Stallion cage: MMA & BJJ – Kampfsport in Stuttgart
BMS 600 RF-EFI Stallion UTV 594Cc/37 Hp, EFI Water and Oil Cooled Engine Installation Guide
ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR TSC STORES
we appreciate your business and cooperation OUP SWUM Line: 1855-810-8877
UNPACKING THE UNIT
A. Remove all screws from the crate.
B. Remove all parts from the vehicle unpackage everything.
ROLL CAGE INSTALLATION
PART 1 ASSEMBLE THE ROLL BAR
Assemble all three pieces of roll cage (front the top and rear) before mounting it to the unit.
Please make sure to install the washers in the correct order first insert the lock washer and then insert the regular washer to the bolt.
- Assemble the top roll cage to the front and rear roll bar.
- Insert the bolt with the washers into the roll bar.
- Tighten all eight bolts with the washers to 40 ft-lbs.
PART 2 MOUNTING THE ROLL CAGE
Mount the roll cage to the mainframe and install the bolts, washers, and nuts without tightening.
Please note that this step requires two people to mount the roll cage onto the mainframe.
- Insert the bolt with washers into the rear roll bar.
- Insert the bolt with nuts into the front roll bar and tighten the rear and front bolts to 40 ft-lbs
Installation Place your windshield over the front of your roll cage.
First, install the lower windshield using two straps and follow steps 1 to 3.
Then install the upper windshield using four straps and follow steps 1 to 3.
- Insert the plastic part of the strap into the windshield strap port.
- rap the velcro strap around the roll cage.
- Insert the strap in the ladder lock and pull the velcro straps.
*Must install washer & lock washers
* Make sure to completely tighten for safety purposes*
A. Insert upper Bolts (M8x20x1.25)
B. Insert lower Bolts (M10x60x1.25) Tighten the upper (M8) and lower (M10x1.25) nuts at (35 ft Ibs)
SEAT BELT INSTALLATION
*Must install washer & lock washers|
* Make sure to completely tighten for safety purposes*
- Insert the anchor brackets and the spacer onto the bolt.
- Insert the bolt with the bracket and the spacer into the roll cage bracket.
- Insert the lock washer and tighten the nut to 43 ft. lb.
Please follow these steps for both the passenger and driver-side seat belts.
*Must install washer & lock washers*
*Make sure to completely tighten for safety purposes*
- Align the roof canopy into the roll cage.
- Attach the roof bar bracket with 2 bolts.
- With a hex key wrench tighten the hex bolt by hand.
SIDE MIRRORS INSTALLATION
MOTE: Please check for a drive and passenger side mirrors
Locate the speaker wires behind the driver seat
STEERING WHEEL INSTALLATION
**Make sure to completely tighten for safety purposes**
- Remove the nut from the shaft.
- When installing the steering wheel make sure the wheels are straight.
- Tighten the steering wheel nut to 30ft-lbs
- Press the steering wheel cover
Locate the battery box under the front hood by the passenger side.
“make sure to completely tighten*
- To access the battery remove all 3 plastic screws by hand.
- With a Phillips screwdriver remove the battery bolt from the negative post.
- Make sure to insert the lower nut on the battery post
- Insert the three negative wires into the battery bolt
- With a Philips, screwdriver tighten the battery bolt.
|BMS Installation Guide|
600 RF-EFI, Stallion UTV 594Cc 37 Hp EFI Water and Oil Cooled Engine
STALLION MANAGEMENT Lesson 5
VARIOUS TEASING SYSTEMS AVAILABLE
The management of the teaser stallion is critical.
You must develop a teasing procedure that is efficient and effective, and addresses the problems commonly associated with the teaser.
INTRODUCING THE TEASER TO THE MARES COURT
Obviously, all mares are not going to show the same degree of receptivity to the rather explicit suggestions made by an equine Casanova.
Mares can protest violently upon being exposed to an amorous stallion. Biting and pawing are common behaviors, but the most likely response is wheeling, kicking and squealing. These behaviors can be dangerous and even lethal to human handlers. An effective teasing system must provide for the protection of all participants.
THE COSTS IN LABOR AND FACILITIES OF A PARTICULAR TEASING SYSTEM
Being able to tease large numbers of mares expeditiously saves time and reduces costs as long as the facilities are not more expensive than the labor savings. When designing systems with such savings in mind, it is important not to lose sight of the delicate nature of the event taking place.
Exposure without distractions and allowing for quality time between the mare and the teaser are the primary elements in any good teasing program. While the point has been made that not every system will fit all mares, it should also be noted that not every teasing system is right for every farm. Individual management situations call for specific solutions to this generalized problem.
The basic cage system houses the teaser is a safe, secure 6 to 8 foot high, 12 by 12 enclosed cage or stanchion. This cage is located within a paddock or pasture where mares are kept. The mares can have free and unlimited exposure to the aggressive male in a safe and secure environment.
If the paddock is a half acre or more, 20 mares can be exposed to the stallion at one time. And, since no one has to hold the stallion or the mare, there is a tendency for the manager to leave the horses to court for a longer period of time.
The major disadvantage of this technique is that one or more dominant mares may hog the attention of the stallion, driving the timid mares away. This problem can be circumvented by removing those dominant in-heat mares from the pen as soon as they react.
The way the cage system is managed ultimately determines its effectiveness. The following is an example of how this type of system could be used for a large number of mares in a very efficient way. The system would work like this. Mares are brought in, 20 at a time, from outlying fields and paddocks into a 150 by-250-foot holding area. Adjoining this holding area are two smaller corrals, each 50 by 125 feet. Mares in groups of 5 were moved into the first corral, where they were able to move up to the cage housing the teaser stallion. If a mare didn’t show any signs of estrus, she exited through gate number one, which returned her to the field. If a mare indicated that she was interested in the attentions of the stallion, she was moved through gate number 2, into the adjoining second corral. There she would be observed further as she could continue to respond to the teaser. Within two hours, as many as 125 to 150 mares could be moved through the pen system and the mares that needed additional evaluation could be housed in the second corral, located closest to the barn and the palpating stock.
While the cage system is quite popular for exposing multiple mares to a single stallion teaser, the equine breeding program at Colorado State University uses a variation of the traditional chute-teasing technique. Here the mares are run head to tail into a chute, and the stallion handler leads the stallion along the chute checking the receptivity of each mare toward the teaser’s advances. This system is a group adaptation of the more traditional teasing chute, where a single mare is placed in a stanchion and the stallion is brought into her presence.
Other farms turn the tables and instead lead each mare, one by one, to the stallion’s stall so that he can nibble and communicate with her through a peephole in the wall. If the mare rejects his overtures or if he becomes too unruly, the door can be closed and relations severed. The method does have the drawback of having to handle each mare that is being teased.
Another method commonly used in Kentucky that reduces not only the need to handle each mare, but also eliminates the need for special teasing facilities is to lead a well-mannered teaser into the paddocks and pastures where the mares are turned out. This technique usually demands the services of 3 people: one person with the records to note the actions of each identified mare, one person to handle the stallion, and the third, a very important person with a buggy whip, to direct traffic around the male.
This teasing procedure requires a well-qualified team of participants, since mares in different stages of their reproductive cycle along with mares with foals tend to have a broad spectrum of emotional attitudes toward this male intrusion.
Some mares may want to be close and affectionate, while others may wish to drive this uninvited guest from the premises by charging, wheeling, and kicking. The size of the paddock where this interaction is going to occur will play a major role in determining the intensity of the horse talk.
Large fields will give antisocial mares the opportunity to move to another spot where they will not be intimidated by the presence of a stallion. Even so, if the stallion handler and traffic director are not adept at their particular task, they will be in a high-risk situation.
This idea of mares not being forced to respond to the stallion is the principle behind one of the systems used at the University of Maryland. In this situation, the stallion has his stall, paddock, or run adjacent to where the mares are kept. Handling both the mare and the stallion is the most labor intensive and costly system for a large operation, but may work well for the small breeder.
The fence or wall that separates the two sexes must be horse high, bull stout, and hog tight, because both the mares and the stallion are free to run and cavort with just a thin retaining wall between them. For best results, the time period that this free exposure exists should be limited to a part of the day when the animals can be easily observed; otherwise they may use the cover of darkness to express their amorous intentions and during the light of day seem to be uninterested in propagation.
This highlights the final problem associated with the development of a workable teasing system. No matter how well a system may work for the horses involved, unless the information is observed and translated for the rest of the breeding farm crew, the efforts in design fall by the wayside.
