All-America Games Return in 2021! – All America Games
We’re back and better than ever!
My Lacrosse Tournaments is proud to announce the return of the All-America Games in 2021! The All-America Games will be held at UMass this July 19-21. We’re excited to unveil a new, unique format with some awesome changes that will make the All-America Games an experience you’ll never forget.
This year’s All-America Games will be an interactive experience for our participants unlike anything you’ve seen before. Here’s a look at some of the fantastic features included at this summer’s Games.
- Epic gear package that includes the newest items from New Balance, Warrior & Brine
- Positional clinics run by current PLL players & NCAA college coaches
- Recruiting talks and lectures from NCAA coaches at every level
- Professionally-run training combine to test your physical strengths including 40-yard dash, long jump, high jump and more!
- Yoga and nutritional courses throughout the event
- Meet and greets with special guests
- NextPro film packages for all recruitable players
- And so much more!
Still the best players from around the country with a little twist. We’re moving away from the regionally-based tryout format and will now be teaming players up from all different parts of the country!
Players will have the unique opportunity to be on the same team as someone from the other side of the country. We will be accepting only 100 players for grad years 2030-2023 this summer.
AAG will also be changing up the ways our teams are coached. Every team will be paired up with both an elite club coach as well as a current NCAA coach, which will allow players to gain access to a completely unique coaching style and get a taste of what it is like to play at the next level.
The All-America Games is proud to announce that professional lacrosse star Sammy Jo Tracy will be joining the team as the National Girls Director. Tracy will be on site to headline and lead all positional clinics for the girls as well as interact with participants throughout the event. An All-American and All-ACC selection at North Carolina
The All-America Games is also partnering with the One Percent Showcase Series. The One Percent has quickly established itself as one of the elite recruiting events in the country and we are proud to have them at the Games this summer. One Percent will be inviting the top 44 2023 players in the country to compete in an under the lights battle on July 19. All players in the game will be decked out in Warrior gear and play against the very best players in the country free of charge. Email [email protected] to learn more.
Lax.com is the pre-eminent online store for lacrosse gear, as well as the best source for lacrosse news, stories and analysis. The guys from Lax.com will be at the All-America Games to give a behind-the-scenes look at everything that goes into making the All-America Games the event of the summer.
Don’t Miss Out!
Don’t miss your chance to be a part of the best event of the year! Secure your spot today by following the link below or email [email protected]
3 Rainbow Warriors named first team All-American
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COLUMBUS, Ohio >> Over the course of an overnight journey from Oahu to Ohio, the Hawaii men’s volleyball team collected its latest batch of postseason awards.
Five Rainbow Warriors were named to the NVA/AVCA All-America teams on Monday, with three — middle blocker Patrick Gasman, opposite Rado Parapunov and libero Gage Worsley — making the first team.
Outside hitter Colton Cowell earned his second consecutive second-team honor and setter Jakob Thelle was an honorable mention selection.
The announcement of the All-America teams came during a layover in the Warriors’ trek stretching from Sunday night into Monday afternoon in advance of their NCAA tournament match on Thursday at the Covelli Center on the Ohio State campus.
The Warriors enter the tournament at 15-1 and as the top seed, led by the quintet of AVCA honorees.
Parapunov and Worsley joined Costas Theocharidis (2000-03) and Stijn van Tilburg (2017-19) as the only three-time All-Americans in program history. Theocharidis remains UH lone four-year All-American.
Parapunov was also an honorable mention pick as a freshman in 2018 and could have another award coming on Wednesday as a leading candidate for the AVCA Player of the Year Award. He enters the NCAA tournament third in the country with 4.41 kills per set and with a .340 hitting percentage.
Worsley is a junior in eligibility but will finish his UH career this week. He ranks 10th in the country with 2.32 digs per set and is one of the Warriors’ primary passers. With Worsley’s three-peat, UH has placed a libero on the All-America first or second team each of the past six years. Larry Tuileta made the second team in 2017 and the first team in 2018. Kolby Kanetake was a second-team pick in 2016.
“It’s a crazy honor for me,” Worsley said of being part of UH’s line of liberos.
Gasman moved up to the first team after being named to the second team the previous two years. He averaged 1.56 kills per set coming into this season and increased his offensive production to 2.22 kills per set. He tops the nation in hitting percentage at .500, up from .383 last year, and ranks sixth in blocks per set at 1.22.
“I feel like I got better and better every year,” Gasman said. “I feel like I always tried to hit the ball faster, move quicker … every single year.”
Cowell progressed from a serving specialist in 2016 to earn a starting spot in 2019 and All-America status in 2020. The senior from Makawao is second on the team with 3.09 kills per set while hitting .307.
Thelle took over full-time setting duties this season and is running a UH attack that leads the nation at .365. The sophomore enters the week fifth in the country with 10.71 assists per set.
BYU setter Wil Stanley, a Punahou graduate, made the first team for the second straight year. UC Santa Barbara outside hitter Ryan Wilcox, another Punahou alum, was an honorable mention pick.
The Rainbow Warriors open NCAA tournament play in the semifinals at 11 a.m. Thursday and will face the winner of today’s opening-round match between UC Santa Barbara and Pepperdine.
“You have to treat it like any other game, like any other opponent,” Gasman said. “Obviously there’s a lot of weight behind the game, but I trust my teammates, and I trust our system.”
Penn State advances
The NCAA tournament opened on Monday with Penn State sweeping Belmont Abbey 25-22, 25-13, 25-19 at the Covelli Center.
The Nittany Lions advanced to face Lewis today. The winner faces No. 2 seed BYU in Thursday’s second semifinal match.
NVA/AVCA DIVISION I-II MEN’S ALL-AMERICA
Ryan Coenen, Lewis OH Sr.
Randy DeWeese, UC Santa Barbara RS Sr.
Gabi Garcia Fernandez, BYU RS Sr.
Davide Gardini, BYU OH Jr.
Patrick Gasman, Hawaii MB Sr.
Casey McGarry, UC Santa Barbara S Sr.
Tyler Mitchem, Lewis MB Sr.
Rado Parapunov, Hawaii RS Sr.
Wil Stanley, BYU S Sr.
Gage Worsley, Hawaii L Jr.
Cole Bogner, Penn State S Jr.
Colton Cowell, Hawaii OH Sr.
Cal Fisher, Penn State OH/RS Jr.
Alvaro Gimeno, NJIT OH Sr.
Kevin Kauling, Lewis S So.
Roy McFarland, UC Santa Barbara OH Sr.
Keenan Sanders, UC Santa Barbara MB Sr.
Spencer Wickens, Pepperdine OH Sr.
Brett Wildman, Penn State OH Jr.
Austin Wilmot, Pepperdine MB Sr.
Simon Andersen, MB, Long Beach State; Tobi Azeez, OH, Mount Olive; Raymond Barsemian, OH, Concordia-Irvine; Luca Berger, MB, NJIT; Mason Briggs, L, Long Beach State; Kyle Bugee, OH, Lewis; Brad Creamer, MB George Mason; Felipe de Brito Ferreira, MB, BYU; Bryce Dvorak, S, Pepperdine; Zach Eschenberg, OH, BYU; Michael Fisher, OH, Saint Francis; Lucas Galifos, MB, McKendree; Camden Gianni, OH, Grand Canyon; Cole Ketrzynski, RS, UCLA; Sam Kobrine, S/OH, UCLA; Kyle McCauley, OH, UC San Diego; Merrick McHenry, OH/RS, UCLA; TJ Murray, MB, Lewis; Spencer Olivier, OH, Long Beach State; Cole Schlothauer, OH, Loyola Chicago; Joel Schneidmiller, OH, UC Irvine; Ryan Serrano, S, McKendree; Sotiris Siapanis, OH, Ohio State;
Luc Leszczynski earns CoSIDA Football Academic All-America honors
Luc Leszczynski (92 white jersey) takes on St. Cloud State running back Joe Blando (21) in a Oct. 26, 2019 game in Winona, Minn. (Photo / Chops Hancock)
Football Pete Watkins
- CoSIDA Football All-America
In 2019, Leszczynski anchored a defensive line that was a part of an 8-4 season for the Warriors, a campaign in which they advanced to the Mineral Water Bowl, the 11th post-season appearance in program history. Individually, Leszczynski racked up 22 total tackles, including nine solo stops. He had a sack and three TFL’s for the year.
Leszczynski was one of five NSIC football standouts to be recognized with Academic All-America status and is the ninth Warrior football student-athlete to earn Academic All-America honors. Leszczynski joins Nate Gruber (1993, 94), Travis Walch (1997), Adam Lilla (2001), Roy Kratt (2005), Shawn Cunningham (2006, 07), Marcus Greatens (2008, 09), Alex Coulter (2012) and Carter McCauley (2015, 2016, 2017).
The Division II Academic All-America® program is being financially supported by the NCAA Division II national governance structure to assist CoSIDA with handling the awards fulfillment aspects for the 2020-21 Division II Academic All-America® program. Based on the absence of most fall sports competition, the CoSIDA Academic All-America® Committee revised some rules and procedures for nominating student-athletes this season. Due to the low percentage of games completed this season, the nominees were selected based on career statistics and achievements.
For the most up to date news in Warrior Athletics, please visit: www.WINONASTATEWARRIORS.com and @WinonaStateATH.
About Winona State University Athletics:
The Winona State University Department of Intercollegiate Athletics, as an integral part of the educational mission of the institution, is committed to offering opportunities to experience academic and athletic excellence for our student-athletes through two simple words: Graduate Champions.
Fourteen Warrior programs compete at the NCAA Division II level within the Northern Sun Intercollegiate Conference (NSIC). Winona State University competes as an affiliate member of the Wisconsin Intercollegiate Athletic Conference (WIAC) in the sport of women’s gymnastics.
