Empowerment during cancer
If you are a woman who has had cancer or you are still in treatment, the Warrior Revolution helps you navigate your life on your way back to wellness.
Too often, wellness is the last thing on a woman’s to-do list. It is even more important for women with cancer. And yet, when living with cancer, we have less time, energy, and motivation to take care of ourselves. If you are a woman who has had cancer or you are still in treatment, the Warrior Revolution helps you navigate your life on your way back to wellness. Maybe you want to learn some tips and techniques to help improve your nutrition or quality of life. Maybe you’d like to hear about the latest medical advances in the field of oncology so you can tap into a treatment plan that’s right for you. Or maybe you just want to hang with fellow survivors and have a fun weekend out of the house. The weekend is also open to friends and family members who want to come to show support for their loved ones while getting information and inspiration.
Why Attend Warrior Revolution Retreat
The Warrior Revolution Retreat is a three-day intimate event featuring inspirational speakers, experts and influencers who will address the unique issues women with cancer face through honest, provocative and positive conversations. The WRR also offers women the chance to pamper themselves with wellness activities like yoga, reiki, art and beauty tutorials.
Cynthia Besteman, Cancer Survivor
Cynthia Besteman is the founder of the award winning Violets Are Blue Skincare Company. Originally from Seattle, Washington, Cynthia came to New York City in 1989 to study and pursue a career in theater.
Sarah Kelly, Cancer Survivor
Sarah Kelly has always had a passion for natural, sustainable products since starting her career 17 years ago with Tom’s of Maine. In 2010, Sarah completed her MBA from Simmons College in Boston with a focus on Sustainability in business.
Leah Robert, Oncology Nurse
Leah Robert has always had a passion for health and wellness, which lead her into her career as an oncology nurse. Her passion and expertise in helping cancer patients was reinforced when her sister Sarah was diagnosed with Stage 3 breast cancer.
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Who are the ‘good guys’ in Richmond? – by Jonathan M. Katz
Today’s edition of The Long Version is a joint investigation with Judd Legum’s Popular Information. You can sign up for Popular Information at popular.info
For years, supporters and opponents of gun control have squared off in Virginia’s capital, Richmond, on the third Monday in January. With Democrats in charge of the state legislature for the first time in decades—elected in part on promises to enact gun-control measures in response to a mass shooting—a call went out over national pro-gun and right-wing networks to converge today.
This increased attention has brought threats from white supremacists and anti-government extremists. Federal agents say at least one white supremacist group was caught planning a massacre with hopes of provoking a civil war. Virginia Democratic Governor Ralph Northam has declared a state of emergency.
Many of the pro-gun groups are trying to distance themselves from violent white nationalists in advance, stressing their intention for a peaceful demonstration. But some of those same groups have been using Facebook to broadcast couched threats and promote violence.
On December 13, the leader of American Warrior Revolution, a paramilitary organization allied with the militia movement, posted a video to its Facebook page. Joshua Shoaff, a popular right-wing personality who goes by the pseudonym Ace Baker, went on an extended rant threatening U. S. representative Donald McEachin, who represents Richmond.
Shoaff was incensed by a quote, published by the Washington Examiner, in which McEachin suggested that Virginia could mobilize the National Guard to enforce new gun laws if local law enforcement refused to do so. McEachin’s comments came in response to a Republican-backed “sanctuary counties” movement, in which sheriffs have pledged not to enforce new laws such as expanded background checks.
Shoaff declared that McEachin’s statement amounted to treason and McEachin, who is African American, should be lynched:
This message is directly to you. We’re coming to your state. I live in Tennessee. My name is Ace Baker. I’m coming to the state of Virginia on January 20th and I hope to see you personally on Lobby Day. Because I would love nothing more than to tell you to your face, you are a coward. You are a tyrant, committing treason. And as a good friend of mine said a few minutes ago, treason is punishable by death. I’m not telling you that I’m going to kill you. I’m telling you that your acts constitute treason and the punishment for treason is hanging in the middle of the street … You should be pulled out of office by the hair on your head, walked down the streets of the capital, walked up to the steps of a swinging rope that’s placed around your neck.
The page currently has more than 540,000 followers.
Judd contacted Facebook on Friday and asked whether this video, which had been up for more than a month, violated their rules. Facebook responded by taking down the video and removing Shoaff’s personal profile.
“We have removed this individual and these videos from Facebook. We are monitoring the rally and actively reviewing content against our Community Standards so that we can take action accordingly,” a Facebook spokesperson told Popular Information.
But Facebook did not take any action involving the American Warrior Revolution page itself. Shoaff used the page to post another video on Friday. In it, he said he stood by his previous video, and reiterated his belief “that tyrants should be hung in the streets to be made an example of.”
How is an organization with a track record of violent rhetoric able to maintain a large presence on Facebook? It seems AWR has fooled several prominent institutions.
In the shadow of ‘Unite the Right’
The tension surrounding today’s rally in Richmond can only be understood in light of what happened, seventy miles west and two and a half years ago, in Charlottesville. After a daylong Nazi rampage in which dozens were injured, a white supremacist plowed his car into a crowd of people on the town’s pedestrian mall, killing 32-year-old Heather Heyer.
According to a lawsuit filed by the City of Charlottesville, “Thirty-seven AWR members, many of them armed with semiautomatic weapons,” attended the rally. They were among several armed paramilitary groups who portrayed themselves as neutral peacekeepers, not formally aligned with the violent white supremacists holding the rally, but supporting their right to free speech—many of whom will also be in Richmond.
Even then, Shoaff contradicted his peaceful claims by leaping into violent rhetoric. In a video posted to Facebook, Shoaff said members of AWR would have had legal justification if they decided to murder people. AWR “could have fucking used deadly force… We had the justification to use deadly force that day, and mow people fucking down!” Shoaff said in the video, which is no longer online. In another Facebook video, Shoaff vowed to return to Charlottesville.
As readers of The Long Version know, Trump reacted to the riots in Charlottesville by equivocating about the extremists, then tried to rewrite history himself. On August 15, 2017, he famously declared that there were “very fine people” who participated in the Unite The Right rally.
The next day the New York Times, under the lead byline of Jeremy W. Peters, quoted a member of American Warrior Revolution as an example of one of the “very fine people” he might have been referring to:
“Good people can go to Charlottesville,” said Michelle Piercy, a night shift worker at a Wichita, Kan. , retirement home, who drove all night with a conservative group that opposed the planned removal of a statue of the Confederate general Robert E. Lee.