Remember, the ultimate objective of all this surrogate matchmaking is to keep the breeding manager apprised of any peaking interest a mare may have in becoming a mother.
ASSIGNMENT (No Quiz)
Please answer each question as completely as possible. Resources other than the written text are encouraged as well as personal experiences. Please site your resources include the link if you used the internet; book title and author if you used hard copy.
Send your report to Dr. Sales at [email protected]
Include your full name and email address on the document.
1. Describe, in detail, at least three (3) different types of teasing programs that might be utilized on a breeding farm.
2. Describe in some detail which teasing method would you use if you were responsible for breeding six (6) mares to a single well mannered, seasoned stallion if these mares are kept in individual stalls with adjoining pens? What would you change if the five (5) mares were kept in a four (4) acre pasture at all times and there were no stalls available?
3. Describe in some detail which teasing method you would use if you were responsible for the breeding of approximately 350 mares kept in groups of 70 mares per large paddock (Five (5) acre paddocks). These mares were to be bred using artificial insemination and there were a battery of four (4) individual stallions that were being bred to approximately 25% of the total number of mares over the breeding season, starting February 1 through June 1.
Rapper Megan Thee Stallion Cast In New MCU Show
Written by Edwin Francisco
Rising American rapper/songwriter Megan Thee Stallion is joining the MCU.
According to YouTuber Michael Roman of Everything Always, Megan Thee Stallion will be in the upcoming She-Hulk starring Tatiana Maslany.
Maslany is known for her lead multiple roles in Orphan Black. Everything Always added the role that Megan Thee Stallion is going to play herself.
Yes, that’s right; she is not going to be based on a Marvel character.
Based on that report, it also seems that this will be a recurring role for the season.
This is not just a small cameo role.
We don’t know how many episodes she will be in, though.
This has been confirmed by multiple insiders since the show started shooting last April 10, 2021.
Filming is scheduled to end by August 30, 2021.
Megan Thee Stallion released her first studio album, Good News, in 2020.
She has been building up her musical career since 2017, releasing EPs, mix tapes, and singles that featured artists like Nicky Minaj, Beyonce, Maroon 5.
Moreover, Megan Thee Stallion has also been nominated and won awards for her music at MTV Video Music Awards, Shorty Awards, Soul Train Music Awards, and more.
In addition, she started her acting career with NBC’s Good Girls in the same year.
She has also been cast in The Best Man Wedding, which also stars Melissa De Sousa and Steve Harvey.
The movie will be directed by Malcolm D. Lee. The Best Man Wedding has no release date as of yet.
Now she can add the MCU to her acting line-up.
We are used to having artists being recognized in the MCU since they never shy away from making band references or even listening to bands while watching these movies.
We are also used to musical artists acting as themselves in the MCU, but mostly as a short cameo role.
Netflix’s The Punisher and Luke Cage took advantage of that, too, if you can consider it as part of the MCU.
Rapper Megan Thee Stallion Cast in New MCU Show
Image: Marvel Comics Group
This is not the first time that we will be having a musician portray herself in a recurring role in this fictional universe.
D-Nice, Daniel Day, Faith Evans, and Heather B., played themselves in multiple episodes of Luke Cage.
Ghostface Killah was supposed to be in the original Iron Man movie (in a deleted scene) and was also in Luke Cage.
To what extent is Megan Thee Stallion’s role going to be?
That we don’t know yet. It’s possible that she will also musically perform just like in the Netflix shows, but she has shown her acting talent in Good Girls.
So, we might see her more with something different than what we have seen before.
Marvel’s She-Hulk is currently filming and is scheduled to be released in 2022 on Disney Plus.
Related: Charlie Cox Will Appear on Disney Plus’ She-HulkCharlie Cox Will Appear on Disney Plus’ She-Hulk
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Ironicus – Stallion Register Online
Upcoming North American Race EntriesWhat’s This?
This section lists the progeny entered in an upcoming race in North America (U.S., Canada, and Puerto Rico) for the subject stallion. Weekly entries are published as soon as they are available through Equibase and are only for races that meet the following purse thresholds: All stakes $50,000 and up; allowance races for $30,000 and up; claiming and optional claiming for $50,000 and up; maiden special weights for $20,000 and up; and, maiden claiming races worth $20,000 or more. For each runner is listed its post position, name, age and sex, and name of the dam. Race data includes the race type or name (applicable to stakes), race date, race number, track, purse, distance, assigned weight, jockey, trainer, breeder and owner.
|Post||Horse / Age / Sex / Dam||Race||Wt||Jockey / Trainer||Breeder / Owner|
10/2/2021, Race 1, Laurel Park, $21,000, 7f
10/3/2021, Race 2, Belmont Park, $45,000, 1 1/16mi (T)
Laugh It Off
10/3/2021, Race 8, Laurel Park, $25,000, 1 1/16mi (T)
10/3/2021, Race 4, Laurel Park, $21,000, 7f
|4||A Case of You|| MSW
10/5/2021, Race 6, Parx Racing, $34,000, 5 1/2f
Guns N’ Roses, Stevie Nicks, Foo Fighters, Miley Cyrus, Megan Thee Stallion, G-Eazy and Run The Jewels to Headline BottleRock Napa Valley, September 3-5, 2021
NAPA, Calif.–(BUSINESS WIRE)–BottleRock Napa Valley, presented by JaM Cellars, announces the 2021 festival lineup today, featuring over 80 musical acts including headline artists Guns N’ Roses, Stevie Nicks, Foo Fighters, Miley Cyrus, Megan Thee Stallion, G-Eazy and Run The Jewels.
The three-day music, wine, craft brew and culinary festival will take place at the Napa Valley Expo in Napa on September 3-5, 2021. Three-day festival tickets go on sale at 10:00 a.m. PDT on Thursday, May 20, 2021 at BottleRockNapaValley.com. The 2021 BottleRock Napa Valley Single Day lineup will be announced Monday, May 24 and single day tickets will go on sale Thursday, May 27.
One of the most innovative and enjoyable festivals in the U.S., BottleRock Napa Valley features an unparalleled combination of the world’s biggest bands and artists alongside the hottest up-and-coming music acts. The lineup also includes Brandi Carlile, Cage The Elephant, Portugal. The Man, Young the Giant, Maren Morris, Black Pumas, Future Islands, James Murphy (DJ Set), Jimmy Eat World, FINNEAS, Polo G, Jack Harlow, Milky Chance, Jessie Reyez, Dominic Fike, Chromeo, Mavis Staples, Jon Batiste, Walk Off The Earth, Olivia O’Brien, MAX, Digable Planets, Kota the Friend, MOD SUN, Turkuaz w/Jerry Harrison & Adrian Belew: Remain in Light, Village People, Gracie Abrams, Matt Nathanson, Watchhouse, Hobo Johnson & The LoveMakers, Lawrence, Hamilton Leithauser, Absofacto, Joywave, Big Freedia, MUNA, Atlas Genius, White Reaper, Mondo Cozmo, Ripe, Meg Myers, North Mississippi Allstars, Spafford, DeVotchKa, BabyJake, Donna Missal, Reignwolf, JJ Wilde, 99 Neighbors, Smith & Thell, Full Moonalice, Suki Waterhouse, DJ Z-Trip (Silent Disco), Black Joe Lewis & The Honeybears, The Last Bandoleros, Valley, Six60, In the Valley Below, Oliver Riot, The Alive, Crimson Apple, HOKO, Molly Moore, Chris Pierce, Pacific Radio, Buffalo Gospel, S8NT ELEKTRIC, Peter Harper, Lily Meola, Sam Johnson, OTTTO, Grass Child, Obsidian Son, The Silverado Pickups and Napa Valley Youth Symphony.
All 2020 tickets are valid for the September dates. To pre-register, obtain 3-day tickets or learn ticket return options, please visit www.bottlerocknapavalley.com. Ticket quantities are extremely limited, fans are encouraged to purchase tickets early.
3-Day General Admission tickets are $369/pp, 3-day VIP tickets are $849/pp, 3-Day Skydeck and 3-Day Marriott Bonvoy ™ + American Express® VIP Viewing Suite tickets are $1599/pp, and 3-Day Platinum tickets are $4350/pp. American Express® Card Members can purchase 3-day tickets before the general public beginning Monday, May 17th, at 10:00 a.m. PDT, while supplies last.
