‘American Sniper’ targets Christmas, Oscar hat trick for Cooper
When I interviewed Clint Eastwood in June about the status of “American Sniper”— the much-ballyhooed movie he stepped in to direct after Steven Spielberg stepped out — Eastwood said that he not only had already finished shooting the movie but hoped it would be ready by the end of the year. On Tuesday, Warner Bros. confirmed that timetable. “Sniper” — the fact-based, Bradley Cooper-starring tale of a sharpshooting Navy SEAL killed by a troubled veteran — will hit theaters on Christmas Day and expand on Jan. 16, the studio said.
The scheduling move is notable for several reasons. It makes the film a late entrant into the upcoming award season (whether it will be finished in time for a fall fest or two, such as AFI or the New York Film Festival, remains to be seen). It means that after the recent “Jersey Boys,” Eastwood will have two movies in the same calendar year (that last happened for the prolific director in 2008 with “Changeling” and “Gran Torino”).
And Cooper will now have a shot at being nominated for an Oscar three straight years. (Incidentally, that’s happened only to nine male performers in history—to the likes of Marlon Brando and Gary Cooper—and last occurred in 2001 when Russell Crowe completed the hat trick.)
The move also comes with, and perhaps sets off, a series of other changes from Warners. With “Sniper” now gong wide on Jan. 16, the spy remake “Man From U.N.C.L.E” is being moved off that date all the way to Aug. 14 next year, while another remake, the surf stoner do-over “Point Break,” will move up slightly so it can have more breathing room, from Aug. 7 to July 31.
Though only a limited release, “Sniper” won’t exactly have a clear path on its new date. Also debuting in theaters Dec. 25 are prestige plays such as “Tim Burton’s “Big Eyes” and Angelina Jolie’s “Unbroken,” and broad entertainments “Into The Woods” and “Hot Tub Time Machine 2.” And “Annie” and “Night at the Museum: Secret of the Tomb” will have been in theaters less than a week.
There’s been something of a game of release-date musical chairs for fall films lately. Yet another movie “Sniper” will jostle with for film fans’ attention on Christmas is Seth Rogen’s North Korea comedy “The Interview”; That film was recently rescheduled for the high-profile date from Oct. 10.
Shortly after, the Brad Pitt World War II drama “Fury” was moved up to Oct. 17 from its initial date on Nov. 14. A lot of movies over a short period of time—and now, thanks to Eastwood’s brisk work pace, one more.
Rounds Down Range – The MOA
The skill snipers are most known for is their marksmanship. The ability to hit targets as far as a 1,000 yards away (10 football fields!) is not something that comes naturally. Snipers train to become expert marksman with a deeply ingrained understanding of the principles of ballistics.
MOA (minute of angle) is the unit of measurement that snipers use in school to measure accuracy. The greater the distance the sniper is shooting from, the lower the accuracy, as natural forces like wind resistance work on the bullet while it travels through the air. MOA measures the accuracy of the shot taking the distance it was fired from into consideration. The basic formula is 1.047 inches at 100 yards, or, for practical purposes, 1 inch at 100 yards. For every 100 yards the bullet travels, you add 1 inch of inaccuracy.
The two biggest variables that affect a bullet’s flight are wind and gravity. When estimating the range of a target, snipers must consider how the wind will affect flight over that distance. Sniper teams can use indicators like smoke or blowing leaves to help them read the wind.
Despite the high power of a rifle shot, it is still affected by gravity. If you were to fire a sniper rifle level to the ground at the same moment that you drop a bullet from the barrel height, the fired bullet and the dropped bullet would hit the ground at the same time. As a round travels through the air, gravity is dragging it down. When sighting a shot, snipers must often compensate for this by “overshooting” the target.
Air temperature affects a bullet, as well. Cold air is denser than hot air and therefore creates more drag on a bullet. On the other hand, bullets can tear through hot air. But Army Ranger Sniper explains that because humidity often accompanies hot air, which will also affect the bullet, this is yet another variable to be considered. “And with winds and heat and humidity — if you look at all the factors it’s amazing you can hit anything.”
Even in ideal shooting situations, targets may be at odd angles or moving. Snipers are taught at the range how to deal with these problems.
Ultimately, the farther a sniper can be from his target and still remain accurate the more effective he is and the less likely he is to be discovered. Using a 7.62mm round, snipers can shoot nearly silently as long as they’re shooting from over 600 meters. A bullet leaves the rifle barrel faster than the speed of sound. The cracking sound a bullet makes is a tiny sonic boom. Even if a target doesn’t hear the rifle shot, he will hear the bullet fly by. But the drag created by wind resistance on a 7.62mm round as it travels through the air slows the bullet down to sub-sonic speeds at around 600 meters. So at ranges over 600 meters, the bullet no longer makes that distinct cracking sound. Army Ranger Sniper tells us, “If you’re shooting at a target 800 or 1,000 meters out, you could be shooting at that person all day long and they don’t even know they are being shot at.”
Snipers spend plenty of time in school cracking the books and in the classroom learning the principles of ballistics, windage, air density, and many other variables that affect the flight of a bullet. But at the end of the day, it comes down to what snipers call “rounds down range.” A sniper’s most valuable classroom is the firing range. Snipers don’t have time in the field to think about theory. Hours at the range help snipers to apply these principles by “feel.”
Shooting – Sniper Ghost Warrior Contracts GuideNext Basics Mask Mode Prev Basics Tips
As befits a sniper game, in Sniper: Ghost Warrior Contracts, shooting plays a very important role. Very often you will be firing at your enemies from vast distances and the trajectory of the bullet will be affected by two main factors – distance to the target, as well as the strength and direction of the wind. In this section we explain how to shoot to hit the target.
Distance to the target
Bad way of adjusting the sight-the bullet will not even reach the target.
The distance to the target, as mentioned in the introduction, is one of the two main factors influencing whether the bullet will hit the target.