Four Warriors Collect WGCA All-American Scholar Accolades
Story LinksCORAL SPRINGS, Fla. — A quartet of Wayne State University women’s golfers have been honored by the Women’s Golf Coaches Association (WGCA) with All-American Scholar accolades. Juniors Daniela Moreno (Bogota, Colombia) and Grace Zimmerman (Bruce Twp., Mich. / Almont), sophomore Avery Howard (Muskegon, Mich. / Reeths-Puffer) and freshman Beca Vestman (Madrid, Spain) received the recognition.
The criteria for selection to the All-American Scholar Team are some of the most stringent in all of college athletics. The minimum cumulative GPA is 3.50.
Moreno is a three-time honoree and Howard collects her second recognition. Zimmerman and Vestman both earn the recognition in their first eligible season.
Moreno was the Deans’ Award recipient from the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences for having the highest cumulative grade-point average among all student-athletes in that particular college. She was selected to the All-GLIAC Second Team and was named to the GLIAC All-Academic Excellence Team. Moreno competed in four events and had two top-10 results plus three top-25 results. She posted a stroke average of 79.1 over 12 total rounds and had a low round of 74. Moreno tied-for-10th at the SVSU Spring Invitational (3/20-21) with a 154 (76, 78) and shot a 152 (78, 74) at the GLIAC Championships (4/16-18) to tie-for-10th before posting rounds of 77 and 77 in match play.
Howard was named to the All-GLIAC Honorable Mention Team and was selected to the GLIAC All-Academic Excellence Team. She played in all five tournaments and had a stroke average of 78.7 in 14 rounds. Howard collected a top-10 result plus a four top-24 finishes and posted a low round of 73. Her best finish came at the Cavalier Classic (4/11-12) by carding a 155 (75, 80) to finish tied-for-ninth.
Vestman golfed in all five events and posted an average round of 78.3 to lead the team. She had a low round of 73 and collected two top-25 finishes. Vestman’s best finish came to conclude the season at the NCAA East Super Regional (5/3-5) where she shot a 237 (76, 82, 79) to finish 19th.
Zimmerman was named to the All-GLIAC Honorable Mention Team after playing in five tournaments and finished with an 85.8 stroke average in 13 rounds. She had two top-25 finishes and a low round of 75. Zimmerman’s best finish came at the Cavalier Classic (4/11-12) where she carded a 157 (75, 82) to tie-for-17th.
Leah Clapper & Megan Skaggs Named CoSIDA Academic All-AmericansGAINESVILLE, Fla. – Gator gymnasts Leah Clapper and Megan Skaggs both are College Sports Information Directors of America (CoSIDA) Academic All-America At-Large first team selections.
Florida is one of two programs to place two on the Academic All-America At-Large first team. The at-large team pools nominated student-athletes from the sports of beach volleyball, bowling, crew, fencing, field hockey, golf, gymnastics, ice hockey, lacrosse, rifle, tennis, swimming & diving and water polo.
Florida CoSIDA Academic All-America Notes:
Clapper in 2021:
- All-America balance beam first-team in the Women’s Collegiate Gymnastics Association (WCGA) regular-season awards
- All-Southeastern Conference
- Turned in Florida’s ninth 10.0 for balance beam to win Kentucky dual event title
- Shared Feb. 26 Auburn beam win with teammate Ellie Lazzari at near-perfect 9. 975
- Shared NCAA Athens Regional Final beam win (9.95)
- Graduates summa cum laude Saturday with her bachelor’s degree in Advertising. Will continue pursuit of a Professional Master’s in the College of Journalism and Communications at UF.
- SEC Scholar-Athlete of Year
- SEC Academic Honor Roll
Skaggs in 2021:
- Earned All-America second team honors for all-around (39.55), vault (9.875) and uneven bars (9.8875) in NCAA Semifinal I. Shared first in NCAA Team Final bars at 9.9375.
- All-America all-around and uneven bars second-team in the Women’s Collegiate Gymnastics Association (WCGA) regular-season awards
- All-Southeastern Conference
- Third in NCAA Athens Regional Second Round all-around with a collegiate-best 39.65. Also runner-up after matching collegiate bars best of 9.95.
- Matched collegiate floor best (9.925) in NCAA Regional Final
- SEC Gymnast of the Week after pair of wins at Arkansas – all-around (39. 50) and balance beam (9.95 – collegiate best). First all-around competition since 2019.
- SEC Academic Honor Roll
- Returns to Gators gymnastics team for a fifth season in 2022. Graduated summa cum laude in summer of 2020 with bachelor’s degree in Advertising and now pursuing a master’s in Entrepreneurship.
|2021 CoSIDA Academic All-America At-Large Teams – Women|
|Beach Volleyball||Olivia Blackburn||TCU||Gr.||Kinesiology MS|
|Golf||Allisen Corpuz||Southern California||Gr.||Masters: Global Supply Chain Management|
|Tennis||Alba Cortina Pou||Alabama||Gr.||Finance (UG) / Marketing (G)|
|Swimming||Brooke Forde||Stanford||Sr.||Human Biology|
|Golf||Lois Kaye Go||South Carolina||Sr.||Finance / Accounting|
|Swimming||Sophie Hansson||North Carolina State||Jr.||Business Management|
|Crew||Annika Hoffmann||Michigan||Sr.||Political Science / Comparative Literature|
|Tennis||Ashley Lahey||Pepperdine||Sr.||Sports Medicine|
|Swimming||Amanda Ling||Michigan State||Sr.||English|
|Gymnastics||Lexy Ramler||Minnesota||Sr.||Entrepreneurial Management|
|Field Hockey||Meghan Schneider||Louisville||Sr.||Biology|
|Gymnastics||Megan Skaggs||Florida||Gr.||Advertising (UG) / Entrepreneurship (G)|
|Swimming||Kylee Alons||North Carolina State||Jr.||Industrial Engineering|
|Swimming||Faith Anderson||James Madison||Sr.||Psychology|
|Fencing||Marina Arrese||NJ Institute of Technology||Jr.||Business|
|Fencing||Stefani Deschner||Notre Dame||Sr.||Pre-Professional Studies / Theology|
|Bowling||Sarah Florence||Youngstown State||Sr.||Public Health|
|Lacrosse||Elli Kluegel||Loyola Maryland||Sr.||Biology|
|Swimming||Morgan Liberto||Alabama||Gr.||Political Science (UG) / Public Administration|
|Swimming||Robin Neumann||California||Sr.||Global Studies|
|Tennis||Christina Rosca||Vanderbilt||Gr.||Neuroscience (UG) / Medicine, Health & Society|
|Gymnastics||Natalie Wojcik||Michigan||Jr.||Psychology / Spanish / Linguistics|
|Ice Hockey||Grace Zumwinkle||Minnesota||Sr.||Finance|
|Tennis||Kaede Amano||North Dakota||Gr.||Communications (UG) / Intl. Studies / Kinesiology (G)|
|Tennis||Sara Daavettila||North Carolina||Sr.||Communication Studies|
|Crew||Isabella Gonzales||Alabama||Sr.||Political Science|
|Ice Hockey||Emilie Harley||Robert Morris||Sr.||Biology|
|Tennis||Ilze Hattingh||Arizona State||Sr.||Parks & Recreation Management|
|Lacrosse||Caroline Kwon||U.S. Naval Academy||Sr.||Mathematics|
|Lacrosse||Lila Nazarian||Syracuse||Gr.||Public Administration|
|Beach Volleyball||Nicole Nourse||Southern California||So.||Business Administration|
|Water Polo||Maddie O’Reilly||Michigan||Sr.||Sport Management|
|Golf||Maja Stark||Oklahoma State||So.||Pre-Psychology|
|Ice Hockey||Lexi Templeman||Robert Morris||Sr.||Accounting|
|Lacrosse||Nicole Victory||U.S. Naval Academy||Sr.||Robotics & Control Engineering|
|Gymnastics||Anastasia Webb||Oklahoma||Sr.||Health, Medicine & Society|
Uriach named NAIA Second-Team All-American
Story LinksKANSAS CITY, Mo. (June 9, 2021) – The National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) has announced the 2021 NAIA Men’s Golf All-America teams, and Alberto Uriach of the Webber International University men’s golf team was one of 15 student-athletes named as a Second-Team All-American.
“It has been a pleasure for me to play for this university for five years,” said Uriach. “I’m happy that I decided to come back for an extra year and finally achieved my goal since freshman year, which was to play at nationals and earn the distinction of All-American. It means a lot to me, and it proves that hard work really does pay off.”
Uriach had an incredible final season as a Warrior. He was named All-Sun Conference after finishing in the top-five in four of Webber’s five tournament during the regular season, and then after placing 10th at The Sun Conference Championship, Uriach became the first Warrior to compete at the NAIA Men’s Golf National Championship since 2016. He was also the first Warrior to compete as an individual at nationals on the men’s side since 1999.
In the end, Uriach finished in the top-15 golfers in all of the NAIA after tying with four others for 15th out of 156 total golfers at nationals.
Webber’s Head Golf Coach Stuart Winsby said of Uriach, “Alberto deserved this honor, after going to the National Championship and what he has achieved over his college career has been fantastic. I am very proud of Alberto and will continue to follow his progress in the future.”
Uriach added, “I want to thank Coach Nancy Nichols and Webber’s SID Ricky Baptist for helping me during my journey, and I especially want to thank coach Stuart Winsby for giving me the extra motivation that I was missing to achieve my best level. Without their help, I would have never achieved these goals.”
In seven total tournaments and 22 total rounds, including the conference and NAIA championships, Uriach finished the year with an average score of 72.95 per round and was +1.27 versus par.