BottleRock Napa Valley also presents its legendary Williams Sonoma Culinary Stage, showcasing a unique mashup of cooking demonstrations with renowned chefs, celebrities, performers and rock stars. Details will be announced at a later date.
BottleRock Napa Valley will follow all local and state COVID-19 health & safety guidelines required at the time of the festival to offer a safe festival experience.
To keep up to date, please visit www.bottlerocknapavalley.com and sign up to receive email notifications. Join the conversation on Facebook and follow us on Twitter (@BottleRockNapa, #BottleRock) and Instagram (@BottleRockNapa, #BottleRock).
***Note to Editors: The proper spelling of “BottleRock” is as such with a capital “B” and “R,” all one word.
***Media Contact: Please email [email protected] with questions.
*** Media Credential Request Application will be Available on the website July 1: Or email [email protected].
4 reasons subscribing your stallion to APHA’s Breeders’ Trust pays big
By Mary Cage with Matt Arias
Breeding season is right around the corner and along with it are opportunities for stallions through APHA’s Breeders’ Trust program. Subscribing your stallion is an easy way to continue your return on investment when it comes to breeding; stallion subscribers net 20% from eligible foal earnings each year. But the advantages go beyond just that. We’re here to tell you what the Breeders’ Trust has in store for your stallion and his offspring—and the rewards it can provide you as a stallion owner.
What is the Breeders’ Trust?
The Breeders’ Trust was established in 1994 to provide added incentive for Paint Horse owners to exhibit their horses in the show pen or on the racetrack. The program pays cash dividends for points earned by nominated horses at APHA-approved events. This program is designed to reward everyone responsible for the success of an outstanding foal—from the stallion subscriber and foal nominator to the horse’s recorded owner.
The Breeders’ Futurity and Breeders’ Trust Pleasure Stakes programs were both created to complement the Breeders’ Trust. These provide select classes at the APHA World Championship Show exclusively for Breeders’ Trust nominated horses with BIG cash payouts. These two unique programs further add value to nominated foals.
- It adds value to your stallion and his offspring.
Many mare owners look for stallions that are in the Breeders’ Trust to add value to their foals. Their foals also become eligible for exclusive classes at the APHA World Show that are open only to Breeders’ Trust-nominated horses (pending other requirements). Foal owners enjoy greater marketability when their horses are eligible for programs associated with Breeders’ Trust, like the Breeders’ Futurity and the Breeders’ Trust Pleasure Stakes.
- Being sired by a Breeders’ Trust-subscribed stallion gives foals access to BIG payouts.
A foal must be sired by a Breeders’ Trust-subscribed stallion to become eligible for exclusive purses at the World Show, including Breeders’ Futurity classes as well as the prerequisite for the Breeders’ Trust Pleasure Stakes classes. At the 2018 World Show, these classes paid out more than $300,000 !
3. The Breeders’ Trust is affordable for stallion subscribers.
You’ll never pay more than your stallion’s stud fee is if the payments are made on time. The two payments are split by January 31 and November 30 of the breeding year for which your stallion is subscribed to the Breeders’ Trust.
4. Stallion subscribers are rewarded for their involvement with the program.
Each year, stallion subscribers receive 20% of eligible Breeders’ Trust-nominated foal earnings for their stallion’s progeny (calculated by Amateur and Open points at most APHA-approved events). Therefore, you are rewarded for your part in making these horses eligible for this program.
APHA, American Quarter Horse Association and Jockey Club stallions are eligible to be subscribed into the Breeders’ Trust. Stallions must be subscribed for each individual breeding year, making the subsequent foal crop eligible to be nominated. When those foals begin competing in APHA events at the Open and Amateur levels, the stallion owner will receive 20% of that crop’s eligible Breeders’ Trust earnings. As long as those horses are showing and earning points at APHA-approved events, the stallion owner will continue to receive payouts.
APHA modified the stallion subscriptions in 2017 to make them more affordable for stallion owners. The initial payment is due by January 31 of the breeding year, and the cost is $150 for Paint stallions and $300 for Quarter Horse or Thoroughbred stallions. This essentially ensures that the stallions subscribed for that particular breeding year will be advertised in the Breeders’ Trust sections of aphaonline.org and select issues of the Paint Horse Journal.
The second subscription payment is due by November 30 when stallion breeding reports are due and is based on the number of mares that that particular stallion has bred that year. The second payment is $100 per mare on the breeding report for APHA stallions and $200 per mare on an AQHA or Thoroughbred stallion’s breeding report. This second payment will cap at the highest advertised stud fee submitted at the beginning of the breeding year.
The cost of enrolling a stallion is never more than a stallion’s stud fee, as long as it’s paid on time. You can also always late-subscribe a stallion into the Breeders’ Trust—even after the breeding year—although late fees apply.Subscribe Your Stallion
- Fill out the printable Breeders’ Trust Stallion Subscription Form by January 31 of the breeding year for the initial payment
- The stallion subscription must be made in the exact name of the stallion’s owner or the lessee on record with APHA.
- Stallions standing for the first time have until March 31 of the breeding year to pay the initial enrollment fee without penalty.
- Make your second payment by November 30 of the breeding year.
- Enjoy the rewards and added marketability!
Complete guidelines for the Breeders’ Trust/Breeders’ Futurity can be found in the brochure at apha.com/showing/breederstrust.
[Reprinting all of part of this story is permitted, so long as credit is given to the Paint Horse Journal and a link provide back to apha.com.]
The American Paint Horse Association is the world’s second-largest international equine breed association, registering more than a million horses in 59 nations and territories since it was founded. APHA promotes, preserves and provides meaningful experiences with Paint Horses.
90,000 Who has the largest sperm cells on the planet
- Ella Davis
- BBC Earth
Photo by, iStock
Sperm and eggs of different animals can be incredibly small – many times smaller than human, and can be truly enormous, the correspondent of BBC Earth found out. What does it depend on and who is the champion?
Sperm is the smallest cell in the human body, and at the same time one of the most complex.The ovum, on the other hand, is the largest, but no less complex.
If we take a look at what the sex cells (or gametes) are in the representatives of the animal world, we will find that their diversity is simply amazing.
Most species have two gametes, we define them as male and female.
“Gametes perform two fundamental functions: a) to provide the zygote (a fertilized egg developing into an individual – Approx. ) with a sufficient supply of nutrients and protective membranes and b) to find sex cells of the same biological species and fertilize them” explains Matthew Gage from the British University of East Anglia.
“Doing both equally well is a daunting task, because each function has its own specific features and requirements that affect both the size and the number of cells. ”
“On the one hand, for the germ cells responsible for the survival of the offspring, a large size with sufficient nutritional potential is important – this is how the eggs produced by females appeared and developed,” he continues.
“On the other hand, gametes are needed that optimally fulfill the task of penetrating the egg and fertilizing it, so evolution has made sure that there are enough spermatozoa produced by males.”
Why are sperm so different in size and shape? There is a lot of work for researchers here.
Logically, it can be assumed that the smaller the living organism, the less sperm. However, this is not always the case. Moreover, the longest sperm known to science is in the tiny fly.
Photo author, Visuals Unlimited / naturepl.comPhoto caption,
Starfish sperm on egg
The fruit fly ( Drosophila bifurca ) produces a ball of sperm.When scientists managed to unwind this ball to its entire length and measure it, it turned out that the sperm of a small fly reaches almost 6 cm. This is 20 times longer than the body of a male individual of this very Drosophila.
In a 2016 study, a truly gigantic sperm by the standards of Drosophila was compared to the tail of a peacock. That is, it was assumed to have evolved evolutionarily to such a length due to the fact that females preferred just such long ones.
However, more does not always mean better.At the other end of the scale is the shortest sperm known to science, the parasitoid wasp, Cotesia congregata . It is less than 7 micrometers (0.0007 cm).
According to Rhonda Snook of the University of Sheffield, UK, there are several possible explanations for such large differences in sperm size.
Photo by Sinclair Stammers / naturepl.comPhoto caption,
Egg sizes are also very different
Snook’s research showed that natural selection left only the sperm with the most optimal shape and size for reproduction.
It may seem strange that both the short and the long ones won, but all this is determined by the circumstances of the development of a particular biological species – or rather, by competition and selection criteria.
When females mate with many males, the sperm compete with each other, and only the healthiest of them will win this tough competition and fertilize the egg.
These conditions gave rise to a lot of variations – including that very long sperm of Drosophila.
An example of supercompetitiveness is the semen of woodlice, which forms chains of small capsules that help each other, and the semen of some flies and beetles, which poisons the semen of competitors.
