machine was built in the 1940s and is still in production today. This machine is no regular arrow machine, when you put a square 3/8″ stick in the machine, it tapers the last 9″ of the shaft down to 5/16″ on the nock end of shafts that are 11/32″ or 23/64″. The machine also builds a 5/16″ tapered shaft which tapers down to 9/32″ on the nock end and these shafts are used by some of the finest traditional shooters in the world and have won many world and state titles.
The shafts after coming out of the ol’ arrow machine are then checked for grain straightness, splits, and any other possible defects. These shafts are then put into cans and moved to the spining room to sit for at least 48 hours to stabilize. Since these shafts have been slightly compressed, they have to sit awhile for the grain to stabilize.
Once the shafts get to the spining room, they are lightly hand sanded. The ones that do not make premiums are not sanded, they are thrown into a bucket to be redoweled and made into kids arrows. The premium shafts are then spined into 5# increments and checked again for grain straightness, and are hand straightened if needed. Not all wood that is taken from the woods will make heavy shafts, we have to run 100s of shafts to get a couple dozen heavies if we are lucky. The wood today, has not changed from the wood that was used 40 years ago. They just ran a lot of wood to get heavy shafts, and our poor old machine will run 300-400 shafts on a good day.
The shafts, once they have been spined, are then grain weighed, matched up within 10 grains, bundled into dozens, and put into bins. We here at Wapiti Archery POC, hope that you will be patient with us and our small company. We try to build the best poc shafts on the market today and we believe that we do that. So, if you ever have to wait for a certain spine shaft for any length of time, we are sure that when you receive them, they will be the finest shafts you have ever shot and well worth the wait, now that you see what we go through to build them.
Thank you faithful customers for your patience with us and our wood,
Dan, Wapiti Archery POC
The Evolution of the Golf Club
The Evolution of the Golf Club
Posted on January 26, 2018
Since the inception of the game of golf, players have continually tried to improve upon their equipment. The earliest golf clubs were initially carved by the golfer themselves and typically out of wood. Golfers soon turned to skilled craftsmen to produce higher quality equipment. The first record of commissioned golf clubs was by King James IV of Scotland, who hired William Mayne, a bow-maker, to craft him a set of clubs and made him the Royal Club Maker.
In the 1500s a set of clubs consisted of: a set of play clubs, “longnoses”, for driving; fairway clubs or “grassed drivers”, for medium range; “spoons” for short shots; “niblicks” similar to wedges; and a putting “cleek”. These golf clubs were made up of wood with the shafts being made from ash or hazel and the club heads being made from tougher wood like apple, holly, beech or pear. The club head would be connected to the shaft with a splint and then bound with a leather strap.
With the introduction of the “featherie” golf ball in 1618 golf clubs continued to be made with wooden heads, although forging iron into the head was possible, because of the delicacy of the featheries. The wooden clubs were expensive due to the time and effort that went into making them and they were prone to break. This high cost of the clubs made the game of golf an activity reserved for the higher class. Club-makers experimented with different materials on the club face, such as leather, metal, bone fragments, and other materials to increase distance and prevent breakage.
Around 1750 the first club heads made of iron began to emerge from local blacksmith shops, used for “niblicks” or wedges. In 1826 Robert Forgan, a club-maker in Scotland, started to use imported hickory from America to make club shafts.
In 1848 the “guttie” ball was introduced by Rev. Adam Paterson, which quickly made the “longnoses” or drivers obsolete. Bulgers emerged to replace the longnoses which had a bulbous head, resembling modern woods. By 1900, persimmon became the material of choice for wooden club heads, which was also imported from America.
Back in the 1870’s with the advent of drop forging techniques factories were able to mass produce iron club heads, making them more consistent, lighter and better than the blacksmith made ones. In 1908 it was discovered that grooves on the club face could increase backspin and generate more distance.
The first few decades of the 1900’s saw a lot of experimentation and innovation in the club design. Around 1925 the steel shaft was introduced in the United States, although blacksmiths had experimented with them since the late 1890’s. The R&A, named from The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews, is the governing body of the game of golf. The R&A finally legalized the use of steel shafted clubs after the Prince of Wales used them on the Old Course at St Andrews in 1929. The steel shaft provided for greater accuracy and durability. In 1931, after the R&A banned concave-faced wedges, Gene Sarazen invented the modern sand wedge which had a straight face and added bounce.
Club Monikers: Then and Now
|4 Wood||Wooden Cleek|
|1 Iron||Driving Iron|
|2 Iron||Mid Iron|
|3 Iron||Mid Mashie|
|4 Iron||Mashie Iron|
|6 Iron||Spade Mashie|
|7 Iron||Mashie Niblick|
|8 Iron||Lofting Iron|
Up until 1939 it was common for a golfer to carry 20-30 clubs in their bag. However with the advancement of the steel shafted clubs the R&A introduced the 14 club rule in 1939, which limited players to only be allowed to carry 14 clubs. The traditional names of the clubs, like “niblicks” and “spoons”, were replaced by the standard numbering system used to this day.