According to Golfstat, Uriach ranked 29th nationally and fifth in the conference in score vs. par, and was ranked 15th nationally and second in the conference in adjusted score.
Uriach’s best finish in the individual standings this year came at the Titan Winter Invitational when he finished second out of 46 golfers, and his lowest single-round score (67) and three-round score (213) both came during the Webber Fall Invitational in which he finished third out of 29 total golfers.
He shot par or better seven times this season and shot in the 60’s four times.
Warrior Lacrosse All-Americans – ESPNHS Lacrosse
ESPNHS releases its selections for the Warrior Lacrosse All-Americans.
Criteria for inclusion in the Warrior Lacrosse All-American boys’ team includes, but not limited to: being named a Player of the Year, first team all-league or US Lacrosse All-American. College recruiting status also plays a role in the selection process.
Eleven players each were named to the first team with 12 players earning second team honors. The breakdown consisted of three attackers, midfielders, defenders and one goalie. One spot is considered open on first team while two were open on the second team and awarded to the best possible player, regardless of position.
A: Henry Blynn, Sr., Haverford School (Haverford, Pa.), Brown
Blynn was named Inter-Ac Most Important Player after helping lead the Fords to the Inter-Ac title with an undefeated conference record during the regular season. The senior was an All-EPSLA First Team Selection and was named a US Lacrosse All-American and helped Haverford School to a No. 4 ranking in the final POWERADE FAB 50 ESPNHS Team Rankings.
A: Devin Dwyer, Sr., Garden City (N.Y.), Harvard
Dwyer was named New York Newsday Player of the Year after scoring 75 assists, 39 goals and helping lead Garden City to the New York Class B championship this season. Dwyer’s play helped the Trojans capture the FAB 50 National Championship and a 21-0 record. The Harvard commit led Long Island with 114 points and in the Trojan’s final two games of the year the attacker totaled 14 points on 11 assists and three goals.
A: Patrick Kelly, Sr., Calvert Hall (Baltimore)
Kelly was the Baltimore Sun’s All-Metro Player of the Year and won the C. Markland Kelly Award as Maryland’s top high school lacrosse player. The North Carolina commit totaled 44 goals and 41 assists this season and helped lead Calvert Hall to the Maryland Interscholastic Athletic Association A Conference championship. Calvert Hall finished as the No. 6 team in the FAB 50 this year after finishing 16-2.
A: Bradlee Lord, Sr., Conestoga (Berwyn, Pa.), Maryland
Lord was one of the key seniors that helped Conestoga to its third-straight Pennsylvania Interscholastic Athletic Association (PIAA) lacrosse championship. Lord totaled six points on four assists and six goals in the championship game, a 10-7 victory over La Salle (Wyndmoor, Pa.). The Maryland-bound senior racked up the honors this season, earning Under Armour All-American, US Lacrosse All-American and All-EPSLA First Team.
A: Case Matheis, Sr., Darien (Conn.), Duke
The No. 1 player in the ESPNHS 100 capped his stellar career with 69 goals, 53 assists and a Class M state championship. The Duke commit is Darien’s All-time leader in career points (313), goals (176) and assists (137) and was selected as MSG Varsity’s Tri-State Player of the Year in 2011 in addition to being named player of the year in Fairfield County Interscholastic Athletic Conference and selected to the Under Armour All-American team in 2012.
M: Will McNamara, Sr., Haverford School (Haverford, Pa.), Virginia
The No. 2 player in the ESPNHS 100, McNamara earned First Team All-Inter-Ac honors in addition to being named a Under Armour All-American. The senior has been a key member of the Fords for the last three seasons, including 2011’s FAB 50 National Championship squad. The Virginia commit is a two-time ESPNHS All-American selection.
M: Connor Reed, Sr., Gonzaga (Washington, D.C.), Johns Hopkins
Reed was named Washington Post All-Met Player of the Year after leading Gonzaga to its best season in school history. The senior totaled 33 assists and scored 14 goals and led the team to its third-straight WCAC title. The Purple Eagles finished the season as the No. 2 team in the FAB 50 after winning six games over teams in the FAB 50, including beating the Top 3 teams in the IAC: Landon, Bullis and Georgetown Prep. Reed finished his high school career with 130 points.
D: Evan Connell, Sr., Calvert Hall (Baltimore), North Carolina
The senior leader on a defense that allowed an average of just five goals per game, Connell earned Baltimore Sun All-Metro First Team honors in addition to being named an Under Armour All-American this season. The Cardinals defense was one of the main reasons they finished the season as the No. 6 team in the FAB 50.
D: Casey Eidenshink, Sr., La Salle (Wyndmoor, Pa.), Lehigh
Eidenshink helped anchor a defense that allowed more than seven goals just four times, held opponents to one goal three times and posted two shutouts this season. The Catholic League MVP also earned US Lacrosse All-American honors and was an All-EPSLA first team selection. The Lehigh commit helped La Salle reach the PIAA championship game and finish the season as the No. 17 team in the FAB 50.
D: Max Randall, Sr., Duxbury (Mass.), Dartmouth
Randall was named Mr. Lacrosse by ESPNBoston.com, an honor given to the top high school lacrosse player in Massachusetts. The 5-foot-10 close defender was a three-time Patriot League lacrosse All-Star in addition to being a First Team All-State selection as a senior. Randall helped anchor a Dragons’ defense that posted three shutouts and allowed double-digits in goals just once this season. Randall won three state championships as part of Duxbury’s lacrosse team in his career.
G: Dan Marino, Sr., Garden City (N.Y.), Virginia
As the last line of defense on the National Championship squad, Marino anchored a defense that allowed an average of 4.77 goals per game. The Virginia-bound senior recorded 134 saves this season, including eight saves in the Class B championship game victory over Irondequoit. Marino was named to Newsday’s All-Long Island team in addition to earning Under Armour All-American honors.
A: Justin Guterding, Jr., Garden City (N.Y.), Duke
A: Zed Williams, Jr., Silver Creek (N.Y.), undecided
A: Conor Whipple, Jr., St. Andrew’s (Boca Raton, Fla.), Georgetown
M: Deemer Class, Sr., Loyola-Blakefield (Towson, Md.), Duke
M: Stephen Kelly, Jr., Calvert Hall (Baltimore), North Carolina
M: Sam Llinares, Sr., Hauppauge (N.Y.), Hofstra
M: Jake Matthai, Sr., Gilman (Baltimore), North Carolina
M: Sam Rohr, Sr., Haverford School (Haverford, Pa.), Pennsylvania
D: Robby Haus, Sr., Gilman (Baltimore), Ohio State
D: Jamie Ikeda, Sr., Conestoga (Berwyn, Pa.), Duke
D: Nick Fields, Jr., Bullis (Potomac, Md.), Johns Hopkins
G: Alex Joyce, Sr., Landon (Bethesda, Md.), Georgetown90,000 1 August 1914 World War I started
- Category: Events
- Published: 01 August 2021
107 years ago, the first global military conflict began, in which 38 of the 59 independent states that existed at that time (two-thirds of the world’s population) were involved.
The war was fought between two coalitions of powers – the Entente (Russia, France, Great Britain) and the countries of the Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy; since 1915 – the Quadruple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria) – for the redivision of the world, colonies, spheres of influence and capital investment, is noted in the “Great Russian Encyclopedia”.
The First World War is one of the priority topics in the work of the Russian Historical Society.
Causes of the First World War
At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, the USA, Germany and Japan began to outstrip Great Britain and France in economic development and lay claim to their colonies.Germany was the most aggressive on the world stage. She sought to seize the colonies of Great Britain, Belgium and the Netherlands, to consolidate the captured Alsace and Lorraine from France, to tear away Poland, Ukraine and the Baltic states from the Russian Empire, to subordinate the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria to her influence and, together with Austria-Hungary, establish her control in the Balkans.
Immediately after the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871, as a result of which France conquered Alsace and Lorraine with Germany, the threat of a new war became permanent.France hoped to return the lost territories, but feared a second German attack. Great Britain and the Russian Empire did not want a new defeat of France and the establishment of German hegemony in the western part of the European continent. In turn, Germany feared the strengthening of the Russian Empire in Southeast Europe at the expense of Austria-Hungary in connection with the aggravated relations between these empires after the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-1878. This led to the conclusion in 1879 of the Austro-German Union, which Italy joined in 1882.Italy was pushed to this by the struggle with France for the partition of North Africa. In contrast to the Triple Alliance, the Russian-French Union of 1891-1893 was created, according to the BDT.
In 1904, an agreement was reached between France and Great Britain on the main colonial issues, which served as the basis for the British-French Entente (“cordial agreement”). The Russian Empire, weakened by the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905 and the First Revolution of 1905–1907, in turn concluded a similar agreement with Great Britain in 1907, which actually meant the annexation of Russia to the Entente.
Thus, the leading powers of the continent were divided into two opposing groupings. Tensions in international relations were exacerbated by a series of diplomatic crises – the Franco-German rivalry in Morocco, the Austrian annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908-1909, and the Balkan Wars of 1912-1913. In this situation, any new conflict could lead to a world war. In addition, large European and American concerns related to the production of weapons were interested in increasing international tension and the prospects for the outbreak of hostilities.
Countries began to prepare for war long before it began. The most stubborn rivalry in the arms race has developed between Great Britain, France, Russia and Germany. From the 1880s to 1914, these powers almost doubled the size of their armies. By the beginning of the First World War, the French army in peacetime numbered about 900 thousand people, the German army – over 800 thousand, the Russian one – more than 1.4 million people. The military-economic potential of the Entente countries as a whole was higher than the potential of its opponents.