One of the common tactics used by males is to install a so-called copulation plug, which blocks the sperm of other males from accessing the eggs. Copulation plug is used by spiders, bumblebees, squirrels and even some primates.
But by and large, for a male, it all comes down to achieving an advantage either by producing a large amount of sperm, or a small amount of it, but stronger.
The choice depends on several factors – for example, how long the sperm has to travel or how much energy remains in the male after all the mating rituals preceding mating.
Let’s say a 2015 study suggests that larger mammals produce smaller sperm because their female reproductive tract is larger.And it sounds logical – after all, the larger the field, the more players are needed.
Among other things, there is also the “mystery of the female choice”: in some species, the female can choose whose sperm will fertilize her eggs.
Photo author, John Downer / naturepl.comPhoto caption,
Hatched ostrich chick (Struthio camelus)
women’s choice, “or it all comes down to competition,” muses Snook.“But as with most questions facing science, this is most likely a combination of several factors.” it reaches 15 cm, width 13 cm.
The smallest eggs among birds – less than 7 mm – are laid by the bee hummingbird, the smallest of the hummingbirds.
Tim Burkhead from the University of Sheffield, UK – author of the book The Most Perfect Thing: The inside (and outside) of a bird’s egg (“The most perfect thing in the world: inside and outside a bird’s egg”). In the bird world, he says, egg size is generally proportional to body size, although there are exceptions.
“The raven ( Corvus corax ) and the polar bird guillemot ( Uria aalge ) are similar in body size and weigh about 1 kg,” he notes. while the murre egg weighs about 12% of the female’s weight. ”
Burkhead argues that the rate at which the embryo develops is a key factor in determining how large a species’ eggs will be.
Species that develop fast chicks lay large eggs, he says.
It should be noted here that we are a little inconsistent in how we use the word “egg”.
Photo author, iStockPhoto caption,
Human oocyte, or oocyte, and sperm
Let’s compare a human female ovum, which has a diameter of 0.12 mm, with a chicken egg 55 mm long. The point is that a chicken egg is not only an egg, it has many other functions.
While females carry their offspring in the belly, egg-laying individuals (eg chickens) must provide their babies with enough supplies to thrive outside the mother’s body.
For this, the latter create a special structure, which we habitually call an egg, and which gives the embryo food, water and protection (shell) from external influences.
And this is not some strange whim of nature – most living beings (birds, insects, fish) do just that.
As Birkhead notes, there are also evolutionary compromises and variations: for some species, large eggs are the best option, for others – small, but many.
Photo author, iStockPhoto caption,
Sperm can be bigger than you thought. But this is not always an advantage
At least one thing is clear: if you want to see the smallest eggs in the world, you need a microscope.
According to a 1994 research review by entomologists at the University of Florida (USA), the smallest eggs lay tiny parasites.
Unsurprisingly, data on such microscopic eggs is extremely difficult to find. In the same 1994 review, a tiny parasitoid fly Clemelis pullata is mentioned, which has the smallest eggs known to science: 0. 027 by 0.02 mm.
However, no one has yet investigated the germ cells of mimarids, miniature parasitoid wasps (parasitic wasps). These insects are one of the smallest on the planet, from 0.5 to 1 mm in length. It’s easy to guess that the eggs they lay are very, very small.
Studying the horse (part 4) / Habr
We continue to study chess pieces together with the child. Now it’s the horse’s turn.
Due to the end of the school year, there was some delay and a gap between the queen and the knight. Taking into account that the knight is the most difficult piece in chess to learn, the material took a little longer to prepare than usual. But then he came out. All diagrams with explanations under the cut – you are welcome.
The last article about the queen turned out to be not the best, so it took some rethinking and work on mistakes.In this material, the structure of the material supply will be slightly different. The material is divided into several thematic parts, after the tasks under the spoilers, solutions will be given. Below the spoiler, there will be comments on the tasks.
Let me remind you that this series of articles is written at the rate of I.G. Sukhin. All the provisions in the diagrams presented below were developed by I.G. Sukhin and are given by him in the textbook: Sukhin I.G. Chess, the first year, or There are black-and-white cells full of wonders and mysteries: Textbook for elementary school, first year of study.In 2 parts. – Obninsk: Spiritual Revival, 2017. And I set out my vision of how they can be used in the classroom, what typical difficulties children may have, and how they can be overcome. The article contains only a part of the provisions from the specified textbook – there are many more of them in the textbook. A methodological manual has also been developed for the textbook: Sukhin I.G. Chess, first year, or Learning and Teaching. – Obninsk: Spiritual Revival, 2015. It describes in detail how each chess lesson of the course should be conducted.Also, the educational and methodological package of the course includes programs for 3-4 years of study, workbooks, notebooks for testing and problem books.
Previous articles in the cycle:
A dozen tips – how to teach a child to play chess. And not only (introduction).
Studying the rook (part 1).
Exploring the elephant (part 2).
Exploring the queen (part 3).
In ancient chess, this figure represented a “cavalry” – a rider on a horse. In the process of translating the names of the figures, the rider disappeared from the horse! But not everywhere – in many European countries the horse is still called a rider.In France, a chess knight is a cavalier (cavalier), in England it is a knight (knight). This is partly due to the fact that in these countries, in the Middle Ages, there were knights, and how much they loved to play chess … Where is there without a knight on the board?
But in other languages, the “human component” of this figure has disappeared. We call it simply “horse”. And for example, in Germany (springer), Poland (skoczek), Croatia (skakač), its name is translated as “jumper”, “horse”.
And also, in ancient times, there were such horses that flew! They were called “Pegasus”.Our horse is a distant descendant of Pegasus, he can also fly, but not far …
The knight move in chess is one of the most difficult to learn. At the same time, almost all children know that he walks with the “letter G”. How much I love to argue with them and say that he walks with the letter L … Oh, not so – with the letter L. The first brain explosion occurs at this stage.
Why am I doing this – when children associate a knight’s move with a simple letter for themselves, they also try to tell themselves that this is a simple figure.No matter how it is! If you pass the horse with this approach, then you will not tame it. How many guys (and not only guys – but also quite mature men at the board) have I seen who do not feel the horse and do not understand. Yes – they know the move with which the knight moves, but this alone is not enough.
With the study of the knight’s move, the first lesson on the knight begins. But first, I attract the attention of the children and try not to get tired at the beginning of the lesson. If the child does not understand how the horse walks, then it will be difficult for him to play and fight against the horse.
Special emphasis is placed on the fact that the knight is the only piece that jumps over other pieces – be it his own or the opponent’s piece.
Actually, these explanations are enough to start trying. Then the tasks begin, and that’s where the children have difficulties. Therefore, the first knight lesson is one of the most difficult in the course of studying figures.
I personally explain the knight’s move to the children as follows – “the knight moves two squares straight, and then makes a jump one square to the side.”Like this (our letter D):
But, as it turned out over time, some children find it more convenient to make a knight’s move differently! You yourself will be surprised (by the way, not the worst option). “The knight moves diagonally one square, and then makes a straight jump off one square.” Like this:
There is no need to break children according to your perception. If it is more convenient for him, then let him remember so. Those who go further in chess, one way or another, will then simply see where the knight is going.
Before you start to carry out the task with the child, let me remind you that the child must independently arrange all the tasks on the chessboard, and then solve.Solving a task on a computer screen is counterproductive for the development of a child’s brain. Consider this when you give your child to solve problems. And now, in fact, to them – to the tasks.
Horse domestication (stage 1)
One soldier in the field
Those who have read the previous articles are familiar with this type of assignment. Our goal is to beat all the opponent’s checkers, destroying one checker each move. As a result, the correct decision is a decision with the number of moves equal to the number of checkers.The move is a checker.
I remind you that checkers are not a chess piece, and they do not move or hit with us.
It would seem – what’s so difficult. Jump yes jump … But no! Some children get up straight into a stupor and cannot understand how to jump a horse. And this is where spiders come to the rescue!
If someone does not recognize him, this is a regular tablet holder. It has exactly 8 legs – according to the number of knight moves.For a 35 cm board (this is a small board) – suitable for a 7 “tablet, for a 43 cm board – 10” spiders. You can buy it in any computer store (or at worst – I buy it in Auchan).
Believe me – children are delighted with it, but….! I usually take it away as soon as I see that the child understands how the horse walks. From personal experience, I can say that most of the children can do without it, but (don’t forget) our goal is to teach ALL children to play chess.And the easier it will be for them to be given some tasks, the greater the chance that the child will fall in love with chess. We are not raising champions – we are developing children.