After listening to Mr. Trump on Tuesday, she said it was as if he had channeled her and her friends — all gun-loving defenders of free speech, she said, who had no interest in standing with Nazis or white supremacists: “It’s almost like he talked to one of our people.”
The “conservative group” that Piercy was affiliated with, according to an interview Piercy gave to the pro-Trump website Media Equalizer, was American Warrior Revolution. The New York Times report citing her was the basis for a fallacious viral video by PragerU defending Trump. It has been viewed over 6 million times.
Shoaff repeats his threats
As a result of the lawsuit, AWR was banned from Charlottesville “as a part of a unit of two or more persons acting in concert when armed.” Several other groups expected in Richmond were banned as well.
In the most recent video, which we also flagged to Facebook, Shoaff defended and amplified his December 13 threats against McEachin:
I did make the statement that legislators, representatives, who have been elected to represent the people, when they go from representing their constituents to advocating to use the military arm of the government, the national guard, to go in and take people’s rights away by force that person is a tyrant. And our founders would shoot tyrants in the face. Our founders would hang tyrants in the public square for other tyrants to see. To set an example. I did say that. I did say that tyrants should be hung in the streets to be made an example of. And I stand by that. I believe that … If someone were to ask me today if I were to retract my statement, fuck no.
Shoaff went on to explain that, while he believed people should lynch McEachin, that was not what he was personally coming to Richmond on Monday to do:
But that does not mean that on January 20, we are coming into the city of Richmond to storm the capitol building. Or to hang that legislator in the middle of the street. It’s what our founders would do. It’s what our founders told us that we should do. And if these things continue to happen it’s probably what people will do. But it’s not what we are doing on the 20th.
The second video was not only posted to the main AWR page, but to the many of the 50 AWR state affiliate groups. After a second inquiry, the video was removed on Sunday evening.
Facebook says it has a team of people monitoring activity around the rally and removing content that violates its rules. But Facebook’s haphazard response shows that the company continues to be unable or unwilling to enforce its community standards, which prohibit both “statements advocating for high-severity violence” and “aspirational or conditional statements to commit high-severity violence.”
American Warrior Revolution did not respond to a request for comment.
Pro-lynching Facebook ads
AWR is not the only group using Facebook to promote violence in advance of today’s rally. The “Virginia Militia” has encouraged its 12,000 Facebook followers to attend Monday’s protest in Richmond. In late December, the page ran a paid advertisement on Facebook encouraging people to lynch public officials.
The page also tried to intimidate a member of the Virginia legislature, who had proposed an assault weapons ban, by posting his home address.
Judd flagged this page for Facebook. The company said it was looking into it but so far has taken no action.
A Facebook page called Boogaloo Crüe launched on December 16 already has over 5,000 members. It frequently posts violent memes relating to Monday’s event, including this one suggesting that armed gun-rights extremists (“Boog Boiz”) could overwhelm the Virginia National Guard.
(White supremacists and other extremists have embraced the term “boogaloo” to refer to a future civil war. The term is a joke, riffing on the title of a notoriously silly 1980s movie sequel, but the Anti-Defamation League notes that “an increasing number of people employ it with serious intent. ”)
Facebook said it was investigating the page but so far has taken no action.
Officials are under pressure to show that they are taking the threats seriously. Northam has declared a state of emergency, banning all weapons, including firearms, from the capitol grounds.
Trump, on the other hand, has fanned the flames.
Correction (1/20/19, 3:54 p.m.) that McEachin is a U.S., not state, representative
Thanks as always for reading. I will be on the ground in Richmond today, reporting on whatever happens.
Your support makes this work possible. Please sign up for free updates or get a paid subscription. You can also join my Patreon community at patreon.com/jonathanmkatz
Jonathan Myerson Katz is a freelance journalist and author. His next book, Gangsters of Capitalism, traces the origins and contradictions of America’s empire through the life of a legendary Marine, Smedley D. Butler. Follow him on Twitter @KatzOnEarth.
Judd Legum spent a decade following politics obsessively as the founder and editor of ThinkProgress. He is the editor of Popular Information, at popular.info. You can follow him on Twitter @JuddLegum.
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90,000 The armored car from which Lenin spoke became the object of the “war” of pseudo-chauffeurs – Rossiyskaya Gazeta
On November 7, 1926, an atypical monument to Lenin was unveiled in Leningrad on the square near the Finland Station. The competition was won by the project of architects Vladimir Shchuko, Vladimir Gelfreich and sculptor Sergei Yevseyev, who portrayed the leader of the world proletariat, speaking from the tower of an armored car.
The Austin armored car was doomed to become one of the symbols of the revolution. But he was remembered in Russian history not only at the rallies.
Austins were ordered in Great Britain and modernized in Russia. And they became the most massive armored vehicles of the Russian army during the First World War. Their teams were formed from volunteers – the service was painfully risky. The vehicles opened fire only when they drove up very close to the enemy’s positions. Artillery shells easily pierced armor …
Armored vehicles participated in the famous Brusilov breakthrough and many other operations. Many descriptions of the feats performed by the brave crews have survived.One of the heroes of the First World War was Colonel Alexander Dobrzhansky, who successfully used armored vehicles in ambushes …
Let us remember with a kind word both the forgotten heroes of the First World War, and the armored car from the Finland Station – even if it did not take part in the battles. He has a heroic pedigree. Uninvented!
But there are plenty of myths about Lenin’s armored car. It is reliably known that for the meeting of the Bolshevik leader who returned from emigration on the night of April 3-4, 1917, his colleague Nikolai Podvoisky decided to stage a demonstration of the strength of the party’s supporters. To meet the leader sailors, soldiers and – certainly – military equipment. Since it was problematic to get combat vehicles, under the guise of testing they got a training one from the armored division in the Mikhailovsky arena. Unlike the combat ones, it did not have a name, but was listed under the number “2” in the spare armored company.