The reason for the outbreak of the First World War was the murder by Serbian nationalists on June 15 (28), 1914 in Sarajevo (Bosnia) of the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand. By agreement with Germany, Austria-Hungary on July 10 (23) presented Serbia with an ultimatum that was obviously unacceptable for a sovereign state, and when its term expired, on July 15 (28) declared war on it and immediately launched an artillery bombardment of Belgrade. The Entente countries offered Austria-Hungary to settle the conflict peacefully.But after its attack on Serbia, fulfilling allied obligations, the Russian Empire announced a general mobilization on July 17 (30). Germany the next day demanded that Russia stop mobilizing. Having received no response to the ultimatum, Germany on July 19 (August 1) declared war on Russia, and on July 21 (August 3) – on France and Belgium, which rejected the ultimatum on the passage of German troops through its territory. Great Britain demanded that Germany maintain the neutrality of Belgium, but, having received a refusal, on July 22 (August 4), together with its dominions, declared war on Germany.On July 24 (August 6), Austria-Hungary declared war on the Russian Empire. Ally of Germany and Austria-Hungary in the Triple Alliance – Italy declared neutrality.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
The First World War lasted 1568 days. During the war, a number of other countries became its participants: Japan, Romania and others. The number of the fighting armies exceeded 37 million people. The total number of those mobilized into the armed forces is about 70 million people. The length of the fronts was up to 2.5-4 thousand.km. The casualties of the parties – about 9.5 million killed and over 20 million wounded.
The First World War ended with the complete defeat and surrender of Germany and its allies.
The war not only failed to resolve the contradictions that led to its emergence, but, on the contrary, contributed to their deepening, strengthened the objective prerequisites for the emergence of new crisis phenomena in the post-war world. Immediately after its end, a struggle unfolded for a new division of the world, which two decades later led to the Second World War of 1939-1945, even more destructive in its consequences.
In a number of countries, the First World War ended with a powerful revolutionary explosion and the overthrow of the governments that stood for the continuation of the war, the BDT says. The Russian Empire ceased to exist.
The victory of the Entente in the war was enshrined in a number of treaties: the Versailles Peace Treaty of 1919, the Saint-Germain Peace Treaty of 1919, and others. The 1919-1920 Paris Peace Conference established the League of Nations. As a result of the post-war arrangement, the political map of the world has changed significantly.The Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary collapsed, a number of new states appeared – Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Finland, Yugoslavia.
Day of Remembrance of Russian soldiers who died in the First World War 1914-1918.
At the initiative of the Russian parliament, the day of Russia’s entry into the First World War – August 1 – was established as the official memorable date of our country as the Day of Remembrance of the Russian soldiers who died in the First World War of 1914-1918.The corresponding federal law was signed by Russian President Vladimir Putin on December 30, 2012.
Text: Vera Marunova
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Only once Russian and American spetsnaz met in a competitive duel.It was back in 1996 already. And it turned out that our intelligence officers are cooler than the “green berets” and “seals” of the United States.
The most surprising thing is that Russian conscripts have surpassed American professionals.
Competitions of the GRU special forces reconnaissance groups were called “races” in their slang. Indeed, the specialists rode over very rough terrain like war horses laden with heavy backpacks. Such competitions for their physical and psychological stress, as well as for the intensity of passions have not been held in any army in the world.Naturally, the overseas military intelligence knew about them, collected some information. And, as it turned out, I really wanted to see these “races” with my own eyes.
The incredible happened. RUMO – the intelligence department of the US Department of Defense and the GRU agreed that the Americans not only saw the competition, but could also participate in them.
In the Ural Military District, near the city of Asbest, from July 16 to 23, 1996, competitions were planned for the tactical and special training of special intelligence groups of the GRU – land and sea.They invited special intelligence groups from Slovakia and the United States.
17 teams participated in the competition. 15 Russian, and two more – it is worth repeating, Slovak and American. I’ll tell you about the Americans, especially since, for the sake of my own interest, I went with them almost the entire “scout’s path”.
The US team consisted of two divisions. Six men are Green Berets from the 1st Special Operations Group based at Fort Lewis, Washington. Six are SEALs from the 1st Marine Special Forces Group stationed in San Diego, California.In their visible physical strength, they were simply the embodiment of “tanned scruffs”. Naturally, all are contract soldiers, whose average age is about thirty years.
The commanding officer of the group was Captain Michael Shouf of the Green Berets, and Lieutenant Tommy Short was the deputy Navy SEAL.
When all the competitors lined up on the parade ground, ours were clearly depressed. After all, in the Russian ranks there were not even guys, but boys of 18-19 years of age – in our army then they served conscript service, including in special forces.Well, how could they withstand such fighters as the tough Richard Holman, who had more than 1700 parachute jumps and passed more than one hot spot?
At the first rehearsal of the solemn march, which all the participants of the competition were supposed to pass on the opening day, the Americans walked imposingly, not always in step, many chewed gum. With all their appearance, they said that they had come to have fun – they would defeat Russian boys playfully.
But since they were preparing for the celebration, the laxity of the Yankees in the general strict order would not have played in their favor.A representative of the military attache at the US Embassy in Moscow intervened. The Americans remembered what a marching step was and marched in the end just brilliantly.
American special forces in the forests of the Urals. Photo: Sergey Ptichkin / RG
I will briefly tell you about the main stages of the “races”. Landing – the Americans jumped with our parachutes, with which, as it turned out, they were very familiar. And they fired from our weapons, by the way, too well. After landing, gathering the group in one place, masking the parachutes, sending radio reports to the center, going out to the place of the fire raid.Further – shooting from a silent machine gun, a silent pistol, from an ordinary AK-74, throwing grenades, hitting targets with a grenade launcher and much more. Everything was completed by a fire raid and separation from the chase with an exit to the place of evacuation by helicopter – a ten-kilometer march with full gear.
I did not jump with a parachute. Met supermen on earth and went on with them.
The Yankees landed very professionally. Not a single sound in the air. Signs are only gestures. Sometimes someone uttered the cry of a bird.Like in the movies. On the ground, they quickly grouped together. Then it was necessary to determine the path of movement of the group using the map and compass. And then it turned out that the US Army had long switched to GPs, they began to forget about how to use maps and a compass. And according to our terms, it was necessary to use only a map and a compass. There was a long hitch.
At one of the stages of the competition, it was necessary to identify and eliminate the malfunction of the car. The malfunctions were elementary, designed primarily for attentiveness.It is all the more surprising that the Americans, who all have their own cars and were driving almost from the cradle, almost began to disassemble the engine in search of a reason why it would not start. We dug for a very long time. As a result, tired of waiting, our soldier-driver suggested that the battery terminal was disconnected.
The search for a “terrorist base” involved a long walk through fields, forests and swamps. The Americans are out of luck. They immediately fell into a swamp, got wet to their knees, but got out and went in the right direction.However, the group soon requested a halt.
It turned out that everyone’s legs were bleeding. Fortunately for them, or rather, according to the staffing table, there was a professional physician named Michael Hetzler in the group, who treated the wounds with high quality. The scouts put on new dry socks and walked on. Lost over an hour. The “Green Berets” and “Navy Seals” were shocked that our intermediary, Captain Alexander Gribov, who was walking with them, did not suffer in any way. At the same time, the mediator carried not only the obligatory backpack, but also a heavy field radio station, which he had to turn on in the event of an emergency.
Photo: Sergey Ptichkin / RG
So, when Gribov took off his wet ankle boots, American specialists were amazed at the almost infantile cleanliness of his feet. Alexander waved his footcloths in front of the Americans, saying: not aesthetically pleasing, but practical.
It’s no secret that it is the footcloths that optimally dampen the unevenness and roughness of any shoe, even wet. True, if they are correctly wound on the leg. Alexander was winding correctly.
By the way, the rejection of footcloths in the current Russian army, as something archaic, was not approved by all professional soldiers.
Further the Americans walked, as was evident, with great difficulty. Alexander Gribov is very easy. Nevertheless, the Yankees found the “enemy” object quickly enough. In general, they acted very competently at almost all stages.
I drew attention to the fact that in motion their guns were directed with their barrels to the left and to the right. I was told that an equal number of right-handers and left-handers are taken into groups. And for them there is no problem in which direction they have to shoot.
I was also surprised why there were no blacks in the groups.To which they answered: we are professionals. And they explained. One group, the Green Berets, aims to work in Europe. Where are there blacks there? It was, let me remind you, in the mid-nineties of the last century – today, perhaps, the “green berets” have already turned black. The SEALs are responsible for the Pacific region. There, as I was told, blacks are not very favored. And a black person immediately arouses suspicion, attracts attention.
The US Defense Intelligence Agency did not play with tolerance, preferring military practicality.
Fire raid is one of the brightest episodes of the competition. Our “Salabons” prepared for it as they were taught. They disguised themselves with branches and grass, their faces were smeared with makeup.
The Americans sat on a hillock and looked at the “Russian theater” with smiles. The team leader from the United States said that they have very good makeup, but it ruins the skin. In this case, the Americans see their task in reaching the line and destroying all targets with the first shots. And in real combat they, of course, know how to disguise themselves very well.
Having saved the face from premature wrinkles, the American commandos lost it at the firing line. Nobody expected them to shoot so badly. Our conscripts turned out to be much more accurate than the pros from overseas. The Americans attributed their blunders to poor sighting of weapons. And who prevented them from shooting him?
At all stages of the competition, the Americans, although they were out of competition, were catastrophically losing to our recruits. The final stage has come. Forward march.
Running for Americans is a national schizophrenia.Everyone is running across the ocean! And they have publicly announced that they will be the first.