Duration of help by the spider – according to the child’s understanding of the knight’s move. Some need one task, some – all 3. It is individual. But the most important thing is not to miss the moment when the child began to see the horse. Even though it is still difficult for him, the spider must be taken away. Honestly – I rarely had more than 3 tasks with a spider, more often 2 tasks are enough.
Let’s return to our task – most often children, when solving it, by the middle already understand how to move on with a horse.They may not even calculate the knight, but immediately place the piece on the field where it will go. Let it go! Their task is to get used to the horse. Even if you haven’t learned a move yet. Any restive steed must first merge with the owner. And this task, in this regard, fits perfectly. If you notice, there are no jumps over the figures! Our goal is to show the trajectory of the knight’s movement.
This task is a little more difficult than the previous one. Because here the horse starts jumping over the checkers.The fact is that many children, when studying the previous figures, move the figure along the board. Although I initially set the requirement for the piece to rise ABOVE the board. But alas – they don’t. But here the knight comes into play, and … And here the knight has to be raised, it will not work to move it on the board – the pieces fall.
The most difficult thing is to get promoted on the first site. You have to help often. Further, the child begins to see the moves of the knight himself.
After the previous task, this is a rest task.There are no jumps over the checkers, it is a linear (practically) move. After the two previous tasks, this serves as a consolidation of the passed material.
In fact, you can come up with your own tasks for the horse, the main thing is that the solution is the only correct one. And there is no second solution. For those who are far from pedagogy – I will explain. The entire course of studying any new material is based on the problems of the “closed” type. These are tasks that have the only correct solution. This is the principle of pedagogy.The child must acquire knowledge and ability to solve problems. Yes – there are no such tasks in life, but we are preparing for life. And then we apply this knowledge. And in life, we solve problems of the “open” type – they have many correct solutions.
These tasks are designed to teach the child to find the fastest way to get a figure “from point A to point B”. In tasks of this type, the goal is to learn how to use the features of the figure that we are studying. In tasks of this type, it is necessary to announce in advance the number of moves in which the destination field will be reached (it is marked with a cross).
Walk to the field marked with a cross in 2 turns.Solution
The simplest task. The main thing in this task is to make sure that the child finds the right solution. There is nothing difficult here, it is purely a task of priming and interest.
Walk to the field marked with a cross in 2 turns.Solution
This task seems easy only at first glance.A lot of children stumble on it. The difficulty is that you have to jump off the target with your knight, and then go back. But the solution to this problem makes it clear that the horse is not as simple as it seems. But believe me – this is just the beginning … Further it will be even more difficult (for children, naturally).
Walk to the field marked with a cross in 3 turns.Solution
Rarely does any of the children 6-8 years old solve it immediately. Usually they sit on it for 5 minutes, sometimes 10, sometimes 30 … The difficulty is that you have to jump away from the target altogether.And then come back. When children solve this problem, one must be very careful so that the child does not leave the solution and tries to find a solution. Sometimes it is necessary to push the child towards the correct option, sometimes to prompt, sometimes to make the first move. Let me remind you once again – we need to keep the child’s desire to play chess. Unresolved problems discourage the craving for chess, so you need to help, but in moderation. The child should understand that the tasks are not as simple as they seem, but they are quite within his toughness.
Well, I have identified these two types of tasks separately, after completing them – the child must be able to walk with a horse.This stage is taming. And now horse training.
Horse training (stage 2)
These tasks are the most difficult of the entire initial training course. There are times – when I give them to children who already know how to play, and it is also difficult for them to solve them. And for beginners who are just learning chess, these are the most difficult tasks.
Let me remind you that a maze built on a chessboard of white checkers must be passed to the end – to the field with a cross.On the square marked with a cross, I usually put a black checker (after all, we play with white, and black are our enemies). It is impossible to beat white checkers (these are the walls of the maze). Naturally, when solving tasks with a horse, you can jump over walls.
All tasks that I will give below will have their own names. I came up with them in the course of learning, when I asked the children. They like it – I like it too.
And one more piece of advice – don’t try to solve tasks for your child. He’ll figure it out for himself – trust me. But sometimes you have to prompt – without it, nowhere.Sometimes help with hints. But, under no circumstances leave the child alone with the labyrinth – he should feel support, even when walking through such a dangerous labyrinth.
Task 1. Obstinacy problem
In the solution, the solution itself, I showed in red. And black shows the way children usually go. ALL children go this way. For all the time that I have been teaching chess, only a few (2-3 people) have not gone to them. Most often they were lucky – they made the first move correctly and then immediately solved the problem.If the first move is made incorrectly, then a straight road to a dead end.
Now why I call the problem “Obstinacy problem”. It is because of this black path. I do not know what confuses children, but when they find themselves close to the desired goal (red cross), they rejoice, but when they start walking further, they get into a stupor. They begin to roll back moves, look at other options … But in my memory, 2 or 3 children guessed to change the first move. All the rest continued to balk and bump into the wrong decision.
Most of the time, I help them so they don’t get stuck completely. But I try to do this no earlier than 10-15 minutes after the start of solving the problem.
Task 2. The horse can dance
Funny? And yet. Look.Solution
In this problem, the false (dead-end) path is not that long. Children quickly sweep it aside. But another trouble awaits them – they must be able to dance with a horse. Quite often, they abandon the prancing with a horse on a patch, either getting confused in the fields, or simply deciding that there is no right way there.
You should carefully monitor the child so that he does not throw his knight too much, and tell him that it is good to continue looking for moves further.
Task 3. Hippodrome
Where else can a horse be rolled out at a hippodrome? Here he rolls in circles around the board.Solution
After the previous tasks have been solved, this one is easier to solve. The main problem is that when we come close to the field with a cross, we need to keep moving on.And do almost two full circles.
Otherwise, this labyrinth is not the most difficult in comparison with the previous ones.
Outwit the sentries.
Further development of the labyrinth – outwitting the sentries. In this type of tasks, we need to get to the field marked with a cross, but so that on the way to it we do not get hit by enemy pieces. Since our stage is for beginners, these are just horses. And yes – black pieces do not move – only our knight.
I also want to note one feature of this type of tasks.The fact is that in these problems everything is specially designed so that apart from the correct knight move, there are no other moves! Those. from each square, the knight can make only two moves – to the square where he came from, and to the square that is next in the trajectory of movement. Those. the task for the child is, in fact, to see the one and only correct field for the move (and remember where he just came from). All other squares are either under the blows of black knights, or there are white checkers (obstacles).
The main difficulty in solving this problem is not to be afraid of the black knight on the adjacent square.This is the most difficult thing that children have to overcome. Well, and one more thing – to learn to see those fields where enemy horses are beating.
Again, we learn to look for the only correct move, and overcome the fear of the black knight on the next cell.
Staging area (stage 3)
This is what I called this stage – because here we start fights with the enemy’s horses.And as a result of its passage, the child must develop a clear understanding of the horse’s weaknesses.
Capture control field
In these tasks, we also need to get to the field marked with a cross. But the main difficulty is that the black horse begins to walk. And at the same time, this is a plus in our direction. The main goal of the assignments is to convey to the child that one must think not only about one’s own pieces, one must calculate the opponent’s moves. Those who have completed past assignments know this. Let me remind you – before making your move you need to think – where will the opponent’s piece go?
In this problem, everything is very simple – now the black knight is protecting the marked square, but on the next move he will stop defending it.We just need to attack her, and the black horse will leave on its own.
The task is similar to the first one. No comments.
This problem is interesting in that the solution to how to get to the marked field was sought in the task No. 3 “The shortest path”. And yet the children do not remember this. Here everything is more complicated than in the previous two tasks – it is necessary to calculate what move the black knight will use to defend the square – correct report – with each odd one.Those. we need to attack the h2 square with an even move so that the black knight, in turn, leaves and stops defending it.
In fact, this task is not as easy for children as you might think. Explaining to a child will not help much. Just have the child move the pieces. Both white and black. As mentioned in earlier articles, the more the pieces move across the board, the faster they begin to move in the head. Without this, nowhere. And simply by explanations – children will not understand what you want from them.
In this task, your goal is to restrict the enemy figure, so that later you can kill it. At the same time, the black horse walks. The main point of these tasks is that the child must learn (albeit not immediately) to move the opponent’s pieces. And try to predict his moves.