The correct setting of the sight, relative to the target a little over 300 meters away.
You should, however, start from marking the target – it can be done either with the binoculars or with the drone. After that, you will get information what distance separates you from the target. After choosing a sniper rifle and zooming through it, you will see a scale running down to the right of the center of the cross-hair, with values depending on the scope mounted on the weapon itself. Usually it will be 100, 200, 300 and so on. These values indicate the distance to the target and the places at which the sight must be set in order for the projectile to hit the target. For example, if you are 200 meters away from the target, you should raise the sight accordingly, so that the head (or other part of the body you want to hit) is located on the horizontal line with a value of 200. If the target is 250 meters away from you, the sight should be set in the center, between the values of 200 and 300.
Here, however, a problem arises – if you are more than 400-500 meters apart, you will have to raise the cross-hair so high that you will no longer see the silhouette of the enemy. This can be solved by proper calibration of the scope (the keys that are used for it can be found in the Controls section of this guide) – this allows you to move the scale visible on the side up or down, depending on your needs. This makes it significantly easier to aim correctly.
Influence of wind
A dotted line representing the effect of wind on the bullet’s trajectory.
The second thing that affects the trajectory of the bullet is wind – the side from which it blows, as well as the strength of the wind itself. You can see it while aiming from a sniper rifle scope. To the left or right of the center of the cross-hair you will see a dotted line, appearing every few seconds. This shows the trajectory of the bullet depending on the distance to the target – the farther it is, the bigger the impact of wind will be.
How to shoot – tips
In conclusion, we present a handful of tips that will allow you to eliminate enemies effectively, namely:
- Always consider the distance to the target, as well as the strength of the wind and set the cross-hair based on those two factors. Often you will have to aim in a seemingly senseless way, setting the cross-hair far away from the enemy – but this is the most correct approach.
- Remember that you can adjust the scope to properly maneuver the scale showing the distance to the target. Thanks to this you will not have to set the sight so high that you will no longer see the silhouette of the enemy.
- Take care of proper posture of the character. You should crouch, or more preferably lie down on the ground – this will stabilize the cross-hair, preventing it from flying all around the screen.
- Hold your breath before you shoot. When the character holds his breath (especially in the prone position), the sight remains virtually stationary, allowing you to shoot where you want.
- Buy a Bipod for a sniper rifle you are using. This will allow you to stabilize your weapon even more while lying down – thanks to this you will be able to hit targets even without holding your breath.
Art of the Shot
The fly is made of buttons, because Velcro and zippers can get dirt and debris stuck in them and become unusable.
On top of the pants in the front is Cordura 500, a versatile nylon fabric known for its durability and resistance to abrasions, tears, rot and mildew. It’s sewn into the front all around the edges, double-stitched on the “high-traffic points” and reinforced on the crotch.
Silicone that acts as a strong adhesive sealant is then run over top of the stitching to protect the threads, helping with durability. Then it’s painted to takes the shine out of the silicone. I installed zippers on the sides of my pants up to about the thigh so they were “easy on, easy off.”
On the cuff of the pants, I installed a strap that goes under my boot like a stirrup so the pants don’t ride up when I’m crawling backward.
I removed the side cargo pockets and put them on the back of the thigh so my spotter – not me – can access maps, face paint or equipment – anything one of them might need on a mission.
Right below the butt we sew in netting, which is also covered in silicone and then paint. You want to make it nice and strong so you can pull on it all the way around. I run the netting all the way down to the bottom, although that’s not required.
Hair ties are then installed throughout to hold natural vegetation from whatever environment you’re in. We run this 70-30 rule – 70% natural vegetation, and 30% jute, which is the burlap artificial vegetation you see hanging off the pants. Some people also install padding on the knee area.
The front is also covered in Cordura 500. The stitches are also covered in Shoe Goo and paint. All buttons instead of a zipper or Velcro, again, because of the dirt that can gum those things up.
Pockets from the shoulders have been turned upside-down and installed on the forearm so that when you’re laying down you can easily access them from an opening that’s at your wrist, not elbow.
Loops are installed on the sleeves so you can hook your thumb in. That way, when you’re crawling, your sleeve doesn’t pull up. Netting is installed all over the Cordura, sewn, siliconed and painted. The netting comes up over the shoulder. Hair ties also are installed for vegetation. I also installed two Velcroed map pouches around the rib cage.
The back, like the pants, is also covered in netting, burlap jute and hair ties. But there’s no actual [battle dress uniform] in the back – just the netting. It can be either rubber or cloth netting, but it’s meant to be breathable. They can get hot and heavy. More pockets are installed on the inside.
It’s a typical “boonie” hat, as they call it – the wide-brimmed bucket hats that are camo.
Netting is sewn at each point on the top side, glued and spray-painted. Jute and hair ties go on the top, too, like the rest. They want the netting and jute to be long, but not past the middle of the back. If it’s too long, it can catch on stuff when you’re walking and/or crawling. You want it long, though, so it can be lain across your rifle and block the shadow on your face.
I also put a hair tie toward the end of the netting so I can hook it on the end of my rifle scope to hold it in place.
Sometimes, soldiers will cut the top of the hat out to allow more ventilation, but depending on the environment and the hair (or baldness) of the soldier, that head can sometimes be seen.
Sniper’s Paradise Reactive AR500 Steel Shooting Target
The Target Man™ “Snipers Paradise” – AR500 Reactive Steel Shooting Target
** This version of our target comes pre-welded with a throat. You will need a base and angle iron to use the target. ***
“Snipers Paradise” (named by FaceBook fan Alex A!!) is a 3-stage reactive target system constructed from ballistic grade AR500. This three way target system is perfect for someone to enhance their tactical shooting skills. Here you have a head shot, hostage target, and center mass shot all in one! Perfect for the LEO, gun enthusiast, and even the recreational weekend “plinker”. Get one of the best training aids to sharpen your skills should you ever need to take that “critical shot”.