According to eyewitnesses, Lenin was carried in his arms to the roof of the car. Over time, a legend appeared that the leader climbed there on his own, and after the speech he went in an armored car to the Kshesinskaya mansion, the Bolshevik headquarters, periodically stopping for new incendiary speeches.The driver Vasily Fedorov later claimed that the armored car participated in the storming of the Winter Palace, and that it had damage from a cadet bullet on the front steering wheel …
It is known that the car guarded Lenin and his associates in Smolny. And in 1919, when Yudenich’s troops were advancing on Petrograd, the “Enemy of Capital” (as the armored car was called after the revolution) took part in the battles near Pulkovo, Krasnoe Selo and Yamburg. In 1922, the armored car was handed over to the garrison of the Peter and Paul Fortress, and it got lost. And only in 1927, on the 10th anniversary of the revolution, he was remembered again.The search began, in which veterans of events, archivists, museum workers took part. A huge amount of material was collected, but the car itself was found only twelve years later in Sosnovka on the Vyborg side in an abandoned warehouse of Osoaviakhim.
A symbol of the revolution was identified by several signs – the armored car had external headlights, which other cars did not have, as well as towers installed with a curvature, and two steering wheels for forward and reverse. The notorious trace of a Junker’s bullet was also found in the front, and later, under a layer of paint, criminologists found the number “2”.
The old Bolsheviks, however, considered the stories of the driver Fedorov to be fiction, and he himself was an impostor. For the status of Lenin’s armored driver, a real struggle unfolded. And the experts cautiously doubted that Lenin could act from the found armored car, since the car was built at the Putilov plant in August 1919 …
The restored armored car was placed in the courtyard of the Museum of the Revolution – the former Kshesinskaya mansion. Later, the revolutionary Austin moved to the Lenin Museum in the Marble Palace.Now it adorns the exposition of the Military-Historical Museum of Artillery, Engineering Troops and Signal Corps in St. Petersburg.
What did Ilyich say from the armored car?
Eyewitnesses did not remember Lenin’s original speech. Revolutionary journalist Konstantin Eremeev recalled: “I was standing close by the armored car itself. I saw the speaker well and clearly heard his words. But I don’t remember his words. I forgot them – I remember many of Ilyich’s later speeches, I remember literally a number of expressions heard in a different setting.But I don’t remember this first speech – I think that no one remembers either. ”
Later, the speech, which no one remembered, was called “famous”. Over time, a “canonical” version emerged – Lenin concluded his speech with the words: “Long live the socialist revolution!” And in 1926, on the pedestal of the monument at the Finland Station, this phrase was knocked out in a different version: “… and long live the socialist revolution throughout the world!”
THE POET’S LOOK
This night was not easy –
A victory cry was born in her!
An armored car stopped at the station,
And Ilyich spoke from him!
And it seemed to himself:
The armored car is just waiting for a signal –
As if he framed him
Armored shoulder people.
On a black night, pockmarked by sparks
The city’s face was changing,
The surf was going on,
Taking with him an armored car.
In the scarlet glitter of torch foam
Hello to mankind,
The storm brought great changes,
The whole earth is an unknown light.
In the sea of years that surf has not died down,
It still sounds in our hearts,
Alive and the reflection of the waves of fire,
An armored car on an April night.
And now he stands harsh,
As a fulfilling fighter,
And you don’t need high words,
And there is no need for crimson paints.
Let the dawn play on it
Silently and hotly,
Just take off your hat, watching
On his gray shoulder!
Engine power – 50 HP
Weight – 5.3 t.
Armament – two 7.62mm Maxim machine guns.
Armor thickness – 4.5-7 mm.
Highway speed – up to 50 km / h.
Crew – 4 people.
In total, machines of various modifications were manufactured (1914-1919) – about 250.
Nobles and revolution: the difficult fate of the forbidden class
Photo author, Getty Images
Representatives of the Russian aristocracy became one of the main victims of the October Revolution. Many of them left Russia forever after 1917 or perished in the course of repressions, but even today in Russia there are descendants of the nobility who are trying to preserve the old class traditions and values.
Correspondent of the BBC Russian Service Alexey Ilyin talked about the fate of the Russian nobility with the American historian, author of the book “Former People: The Last Days of the Russian Aristocracy” Douglas Smith , as well as with members of the Russian Nobility Assembly.
BBC: After the revolution, the nobility was actually outlawed. Many representatives of the aristocracy left Russia. And what happened to those who decided to stay or could not leave? How did they survive in the new conditions?
Douglas Smith: Many of those nobles who remained in the Soviet Union left major cities such as Moscow and Petrograd and went to the countryside.There they had estates and farms where they could get their own food, because this was a big problem.
Many members of the aristocracy were periodically arrested, some were taken hostage during the Civil War. Of course, these were very difficult times for those who remained, the new regime perceived them as class enemies, counter-revolutionaries, regardless of what they were doing. A huge number of these people did not survive the first two years after the revolution.
Oleg Shcherbachev: “The concept of” nobleman “penetrates your essence and soul”
BBC: Did the representatives of the nobility try to preserve their cultural and class traditions after the fall of the Russian Empire?
D.S .: Honestly, I do not think that after the Bolshevik coup, most of the nobles who remained in Russia first of all thought about the issues of preserving the way of life, habits, traditions, practices that distinguished them as an aristocratic class. I think that at that time the question of survival came to the fore.
Of course, they perfectly understood who they were, understood their place in the history of the country and the dangers faced by them, but few people thought about not losing touch with certain traditions and habits, the main thing for them was just to survive.They tried to support each other, not to lose contact with representatives of their class, in order to exist in a new harsh reality.
BBC: How did the Russian nobles live in exile? Was it difficult for them to get used to new conditions, a new way of life away from their homeland?
D.S .: In most cases, they found ways to adapt to new conditions, although it was not easy. It is important to note the fact that none of them thought that the Bolsheviks would remain in power for long.Most of those nobles who left for the West or Harbin believed that they would soon be able to return.
At first, many emigrants were very poor, as they could not take all their savings and valuables with them, but they were well educated, spoke several languages, possessed certain skills that helped them to continue to live with dignity. However, no matter how hard life in emigration was, these problems cannot be compared with the difficulties experienced by the nobles who remained in Russia.
Sergey Samygin: “Noble births took an example from the royal family”
BBC: Have any attempts return to Russia? And were there any cases when the Soviet authorities tried to return the nobles from emigration?
D.S .: Yes, the Soviet authorities carried out secret operations to force the emigrants to return, and in most cases the fate of the returning nobles was deplorable.True, there are also known individual cases when the nobles drove back, approving the communist government in Russia. However, the overwhelming majority of those who emigrated never returned.
At the same time, many perceived themselves not only as bearers of noble values, but also as guardians of Russian culture in general. They believed that they supported these values while the communists were in power in their homeland, trying to reshape the entire Russian society. This realization helped them to live in the difficult years of emigration.