Along the way, it is necessary to explain – the knight is a figure, although jumping, but very inactive. With some desire, catching a horse is not such a difficult task.
The knight in the corner of the board is probably the weakest piece in chess.And it’s easy to catch, and there is absolutely no need to be afraid of him there. But for children, trying to catch a horse in a corner is a rather difficult task at first. In the solution, I specifically showed the move where the black knight can go, and this should be shown to the child too.
In general, the knight in the corner is weak (only 2 moves), the knight on the edge of the board is weak (not 2, but only 3-4 moves). The strength of the knight is in the middle of the board, but by no means on the edge.
The horse is on the edge of the board.As mentioned above, he is weak here too. Easy to catch. The black lines show the possible moves of the black knight, and these two squares must be covered.
Children usually solve this problem on their own, but it is more difficult than the first one. And therefore, they take a little more time for it.
Problem 3. Mustang hunting
At first glance, there is no solution to this problem … All children think so. But the black horse is caught! To do this, you must try to drive the knight to the edge of the board, and not let it out of there.
The main solution is to see where the black knight will go. And try to bring it back. Under no circumstances should the horse be released into the center. As soon as he jumps out into the open, you will not catch him.
The problem of all the proposed ones is rather difficult. Actually, I usually practice lowering children to the ground after euphoria about the ease of tasks after the previous ones on it. Oh again, about the benefits of the moves of the pieces on the board … The child will not solve this problem in his head. It’s difficult for an adult, but what about children?
Well, we studied the knight’s weaknesses.This is limitedness at the edge of the board, inactivity. The clearer the children understand these features of the horse, the easier it will be for them to play in the future. And it is meaningful.
Learning to attack (stage 4)
We found out the horse’s weaknesses. And now we need to learn how to attack them, and understand his strengths. Let’s start.
Attack the piece
In these tasks, the solutions are very, very simple. You just need to attack the black piece, so that this piece does not kill you. But in the case of the knight, this task is simplified by the fact that the knight moves like no other piece moves.This means that the one we will attack will not be able to attack you. Remember – the task is to make one move and only attack. No need to beat a piece.
Attack two pieces
This task is a banal fork with a knight. But in order to apply it, you need to learn it. So we teach children a fork – to attack two figures. Again, you just need to attack, but not beat the piece. Children often want to beat the black piece, but they have to be stopped.After all, Black will then make his move.
Beat the unprotected piece
In this task, you must already kill the figure that is unprotected. Here we practice two skills – the ability to see who our knight is attacking, and who is protected by the black pieces.
Fight! (step 5)
Well, we are ready to go into battle with the enemy’s pieces.Now it all starts in earnest.
Outwit the sentries
The meaning of the tasks is the same – you need to get to the field marked with a cross. On the way, do not stand on squares with white checkers, and do not get hit by black pieces. Black pieces don’t move.
Seems easy? Well, try it.
The nuance of solving such problems was described above – the knight usually has one move to move forward. This task is a small exception – there are dead-end developments.For example g3-e2-deadlock. When making decisions, children may come across these options and must cut them off and move on. And so – the task is not the most difficult.
For some reason, children rarely solve this problem at once. Here the dead-end solution draws children to itself – f2-g4-h6-dead end. Children do not like to give up this decision, and they continue to hammer it over and over again. Although you just need to make another second move.
When this task is placed on the board, children’s eyes run up from the abundance of figures.But the solution is very simple – the knight has only one move at a time. And it must be done. All other moves are blocked by black pieces. But the problem is difficult and time-consuming to solve.
Take off the sentries
The tasks are similar to the previous ones, but there is no control field, but there are enemy pieces. They must be beaten. It is impossible to stand on white checkers, black pieces do not move.
Again, there is only one move from each knight position.The rest are closed (or a dead end on the d1 square). Check it yourself. But children most often do not see this single move …
More interesting task. The fact is that, at first glance, the knight has many moves, but all of them turn out to be deadlocks for verification. And the correct way is under the spoiler.
And here everything is the same. Well, except that there are a lot of figures.But the move is the only one everywhere.
Capture control field
And again the capture of the control field. Only now with other figures, and not just with horses.
In all tasks it is necessary to use the horse’s inactivity. This feature of it was passed earlier, so here we reinforce this knowledge once again.
And again the limitation of mobility, but already on all previously passed figures. As they say – no comment.
Final Exam (stage 6)
Game for destruction
The meaning of the tasks is simple – it is necessary to determine who will win: white or black.White’s first move. The pieces move in turn. The only catch is the size of the board. These are 3×3, 4×4, 2×3 and so on. And if it seems to you that these tasks are all simple – obey me. When I give these tasks on horseback, a howl is heard in the classroom (Uuuuuu, again ….). Although, when completing these tasks on a boat, they are happy about them. At the beginning.
The order of moves is marked with numbers.
The order of moves is marked with numbers.
That’s all. The horse passed. Not the easiest tasks, especially the mazes. But as my experience shows, for almost all children who go through these tasks, the horse does not cause any further difficulties in the future. I compare for other children who are engaged in comparable time.We meet at tournaments and I happen to play with other people’s children and see what they have and how.
Naturally, if the child is engaged in the result, there is no dispute. He will play with a knight like a true chess player. But I repeat, again, our task is to develop children. Whoever wants – let him go to chess later, whoever does not want – let him do other things. Dancing, for example. I have many girls, and the goal of making them chess players is not worth it. The task of the school and additional education is the all-round development of the child.And chess is a great help here.
I will make one more digression – those children who did not go through the previous figures – then very badly cope with the horse. Rook, bishop, queen – they serve as a preparation for a complex knight. When a child gets on a horse, he should not think about how other figures move – he should know them. If he is distracted by the bishop or queen, it will be more difficult for him to understand the knight. And, quite possibly, it will lead to the rejection of chess itself in the future.
I would like to draw your attention (for the umpteenth time) – the purpose of this course is in the development of the child.Not in any way in preparing him for the championship. I have repeatedly prepared children for school by studying the moves of chess pieces. The consistency and consistency of the lessons sometimes give the child more than cramming materials in other subjects. At the same time, children perceive chess as a game, and this facilitates communication with them. The age of 6 is the very thing to prepare for school and to start learning chess. The main thing is not to discourage interest in learning and chess.
If you notice, there is practically no full board game in the beginner’s course.And this is justified – a complete set of figures for a child of 6-7 years old is often too difficult to understand. The fact that a child at this age does not know how to calculate his moves and the moves of the opponent is a fact. Therefore, all sports sections at this age are child abuse in the first place. As a parent, no one forbids you to mock your child, but first of all pay attention to his psychological stability. Not all children can and can lose. Can you imagine how stressful it is for a child? And if, in addition, you also demand the result?
I use chess as a development tool.But not in any way as a goal. Yes – if you come across a child who wants and can become a master – that’s good. But there is a problem – it is very, very difficult to grow such a master. It takes years of time and a lot of work. Moreover – the work of a coach with experience. Trying to educate a master at home, on your own – I’m sure you won’t succeed. Entrust this moment to professionals if you really want to grow an arrester. But don’t try it yourself.
If you want good for your child, then develop it with the help of chess.Course I.G. Sukhina “There are black-and-white cells full of wonders and secrets” is ideal for this.
P.S. I am sometimes asked in the comments about classes with younger children (4-5 years old). I can say that I.G. Sukhin has a book “Chess for the smallest”. There the age is just 3-4 years old. It is quite affordable for a child of this age. You can teach how to walk in figures using this book. It has been reprinted annually since 2000, the last reissue was in 2018.
|1||Materials of the scientific student conference “Week of student science”||The collection reflects the issues of studying the rational activity of animals, visual diagnostics, physiological characteristics, as well as reproductive function in the field of small-scale animal husbandry.Particular attention is paid to the issues of oncology and biochemistry. The veterinary and sanitary assessment of seasonings and seafood is presented.||26 November 2018||Reference to collection|
|2||Materials of the scientific student conference “Week of student science”||The collection reflects the basic questions of the morphofunctional anatomy of organs and systems of animals. Analyzed the genetic and behavioral diversity of animals by breed and species criteria.Methods for diagnosing animal diseases are presented in detail. Treatment regimens for invasive diseases are presented. Particular attention is paid to the study and increase of productive qualities, a comparative analysis of interior and exterior indicators in domestic breeding. The issues of biotechnology of the food industry, immunology and quantum mechanics, as well as the use of cell cultures are considered.||03 March 2020||Reference to collection|
|3||Materials of the scientific student conference “Week of student science”||The collection reflects the questions of the pharmacological effectiveness of drugs for the treatment of diseases of the reproductive system of animals, studied the latest morphofunctional features of the somatic, visceral and integrating organ systems in various animal species.The problems of genetic engineering and cloning among productive animals are reflected. A commodity assessment of dairy and fish products, as well as cosmetics, sold in pet stores in the Russian Federation, was carried out. Methods of using immunomodulation by mesenchymal stem cells are presented. Methods of express diagnostics in veterinary practice have been developed.||07 April 2021||Reference to collection|
Publications | STC Biomedical Photonics
Kubekina M.V., Silaeva Y. Yu., Bruter A.V., Korshunova D.S., Ilchuk L.A., Okulova Y.D., Soldatova M.O., Seryogina E.S., Kolesnik I.M., Ukolova P.A., Korokin M.V., Deykin A.V. Transgenic mice Cre-dependently expressing mutant polymerase-gamma: novel test-system for pharmacological study of mitoprotective drugs // Research Results in Pharmacology, V. 7 (3), September 2021, p. 33-39.