This kit is available with or without our patent-pending Multi-Purpose Base (MPB) and .22 Mild Steel Paddles. You can also purchase this kit un-welded in our DIY Shooting Targets section.
Our setup is designed to be used with 46″ angle iron with the dimensions of 1. 5″x.25″. We sell all of our reactive targets without the angle iron. You can source it locally for $12-$15, or you can buy it separately in the Replacements and Add on section of this site. It’s a more expensive option simply due to the shipping cost. Remember, we want to make this target kit affordable for all budgets. If possible we recommend you source it locally.
- Target height: 21.5″
- Target width: 12″
- Center hole of target diameter: 4.5
- Center hole reactive paddle diameter: 6″
- Hostage reactive paddle width: 5″
- Target comes unpainted.
We recommend using 46″ angle iron for his target.
This is basically a 2/3 scale IPSC
See A Comparison of Our Full Line Reactive Steel Targets on page 2:
Copycat Washington sniper targets Charleston | News
Police in West Virginia are investigating a series of shootings with disturbing similarities to the serial sniper attacks that terrorised the Washington DC region last year.
Over the past week, three apparently unrelated people have been shot dead in the state by an unknown assailant, or assailants, firing a small calibre rifle.
Authorities said each of the victims was shot from a distance at convenience stores.
The first victim, a 44-year-old man, was shot on 10 August while he talked on a public phone in Charleston, the state capital.
Four days later a 31-year-old woman was fatally shot while pumping gas at a convenience store just outside Charleston. Just 90 minutes later a 26-year-old man was killed with a shot to the neck at a store in a nearby town.
Kanawha County sheriff Dave Tucker said on Monday that police believed a “heavy white man” may be a suspect in the case, but declined to “put a name” on the crimes as being sniper-perpetrated serial killings.
“The only thing I can say, it’s a small calibre … there are similarities but I don’t say it’s the same,” Tucker said at a Charleston press conference.
Washington sniper suspect John Allen Muhammad
Tucker said that authorities have “a hundred leads … some very solid” and that among them, police were looking for a recent model dark-coloured pick-up truck, possibly blue or brown.
“We are actively pursuing possible suspects,” he said.
Earlier on Monday, Jerry Pauley, chief of Charleston’s police department, told NBC television: “So far we’ve got some evidence that shows that it could have been the same person or the same type of weapon used.”
Pauley said police suspect the shootings may have been random.
“We haven’t determined any connection between the three victims,” he said.
FBI agents – some of whom worked on the Washington sniper shooting case – have been called in to assist in the West Virginia investigation.
In the Washington sniper case, which is scheduled to go to trial in Virginia in October, John Lee Malvo, 18, and John Allen Muhammad, 42, face the death penalty for allegedly killing 10 people and wounding three others in the suburbs of the US capital last autumn.
SNIPER VS. COMPETITIVE SHOOTER – Civilian Marksmanship Program
March 6, 2015Civilian Marksmanship Program▸The First Shot▸SNIPER VS. COMPETITIVE SHOOTER
Submitted by Steve Sciarabba, Distinguished Rifleman/Presidents 100/M1 Carbine National Winner/US Army Sniper
Just within long-range high-power rifle shooting alone, there are all manners of classifications: 200 yards, 300 yards, 600 yards, cross-course, standing, sitting, prone, slow fire and rapid fire. To win, a shooter must excel in all these disciplines over days, often in varying conditions, including torrential rain and excessive heat, at distances that can be difficult to see and comprehend with the naked eye.
During the course of a match, the shooter must also physically haul his or her heavy rifle with ammunition and all equipment to the various distances – equipment which may include a range cart, spotting scope, shooting floor mat and, most importantly, a heavy shooters jacket that can compress and stabilize the body during the actual shot itself (which is put to the ultimate test every year in the Wimbledon Cup Long Range 1,000-yard High-Power Championship).
This may sound like a competition geared toward snipers, but one of the first things you learn upon delving into the world of shooting is not to confuse competitive marksmen with snipers. With the popularity of the book and movie “American Sniper,” and since I have lived in both worlds, I will share in the debate.
The way I see it is this:
In military terms, snipers infiltrate insurgent locales, negotiate a variety of terrain and, on occasion, take a shot. However this is only one element of their jobs, which also might include missions like scouting and reconnaissance, observation and security. A competitive marksman, however, trains year-round for competitive shooting yet doesn’t see combat action. Instead, he or she spends time competing at a series of events – improving his or her marksmanship skills.
As a result, each community sees the other with a certain amount of disdain; snipers view competitive marksmen as “paper punchers” (reference to paper targets), and competitive marksmen view snipers as less inept in the shooting skills. To sum it up, excellence in either discipline is defined as the ability to hit the target effectively.
“From my perspective the only difference between the sniper and the competitive marksman is simply this: In competition, it’s about winning; in sniping, it’s about surviving.”
Consider the rescue of Capt. Richard Phillips of the American cargo ship Maersk, Alabama. From 75 feet, three Navy SEAL Snipers picked off a trio of Somali pirates who were holding Phillips hostage in an 18-foot covered lifeboat. The operation required three shots, the difficulties of which were quite complex. The snipers had to use night-vision scopes and synchronize their shots from a swaying ship at a bobbing craft on the open sea. One of the targets was visible only through a window, and the pirates had AK-47’s to the captain’s head.
But the shots themselves: “I respect the conditions and the engagement, but really, for a Distinguished high-power rifle competitor like myself and others, that’s an easy shot – that was, what, 100 feet? With a rifle we start at 200 yards. For most of the competitive marksmanship community, that’s a shot that could have been taken with a handgun!”
As for the sniper viewpoint, retired Gunnery Sergeant Jack Coughlin, a legendary Marine Corp sniper in Vietnam who had more than 60 confirmed kills in combat, spoke for his compatriots on the subject of marksmen in his autobiography, “SHOOTER.”