BBC: Which countries still have large diasporas of descendants of Russian nobles? How do they try to preserve their values in modern conditions?
DS: Most of the nobles who had direct ties with Russia (were born there or listened to the stories of their parents) have already died. Therefore, the living connection of these descendants with the Russian pre-revolutionary past has been largely lost.
Today, most of the descendants of emigrants are already full-fledged citizens of France, the United States, Germany, because a hundred years have passed since the revolution.However, attempts to maintain this connection are still being made. For example, in the United States, this is done by the Association of Russian Nobles. However, over the years it becomes more and more difficult to maintain the work of such organizations.
Nadezhda Dmitrieva: “My parents were deprived”
BBC: You communicated with the descendants of noble families who live in Russia?
D.S .: Yes, I talked with the descendants of the Golitsyns, Sheremetyevs, Trubetskoy. All of them are united by a desire to know the history of their kind, a desire to publish memoirs, letters, articles about their ancestors, to learn more about the contribution of their family to the history of Russia and about the life of their ancestors in Soviet times, as well as to pass this information on to their children.
BBC: We see that monarchical ideals are gaining popularity in modern Russia. What is their appeal?
D.S .: This is an interesting phenomenon, and it has begun to grow in the past two years. I think this is largely due to the regime of [President Vladimir] Putin, which is trying to justify its existence by reviving the traditional parts of Russian culture. This can be seen in the current attitude of the authorities towards the church, towards the values of the tsarist era.
Of course, the centenary of the revolution draws additional attention to the last representatives of the Romanov dynasty and their role in the history of Russia. I think there is a certain nostalgia in this, many are beginning to reflect on the fact that life under the tsars was better than today.
Alexey Karpov: “I perceive the revolution as a tragedy”
BBC: And how does this relate to nostalgia for Soviet times, which is also observed in Russian society?
D.S .: I think that a strong Russian state is at the forefront. This concept is rooted in the tsarist past, at the time of Peter I or Ivan the Terrible, to whom a monument was recently unveiled in Orel.After that, there was a victory in the Great Patriotic War, with which the Russian authorities are trying to link the country’s modern successes.
All this adds up to a picture of a powerful state, which is often presented as a fortress besieged by enemies, trying to prevent enemies from entering its territory. It seems to me that this is the model that has been established in Russia today.
Day of Remembrance of Russian soldiers who died in World War I
In 1914, the Russian Empire entered the war, marked by the first large-scale use of tanks and aircraft, chemical weapons, a war that brought millions of human casualties.
How many of them, known and unknown, are left to lie in the ground? How long did it take to “For Faith, Tsar and Fatherland!” How many fathers, husbands, sons did not return home? According to rough estimates, this number exceeds 1,600,000. And this is the largest number of casualties among the soldiers and officers of the countries participating in the First World War. Today, few people will be able to answer the question “who is Pavel Batov, Fedor Tolbukhin, Leonid Efimov.” Heroes of the First World War, streets and avenues in our cities are named in their honor, but, alas, few remember the feat that they performed for the sake of Russia, for the sake of the life of future generations.
The commemoration of the fallen soldiers began during the war itself, simultaneously with the appearance of the first military graves. But during the years of Soviet power, the First World War in the country was viewed only as a clash of imperialist powers.
Beginning in the 1990s, the surge of interest in Russian history and the opportunity to look more comprehensively at the events of the pre-revolutionary period made it possible to move away from the ideological interpretation of historical facts. The history of the First World War began to be viewed from the point of view of its demographic consequences, evaluating this military conflict as the greatest tragedy in the life of people, and about the contribution of this or that country, this or that people to victory.
World War I is considered by historians to be one of the main reasons for the 1917 revolution and the ensuing civil war in Russia. The memory of her was undeservedly removed from the center of public attention, the military courage and self-sacrifice of Russian soldiers were unjustly forgotten. The Russian army won a number of brilliant victories over the Austrians, Germans and Turks, which opened up for Russia the possibility of gaining control over the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits, which previously belonged to Turkey.
The Day of Remembrance of Russian soldiers who died in the First World War of 1914-1918 is celebrated in Russia on August 1.It was established in accordance with the Federal Law of the Russian Federation of December 30, 2012 “On Amendments to Article 1.1 of the Federal Law” On Days of Military Glory and Memorable Dates of Russia “in order to perpetuate the memory and reflect the merits of Russian soldiers who died in that war.
90,000 Russian revolution as an inevitability – News – IQ Research and Education Portal – National Research University Higher School of Economics
The Russian revolution in school European history is presented rather succinctly – as if power immediately passed from the emperor to the Bolsheviks.But the most important thing is that there is no comprehension of the significance of this event on a global scale. This is the conclusion made by Margarita Fabrikant, a researcher at the Laboratory for Comparative Research of Mass Consciousness at the Higher School of Economics.
Causes of backwardness and incompetence
During the research, the author analyzed 101 textbooks from 22 European countries, including all Slavic countries. The books were published from 2000 to 2015 and are intended for middle and high school students. The length of the chapters on the Russian revolution varies from two pages (for some Western European countries) to 10-15 when it comes to states that were once part of the Russian Empire.
In most of the analyzed texts, the theme of the seizure of power by the Bolsheviks is presented immediately after the description of the events of the First World War. The author notes that while in Russian textbooks the world war fades into the background against the background of October, from the European perspective, the Russian revolution, on the contrary, appears as a less significant part of the history of the world war.
In most countries, as the research results show, the events of 1917 are analyzed without reference to the national or global world context.But there are some differences. In some textbooks, mainly Polish and German, revolutions in their own countries are presented immediately after the paragraphs on Russia. In Swedish school texts, the history of Russian events spans up to the late 1930s and refers to the general discussion of dictatorships as the aftermath of war. In some Spanish and Italian textbooks, the October Revolution occupies a separate place outside the chapters on the world war, although immediately after them.
One of the conclusions that follows from the analysis is that the events of 1917 are viewed as a historical inevitability.By the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian Empire, according to European authors, was a backward state, at least against the background of Western Europe. And the authorities were unable to cope with the challenges facing them. All this resulted in a coup and a change in the political system.
Another reason for the revolution, which is presented more often in the textbooks of countries that were once part of the Russian Empire (for example, Poland and Ukraine), is imperialism. The rapid expansion of territories, as noted in such texts, was an unsuccessful attempt to divert public attention from internal problems.But they, in turn, led to the fact that the state and society were unable to deal with the needs of the new lands. In general, the main emphasis in European textbooks regarding the Russian revolution is not on what happened, but why, the author notes.