A.V. Berezhnov, E.I. Fedotova, A.I. Sergeev, I.Y. Teplov, A.Y. Abramov Dopamine controls neuronal spontaneous calcium oscillations via astrocytic signal // Cell Calcium, V.94, 2021, 102359
Vinokurov, A. Y., Stelmashuk, O. A., Ukolova, P. A., Zherebtsov, E. A., & Abramov, A. Y. (2021). Brain region specificity in reactive oxygen species production and maintenance of redox balance. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, V. 174, October 2021, p. 195-201
Vinokurov A., Dremin V., Piavchenko G., Stelmashchuk O., Angelova P., Abramov A. Assessment of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential and NADH Redox State in Acute Brain Slices // Mitochondrial Medicine.Volume 2: Assessing Mitochondria. – Springer US, 2021. – C. 193-202
Sokolovski S., Zherebtsov E., Kar R., Golonka D., Stabel R., Chichkov N., Gorodetsky A., Schapiro I., Moglich A., Rafailov E. Two-photon conversion of a bacterial phytochrome // Biophysical Journal, 2021, 120 (5), pp. 964-974
Cheng X., Vinokurov A., Zherebtsov E., Stelmashchuk O., Angelova P., Esteras N., Abramov A., Variability of mitochondrial energy balance across brain regions // Journal of Neurochemistry, 2020
Novikova I., Manole A., Zherebtsov E., Stavtsev D., Vukolova M., Dunaev A., Angelova P., Abramov A. Adrenaline induces calcium signal in astrocytes and vasoconstriction via activation of monoamine oxidase // Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 159 (2020) p. 15 – 22
Abramov A., Potapova E., Dremin V., Dunaev A., Interaction of Oxidative Stress and Misfolded Proteins in the Mechanism of Neurodegeneration, Life, 2020, 10 101
Angelova P., Choi M., Berezhnov A., Horrocks M., Hughes C., De S., Rodrigues M., Yapom R., Little D., Dolt K., Kunath T., Devine M., Gissen P., Shchepinov M., Sylantyev S., Pavlov E., Klenerman D., Abramov A., Gandhi S., Alpha synuclein aggregation drives ferroptosis: an interplay of iron, calcium and lipid peroxidation, Cell Death & Differentiation, 2020
Palalov A.A., Alekseev A.G., Abramov A.Yu. Study of membranes associated with mitochondria, mitophagy and autophagy of the endoplasmic reticulum in a rotenone cell model of Parkinson’s disease // Receptors and intracellular signaling.Digest of articles. Volume 1, 2021 .– S. 112-116
Seregina E.S., Ukolova P.A., Vinokurov A.Yu., Dunaev A.V., Abramov A.Yu. Reproduction of reactive oxygen species in fibroblasts with the PINK1 mutation // Receptors and intracellular signaling. Digest of articles. Volume 1, 2021 .– P. 141-145
Virivskaya E.V., Kanatnikova A.A., Komarova P.M., Gadzhieva S.I., Bakhtiyarov K.R., Palchik E.A., Duyanova O.P., Vinokurov A.Yu., Abramov A.Yu. Changes in the parameters of mitochondrial metabolism in endometrial cells in adenomyosis // Receptors and intracellular signaling.Digest of articles. Volume 1, 2021 .– P. 296-300
Novikova I.N., Potapova E.V., Dremin V.V., Abramov A.Yu., Dunaev A.V. Study of changes in mitochondrial membrane potential under laser irradiation with a wavelength of 1267 nm in cancer cells of the B16 line // Receptors and intracellular signaling. Digest of articles. Volume 1, 2021 .– P. 357-362
Stelmashuk O.A., Vinokurov A.Yu., Zherebtsov E.A., Abramov A.Yu. Differences in the parameters of mitochondrial metabolism in cells of different parts of the brain // Receptors and intracellular signaling.Digest of articles. Volume 1, 2021 .– P. 372-377
Palalov A., Gorlin P., Seryogina E., Gorbunova M., Alekseev A., Zherebtsov E., Abramov A. NADH growth rate evaluation in different rat brain regions by fluorescence spectroscopy, Proc. SPIE 11845, 2021, 118450K
Dolgikh A., Stelmashchuk O., Vinokurov A., Zherebtsov E., Abramov A. Measurements of mitochondrial NADH pool and NADH production rate in acute brain slices and primary cell cultures using live cell imaging, Proc.SPIE 11845, 2021, 118450L
Seregina E.S., Voltov A.A., Vetrov I.A., Shupletsov V.V., Bryanskaya E.O., Abramov A.Yu. I International Scientific Conference “Physics and Radioelectronics in Medicine and Ecology – FREME’2020” – Vladimir-Suzdal, Russia, Reports, Book 1, pp. 89-92
Tagunov P.A., Mikenkina M.A., Vinokurov A.Yu., Abramov A.Yu. Comprehensive assessment of oxidative stress in the tissues of rat brain regions by the content of reduced glutathione and the rate of production of reactive oxygen species // 14th International Scientific Conference “Physics and Radioelectronics in Medicine and Ecology – FREME’2020” – Vladimir-Suzdal, Russia, Reports, Book 1, p.85-89
Gorlin P.M., Palalov A.A., Stelmashuk O.A., Zherebtsov E.A., Abramov A.Yu. Comparison of the rate of NADH production in tissues of various parts of the rat brain // 14th International Scientific Conference “Physics and Radioelectronics in Medicine and Ecology – FREM’2020” – Vladimir-Suzdal, Russia, Reports, Book 1, pp. 81-84
Stavtsev D.D., Dolgikh A.I., Gorlin P.M., Makovik I.N., Zherebtsov E.A., Dunaev A.V., Abramov A.Yu. Study of the effect of a monoamine oxidase inhibitor on the functional state of cerebral vessels // 14th International Scientific Conference “Physics and Radioelectronics in Medicine and Ecology – FREM’2020” – Vladimir-Suzdal, Russia, Reports, Book 1, P.35-39
Stelmashchuk O.A., Vinokurov A.Y., Abramov A.Y. Calcium dependent activation of mitochondrial ROS production in neurons and astrocytes // FEBS2021
Dolgikh A.I., Stelmashuk O.A., Zherebtsov E.A. Measurement of reduced glutathione using MBCL // Proceedings of the I International Scientific and Practical Conference. – Karachev, Karachev branch of FSBEI VO “OSU named after I.S. Turgenev “, March 3, 2020- S. 21-23
Gorlin P.M., Palalov A.A., Alekseev A.G. Determination of NADH and FAD by the method of fluorescence spectroscopy to assess the metabolic activity of various parts of the brain // Collection of scientific papers of the I international scientific and practical conference. – Karachev, Karachev branch of FSBEI VO “OSU named after I.S. Turgenev “, March 3, 2020 – pp. 11-14
Stavtsev D.D., Makovik I.N., Dunaev A.V., Abramov A.Yu., Assessment of the effect of monoamines on changes in the astrocytic calcium signal // Proceedings of the IX All-Russian Congress of Young Scientists.- (St. Petersburg, April 2020). – SPb: ITMO University, 202090,000 archaeologists have a holiday – the birthday of the horse of Alexander the great – Teachers’ newspaper
It is customary to celebrate the Day of the Archaeologist on August 15. The date is not officially legalized, but this does not prevent representatives of the profession from considering it a festive one with all the pleasant consequences that follow from this.Photo: pixabay.com
After a simple study of the surface layers of post-Soviet history, it turns out that Russians, Belarusians, residents of Kazakhstan and Ukraine are quite serious about celebrating the Day of the Archaeologist.The holiday has its own traditions, including the ritual of initiation of “archaeologists” into archaeologists.