“Paper targets don’t shoot back,” he wrote. “So that’s really kind of boring.”
By the end of the Vietnam War, however, top U.S. military snipers using converted commercial hunting rifles were able to pick off targets as far as 1,200 yards away. Now, with better technology in weapons systems and ammunition ballistics, snipers reliably can hit a human silhouette at a distance of upwards of a mile, and just a few years ago a British soldier named Craig Harrison set a distance record when he toppled two Taliban fighters from a staggering 2,500 yards.Steve Sciarabba with his M24 Sniper Weapon System (SWS) on mission with US Armed Forces, Afghanistan in 2004
Consider also that the average military sniper will be shooting at an E-type or IPSC silhouette target in training. A hit anywhere on steel is a hit – hit the target anywhere. Hear the “BONG” – done. In competition shooting, the defining difference is how close you can get all (or the majority) of your shots into a smaller, more precise objective 10- and X-ring.
At Sniper School, Qualification and Field Craft training teaches a soldier how to engage the threat and to survive it. Highpower competition teaches an individual how to shoot with precision, without the threat. Combine those two in the correct proportions and you have one formidable operator! It’s not an either/or, it’s a both – and the best can do both.
Carlos Hathcock was one of those rare individuals. He carved a niche in Marine Corp history for his legendary sniper missions, as well as becoming a nationally recognized shooting champion. Fifty years ago this summer, in 1965 as a Distinguished Rifleman, he won the Wimbledon Cup at Camp Perry. To be that effective both as a battlefield sniper and as a competitive marksman requires extraordinary qualities.
Being in both worlds, I can assure you military snipers use far more “tech” stuff than competitive shooters ever thought of using. A Data Book? A good sniper keeps these, too. Talk about milling a target to get the range and then failing to adjust for climate and weather conditions somewhere in austere third-world parts unknown countries!
“I’ve personally seen zeroes change rapidly by a full MOA and more during rain and sandstorms coming through – and the drop in the barometric pressure on scene. The range won’t change, but your POI (point of impact) sure as heck will.”
If you think this just applies to snipers, think again. Camp Perry in the rain, wind and humidity is very unforgiving, as well. Both a good sniper and a competitive shooter, however, will have data on this and will make the correct adjustments for it.
“Except the qualified Sniper School graduate who hasn’t been back on the range for anything other than his regular qualifications . . . probably won’t.”
As far as physical and mental attributes and characteristics, the fact is, I’ve never met a successful long-range shooter who wasn’t very intelligent in either a very analytical or an OCD-savant kind of way. And indeed the Army uses a psychological exam as part of the selection process as to what makes a good sniper school candidate and has found that the common personality type is having “meticulous attention to detail” and “overachievement tendencies.”
For a competitive marksman, however, if you wanted to become the kind of elite shooter who could be competitive at the level of the National Championships, then first and foremost you need to master the physical aspects of the sport. This means steadying and maintaining three different body positions (standing, sitting, prone) timed at three different distances. Plus, keeping the rifle snug against your shoulder to “eat the recoil” factors in to the physical aspects of static shooting, as well as the ability to control your breathing patterns or training your body to get “pumped down” rather than pumped up during high-pressure competitive situations.Steve Sciarabba with his National Match AR15 during CMP competition at Forbes Range (Albany, NY) in 2010
Some are so adept at this that they can actually control their heartbeats – on a monitor there would be a slightly longer pause during the shot. For the sniper, it comes with not being as deliberate but perhaps more methodical and on-demand in many instances because of the sometimes unpredictable target environments and mundane over-watch missions in varying terrains.
In conclusion, I would like to point out that there is virtually no money in competition and no glory in being a sniper. Both get little-to-no media attention, and both are arduous and difficult to explain. So why do either?
If you ask both the competitive shooters and snipers, they’ll talk about an obsessive need to master the equipment and conquer the conditions – “the challenge of putting a bullet through a target time after time is still very amazing to me – the precision of the shot; that if you line up the sights real carefully, control your breathing and body real carefully, and squeeze the trigger real carefully, that bullet will go that whole distance and land in the middle of an object the size sometimes smaller than a dinner plate. ”
Talk to the participants, and they’ll tell you the common denominator to both is the “shooting,” and to be chasing that lonely pursuit of perfection for either requires being the most prepared, the most proficient and the most persistent.90,000 More precisely, and you can’t grease: military reconnaissance will be re-equipped with new rifles | Articles
Intelligence and Special Forces units will be given accuracy. They will be completely re-equipped with SVDM sniper rifles. These samples are superior in performance to the classic Dragunov rifle. The novelty is not only more accurate, but also has the ability to change the layout – to install different sights, a silencer and additional equipment. According to experts, will significantly increase the ability of scouts to destroy targets at a distance.
The Ministry of Defense has decided to re-equip military intelligence and special forces with SVDM sniper rifles, a source in the military department told Izvestia. This should increase the combat capabilities of these formations. The first consignments have already entered the troops of the Southern Military District.
Soldier with Dragunov sniper rifle
Photo: RIA Novosti / Valery Melnikov
The Dragunov sniper rifle (SVD) has been regularly serving in the army for more than half a century and in its class has become the same brand as the Kalashnikov among machine guns.Even an unprepared soldier can confidently hit targets from it at a distance of up to 800 m. The rifle combines a greater, compared to machine guns, firing power, range, has exceptional reliability and is relatively easy to learn. Back in Soviet times, the position of a sniper armed with SVD was introduced into the regular structure of the motorized rifle department. This significantly increased the firepower of the Soviet infantry in comparison with foreign armies.
In recent decades, Russian engineers have worked on various options for modernizing time-tested weapons. The most modern modification is SVDM. It is made of modern materials, has improved ergonomics and higher accuracy due to the weighted barrel.