We had to run 10 kilometers along a forest road. The start was given. Literally everyone held their breath. They were waiting for the world marathon record.
This is how the Americans prepared for parachute jumps. Photo: Sergei Ptichkin / RG
At the start was the son of a GRU special forces officer, Sergei Murskov. He was 16 years old and had just finished his second year at the Suvorov Military School.
Five minutes later, Sergei decided to catch up with the Americans, and ran after the group that had long been hidden in the forest.And he came to the finish line first, reporting that the Americans were on the way. The approach was long. The Americans came running five minutes after Sergei, showing the worst result. Why? Couldn’t explain.
The competitions that I remembered were a long time ago, a lot has been forgotten. But I remember that the American special forces were very similar in character to ours. Special intelligence is a really special world, into which people who are simply chosen by fate come. Yes, our special-purpose scouts turned out to be the leaders – all conscripts, with the exception of their commander.But at the same time, as it turned out later, our specialists later borrowed a lot from overseas colleagues. In terms of their equipment, coordination of actions, ability to move almost silently, in many other ways.
We parted then in a brotherly manner and with full confidence that it would be better to meet in the future at the same competitions, and not on the battlefield. It is a pity that international competitions in tactical and special training were no longer held. 90,011 90,000 Police officers in the United States receive almost no punishment for the death of detainees.Why is this happening?
Protesters in the United States are calling for a reduction in funding for the American police, believing that it is impossible to reform it. Present Tense explains to whom the police in the United States are subordinate, how crimes committed by police officers are investigated, and why police officers are so rarely punished for them.
Sheriffs, cops, feds
In the United States, the police are decentralized. The country has 17,985 law enforcement offices and precincts at the local and state levels.They employ 800 thousand employees with the right to arrest people, another 181 thousand – without.
At the national level – federal – there are 83 agencies with 132 thousand employees, but they usually do not patrol the streets, maintain order and investigate local crimes.
All 17,985 law enforcement offices and sites differ in structure and function.
All US states, except Alaska and Louisiana, are divided into counties (there are more than 3 thousand in total), and almost every county has a sheriff.Residents of the districts themselves elect him at the elections. Having won, the sheriff is subordinate to the leadership of the district, and he can only be fired at re-elections.
Each city usually has a police station, which is run by a police chief. He is appointed to this position by the city authorities.
Law enforcement jurisdictions — sheriff’s offices, police stations, and federal agencies — often overlap. Depending on the situation, they share responsibility among themselves according to formal or informal, existing or new agreements.
When cops kill
The scale of police misconduct in the United States is unknown, due to the decentralized structure of law enforcement, there is no common database of complaints and investigations.
When a complaint is made against a law enforcement officer, it is investigated by the office for which he works – his own police station, for example. Usually a special department or staff members who do not work with the accused are responsible for such investigations.In only a few cases, such as a felony charge, the complaint is reviewed by district attorneys or federal agencies.
Scientists and journalists collect information about complaints and cases against police officers from the press and open sources. The Washington Post has estimated that since 2015, more than 5,000 people have died at the hands of police officers – with the legal and illegal use of weapons.
From 2005 to 2019, 42 police officers were found guilty, according to American criminal justice professor Philip Stinson.
Such a small number of punishments are associated with both the lack of centralized supervision and other factors.
For example, it has been known for decades that a custom has developed among the American police force, which is called the “blue wall of silence.” This is an unofficial code that police officers do not complain about colleagues, even if they witness their illegal behavior. This is one of the reasons why internal investigations often end only with a reprimand or suspension from office.
Second, it is very difficult for prosecutors to prove that the accused police officer has exceeded his authority. In 2018, 22-year-old African American Stephen Clark was shot dead by police, fearing he was armed. It turned out that only a telephone was in the victim’s hand. Prosecutors felt that the police had reason to fear for their lives and that they had not broken the law. No case was initiated against them.
Third, it is up to a special body – the grand jury – to decide whether there is sufficient evidence that the accused police officer has committed a criminal offense and should be sent to court.The jury rarely makes a decision against police officers: it is much more difficult to accuse a police officer of murder than an ordinary citizen.
The case of Eric Garner, who died of police strangulation in 2014, never went to court due to a grand jury ruling. The last moments of Garner’s life are filmed – he says: “I can’t breathe.”
In addition, there is every chance that during a grand jury or even a trial, the prosecutor will be on the side of the accused police officer, because their daily work depends on each other.Police officers investigate cases for prosecutors and often act as their witnesses in court.
It is also easier for accused police officers to defend themselves in court before a grand jury thanks to the support of trade unions. There are about 80 police unions in the United States, which comprise about 60 percent of all police officers.
Many trade union rules give accused police officers access to their own case files. Half of the unions guarantee access to them even before formal questioning. In 17 cities, victims of police violence have only 30 days to file a complaint.More than half of unions allow precincts to remove reprimands or disciplinary records from police officers’ files, sometimes as early as six months after the incident.
This factor and the fact that there is no common base of guilty police officers in the United States leads to the fact that many so-called Roma police officers work in the country. This is what they say about law enforcement officers who are fired for incompetence or malfeasance, but are soon taken to work in another police station.Often police officers’ personal files are not checked or simply ignored.
Police officer Timothy Lochman, who shot and killed 12-year-old black schoolboy Tamir Rice, left his police station to avoid firing – he was considered emotionally unprepared for police service. In another city, Lokhman’s personal file was not read and was again hired as a police officer.
Law Professor Seth Stoughton believes that part of the police misconduct is due to the “militarization” of the police in the United States.According to him, law enforcement officers are taught the mentality of a warrior. The main rule that the police are taught is to return home at the end of the shift. They are always trained to be alert and ready for any dangerous situation.
The state contributes to this by providing police officers with the necessary – and not so much – equipment. For example, in the United States there is a “program 1033” of the Department of Defense. It allows law enforcement agencies to transfer surplus military equipment – from airplanes to saxophones.
Under this program, police in Johnston, Rhode Island (population 29,000, 67 of them police officers) received two bomb disposal robots, 10 tactical trucks, 35 submachine guns, more than 100 infrared scopes and two pairs of protective shoes from explosive mines.90,010 Since 1990, the program has allocated $ 5 billion in equipment.
Many protesters on the streets of the United States today believe that the police in the United States cannot be reformed.They come out with the slogan “Stop funding the police” and demand to reduce to a minimum the number of police officers and curtail their powers. The protesters who have freed up budget money are proposing to invest in social housing, the education system and various social initiatives.
Most members of the Minneapolis city council, where the latest wave of protests began after the death of African American George Floyd at the hands of police officers, have already announced that they want to dissolve the city police station.One of them, Jeremiah Ellison, tweeted: “We will fundamentally rethink approaches to public safety and emergency response.”
The Mayor of Minneapolis, who reports to both the city council and the police station, said he did not support the dissolution of the police.90,000 10 years later: what is important to know about the five-day war between Russia and Georgia | Russia and Russians: A View from Europe | DW
Every fifth Russian citizen, according to a sociological survey by the Levada Center, does not know about the armed conflict between Russia and Georgia in August 2008.It was a short war – only five days, but it had great consequences – for the South Caucasus, Russia and the West. The main milestones of the conflict, its consequences and the answer to the question of who started it first – in the analysis of DW.
Start of the August war. What did they say then?
In the first hours and days of the conflict, which coincided with the opening of the Summer Olympics in Beijing, the key question was who started first. As it usually happens, the first victim of the war was the truth – in the stream of conflicting statements from different sides, it was difficult to give the right answer.
Official Tbilisi insisted that by the start of hostilities – the attack on Tskhinvali on the night of August 7-8, 2008 – the Georgian army was pushed by armed attacks by South Ossetian separatists, and spoke of “restoring constitutional order” in the territory of South Ossetia not controlled by Tbilisi. Russia claimed to have defended its citizens and peacekeepers in South Ossetia and only responded to the aggression on the part of Georgia, “forcing it to peace.”
Western media and governments split: Poland and the Baltic states were inclined to the version that the aggression was launched by the Russian and the South Ossetian armed forces supported by them, and demanded a tough reaction from the European Union.The “old” EU members, including Germany, called on both sides to de-escalate.
Course of the war: defeat of Georgia
The main hostilities took place in South Ossetia – on the night of August 7-8, Georgia first subjected the capital of South Ossetia Tskhinvali to massive shelling, after which it attempted to establish control over the republic. On the afternoon of August 8, then Russian President Dmitry Medvedev announced the start of a “peace enforcement operation” in the conflict zone.
Russian tank in Tskhinvali, 20 August 2008
Significant Russian forces have entered the region. The fighting lasted only five days and ended on August 12 with the defeat of the Georgian army. The Russian military, together with the South Ossetian armed formations, drove the Georgian troops out of the territory of South Ossetia not under its control and stopped near Tbilisi.
Victims of the conflict and refugees
The Russian military in the August 2008 war lost 67 people, from the Georgian side there were 170 dead.In total, about 850 people became victims of the five-day conflict, about two thousand people were injured. Up to 30 thousand Georgians were expelled from South Ossetia and still cannot return to their homes.
The Medvedev-Sarkozy plan and what became of it
On August 12, 2008, the war was stopped with the mediation of the EU and personally French President Nicolas Sarkozy. Sarkozy, together with Russian President Dmitry Medvedev, developed a six-point peace plan.
Nicolas Sarkozy (photo from archive)
The plan envisaged not only a ceasefire, but also the withdrawal of the armed forces to their former positions, which they occupied before the outbreak of hostilities.
In this respect, the plan is not being implemented: Russia maintains a military presence both in Abkhazia and in South Ossetia to this day. The sixth clause of the agreement is also not being fulfilled, which, however, was not signed by the Georgian leader – the one that assumed the beginning of an international discussion of the future status of South Ossetia and Abkhazia.