Touch the past with your hands
This wonderful day appeared not by a state decree, but by the will of people, literally digging up the history of mankind, helping descendants to contemplate the past and even touch it with their hands. The most widespread legend about the emergence of the national holiday of archaeologists is associated with excavations that were carried out at the end of the 30s of the last century in Novgorod.
Interesting facts . The first emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang Ti, was buried along with his terracotta army of thousands of life-sized clay warriors, horses and chariots to protect the earthly ruler in the afterlife. Only from whom – no one knows.
According to the recollections of Valentin Yanin, Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the young members of the expedition “wanted a holiday.” They convinced the leadership that it was on August 15 that Bucephalus, the favorite horse of Alexander the Great, was born.According to legend, it was presented to the future king of the entire Oycumene when he was only 12 years old.
However, only he managed to tame the wayward steed, which became the favorite stallion of the emperor. Alexander did not part with him in all his campaigns, but he protected his favorite – he participated in battles on other horses. As usual, the reason was forgotten, and Bucephalus’s birthday smoothly turned into the Day of the Archaeologist.
Interesting facts . In 1799, a French soldier in Egypt, for fun digging in the coastal sand, found a curious stone that turned out to be the greatest archaeological find.The Rosetta stone was a fragment of a stone block on which the decree of Ptolemy V was engraved 200 years BC in three languages - ancient Greek, demotic writing and Egyptian hieroglyphs.
Searching for ancient artifacts, sorting out rock carvings and drawings, digging up tombs, literally sorting out the bones of ancestors is an occupation that will seem unpleasant and hardly exciting to many. Nevertheless, it is the profession of archaeologist, more than any other, generous with sensational discoveries.
Here are just a few of them: one of the seven wonders of the world – the Temple of Artemis of Ephesus, the thousand-year Mayan treasure in Mexico, the sarcophagi of the Valley of the Kings on the west bank of the Nile, including the tomb of the 18-year-old Pharaoh Tutankhamun. And also, the remains of the Chinese “Terracotta Army”, the gold treasures of the Sarmatians, a mummy buried around 2600 BC. women and ancient Greek ships sunk in the Black Sea.
Interesting facts . The antikythera mechanism found on the wreckage of a shipwreck off the coast of Greece, which is more than 2000 years old, is considered the progenitor of modern calculators.With the help of numerous gears, he could determine with a sufficient degree of accuracy the location of the heavenly bodies .
We owe to archaeological finds that we comprehend the deep historical secrets of the birth and development of human civilization. It is curious that many discoveries are made not only by professional archaeologists, but also by ordinary people who happen to be tete-a-tete with history.
Interesting facts . Costa Rican stone balls are perfectly shaped petrospheres weighing up to 16 tons.The perfection of artifacts carved in pre-Columbian times gives rise to hypotheses that space aliens had a hand in their creation.Tunisia. Photo: Ekaterina Ivanova
They were the first
The Greek philosopher and poet Lucretius Kara, who lived in the 1st century BC, is considered the ancestor of modern archeology. It was he who, in those immemorial times, determined the path along which scientific archaeological thought is still moving. At his behest, scientists today determine the periodization of the development of mankind into the Stone, Iron, Copper and Bronze Ages.
In the Russian kingdom-state, the science of archeology settled in the middle of the 19th century, thanks to the lover of all kinds of antiquities, Count Alexei Uvarov. He was the initiator of the first archaeological research, as well as the founder and first director of the Historical Museum in Moscow.
Interesting facts . No less famous than the Rosetta Stone is the archaeological find of the Dead Sea Scrolls. They depict the first copies of biblical texts dated 150 BC.
Subsequently, sensational archaeological discoveries were made on the territory of the former Russian Empire. During excavations at the foot of Mount Gadakrili, scientists discovered a handful of seeds and fragments of grape dust, which are more than six thousand years old. Earlier in the same area, fragments of qvevri were found – clay amphorae, even more ancient, about 8000 years old. These findings suggest that the art of winemaking originated in Georgia.
The archaeological complex located on the Belarusian land in the city of Brest looks no less impressive.The unique museum “Berestye” – a huge fragment of the ancient Brest detinets raised from the ground – is the most valuable storehouse of archaeological finds. Here are presented metal, wood, glass and even fabric products of the X-XI centuries, according to which scientists have recreated a picture of the life and life of the people who inhabited these territories.
Interesting facts . The most mysterious manuscript in the world is the Voynich manuscript. It was published in the 15th century in Italy. According to conjectures, it is about recipes for herbal infusions, but it is not possible to establish for certain the content of the artifact, since it is written in a language unknown to modern science.
Pandemic sent archaeologists to celebrate their professional holiday in the virtual space. Nevertheless, the Day of the Archaeologist, as they say, was a success. At least in Moscow, where a thematic marathon is organized online.
In the course of numerous lectures, virtual excursions, master classes on topics related to the archaeological heritage of the capital region, Russians learn a lot of new things for themselves. The holiday continues. Archaeologists, ay!90,000 Genes were stored in the freezer.In the United States, Przewalski’s horse was cloned, which died about 40 years ago
Kurt the foal was born in early August at the San Diego Zoo in California.
In the USA, Przewalski’s horse was cloned, which died about 40 years ago. The horse gene frozen in 1980 was stored in the freezer – these were the cells of a stallion born in 1975, he lived until 1998 in the United States.
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This was reported on the website of the company Revive & Restore, specializing in the conservation and restoration of the genetic data of endangered animals.
Scientists were able to recover the gene and successfully clone Przewalski’s horse – the first in 17 years.
“This birth expands the possibilities for the genetic rescue of endangered wild species,” said Ryan Phelan, executive director of Revive & Restore.“Advanced reproductive technologies, including cloning, can save species, allowing us to restore genetic diversity that would otherwise be lost over time.”Important
World’s first cloned kitten likely to be born in China
Kurt at the Texas Veterinary Clinic, USA / August 31
Przewalski’s horses are not the only species that Revive & Restore is trying to revive using biotechnology.The group is trying to revive at least six endangered or extinct species, including the woolly mammoth, which became extinct about 4,000 years ago.
In total, there are about two thousand horses in the world, born from 12 individuals of the Przewalski horse and rescued in the 1990s from extinction.
Recall that earlier it became known that scientists want to clone the endangered Sumatran rhinos. There are 275 of them left in the world.Important
Test tube rhinoceros.How modern reproductive technologies are helping to bring back extinct animals90,000 Przewalski’s horse was cloned in the USA
Bishkek, 07.09.20. / Kabar /. Revive & Restore, a conservation and restoration company dedicated to the conservation and restoration of the genetic data of endangered animals, has cloned Przewalski’s horse in collaboration with the San Diego Zoo.The foal was born healthy and strong. This is the first successful cloning of the Przewalski horse, according to National Geographic Russia.
The cloned foal was named Kurt after Dr. Kurt Benirschke, who has been collecting and preserving the genetic material of endangered animals since 1975. The cub of a rare species of ungulates was cloned from a frozen stallion Przewalski, which died 22 years ago. “These were the cages of a 1975 UK stallion who was brought to the United States in 1978.He lived until 1998, ”said the press service of Revive & Restore.
An embryo with DNA from a purebred wild representative of the Przewalski horse was implanted into a surrogate mother – a domestic horse (Equus ferus caballus) – and was born healthy after a normal pregnancy. Scientists hope that it will be possible to produce more resilient and healthy offspring from it, which will contribute to the genetic diversity of its species.
The Przewalski horse population went through a bottleneck, or genetically bottleneck, in the early 1990s.Today’s horses of this breed, of which there are now about 2 thousand individuals, are the descendants of 12 Przewalski’s horses, saved from extinction in those years.
Such a lack of genetic diversity can lead to inbreeding – the crossing of closely related forms within the same population and the subsequent loss of resistance by individuals and the ability to adapt to potential stress factors or changes in the environment.
Kurt represents hope not only for his own species, but also for other endangered species around the world, because he demonstrates the long-term viability of the stored genetic material.
Przewalski’s horses are included in the IUCN Red List as extinct in nature, but they survived on our planet thanks to zoos and nurseries.