Dragunov sniper rifle with modernization kit at the exhibition of weapons and equipment
Photo: TASS / Sergey Fadeichev
There are Picatinny rails on the body, on which you can install equipment in a matter of minutes, based on the combat mission : optical and night sights, a silencer, etc.The SVDM is equipped with backup mechanical sights and a mount for a folding bipod. On many old models of small arms, the installation of additional components requires disassembly, which takes a long time.
– In the army, a sniper is actually a high-precision weapon at the grassroots level, – military expert Vladislav Shurygin explained to Izvestia. – Dragunov sniper rifle allows high-precision shooting at medium distances. In battle, it is used to defeat important targets. Usually the sniper goes with the commander and works according to his tasks. The modernization of the SVD once again confirms that the weapon was created with a great reserve for the future. Until now, this rifle has deep potential.
Will last a long time
In 2019, the general director of TsNIItochmash Albert Bakov said in an interview with Izvestia that the SVD was initially so structurally perfect that in the class of army rifles for shooting at a distance of 500-800 m “it’s better not to do it” – only improve individual elements.
SVDM sniper rifle
Photo: RIA Novosti / Mikhail Voskresensky
– It can be rowed, it can be thrown – it works perfectly at a distance of 500-800 m, – said the head of the concern, which is now working on the creation of rifles of a larger caliber.
Today, the Kalashnikov concern is finalizing the Chuvakin sniper rifle (SHF), which will have to hit single targets with the first shot at a distance of up to a kilometer. It is designed for two cartridges – a powerful domestic rifle cartridge 7.62×54 mm with a rim and a NATO rifle cartridge 7.62×51 mm. When it will acquire its final appearance and enter the series is still unknown.
A before the adoption of the microwave oven for armament the most advanced sniper weapon for work in battle formations remains SVDM . There are also more long-range and powerful rifles, but these are much more expensive and technically complex samples, which are not intended for combat operations, but for performing special tasks.Such weapons are supplied in limited quantities to the special forces units of the army and security forces.
SHF sniper rifle at the exhibition of weapons of the IMTF “Army-2020”
Photo: RIA Novosti / Kirill Kallinikov
The military department has already begun to re-equip the shooters: the newest AK-12 assault rifles have been delivered to the reconnaissance units of the Airborne Forces. Outwardly they are similar to the classic Kalashnikov, but structurally this is a fundamentally new development.The assault rifle has the ability to fire in fixed bursts with a two-shot cutoff, has a more durable barrel, additional removable muzzle devices and more convenient switching of firing modes. For him, new thermal imagers, silencers and collimator sights are being produced, which allow aimed fire at head targets at a distance of up to 500 m.
New weapons and equipment that are now entering the Airborne Forces radically increase the capabilities of the airborne troops.Izvestia has already written that the reconnaissance units of the Blue Berets have received new parachutes “Crossbow-2”. They allow jumping from a height of up to 4 thousand meters, and with oxygen equipment – even more. A special canopy of the parachute allows you to control it in flight. Thanks to this, during the descent, the paratrooper can fly tens of kilometers and imperceptibly penetrate into the rear of the enemy.
Reconnaissance target. Sniper War
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Targets and goals A month or less before the declaration of war, spetsnaz groups infiltrate to a depth of 2,000 kilometers into enemy territory and secretly carry out operations to facilitate further large-scale actions of their troops.The main objectives are: disorganization
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Targets and goals A month or less before the declaration of war, special forces groups infiltrate to a depth of 2000 kilometers into enemy territory and secretly carry out tasks to facilitate further large-scale operations of their troops.The main objectives are: disorganization
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Targets and goals A month or less before the declaration of war, spetsnaz groups infiltrate to a depth of 2,000 kilometers into enemy territory and secretly carry out operations to facilitate further large-scale actions of their troops. The main objectives are: disorganization
Finding a target The first thing to do when assigning destroy a target is to locate it.In the overwhelming majority of cases, a spetsnaz operation involves a search for a target. This is understandable, since objects whose location is known and which are stationary can be easily and quickly
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Chapter 4. INTELLIGENCE ON TIME ESTABLISHED THE MAIN OBJECTIVES OF GERMANY’S AGGRESSION AGAINST THE USSR PROSCRIPT It is about the establishment of the geopolitical, political, military and economic goals of the prepared aggression of Germany against the USSR.To be honest, for
2. Target selection
2. Target selection When several targets appear simultaneously, the more dangerous one should be chosen. When several equally dangerous targets appear, the closest and the one that is easier to hit should be chosen. If during shooting a new, more dangerous target appears and no90,000 WEAPONS: Sniper Sequence
Professional soldiers prepare for combat by practicing combat skills – a set of specific steps they take when a dangerous situation arises, similar to how a special team in football trains a quarterback and blocking a shot on the ball.These skills are carefully thought out so that each action is performed in the correct sequence and is consistent with the overall course of the battle.
After dealing with all of the actions a sniper must perform – many of which are critical but easily forgotten or out of order – I came up with a combat skill specifically for snipers that combines field and shooting skills that I call “target hitting sequence sniper “. This sequence applies equally to police snipers, who will follow the next steps in a modified manner after receiving the green light.
Practice this sequence over and over until you automatically complete it in the correct order.
1. DETECTING A TARGET: You are not sure if this is a target; you or your observer just noticed that something needs to be checked closer.
2. SEARCH FOR A STABLE POSITION: If you are already in cover, just make sure the bipod is strong or the support is stable. If you are on the move, select a position that provides the best cover from observation and fire, and assume a prone or seated shooting position, preferably with support.
3. RANGE ASSESSMENT: There are several ways you can do this; what really matters is that you have to be accurate and use the data to make corrections to your BDC or scope handwheels. Remember, incorrect ranging is the main cause of misses when shooting at long ranges.
4. PURPOSE CONFIRMATION: You and your observer use optical instruments to confirm the nature of your target. You focus the scope on the target, which automatically removes parallax.If multiple opponents are visible, you prioritize objectives. Police snipers at this stage confirm the identity of the suspect. This is also a good time to start deep breathing in preparation for shooting, which will also help you calm down.