The revolution in Russia is unambiguously interpreted as a negative moment in history, which led to the victims and suffering of many people. But at the same time, events are presented in a dry sociological language.We are talking about how many people died, what kind of destruction, etc. – numbers and facts in the first place. While in the descriptions of the First World War there is a living picture of human suffering – front postcards and letters, emotionally rich stories about the life of soldiers in the trenches, images of victims of gas attacks, etc.
In European textbooks “Russian revolution” is the most common term for the events of 1917 in Russia. But some German school historians use the word coup (Umsturz) or seizure of power (Machteroberung).In some Spanish texts, the phrase Soviet, not the Russian revolution (la revolucion Sovietica) sounds. In many cases, paragraph titles are designated as “Russian revolutions”, and the February stories are given the same meaning as the October ones.
Another feature that was revealed in the course of the study is that the Russian revolution is little personified in European textbooks. Most of them contain photographs of Emperor Nicholas II and his family, then of Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin.But, for example, there are no portraits of Alexander Kerensky or other figures related to the February Revolution or the Provisional Government. Also, in the stories about the Civil War, there is no mention of the generals of the White Army, for example. That is, the events are visualized as if the transfer of power occurred immediately – from the Romanovs to the Bolsheviks.
One of the main conclusions drawn from the results of the analysis is the absence in the European school curriculum of the topic of the significance of the Russian revolution, the authors leave it.Among the reasons, perhaps, is that most of the textbooks were written after the collapse of the USSR. Accordingly, historians view this event as a complete, closed episode of the past, as the communist experiment showed clear failure.
However, at a deeper level, the reason, according to the author, may lie in the inconsistency of approaches to imperialism. On the one hand, he is credited with the main role in what is called the “suicide of Europe” (this is how most European textbooks assess the consequences of the First World War).On the other hand, European authors do not consider the Russian revolution in the conceptual framework of imperialism. That is, the question is not asked why the weak Russian Empire managed to survive in the war, to restore itself within almost the same borders with a new political system.
“Although imperial expansionism figures in most textbooks as one of the main causes of the First World War and the collapse of ‘old Europe’, this causality is not used to explain the revolution in Russia. Instead, we are talking about a sharp exacerbation of universal social problems – economic backwardness, social inequality, poor quality of government – in one single country, regardless of its imperial past.Imperial expansionism appears in textbooks mainly as a purely Western phenomenon, and accusations against it do not apply to Russia, ”says Margarita Fabrikant.
On the whole, the Russian revolution is interpreted both not as a completely specific history for one particular country, and not as an event of universal significance. The author notes that in a world where uncertainty is growing and extreme movements are gaining momentum, the historical experience of past generations should be understood in more depth and in detail.“First of all, we need a new European narrative about the Russian revolution, which, as for the events of the First World War, will offer not a detached, faceless description of the supposedly inevitable, but as a story about the variety of characters, their motives and positions, various options for choice and its consequences. “, – the researcher thinks.
Margarita Fabrikant, Research Fellow, Laboratory for Comparative Research of Mass Consciousness, National Research University Higher School of Economics
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90,000 A Brief History of Weapons • Arzamas
How Man Used Chariots, Stirrups, Animals, Railways, And Other Seemingly Inoffensive Things To Improve Killing Techniques
Author Stanislav Kuvaldin
In all eras, war has been a complex and costly enterprise. The outcome and characteristics of the confrontation between organized groups of armed people to resolve the issue of power, territory and resources always depended on what means and skills they possessed.Therefore, the development of technology, as well as the level of social organization and knowledge about the world around us, has always gone side by side with the war and directly influenced its appearance.
XVIII-XV centuries BC NS.
Invention of the chariot
Tutankhamun in a chariot. Egypt, XIV century BC NS.
© Museum of Cairo
Since the beginning of the smelting of bronze, making a sturdy wagon of wood and metal that would be easy to handle in battle was a major technical achievement of its time and required a large amount of metal.In addition, the maintenance of this combat unit with a horse and a crew of two was expensive. That is why war in the Bronze Age turned out to be a luxury that only flourishing centers of civilizations like Egypt could afford. Chariots played an important role in the rise and fall of the early state unions in the Middle East: it was difficult to oppose something to the fast-moving fortified carts, from which a stream of arrows fell on the enemies, in those days.
True, in the Iliad, which has become a detailed description of the war of the Bronze Age, the heroes use chariots, but not yet in battle, but only in order to quickly arrive at the battlefield or return to the camp.Oddly enough, but this is another indicator of the importance of the chariot. Even where, for some reason, chariots are not used in full force, it acts as a generally recognized attribute of power and prestige. On a chariot, kings and heroes go into battle.
Battle scene. Black-figure kiaf. Greece, around 510 BC NS.
© The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore
In the same Iliad, the “shining helmet” heroes, dressed in armor and armed with heavy lances with copper tips, are the rulers of individual lands.Armor is so rare that the manufacture of some of them was attributed to the gods, and after killing the enemy, the winner first of all tried to take possession of the armor, a rare and unique item. Hector, leading the Trojan army, after killing Patroclus, dressed in the armor of Achilles, leaves the army in the midst of the battle and returns to Troy to dress in unique armor. In fact, the rulers of the Mycenaean civilization, the era of which the events described by Homer fall, largely ensured power over their lands precisely by the possession of rare and expensive, but extremely effective weapons and armor for their time.
XIII century BC NS.
Weapons, tools, utensils and jewelry of the Iron Age
© Illustration from Meyer’s Encyclopedic Dictionary, 1890
Gradual spread of the technology of processing ore iron over the territory of Western Asia and Southern Europe starting from about the 13th century BC. NS. led to the fact that bronze could now be rivaled by a relatively cheaper and much more widespread metal.A much larger number of warriors became possible to arm with metal weapons and armor. The cheapening of war, coupled with the use of metal weapons, led to significant changes in the “geopolitics” of the Ancient World: new tribes entered the arena, crushing the aristocratic states of the owners of chariots and bronze armor with iron weapons. So many states in the Middle East perished, such a fate befell Achaean Greece, which was conquered by the Dorian tribes. This is the rise of the Kingdom of Israel, at the same time the Assyrian state became the most powerful formation in the Middle East in the early Iron Age.
X century BC NS.