So who was the first to start , Georgia or Russia?
The Georgian leadership has always claimed that Russia was the first to start the hostilities, and Tbilisi entered the war out of self-defense – after the Russian armed forces were in South Ossetia. The Georgian authorities produced printouts of telephone conversations, which, in their opinion, indicated that Russian tanks passed the Roki tunnel and invaded South Ossetia even before the Georgian military attacked Tskhinvali.
This is how the border of the Autonomous Republic of South Ossetia looks like with the rest of Georgia
This issue was clarified by the independent International Commission to Investigate the Circumstances of the War in the South Caucasus, created by the European Union. The conclusions of the commission were unambiguous: Georgia was the first to start military operations.
It all started with an artillery shelling on the night of August 8, the capital of South Ossetia, Tskhinvali, and then a ground operation by the Georgian military on the territory of the autonomous republic.The commission did not find sufficient evidence to support Georgia’s claims that significant Russian forces had invaded South Ossetia prior to 8 August.
Europeans accused Russia of provoking the conflict
But Moscow provoked the conflict and is largely responsible for it, the members of the EU commission said. The international commission led by the Swiss diplomat Heidi Tagliavini cited in its report a number of examples of violations of international law by both sides of the conflict – both Moscow and Tbilisi.
One of the violations was the fact that before the start of the war with Georgia, Moscow massively issued Russian passports to residents of South Ossetia and Abkhazia. Issuance of passports as a preliminary step towards resolving territorial disputes?
In this regard, the German newspaper Die Welt predicted back in 2010: “What will the future bring? In the Ukrainian Crimea, Russian diplomats are now handing out Russian passports. Let the one who thought something bad be ashamed.”
Results of the war for Russia
Russia from a peacekeeper in the South Caucasus region has turned into a participant in the conflict on the side of the rebellious Georgian regions. Almost immediately after the end of hostilities, on August 25, 2008, the Kremlin announced the recognition of the state independence of South Ossetia and Abkhazia. This step allowed Moscow to strengthen its military presence in the region by creating bases in South Ossetia and Abkhazia. Russia also actually took both regions for its financial support.
The war with Georgia, which demonstrated, despite the victory of the Russian Federation, the weak technical and material equipment of the Russian troops, is believed to have become the reason for the military reform in Russia and the large-scale rearmament and re-equipment of the country’s armed forces.
Results of the war for Georgia
The defeat in the five-day war with Russia almost completely deprived Tbilisi of the chances of settling the conflict with the two rebellious Georgian regions in the near future.Since the moment of the five-day war, there has been practically no communication between the Georgian leadership and the authorities of South Ossetia and Abkhazia. But even at the informal level, contacts between residents of border regions have been reduced to a minimum.
The August war marked the beginning of the decline of the political career of the then President of Georgia Mikheil Saakashvili, in the next parliamentary elections in October 2012, Saakashvili’s party was defeated. A year later, he himself, without waiting for the end of the presidential term, flew abroad.
Consequences for the West
At the Bucharest summit in April 2008, NATO opened the prospect of NATO membership to Georgia. According to a number of observers, this fact, as well as the hope for military assistance from the United States, could provoke the then Georgian leadership to try to take back the lost territories of their autonomous republics by force.
Western countries did not intervene in the conflict. The EU and the US still do not recognize South Ossetia and Abkhazia and insist on the territorial integrity of Georgia.Today, the European Union acts as a mediator in the conflict – after the end of the August war, the EU sent an unarmed observer mission to Georgia.
What about today? The parties still blame each other
There are still no diplomatic relations between Georgia and Russia. Tbilisi tore them apart shortly after Moscow recognized the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, and also withdrew from the CIS. Economic cooperation between the two countries has been gradually strengthening in recent years. But their assessment of the war, even ten years later, has changed little.
Georgian President Giorgi Margvelashvili blamed Russia for the secession of Abkhazia and South Ossetia from Georgia. In turn, Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev warned Georgia against joining NATO, threatening that otherwise “it could provoke a terrible conflict.” Most Russians, according to polls, blame Tbilisi and NATO for the conflict a decade ago.
Border villages of Georgia: life by the barbed wire
Barbed wire fences in Didi Khurvaleti, one of the border villages of the Gori region, were installed by Russian border guards in the spring of 2012.The fence passed through the village, as a result of which four Georgian families were on the side not controlled by Tbilisi. Today there is only one Vanishvili family left. Valya and David Vanishvili do not dare to leave the house where they have lived all their lives.
Border villages of Georgia: life at the barbed wire
Georgian pensioner Valya Vanishvili was cut off from her neighbors in the village of Didi Khurvaleti. She does not dare to move to the Georgian side.Valya complains about the lack of food. In addition, the local store does not accept Georgian laris – only Russian rubles. We have to ask neighbors and relatives to buy food in Georgia and pass them through the fence.
Border villages of Georgia: life by the barbed wire
Georgian police post
In principle, anyone, including tourists, can visit the so-called administrative border line, beyond which South Ossetia begins.To do this, you must notify the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia about your trip in advance. For security reasons, movement on this land is possible only if accompanied by representatives of the Georgian Ministry of Internal Affairs. Local villagers are also obliged to warn about their movement.
Border villages of Georgia: life by the barbed wire
Barbed wire in the yard
In the village of Gugutiantkari, Gori region, Russian border guards installed barbed wire in the spring of 2013. Here she goes through houses and yards.Thus, the house sometimes remains on one side, and the adjacent garden on the other. According to the Ossetian side, these barriers are “engineering barriers along the perimeter of the state border of the Republic of South Ossetia.”
Border villages of Georgia: life by the barbed wire
A renegade deserter
A lost cow ended up in the territory controlled by the Russian military and Ossetians. The owner may have difficulty getting her back.After all, every transition to the “foreign” side can end with detention and a fine for the so-called illegal border crossing. In 2013, about a hundred people have already been detained.
Border villages of Georgia: life by the barbed wire
When the toilet is located on “foreign” territory
This house used to be the pride of the Gugutishvili family from the village of Gugutiantkari. After the war, its owners live in the school building. In April 2013, barbed wire appeared in this village as well.After lengthy negotiations, the family managed to get the opportunity to enter the house, but their garden and toilet are already located on “foreign” territory. Each trip to the toilet can result in detention and a fine.
Border villages of Georgia: life by the barbed wire
The green fence near the village of Ditsi, Gori region, has already stretched for 4 kilometers. The construction work has not been completed yet. It is here, according to official Tbilisi, that the fence up to 300 meters goes deep into the territory controlled by the Georgian authorities.A gate has already been installed on one of the bypass roads. On the other side there is a sign with the inscription “Republic of South Ossetia”.
Border villages of Georgia: life by the barbed wire
Gori, the center of the Shida Kartli region and Stalin’s homeland, suffered the most during the 2008 war. From here to Tbilisi – 80 kilometers, and to the so-called administrative boundary line – about 30 kilometers. The city, completely rebuilt after the conflict, attracts many foreign tourists.But its residents complain of high unemployment and hope for normalization of relations with Russia.
Border villages of Georgia: life by the barbed wire
Refugee settlement Shavshvebi
Villages of one-story houses with red or blue roofs can be found on the road from Tbilisi to western Georgia. Since December 2008, there have been 563 people living in Shavshvebi, who left their homes during the Russian-Georgian war. According to official data, in total, 24,700 people from the Georgian side lost their homes as a result of the 2008 war, of which slightly more than half live in new settlements.
Border villages of Georgia: life by the barbed wire
Galina Kelekhsayeva hopes to return to her home
Galina Kelekhsayeva’s optimism and hospitality can be envied. Due to the August war, she and her family were forced to leave their native village Didi Liakhvi. She is glad for the arrival of guests, worries that she cannot receive them properly, and reassures her goodbye: “We will definitely return to our homes, for some reason I believe in it. And most importantly, there should be peace.Yes, we lost everything, but we survived. “
Border villages of Georgia: life by the barbed wire
Refugee with 22 years of experience Nazi Beruashvili
Nazi Beruashvili is from Tskhinvali, but during the first Georgian-Ossetian In the early 1990s, she had to flee from her hometown to the village of Eredvi. The 2008 war forced her to leave her home in Eredvi. Nazi Beruashvili proudly shows her farm. A refugee with 22 years of experience no longer believes in her return to her homeland …
Border villages of Georgia: life by the barbed wire
Shop on wheels in the refugee settlement
Manana Bachechiladze (left) has been running his own shop on wheels in the refugee settlement Shavshvebi since 2008. Manana knows the life story of many of his customers. For example, Sidonia Gochashvili (on the right) was left completely alone. Her village Kheiti was burned to the ground. The daughter lives in another city, and the son was captured during the August war, was beaten to a pulp, and later died in a car accident.
Artist: Amalia Ohanjanyan
90,000 COLD WAR – information on the portal Encyclopedia World History
“Cold War” is a term used to designate a period in world history from 1946 to 1989, characterized by the confrontation between two political and economic superpowers – the USSR and the USA, which are the guarantors of a new system of international relationship established after World War II.
Origin of the term.
It is believed that for the first time the expression “Cold War” was used by the famous British science fiction writer George Orwell on October 19, 1945 in the article “You and the Atomic Bomb”. In his opinion, the countries possessing nuclear weapons will dominate the world, while a “cold war” will be constantly going on between them, that is, a confrontation without direct military clashes. His forecast can be called prophetic, since at the time of the end of the war, the United States possessed a monopoly on nuclear weapons. At the official level, this expression sounded in April 1947.from the mouth of the adviser to the President of the United States Bernard Baruch.