5. WIND ASSESSMENT: Since you are observing the target through the telescopic sight, your observer estimates the wind, then tells you the result, which you use to make lateral corrections on the flywheel of the scope or to set the aiming point to the right / left.While the observer is assessing the wind, you determine whether the target is moving or not, and calculate the necessary lead.
6. AIMING AND SHOOTING: If you have a scope with a CCT and a side adjustment flywheel, this will be easy enough; if not, you should speak out the corrections loudly as you adjust the flywheels for range, wind and movement [target], making sure they are correct as you say. And then you do an excellent integrated firing act, focusing your eye on the reticle as you fire.
7. COMPLETING THE SHOT: You complete the shot without moving, without changes in body position or thought. Your observer observes the target and marks where the bullet hit. In the event of a miss, it tells you exactly where you hit – the data you use to correct and fire the perfect shot.
8. COOLDOWN: In practice, the stage of completing a shot is so short that you can possibly reload the rifle while your observer tells you where the bullet hit.Don’t expect information from him; after completing a shot, reload as quickly as possible to be ready for a new shot.
9. HIT OTHER TARGETS: Elsewhere we discuss how many shots to fire in one fight, which is a subjective decision. The important thing here is that you practice this skill so that you are prepared for whatever you decide or whatever the circumstances permit.
10. CHANGE OF POSITION: Don’t wander around to admire your piece.After the end of the battle, change position or leave the area.
11. REPEAT PROCEDURE: As long as you complete the task, you will repeat the specified sequence of actions over and over, each time you find a potential target.
|The sequence of hitting a target by a sniper.|
Recommended Shooting Practice
You must balance and integrate your annual shooting program so that throughout the year you practice all of the following situations and actions in the specified proportion.This program does not include shooting skills, which should take up half of your shooting time. These numbers are just a starting point, so adjust them according to your shooting conditions. For example, Arizona police officers do not need to spend 40 percent of their time practicing shooting in the rain or snow. In addition, if there is even the slightest chance that you will need to shoot while using tear gas or other chemicals, you should wear a gas mask for at least one training session per year.The Ultimate Sniper:
An Advanced Training Manual for Military
and Police Snipers
Maj. John L. Plaster, USAR (Ret.)90,000 One great race and seven great ones. What sniper goals does Ovechkin pursue, except for the main one?
Alexander Ovechkin continues to fight for the right to remain forever in hockey history. The 36-year-old star’s primary individual goal is to surpass Wayne Gretzky’s record in the number of goals scored in the regular season. 157 goals separate from the great Canadian Ovechkin.Alexander’s distance to many other NHL sniper records is much less, and he has already assigned his name to some of them.
The day before, Ovi took the single-player first place in the league in terms of the number of away matches with two or more goals (84). Earlier, the Russian topped the list of goalscorers in overtime. The native of Moscow upset his opponents 24 times in extra time. The closest pursuer is Jaromir Jagr with 19 pucks. But six more top 10 players (Crosby, Pacioretti, Marchand, Burns, Tavares and Toews) continue their careers.
In another prestigious ranking, Alexander is about to break into the top three. In terms of the number of victorious goals, he is fourth with 116 goals. At the top is Jagr (135). Gretzky on this indicator only closes the top twenty (91).
Scoring 19 winning goals in one season is a fantasy task, but Ovechkin will most likely become the most effective player of the majority before the new year. The crown shot of the Russian most often helps Washington precisely when the excess is realized.Ovechkin has five times left to complete the combination in terms of numerical advantage – then he will overtake the intermediate leader Dave Andreichuk, who became the author of 274 goals in the majority.
Ovechkin will hardly be able to win back the palm in the hat-trick category from Gretzky. The Canadian scored 50 times, three times per match, the Russian only 27, this is the eighth result in history. But in terms of the number of goals (40) in an empty net, Ovechkin is already the second. The first with 56 pucks is Gretzky again.
In the three most quoted ratings, Ovechkin is at least in the top three.He has scored 30 goals or more 15 times in a season. This result allows us to share the second position with Jaromir Jagr. The first is from Mike Gartner (17 seasons).
With 40 or more goals, Ovechkin finished 11 regular championships. Leading Gretzky has one more season. In terms of the number of regulars (8) with at least 50 pucks, Ovi is the third. Mike Bossy and all the same Gretzky have one more such season.
At the same time, for 737 goals, Ovechkin spent the most attempts among his main competitors.In terms of the total number of shots (5,753) in his career, the Russian is in second position. Jagr, with 766 goals, has a hundred tries less, Gretzky has seven hundred. The first is Ray Burke with 6,209 threats. In the most dangerous season, Ovechkin attacked the opponent’s goal 528 times, in the average – about 350.
This October is the most successful in the Russian overseas career. So far, he is on schedule for 95 goals per season – in six games the veteran has 12 (7 + 5) points. Alexander managed to knock out such numbers only once – in 2009., just after its 24th birthday.
A sniper is … What is a Sniper?Sniper training of 52nd Security Squadron at Spangdahl Base, Germany Paratrooper of the 82nd American Parachute Division with an M-14 rifle in Fallujah, Iraq Hungarian soldier with SVD during Operation COOPERATIVE OSPREY 96 at Lejeune, USA
Sniper – a specially trained soldier (an independent combat unit), perfectly mastering the art of marksmanship, camouflage and observation; strikes a target, as a rule, from the first shot.The sniper’s task is to defeat the command and communications personnel, the enemy’s secret, the destruction of important emerging, moving, open and camouflaged single targets (enemy snipers, officers, etc.).  The sniper is armed with a sniper rifle with a telescopic sight and other special devices that facilitate aiming.
Sometimes marksmen in other branches of the armed forces (forces) (artillery, aviation) are called a sniper. 