The warrior mounts a horse
Mongolian horsemen. Miniature of the first quarter of the 14th century
© Wikimedia Commons
Before the invention of the harness and saddle, riding a horse or other ungulates on horseback was a matter that required constant stability control, and the rider was practically useless for combat. With the development of the art of controlling a horse with the help of harness, cavalry appeared as a branch of the army in Assyria in the 10th century BC.NS. and later spreads rather quickly. The main beneficiaries of the new art of horse riding were the Asian nomads, who used to breed horses for food. With the development of horseback riding, which made it possible to use weapons, and in particular to shoot from a bow, they had at their disposal a new source of combat power, which, moreover, made it possible to overcome long distances at a speed previously inaccessible. Approximately from the 8th century AD, the mechanism of confrontation between the nomadic “steppe” and sedentary agricultural tribes is gradually being developed – the nomads replacing each other were able to raid, collect tribute or enter the service of more developed and wealthy agricultural communities, having at their disposal the resource of a horse army.The mechanism remained practically unchanged for many centuries – until the collapse of the empire of Genghis Khan.
VII century BC NS.
The art of combat formation
Macedonian phalanx. Modern illustration
© Wikimedia Commons
When it became possible to provide a large number of combat-ready men with armor and heavy weapons, a special need arose for the organization and management of such armed masses.It was at this time that special types of combat formation appeared, such as the Greek
phalanxes Phalanxes – the order of battle (formation) of infantry in Ancient Macedonia, Greece and a number of other states, which is a dense formation of soldiers in several ranks. The word “phalanx” is already found in the Iliad .. For the first time this type of formation, which was a dense ranks of heavily armed soldiers, lined up in several rows, appears in the 7th century BC. NS. in Sparta. Maintaining such a battle order in itself became a guarantee of victory against an army that did not have such an organization.Many military metaphors such as “feeling of elbows” are believed to have their origins precisely in the construction of the phalanx (where the fighter really felt the elbows of his neighbors in a row). The victory of the Roman legions was also due to a complex system of formations that allowed them to maneuver and rebuild orders during battle, and to the solid training of fighters who were aware of the need to maintain the formation.
V-VI century AD NS.
The invention of the stirrup
Battle of Crecy.French miniature. C. 1415 90 150
© Wikimedia Commons
Standing up in the stirrups, the archer became much more stable and could aim more accurately. The stirrup introduced even greater changes to the technique of cavalry combat, which required contact with the enemy. The stirrup turned the rider and the horse into a single mechanism and made it possible to transfer the total mass of the cavalryman and his horse to the enemy together with a blow of a spear or sword, which made the cavalry living combat machines of its time.In Western Europe in the Middle Ages, they developed this advantage, making the rider and his weapons heavier, which led to the emergence of heavy knightly cavalry. The armored rider, sitting in stirrups and attacking with a heavy spear at full gallop, concentrated unprecedented power on the point of his spear at the moment of attack. This led to a new aristocratization of war, since a narrow stratum of feudal lords turned out to be the bearer of such an effective and expensive weapon, which determined the appearance of war in the Middle Ages.
Professionalization of the army
Battle scene.Drawing by Hans Holbein the Younger. 1524
© Kunstmuseum Basel
The effectiveness of the crossbow as a ranged weapon at one time so amazed the medieval consciousness that in 1139 the Second Lateran Council considered it necessary to ban crossbows and bows in wars between Christians. Such a ban was not very effective (especially in the case of a bow). The experience of the Hundred Years War between England and France – one of the backbone medieval wars, which at the same time signified the crisis of the classical Middle Ages – showed that detachments of English archers recruited from peasants armed with a large bow. height of the person who uses it), which allows for fairly long shots., could inflict a crushing defeat on the flower of French chivalry in several major battles at Crécy, Poitiers and Agincourt, and so on ..
The confrontation between Italian cities, local feudal lords and the Holy Roman Empire gave rise to new forms of resistance to chivalry: a militia of pikemen armed with long pikes, which, with a well-coordinated organization and skillful use of their weapons, could stop a cavalry attack. The actions of these armed units (as, indeed, of the crossbow shooters and archers) required more and more coordination and skillful use of complex weapons, which led to the gradual professionalization of the war – the emergence of mercenary units capable of offering their services: skillful use of weapons and complex combat techniques.The war, especially in Italy, gradually became the business of teams of professionals, while intense competition led to the rise of the arms market: Italian cities offered more and more advanced models of crossbows, armor and various types of cold weapons, which could be chosen by the mercenary squads.
The use of gunpowder and the improvement of guns
Frontispiece of the book “Büchsenmeysterei”. Germany 1531
© Chemical Heritage Foundation, Philadelphia
It is believed that gunpowder was invented in China and began to be used in hostilities from the 12th century, but there it was used to throw giant arrows.As, in fact, at first in Europe. But since the XIV century, with the help of gunpowder, copper cannons have already begun to throw stone cannonballs. Each of these weapons took tons of metal, and in fact, only monarchs could afford to make them. Later, with the invention of cast iron cores, the need for huge cannons that spewed stone cores disappeared, since the metal core had a more serious destructive effect with a smaller diameter. With the invention of the wheel carriage Carriage is a special support on which the gun barrel is fixed.The design of such a carriage was invented in the second half of the 15th century in France and remained practically unchanged until the 1840s. during the 16th century, it was gradually leveled by the tactics of building earthen fortifications – after the discovery of the fact that the earthen embankment extinguishes the impact force of the nuclei.However, the construction of such fortifications was a special art that required engineering knowledge .. In a sense, it became the “last argument of kings” did not lead. In the 18th century, a tradition arose to cast on cannons the phrase “Ultima ratio regum” – “The last argument of kings” based on this statement. Possession of siege cannons in most cases was indeed the privilege of centralized monarchies, who were able to pay for their manufacture and maintenance.If the enemy did not have artillery, the fate of the confrontation was practically a foregone conclusion.
It was this factor that played a significant role in the expansion of the Muscovy to the east and south, which took place under Ivan the Terrible; cannons were no less significant in the era of the great geographical discoveries and the establishment of European domination in different regions of the world.
Development of handguns
Instructions for Musketeers.Engravings by Jacob de Gein. Netherlands, 1607
© Wikimedia Commons
The portable firearms that the infantry could use also changed the mindset of the combat capabilities of the infantry and the nature of combat. However, the weapons of that time were still quite heavy and took time to load and use. For its effective use in battle, the development of special methods of interaction with other units was required. One of the successful experiments turned out to be the construction of the Spanish thirds – a square of pikemen, which covered the musketeers located in the center.This tactic turned the Spanish infantry into one of the most formidable forces on the European battlefield for almost the entire 16th century.