Churchill’s Fulton speech
After the end of World War II, relations between the USSR and the Western Allies began to deteriorate rapidly. Already in September 1945, the Joint Chiefs of Staff approved the idea of a first strike by the United States against a potential adversary (meaning the use of nuclear weapons). On March 5, 1946, former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, in his speech at Westminster College in the city of Fulton in the United States in the presence of US President Harry Truman, formulated the goals of a “fraternal association of English speaking peoples”, urging them to rally to defend the “great principles of freedom and human rights ”.”From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste on the Adriatic, the iron curtain has descended over the European continent,” and “Soviet Russia wants … the unlimited spread of its strength and its doctrines.” Churchill’s Fulton speech is considered a turn to the beginning of the Cold War between East and West.
In the spring of 1947, the US President promulgated his “Truman Doctrine” or the doctrine of “containment of communism”, according to which “the world as a whole must accept the American system,” and the United States must engage in battle with any revolutionary movement, any claims of the Soviet Union.The decisive factor in this was the conflict between the two ways of life. One of them, according to Truman, was based on individual rights, free elections, legal institutions and guarantees against aggression. The other is based on control over the press and the media, imposing the will of the minority on the majority, on terror and oppression.
One of the instruments of containment was the American plan of economic aid, announced on June 5, 1947 by US Secretary of State J. Marshall, who announced the provision of gratuitous aid to Europe, which would be directed “not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, despair and chaos. “
Initially, the USSR and the countries of Central Europe showed interest in the plan, but after negotiations in Paris, a delegation of 83 Soviet economists headed by V.M. Molotov left them at the direction of V.I. Stalin. The 16 countries that joined the plan received significant assistance from 1948 to 1952, its implementation actually completed the division of spheres of influence in Europe. The communists lost their positions in Western Europe.
In September 1947at the first meeting of the Cominformburo (Information Bureau of Communist and Workers’ Parties) A.A. Zhdanov on the formation of two camps in the world – “the imperialist and anti-democratic camp, which has as its main goal the establishment of world domination and the defeat of democracy, and the anti-imperialist and democratic camp, which has as its main goal the undermining of imperialism, the strengthening of democracy and the elimination of the remnants of fascism.” The creation of the Cominformburo meant the emergence of a single center for the leadership of the world communist movement.In Eastern Europe, the communists completely take power into their own hands, and many opposition politicians leave for emigration. Socio-economic transformations on the Soviet model are beginning in the countries.
The Berlin Crisis became a stage in the deepening of the Cold War. Back in 1947. the Western allies set out to create a West German state in the territories of the American, British and French occupation zones. In turn, the USSR tried to oust the allies from Berlin (the western sectors of Berlin were an isolated enclave within the Soviet zone of occupation).As a result, the “Berlin crisis” took place, i.e. transport blockade of the western part of the city from the side of the USSR. However, in May 1949, the USSR lifted restrictions on transportation to West Berlin. In the autumn of the same year, the division of Germany took place: in September the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) was created, in October the German Democratic Republic (GDR). An important consequence of the crisis was the founding by the US leadership of the largest military-political bloc: 11 states of Western Europe and the United States signed the North Atlantic Treaty on Mutual Defense (NATO), according to which each side pledged to provide immediate military assistance in the event of an attack on any country included in block.In 1952, Greece and Turkey joined the pact, in 1955 – the FRG.
Another characteristic feature of the Cold War was the arms race. In April 1950, the National Security Council directive “US National Security Objectives and Programs” (SNB-68) was adopted, which was based on the following provision: than negotiations with the Soviet leadership are impossible. “Hence the conclusion was drawn about the need to build up American military potential. The directive focused on a crisis confrontation with the USSR “until there is a change in the character of the Soviet system.” Thus, the USSR was forced to join the arms race imposed on it. In 1950-1953 the first local armed conflict with the participation of two superpowers in Korea took place.
After the death of I.V. Stalin, the new Soviet leadership, headed by G.M. Malenkov, and then N.S. Khrushchev, took a number of major steps to mitigate international tension. Declaring that “there is no such controversial or unresolved issue that could not be resolved peacefully,” the Soviet government agreed with the United States to end the Korean War. In 1956 N.S. Khrushchev proclaimed a course of preventing war and declared that “there is no fatal inevitability of war.” Later in the Program of the CPSU (1962) it was emphasized: “Peaceful coexistence of socialist and capitalist states is an objective necessity for the development of human society.War cannot and should not serve as a way to resolve international disputes. ”
In 1954, Washington adopted the military doctrine of “massive retaliation”, which provided for the use of the full power of the American strategic potential in the event of an armed conflict with the USSR in any region. But at the end of the 50s. the situation changed dramatically: in 1957 the Soviet Union launched the first artificial satellite, and in 1959 commissioned the first submarine with a nuclear reactor on board.Under the new conditions of the development of armaments, a nuclear war lost its meaning, since it would not have had a winner in advance. Even taking into account the superiority of the United States in the number of accumulated nuclear weapons, the USSR’s nuclear missile potential was sufficient to inflict “unacceptable damage” on the United States.
In the circumstances of nuclear confrontation, a series of crises occurred: on May 1, 1960, an American reconnaissance aircraft was shot down over Yekaterinburg, pilot Harry Powers was captured; in October 1961the Berlin crisis broke out, the “Berlin Wall” appeared, and a year later the famous Cuban Missile Crisis occurred, which put all of humanity on the brink of nuclear war. A kind of result of the crises was the onset of detente: on August 5, 1963, the USSR, Great Britain and the United States signed in Moscow a treaty banning nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water, and in 1968, a treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons.
In the 60s. when the Cold War was in full swing, in the face of confrontation between two military blocs (NATO and the Warsaw Pact Organization since 1955.) Eastern Europe was under the complete control of the USSR, and Western Europe was in a strong military-political and economic alliance with the United States, the main arena of the struggle between the two systems was the countries of the “third world”, which often led to local military conflicts around the world.
By the 70s, the Soviet Union had reached an approximate military-strategic parity with the United States. Both superpowers, in terms of their total nuclear missile power, have acquired the possibility of “guaranteed retaliation”, i.e. retaliation of unacceptable damage to a potential adversary.
In his message to Congress on February 18, 1970, President R. Nixon identified three components of US foreign policy: partnership, military force, and negotiation. Partnership concerned allies, military force and negotiations – “potential adversaries”.
New here is the attitude towards the enemy, expressed in the formula “from confrontation to negotiations.” On May 29, 1972, the countries signed the Fundamentals of Relations between the USSR and the USA, emphasizing the need for peaceful coexistence of the two systems.Both sides committed themselves to doing everything possible to prevent military conflicts and nuclear war.
The structural documents of these intentions were the Treaty on the Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems (ABM) and the Interim Agreement on Certain Measures in the Field of the Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms (SALT-1), which sets the limit for the build-up of arms. Later, in 1974, the USSR and the USA signed a protocol according to which they agreed to anti-missile defense of only one area: the USSR covered Moscow, and the USA covered the base for launching interballistic missiles in the state of North Dakota.The ABM Treaty was in effect until 2002, when the United States withdrew from it. The result of the policy of “detente” in Europe was the holding of the All-European Conference on Security and Cooperation in Helsinki in 1975 (CSCE), which proclaimed the refusal to use force, the inviolability of borders in Europe, and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.
In 1979, in Geneva, at a meeting between US President J. Carter and General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee L.I. Brezhnev, a new treaty on the limitation of strategic offensive arms (SALT-2) was signed, which reduced the total number of nuclear carriers to 2,400 and provided for restraining the process of modernizing strategic weapons.However, after the introduction of Soviet troops into Afghanistan in December 1979, the United States refused to ratify the treaty, although its clauses were partially respected by both sides. At the same time, a rapid reaction force was being created to defend American interests anywhere in the world.
Apparently, at the end of the 70s. in Moscow, the point of view was formed that in the conditions of achieved parity and the policy of “detente”, it is the USSR that has the foreign policy initiative: there is a build-up and modernization of conventional weapons in Europe, the deployment of medium-range missiles, a large-scale build-up of naval forces, active participation in supporting friendly regimes in countries third world.Under these conditions, a course of confrontation prevailed in the United States: in January 1980, the president proclaimed the Carter Doctrine, according to which the Persian Gulf was declared a zone of American interests and the use of armed force was allowed to defend it.
With the coming to power of R. Reagan, a program of large-scale modernization of various types of weapons with the use of new technologies was undertaken, with the aim of achieving strategic superiority over the USSR. It is Reagan who owns the famous words that the USSR is an “empire of evil”, and America is “the people chosen by God” to implement the “sacred plan” – “to leave Marxism-Leninism in the ashes of history.”In 1981-1982. restrictions on trade with the USSR were introduced, and in 1983 a strategic defense initiative or so-called “star wars” program was adopted, designed to create a multilayer defense of the United States against intercontinental missiles. At the end of 1983, the governments of Great Britain, Germany and Italy agreed to deploy American missiles on their territory.
End of the Cold War
The last stage of the Cold War is associated with serious changes that took place in the USSR after the coming to power of the new leadership of the country, headed by M.S. Gorbachev, who pursued a policy of “new political thinking” in foreign policy. The Geneva talks at the highest level between the USSR and the United States in November 1985 became a real breakthrough, the parties came to a consensus that “a nuclear war should not be unleashed, there can be no winners in it,” and their goal is “to prevent an arms race in space and its termination on Earth. ” In December 1987, a new Soviet-American meeting took place in Washington, which ended with the signing of the Treaty on the Elimination of Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles (from 500 to 5.5 thousand.km) in nuclear and non-nuclear equipment. These measures included regular mutual control over the implementation of agreements, thus, for the first time in history, a whole class of advanced weapons was destroyed. In 1988, the USSR formulated the concept of “freedom of choice” as a universal principle of international relations, the Soviet Union began to withdraw its troops from Eastern Europe.