The word “Sniper” first appeared in the English army during the First World War  , comes from the English. snipe – “snipe” (small and fast bird, hunting for which is difficult because the flight path of the bird is unpredictable, and the shot must be carried out “offhand”).
Although rifle guns were already known in the 16th century, their production was extremely difficult and expensive, and as a result, they were extremely rare. The first cases of using long-barreled hunting rifles in combat conditions for high-precision shooting were recorded during the Civil War in England (1642-1648).The most famous incident was the assassination of the commander of the army of parliament, Lord Brook, during the siege of the city of Lichfield in March 1643. Soldier John Dyot, who was on duty on the roof of the local cathedral, was armed with a long hunting rifle. He shot Lord Brook as he inadvertently leaned out of cover. John Dyot hit Brook in the left eye. By the standards of that time, such a shot, fired from a long smooth-bore musket from a distance of 150 yards (137.2 meters), was considered outstanding (the effective aimed firing range of the most common type of firearm of the musket era, at best, was 80 yards (73.2 meters)).
The clashes of the British Army during the War of Independence with the American colonists, among whom there were many hunters, revealed the vulnerability of the regular troops to skilled marksmen capable of hitting targets at a distance twice the effective fire of muskets. This turned combat units in between battles and during movement into a target for hunting. Carts, individual detachments suffered unforeseen losses; there was no protection from the fire of the enemy who had taken cover; the enemy remained inaccessible.and in most cases it is simply invisible. Attempts by some enthusiasts of the British Army to adopt these tactics went almost unnoticed by the command.
Accurate shooting of specially selected shooters of British troops against the army of Napoleonic France experienced a new heyday in Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. Thus, General Colbert was killed by the British sniper Thomas Plunket. Their opponents also had well-aimed arrows – during the Battle of Trafalgar, a French non-commissioned officer, taking a position on the mast of the ship, mortally wounded Admiral Nelson.
By the 1850s, almost all the major military powers in the world had “transferred” their armies to percussion guns (primer guns). The new rifled guns could fire at a range 10 times the range of their smooth-bore predecessors. During the 1853 war in South Africa, British riflemen were able to engage enemy personnel at a distance of 1,200 yards (1,097 meters). This was an incredible achievement that was not fully realized by the military commanders, since only 20 years earlier, the infantry could feel completely safe from musket fire at a distance of 200 yards (182.8 meters). Of course, it was possible to talk about successful aimed shooting at a single target as an exceptional case, but the fact remains: it has become, in any case, technically possible.
The Crimean War marked a new stage in the development of long-range small arms. In the Crimean War, single Englishmen from long-range fittings with custom-made sights killed Russian soldiers and officers. During the Crimean War, a new problem arose: at a distance of 700 yards or more, it was extremely difficult to combine the figure of a man and the front sight of a gun: for the shooter, the front sight was larger than the enemy soldier.
Subsequently, in the Anglo-Boer Wars, the Boers (Dutch settlers) shot English soldiers even in the seemingly safest places. It was a coincidence, but the rule “Don’t light a cigarette for three from one match” also appeared among the British.
By 1900, there were a huge number of small arms manufacturers such as Mauser, Enfield, Krag, Mannlicher, Schmidt-Rubin and Remington, which produced guns with a range of up to 2,000 yards (1,829 meters) and already multiple shots (magazine rifles).The first to have the opportunity to test the effectiveness of the new generation of Boer rifles during the second Boer War (as a rule, these were German rifles). It was the Boers who first demonstrated that a small group of skillful riflemen scattered over the terrain could withstand units of the enemy’s regular army. For the first time, sniper fire became a significant factor in the combat operations of regular troops.
The magazine rifles of the beginning of the century were distinguished by their high workmanship and, consequently, their accuracy.For example, the British Enfield rifle No. 4 Mk1, when firing at 200 yards (183 meters), confidently laid 7 bullets in a circle with a diameter of 7.6 cm, while the Mauser mod. 1896 (“Boer”) placed 60 bullets at a distance of 500 meters in a rectangle measuring 44 x 28 cm, and at 1200 meters in a rectangle 186 x 92 cm.
World War I
During the First World War, with its trenches stretching for thousands of kilometers, sniper shooting flourished. Trenches have become a real “paradise” for snipers.The first full-time snipers in army units appeared in 1915 in the German army. The Germans at this time unconditionally dominated in the conduct of long-range aimed fire from small arms, which can be partly explained by the presence of a huge number of rifles with telescopic sights. By the end of the first year of the war, the German troops officially had more than 20,000 sniper rifles. According to British testimony, in the winter of 1915, any appearance of a British soldier outside the trench guaranteed death from a sniper bullet.With up to six snipers per company, the Germans had a great advantage in the unfolding trench warfare. The mood of the Anglo-French units, day after day losing their comrades-in-arms in killed and wounded, was depressed. The moral effect of such losses was enormous.Luring a sniper onto a dummy
In 1915, the British military leadership, alarmed by the successes of the Germans, organized its own school of snipers. The duration of the courses was 17 days. As a result of training, however, it turned out that the ability to shoot accurately was not enough for a sniper.Many skillful British shooters were accustomed to fighting in open combat, but they absolutely did not know how to disguise themselves, hide from the enemy and patiently watch their targets, and quickly perished in new conditions for them. The best young shooters for training snipers in the British army were Canadian, Australian and South African hunters, who had the ability to go unnoticed by the target of the hunt. The best of them in those years was the Canadian Indian Louis Peghmagabou, who had 378 confirmed victories. Pioneered by the British, sniper camouflage suits made of light green cloth and tufts of grass have become the traditional form of sniper gear in most countries of the world.It was the British snipers who worked out the technique of using “sculptures” – dummies of local objects, inside which were placed arrows. Unseen by enemy observers, they conducted visual reconnaissance of enemy forward positions, revealed the location of fire weapons and destroyed the most important targets. Each infantry battalion in the state had 8 snipers, 8 more soldiers were preparing to replace them.