Invention of drill
Battle of Nieuwport, 2 July 1600. Engraving by an unknown artist. 1600-1605
© Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
One of the most important innovations in the management of the army, which largely created it in the form in which we know it, was the development of Moritz of Orange, the ruler of the Netherlands from 1585 to 1625.He first approached military action as a set of elementary techniques that a soldier must perform. The result of his development was the division of the army into a system of small units, such as a platoon and a company. All units had to clearly work out the execution of the formation commands and constantly conduct drill and weapon handling classes – in fact, it was then that the drill was invented. The soldiers had to bring to automatism all movements to rebuild their units that can be used in battle.Likewise, the techniques of handling the musket, also clearly described by Moritz of Orange in terms of practicality and effectiveness, were methodically processed. The result of the innovations was the emergence of a very special military mechanism. The soldiers included in this mechanism clearly and impeccably carried out any command, and the movements brought to automatism made it possible to maintain battle formations even under enemy fire. Like any automation with a clearly developed protocol of actions, it led to a change in attitudes towards military craft – in fact, the system created by Moritz gave the feeling that with the help of a rigid drill, a soldier could be made from any “human material”.
In the second half of the 17th century, the book of Orange came to Russia, where it became the impetus for the appearance of foreign regiments, and later for the military reform of Peter. The ideal of the army, in which the soldier is primarily a tool for carrying out clear orders from the commander, actually held out until the end of the 18th century.
Mid 19th century
Industrialization of wars
The French Revolution brought a massive army recruited on a national call to the military arena.However, even this army, with changes in command and control methods and tactics, was supplied with weapons that remained practically unchanged since the 17th century (except for the leap in the development of artillery, the range and accuracy of fire of which significantly increased in the wars of the revolutionary and Napoleonic era). The fact that Napoleon was eventually defeated by a coalition of conservative European powers also stopped fundamental changes in the armed forces for a while.
British soldiers of the 68th Infantry Regiment with Enfield rifles in Crimea in 1855.Photo by Roger Fenton
© Library of Congress
A new impetus to progress was the proliferation of rifles with a rifled barrel Rifled weapons are small arms with screw-like grooves in the barrel bore to give the projectile a rotational motion, thereby ensuring its stability on the trajectory and range of flight .. Their massive use by those who landed in Crimea in In 1854, French and British troops against the Russian army, mainly armed with old-style muskets, ensured the troops of the anti-Russian coalition victory in open clashes and forced the Russians to lock themselves in Sevastopol.In general, the Crimean War, where a slight lag of the Russian armed forces in the introduction of inventions that were just beginning to be widely applied, such as the steam fleet or rifled rifles, became a critical factor, actually spurred the arms race.
One of the stages of this race was the rearmament of the army with new rifled rifles, loading from the breech That is, not from the muzzle, but from the opposite side of the barrel .. It was then that small arms first began to be produced not by hand, but on new milling machines invented in the USA manufacturing identical parts.In fact, only after this does small arms become industrial, whereas before the master gunsmiths made each musket by hand, adjusting the details.
When Colonel Samuel Colt first demonstrated the benefits of machine-made revolvers at the 1851 World’s Fair in London by disassembling several of them for parts, mixing parts and reassembling, it caused a sensation.
Artillery stepped forward in the same way.The development of the steel industry made it possible to create new guns, also loaded from the breech and demonstrating new destructive capabilities. In principle, the appearance of an artillery gun, which appeared in the 60s-70s of the 19th century, remains unchanged to this day.
Second half of the 19th century
Use of railways
Railway in Balaklava. Colored lithograph by William Simpson. England, 1855
© Library of Congress
The reality of new wars is becoming a massive army (in many countries it is beginning to be formed by conscription), armed with new types of weapons.The rapid movement and supply of such masses with everything necessary for waging a war with the help of traditional horse-drawn transport turned into an overwhelming task. Although the first railways were built in Europe in the 1830s, their use in warfare dates back to a later period. One of the first wars in which the construction of a railroad became an important factor influencing its outcome was the Crimean War. It was the 23-kilometer railway built between the Balaklava base of the Anglo-French troops in the Crimea and their combat positions in front of the besieged Sevastopol that made it possible to solve the problem of supplying the positions of the invaders with ammunition.In the opinion of some military historians, without the construction of this road by the spring of 1855, the besieging troops could wait crash.(True, this road was a compromise between old and new technologies, steam locomotives were used on it in parallel to horse traction.)
The rapid delivery of supplies, as well as the equally prompt transfer of large masses of troops, changed the idea of the speed of army mobilization. Now, in a few weeks, a country with a railway network could go to martial law and transfer an army with the necessary supply of resources to the desired direction. In the First World War, Europe literally drove by railroads, which carried military echelons to the borders of the belligerent powers in accordance with clearly developed mobilization plans.
Early XX century
Invention of World Wars
First World War. The soldiers in the trench are putting on gas masks. 1918
© Library of Congress
Acceleration of technical progress put all new discoveries and inventions at the service of war. Cars with an internal combustion engine, aviation, poisonous gases, barbed wire – all this received military use during the First World War and finally indicated that wars would no longer be similar to everything that was technologically understood as wars in previous eras.
During World War II, all these technologies were further developed and improved, becoming even more deadly. The mastery of radar, missile technology, the first steps in computing, and the emergence of nuclear weapons have made wars even more difficult and brutal. It is difficult to judge how the technological inventions that have appeared in recent decades, such as precision weapons, information systems that allow processing large amounts of data, unmanned aerial vehicles and other important technological innovations, affect wars.Perhaps the changes of recent decades will again turn the warfare waged by technologically advanced countries into a matter of specialists, requiring careful training, and at the same time make weapons that are used for wars and victories extremely expensive – even for wealthy countries.
October Revolution in Malaysia !!! We need crazy warriors !!!
Mad Warrior Revolution is a race during which you must overcome various natural and artificial obstacles.Running with obstacles originated even before the dawn of civilization, when a person had to literally fight for his life in order to feed and protect himself. And life itself depended on the ability to move quickly in unfamiliar conditions. And they were led by warriors, mad warriors!
Mad Warrior will help you discover the instincts that are inherent in each of us.