In November 1989, during a spontaneous uprising, the symbol of the Cold War, the concrete wall separating West and East Berlin, was destroyed.In Eastern Europe, there is a series of “velvet revolutions”, the communist parties are losing power. On December 2-3, 1989, a meeting took place in Malta between the new US President George W. Bush and M.S. Gorbachev, at which the latter confirmed the “freedom of choice” for the countries of Eastern Europe, proclaimed a course of 50% reduction in strategic offensive arms. The Soviet Union renounced its zone of influence in Eastern Europe. Following the meeting, M.S. Gorbachev said that “the world is emerging from the Cold War era and is entering a new era.”For his part, George W. Bush stressed that “the West will not try to take advantage of the unusual changes taking place in the East.” In March 1991, the OVD was officially disbanded, and in December the Soviet Union collapsed.
About declassified archives of the USSR and real losses in the war – Realnoe Vremya
How the official data on the losses of the USSR changedPhoto: Roman Khasaev
Recently, the State Duma announced new figures for the Soviet Union’s casualties during the Great Patriotic War – almost 42 million people.15 million people were added to the previous official data “additionally”. The head of the Museum-Memorial of the Great Patriotic War of the Kazan Kremlin, our columnist Mikhail Cherepanov, in the author’s column of Realnoe Vremya talks about the declassified losses of the USSR and Tatarstan.
Irrecoverable losses of the Soviet Union as a result of the factors of the Second World War – more than 19 million servicemen.
Despite many years of well-paid sabotage and all sorts of efforts by generals and politicians to hide the true cost of our Victory over fascism, on February 14, 2017, at the parliamentary hearings in the State Duma, Patriotic Education of Russian Citizens: The Immortal Regiment, were finally declassified by those closest to the truth of the numbers:
“According to the declassified data of the State Planning Committee of the USSR, the losses of the Soviet Union in the Second World War amount to 41 million 979 thousand, not 27 million, as previously thought.The total decline in the population of the USSR in 1941-1945 was more than 52 million 812 thousand people. Of these, more than 19 million servicemen and about 23 million civilians are irretrievable losses as a result of the action of the factors of war ”.
As stated in the report, this information is confirmed by a large number of authentic documents, authoritative publications and testimonies (for details, see the Immortal Regiment website and other resources).
The history of the issue is as follows
In March 1946, in an interview with the newspaper Pravda, I.V. Stalin announced: “As a result of the German invasion, the Soviet Union irrevocably lost in the battles with the Germans, as well as due to the German occupation and the deportation of Soviet people to German penal servitude, about seven million people.”
In 1961, N.S. Khrushchev wrote in a letter to the Swedish Prime Minister: “The German militarists unleashed a war against the Soviet Union, which claimed two tens of millions of Soviet lives.”
On May 8, 1990, at a meeting of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR in honor of the 45th anniversary of Victory in the Great Patriotic War, the total number of casualties was announced: “Almost 27 million people”.
In 1993, a team of military historians led by Colonel-General G.F. Krivosheeva published a statistical study “The secrecy label has been removed. Losses of the Armed Forces of the USSR in wars, hostilities and military conflicts. ” It indicates the total losses – 26.6 million people, including the first published combat losses: 8,668,400 soldiers and officers.
In 2001, the book was reprinted under the editorship of G.F. Krivosheeva “Russia and the USSR in the wars of the XX century. Losses of the Armed Forces: A Statistical Study.One of its tables stated that the irrecoverable losses of the Soviet Army and Navy alone during the Great Patriotic War were 11,285,057 people. (see p. 252.) In 2010, in the next edition of “The Great Patriotic War without a stamp of secrecy. The Book of Loss ”, again edited by G.F. Krivosheev, the data on the losses of the armies fighting in 1941-1945 were updated. Demographic losses were reduced to 8,744,500 servicemen (p. 373):
And on February 14, 2017, a new figure was announced: more than 19 million soldiers and officers.
A natural question arises: where were the aforementioned “data of the State Planning Committee of the USSR” about the combat losses of our Army kept, if even the heads of the special commissions of the Ministry of Defense could not study them for more than 70 years? How true are they?
Everything is learned by comparison. It is worth remembering that it was in the book “Russia and the USSR in the wars of the twentieth century” that we were finally allowed, in 2001, to find out how many of our compatriots were mobilized into the ranks of the Red (Soviet) Army during the Second World War: 34,476,700 people (pp. …596.).
If we take on faith the official figure of 8,744 thousand people, then the share of our military losses will be 25 percent. That is, according to the commission of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, only every fourth Soviet soldier and officer did not return from the front.
I think a resident of any settlement of the former USSR will not agree with this. In every village or aul there are plates with the names of the fallen compatriots. At best, only half of those who went to the front 70 years ago are on them.
Statistics of Tatarstan
Let’s see what statistics are in our Tatarstan, on the territory of which there were no battles.
In the book of Professor Z.I. Gilmanov “Working people of Tatarstan on the fronts of the Great Patriotic War”, published in Kazan in 1981, it was stated that the republic’s military enlistment offices sent 560 thousand citizens to the front and 87 thousand of them did not return.
In 2001, Professor A.A. Ivanov in his doctoral dissertation “Combat losses of the peoples of Tatarstan during the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945.” announced that from 1939 to 1945 about 700 thousand citizens were drafted into the army from the territory of the Tatar Republic, and 350 thousand of them did not return.
As the head of the working group of the edition of the Book of Memory of the Republic of Tatarstan from 1990 to 2007, I can clarify: taking into account the natives called up from other regions of the country, the losses of our Tatarstan during the Second World War amounted to at least 390 thousand soldiers and officers.
And these are irrecoverable losses of the republic, on whose territory not a single bomb or shell of the enemy fell!
Are the losses of other regions of the former USSR even lower on average across the country?
It seems to me that the newly published figure of the losses of our army is quite true.I am sure that it will be possible to find documents in the country’s secret archives proving this, at first glance, shocking fact.
Time will tell. And our task is to wrest from obscurity and enter into the database of losses of the Republic of Tatarstan presented in the Victory Park of Kazan, if possible, the names of all fellow countrymen.
And this should be done not only by individual enthusiasts on their own initiative, but also by professional search engines on behalf of the state itself.
It is physically impossible to do this only in excavations at the battlefield in all Memory Watches.This requires massive and constant work in archives published on the websites of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation and other thematic Internet resources.
But that’s a completely different story …
Mikhail Cherepanov, illustrations provided by the author
Mikhail Valerievich Cherepanov – Head of the Museum-Memorial of the Great Patriotic War of the Kazan Kremlin; Chairman of the Association “Club of Military Glory”; Honored Worker of Culture of the Republic of Tatarstan, Corresponding Member of the Academy of Military-Historical Sciences, Laureate of the State Prize of the Republic of Tatarstan.
- Born in 1960.
- Graduated from Kazan State University. IN AND. Ulyanov-Lenin with a degree in Journalism.
- Since 2007 he has been working at the National Museum of the Republic of Tatarstan.
- One of the creators of the 28-volume book “Memory” of the Republic of Tatarstan about those who died during the Second World War, 19 volumes of the Book of Memory of Victims of Political Repression of the Republic of Tatarstan, etc.
- Creator of the Electronic Book of Memory of the Republic of Tatarstan (list of natives and residents of Tatarstan who died during the Second World War).
- Author of thematic lectures from the cycle “Tatarstan during the war”, thematic excursions “The feat of fellow countrymen on the fronts of the Great Patriotic War.”
- Co-author of the concept of the virtual museum “Tatarstan to the Fatherland”.
- Member of 60 search expeditions to bury the remains of soldiers who died in the Great Patriotic War (since 1980), member of the board of the Union of search units of Russia.
- Author of over 100 scientific and educational articles, books, participant of all-Russian, regional, international conferences.Columnist for Realnoe Vremya.
11 August. Interfax-Russia.ru – The Governor of Sevastopol Mikhail Razvozhaev proposed to prepare, together with the government of the Russian Federation, a plan to put in order the historic buildings in the city center.
“My proposal is to instruct the government, together with the government of Sevastopol, to develop a government plan: for each building, determine the timing, sources of funding, so that it will be in one document, and within three to four years bring the main historical buildings in Sevastopol in order, using different sources financing “, – said Razvozhaev on Wednesday at a meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin, which was broadcast by the TV channel” Russia 24 “.
The Governor gave a presentation to the President on the condition of historic buildings. He noted that some objects are already being restored for budgetary funds, others – for private investments.
The Governor recalled that a large-scale improvement of the city center began several years ago. So, in the spring of 2020, the reconstruction of Bolshaya Morskaya Street was completed. It is planned to renovate the second central street of the city – Lenin.
Razvozhaev also spoke about the “freeze” of the reconstruction of Istorichesky Boulevard, which was started by Meander in 2018.
“Less than 10% of the work has been done. We need to make a decision, to finish it. Probably, we need to sort it out with those who did their work in bad faith … Now everything has been transferred on the initiative of Khusnullin (Deputy Prime Minister of the Russian Federation – IF), all the facilities are industry-specific, in a single directorate under the Ministry of Construction. In order for them to enter and finish what they need, additional allocation of money is required for the project, because the project was not done very well, and for financing (works – IF) “, – said the head of the region.
Historical Boulevard is one of the main tourist attractions of Sevastopol.The famous Panorama “Defense of Sevastopol in 1854-1855” is located on it. and more than a dozen monuments and memorial designations associated with the feat of the defenders of the city during the Crimean War..