There was little development and advancement for the next few decades. After World War II development of golf clubs were influenced by research into synthetic and composite materials. In the 1960’s, fiberglass shafts were tried unsuccessfully. In 1963 the casting method of manufacturing club heads was introduced, making clubs more affordable. In the 1970’s, Karsten Solheim invented the Ping Putter, which had more weight at the heel and toe which enabled golfers to putt straighter. In 1973 the graphite shaft was introduced which provided more rigidity, lightness and increased strength over the steel shafts. The more modern graphite shafts are manufactured with different materials to improve performance, such as boron to reduce twisting.
Taylor-Made was the first company to produce metal club headed woods. The popularity of metal club heads over persimmon club heads didn’t become prolific until Callaway introduced the Big Bertha in 1991. The Big Bertha driver, which had an oversized metal club head, was the first of its kind. The oversized metal club heads became the trend for club manufacturers.
In the early 2000’s hybrid clubs, which are a fusion between an iron and a wood, emerged as an alternate to the harder to hit longer irons. Hybrid clubs are becoming more prominent and popular, especially for golfers with a slower swing like seniors or women.
The latest trends in woods are the use of titanium club heads combined with graphite shafts. With new designs continuing to evolve, however club head size for drivers is limited to 460cc. Another trend is the adjustable driver, which gives the golfer the ability to adjust the weight of their driver. This helps a golfer more easily hit a draw or fade depending on how it’s set. The golfer has evolved from making their own clubs from wood to now having them manufactured with the most advance technology, which gives them the ability to personalize it to their individual needs.
Categories: Golf History
Hickory Golf Shaft (or Making a Tapered Dowel)
HE golf bug has bitten me again. I am in the midst of making a set of circa 1870 golf clubs. Having a hand tool background for furniture making has been helpful for understanding general important concepts such as grain direction that are applicable to making golf clubs. On the other hand, I needed to learn several new techniques and work with some unfamiliar components (molten metal, ram’s horn…). This post is part of a few to follow describing hand tool techniques of 19th century golf clubmaking.
Tapered Golf Shaft
The first obstacle was trying to create a golf shaft. Ash was the traditional wood for the shaft up until about the 1820’s. Ash, being a local wood in Scotland, could be worked readily while still green. Thus, it was riven (split) to form straight grained billets, then worked down with a spokeshave. Other woods known to have been used for shafts included lancewood, greenheart, lemonwood, hazel and elm. By 1828, we have evidence that hickory was being used for golf club shafts. Once the springiness and strength of hickory was discovered by the Scottish clubmakers, the other wood species took a back seat. Being imported from the USA, the wood was not as easily worked using green woodworking techniques, although the earlier shafts were still riven. Drawknives would have been tougher to use, so traditional cabinetmaking/joiner tools, such as hand planes, were used to shape the shafts.
|Advertisement from The Golfing Annual 1893-94, Vol. 7, Ed. by David Duncan|
The hickory shafts taper from 3/4″ at the grip end down to about 1/2″ and range in length from 34″ (putter) to 44″ (play club). The following concepts on club shaft making could also be applied to make other types of tapered dowels such as:
- Windsor chair spindles
- Pool cues
- Tapered wooden plugs
- Rake handles
I have made about 20 clubs so far, and have experimented with about a dozen combinations in making the golf shafts. Here are 5 different variations to make the hickory golf club shafts:
- Drawknives and spokeshaves at the shaving horse on a 7/8″ square rod
- Hand planes on the bench, knocking off 4 corners, then 8 arrises and so on
- Same as above but with a hollow plane (concave profile)
- Using the 3/4″ beading cutter on the Stanley 55 plane to create a dowel, then tapering with a spoke shave
- A stail engine, which turned out to be my favored method.
- Stanley No. 77 dowel maker to create a non-tapered rod then taper with desired method
Whenever there are many methods of doing something, it often indicates that there is not one best solution. All of these methods have their drawbacks, but all worked out in the end. Here are three other methods that I have not tried:
- Lathe. I am tempted to think that this may be the best method, but I have had no luck in finding somebody with a 44″ capacity lathe. A steady rest seems mandatory.
- Veritas dowel maker from Lee Valley tools to create a non-tapered rod then taper with desired method
- Purchase a hickory shaft online.
The Shaving Horse Method
Green wood is easier to work. Watch the grain. Start with a drawknife to take down the corners and finish with the spokeshave, Set the shaft aside to dry, then you can use a card scraper, then sandpaper. Depending on the grain, you may need to push the spokeshave or pull it. If the “flame” point of the grain points toward you, use a pulling motion. A major drawback of the drawknife is inconsistency and tear out. Those who make Windsor chairs may favor this method, but they typically use green wood.