An important advantage of the obstacle race over the regular cross-country race is that it is quite a fun activity, and most of the participants come here to have fun.Mad Warrior’s route and obstacles are designed in such a way that the participants are always in a cheerful mood. And we guarantee you that you will remember this finish forever. Just don’t relax, it’s fun to walk the lane doesn’t mean easy to walk along the beach in Malaysia. Some teams participate in Mad Warrior to prepare for the World Obstacle Course Championships. Since Malaysia provides unique climatic conditions and stunning views of nature. Mad Warrior races are divided into three classes: Sprint, Revolution and Madness, and there are also races dedicated to the event or location.Obstacle courses differ in the length of the route, the number of obstacles difficulty. No special training and equipment is required to complete the race.
All you need is to assemble a team of like-minded people, strong sneakers, gloves and a set of clothes to change
Day 1. 14.10.2016 Friday.
Arrival in Kuala Lumpur.
At the exit, tourists go to the Aerotrain stop, the train will take the group to the main terminal for immigration, customs control and baggage claim.Tourists are met by a Russian-speaking guide in the waiting room.Transfer to Kuala Lumpur.
Kuala Lumpur Sightseeing Tour:
Tian Hou Temple of Three Religions
Photo stop at Petronas Towers
Lunch at a local restaurant.
Check in at the hotel. Free time.
Day 126.96.36.1996. Saturday. Saturday.
Meeting at the hotel lobby.
6:30 Transfer to the historic city center for “Boot camp” training
7:00 Hour “Boot camp” workout will allow you to quickly adapt physically and mentally to the new climate.Which will have a positive effect on the Sunday race.
Return to the hotel.
Day 3. 16.10.2016 Sunday.
4:30 Departure from the hotel to the place of the race.
6:00 Registration starts.
Start, ahead of 8 kilometers of distance, 25 obstacles laid through the mangrove jungle and beaches of the Strait of Malacca.
Average time to pass 3 hours
Transfer to Kuala Lumpur.
Return to the hotel.
Day 4 10/17/2016. Monday
Free day in Kuala Lumpur. You can spend on shopping or purchase additional excursions.
18:30 Meeting at the hotel lobby, transfer for dinner in the TV tower of Kuala Lumpur “Menara KL”
20-30 Return to the hotel. Tuesday
Day 5 18.10.2016 Tuesday
Meeting at the lobby for transfer to the airport.
What the program will give to the participant:
1. Improvement of skills in overcoming artificial and natural obstacles in new climatic conditions, the track is laid along the beach and mangrove forest.
2. New climatic conditions bring new techniques and actions to overcome obstacles,
3. Skills are improved in collective actions against the background of physical activity in a new climate and a new national-linguistic environment.
4. They bring up self-confidence, courage and determination, in completely new, unfamiliar and unpredictable conditions and terrain.
5. Will develop the body’s ability to withstand and adapt to specific environmental influences.These qualities include: resistance to motion sickness, hypoxia, overload, vestibular stability, rapid acclimatization.
6. They will develop moral and volitional qualities, bring up courage and perseverance, self-confidence, collectivism, communication.
7.In the design of the route of the race and its obstacles, the experience of training GGK (Malaysian Special Forces)
was taken into account
8. The Mad Warriors Obstacle Race is always held in new terrain that has historical significance to Malaysia.It could be an old mining town, university, or battlegrounds. For Mad Warrior Revolution 2016, Morib Beach was chosen, where the British Indian Army landed in 1945, to liberate Malaysia from Japanese invaders.
9. Obstacles Mad Warrior are planned in such a way that the participants would not get tired of monotony, and some obstacles will cheer up the participants with cheerful emotions. After all, strength and joy always go together. We guarantee you this finish you will remember for a long time.
10. To see and get to know Malaysia not only from the side of its main attractions, but also to get in touch with its inhabitants.
Cost of the Program Minimum number of participants is 20 people.
Price per person 800 USD.
Last booking date 30.08.2016 Included in the program:
Transfers to / from the airport, transfers to the place of the race.
Sightseeing tour of Kuala Lumpur.
Accommodation in a 4 * hotel.
Meals according to the program.
Mad Warrior Revolution Tickets Not Included:
International flight to Kuala Lumpur.
Food not provided by the program.
Snacks, drinks, personal expenses.
Everything that is not listed as included in the tour.
The tour can be extended if desired.
“I, a warrior of the UNR”
A film about the Ukrainian revolution of 1917-1918 is being shot in the Kiev fortress
Last Sunday, The Day’s correspondent had the opportunity to attend the filming of a documentary about the Ukrainian Revolution of 1917-1918 (we already informed our readers about this film in the article Ukrainian Revolution.A Story Without Embellishment “in The Day, No. 42, March 11). Filming took place in the Kiev fortress. The soldiers of the army of the Ukrainian People’s Republic in the film are played by reenactors from the military-historical clubs “Insurgent” and “Chota of the development of the 3rd zaliznoy division of the DA UNR”, who study this period in detail.
During the filming of the storming of the Kiev fortress, when the UNR members were fighting the Red Army, The Day’s correspondent had to observe an interesting scene. The reenactors in every possible way avoided the role of the occupier.And when one of them still had to put on the uniform of a Red Army soldier, he shouted to his comrades: “Eliminate this Muscovite faster!” Although he played his part in good faith.
After this interesting incident, The Day’s correspondent asked one of the reenactors who the warrior of the Ukrainian People’s Republic was for him.
Yuri KUDRYASHOV, Historical Reenactor, “War of the First Development of the 3rd Zalous Division of the UNR Army”:
– As a child, I read a book about Ukraine in the struggle for independence and statehood.It described the liberation war of 1917-1919. I pondered what I had read for a long time. And then he began to engage in historical reconstruction – he became “the war for the development of the 3rd Zaliznaya Division of the Army of the Ukrainian People’s Republic”. We study and reproduce that period to the smallest detail, even in everyday life. I understand that the UPR leadership made many mistakes in the struggle for independence. But politics is politics, and ordinary soldiers selflessly did their job. When the UPR army, by order of the command, retreated and crossed over the Zbruch into Poland, many soldiers wrote in their reports to the command that they wanted to return to Ukraine and fight further.After all, although some of the UNR members fought “for the hut and the garden” or for revenge (they killed or beat their relatives, burned down the house, raped their wife), there were also many who, already in that troubled period of the collapse of the empire, recognized themselves as Ukrainians and fought for their state and freedom.