One can also use the shaving horse and spokeshaves as an ancillary method after creating a 3/4″ dowel.
|A jig to check diameter of shaft|
The Handplane Method
|From Blackheath Golfing Lays 1873|
Using a handplane was the favored shaft tapering method by the last half of the 19th Century.
|Five-time Open Championship winner and clubmaker, J.H. Taylor, (likely with his colleague, Mr. Cann) wrote a 15 page detailed treatise on golf clubmaking, in The Book of Golf and Golfers (1899), but divulged only two sentences on the art of making a clubshaft. Notwithstanding that this is the best reference I have found to date describing the technique of clubmaking, my guess is that Mr. Taylor purchased his shafts.|
|Start by tapering the four sides|
|Planing the edges of the shaft into an octagon.|
|The aluminum bars, affixed together with bolts and wing nuts through three slots, are used to mark the taper lines.|
The Stanley 45 or 55 Method
If you have a combination plane, you can load your cutter No. 29, the 3/4″ bead, and plane away. Hickory is a difficult wood to work with a molding plane. The going gets tough the deeper you get and you will get a good workout. The result will be a 3/4″ dowel which can be tapered with a stail engine (below) or a spokeshave or handplanes.
|The Stanley 55 + muscle making a 3/4″ dowel. The special clamp elevates the|
stock so that both fences can be used without bottoming out.
The Stail Engine MethodI was racking my brain trying to think of a more efficient method to make a tapered dowel when Roy Underhill’s episode on the Rounder Plane came to the rescue. A stail is another name (Br.) for a wooden tool handle. Americans call this gadget a witchet. Rounder planes are similar, but are not adjustable for diameter. After an evening making the plane, I gave it a whirl (literally):
|The inside is tapered to accommodate stock about 7/8″ square.|
|This contraption works like a giant pencil sharpener. |
The stock used is a riven, then band sawn, 7/8″ square piece of hickory.
If there was a way to skew the blade,
I am sure the result would be a lot smoother.
|As the wing nuts are tightened gradually, the dowel diameter lessens. This particular stail engine can make dowels form 3/4″ to 1/2″. Chamfer the corners of the stock first.|
The Stanley No. 77 Dowel Maker
This is another variation of the giant pencil sharpener method. Feed in a square piece of stock, crank the handle and out comes a dowel. Various diameter adapters are available.
90,000 Romania.Alba Iulia: vienanmeri – LiveJournal
In Alba Iulia we combined an educational excursion and pilgrimage, especially since the temples are located on the territory of one fortress.
The history of the city and the fortress is the history of the conquest of these lands by the Romans. After the war with the Dacians (1st century AD), the Romans began building a military camp (lat. Castrum) on the territory of the present fortress. Camp XIII Paired Legion (lat.Legio XIII Gemina Pia Fidelis), which participated in the wars against the Dacians, was formerly called Apulum and occupied an area in 21 AD
The location was not accidental. From here, the Romans controlled gold reserves from the nearby Apusenia mountains, by the middle of the 3rd century. the city of Apulum was also known as the “City of Gold”.
During the predominance of the Slavs in Transylvania (IX-XI centuries.) the city began to be called in medieval sources under the Slavic names Balgrad or Belgrade. In 953, the Hungarian governor of the city of Zhombor (Zsombor) was baptized in Balgrad under the name Julius. Since the XI century. Balgrad is part of the Kingdom of Hungary. In Latin, the city was called Alba Iulia (Alba Iulia, first mentioned in this form in 1097).
After the conquest of the territory by the Hungarians and Alba Iulia became the center of the Catholic diocese of Transylvania and the royal fortress from 1177, the Catholic Cathedral of St. Michael was erected in the fortress.It is considered an important monument of early Transylvanian medieval architecture. Combines elements of Gothic and Roman styles.
Inside the cathedral is the sarcophagus of Janos Hunyadi (father of Matthias Corvinus) – a legendary hero who died of the plague.
We looked into the cathedral after we got acquainted with the historical monuments in the fortress.
There is an equestrian statue and a bas-relief dedicated to Mihai the Brave, who was able to unite three Romanian principalities here in Alba Iulia in 1600: Transylvania, Moldavia and Wallachia; an obelisk in memory of the leaders of the peasant uprising of 1784, Chorea, Kloski and Krisan, who were executed in 1785 in the Habsburg Empire; Custozza monument, dedicated to the soldiers of the 50th Regiment who died in Italy at the Battle of Custozza in 1866
When the region was a principality of the Habsburg Empire, under Emperor Charles VI was in 1714.a vast fortress in the shape of a star was erected, modeled on the Vauban fortifications of France, and the city itself received the German name Karlsburg. The length of all walls and fortifications along the perimeter exceeds 12 km.
Through the gates of the fortress, we went out to admire the city from above. This is one of the six preserved gates of the fortress. They led to the parade ground, where the exercises of the fortress garrison took place.
On the way back we went to the Orthodox cathedral, built in 1921.specially for the coronation of Ferdinand and Mary as monarchs of Greater Romania, their busts are in front of the entrance to the church. The church is shaped like a Greek cross with an open porch.
Before the construction of a cathedral near this place, on December 1, 1918, the annexation of Transylvania to Romania was announced.
This is how you can visit the same fortress in different eras and learn the history of the events that took place then.