During the First World War, it turned out that the best remedy for a sniper was another sniper; during the war years, sniper duels took place for the first time.
In the new conditions, the troops massively switched to khaki uniforms, and the uniform of junior officers loses their pronounced insignia. There was also a ban on saluting in combat conditions.
At the beginning of 1914 in Russia, at the training ground of the Officer Rifle School in the city of Oranienbaum, the Hertz system telescopic sight was tested on a three-line rifle. At the end of 1916, these sights, produced at the Obukhov plant, were recognized as suitable for use in the troops and their mass production began.
The Germans used a 7.92-mm Mauser rifle of the 1898 model with a five-fold sight of the Berlin firm RR Foos. and a 7.92-mm Mauser hunting rifle mod. 1908 British snipers used a 7.71-mm Lee-Enfield rifle No. 3 Mk1 * (T) with a threefold magnification sight and No. 4 (T) with a sight of the same magnification. The Austro-Hungarian army used an 8-mm rifle of the Mannlicher system mod. 1895 with a threefold optical sight of the “Reichert” company or a German fivefold sight of the Berlin firm of R.R. Foos.
It was on the fronts of the First World War that the basic principles and specific techniques of sniping were determined. With the end of World War I, most countries, including Great Britain, France, the United States and, to a lesser extent, Germany, again neglected the so expensive experience of sniper shooting, significantly reducing or completely disbanding their sniper squads.
World War II
In the USSR, in 1929, at the Shot course in the Moscow region, a sniper course was specially created, where snipers and leaders of the sniper business were trained.Later, special courses of OSOAVIAKHIM and military units were engaged in the training of snipers. 
In 1940, a sniper rifle based on the Tokarev SVT-40 self-loading rifle was adopted (however, due to insufficient accuracy, the production of the SVT-40 sniper soon ceased).  Until 1938 alone, about 53 thousand sniper rifles were produced, and after 1938, such a number of rifles were produced annually.
During the Finnish War, small groups of enemy snipers sometimes almost completely paralyzed parts of the Red Army with their actions.Good knowledge of the terrain, exceptional adaptability to natural conditions, pre-prepared shelters and escape routes allowed the Finnish “cuckoos” to successfully complete combat missions and quietly retreat to new positions. The achievements of Finnish snipers in terms of tactics are recognized in all armies of the world, in fact, there is nothing to add to them to this day.
Individual Finnish shooters are striking in their effectiveness: in this way, Simo Häyhya, in 3 months of active hostilities, hit more than 540 soldiers of the Red Army.Häyhä used a weapon designed for the security corps – a rifle M / 28-30 Spitz (numbered 60974). He preferred to shoot from an open sight, in contrast to enemy snipers. With such a sight, you can quickly catch a target, in contrast to an optical sight, the glass of which in the cold, moreover, quickly became covered with frost. The shine of the lenses in the sun often betrayed the position of the sniper. Häyhä also developed sniper techniques and tactics in suitable winter conditions. For example, he froze the crust in front of the rifle barrel with water so that the snow would not fly up when fired, he kept the snow in his mouth so that the steam from breathing would not give it out.Thick clothing evened pulse and breathing. Häyuh also benefited from his small height – 1 m 52 cm.According to unconfirmed reports, the sniper also used the Finnish Suomi M / 31 assault rifle to repel attacks, with which the number of killed Red Army soldiers increased to 705. Given the transience of the Finnish War, it turns out that Häyuha killed an average of 5 Red Army soldiers per day.
By the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, the Red Army had a significant cadre of snipers.  The sensitive damage inflicted by Soviet snipers prompted the Germans to manufacture on a large scale telescopic sights and train snipers.  . In 1942, three-month sniper courses began to work, the training period for which was increased to six months, but this was not enough. As in the First World War, former hunters, as a rule, became snipers in the full sense of the word. It was the hunters, accustomed to tracking the beast, who could, by the slightest changes in the situation – crumpled grass, broken tree branches – determine the location of the target and hit it without being noticed.
A feature of the sniper movement in the USSR during the war years, in contrast to other countries, was the rather widespread involvement of women (there were more than a thousand women among Soviet snipers).The most productive of them is considered to be Lyudmila Mikhailovna Pavlichenko. She was in the army from the very first days of the war, for a year she brought the personal account of killed enemies to 309. After being wounded, Lyudmila was transferred as an instructor to the “Shot” sniper course.Canadian sniper during World War II
Germany prepared well for a sniper war. Future snipers were selected from military units. In sniper schools, daily exercises were conducted in shooting, camouflaging, observation, enemy detection, etc.
Mathias Hetzenauer was probably the most effective German sniper of World War II, the total number of “confirmed kills” on his account is 345. Received the knight’s cross in April 1945, was taken prisoner in May and spent five years in prison in the USSR.
The Americans did not have their own Winter War, like the USSR, and they did not have to face the fierce resistance of skillful Finnish snipers, like the Soviet troops. As a consequence, the ability to shoot well was considered the main and sufficient quality of a sniper.Only after the landing in Normandy did the British and American troops fully experience what a real “sniper terror” is. Hedges became a favorite hideout for the Germans. Allied troops had to literally under “fire”, on the move, in the shortest possible time to master the tactics of countering German snipers, to organize their own sniper detachments.
The best method of dealing with German snipers remained mortar and artillery strikes against their intended positions.
As on the eastern front, hunters and trackers moved to the front ranks of well-aimed marksmen – among the Americans, they were mostly Indians. In the American troops, snipers were mainly used to cover their positions. Their main task was to suppress machine-gun and mortar crews of the enemy, as well as his snipers.
The situation with the training of snipers in the British army was better, the experience of the First World War helped here. But when the British shooters were finally able to put their skills to the test, the war was already drawing to a close, and this perhaps explains the fact that the British are not on the lists of the best snipers in World War II.
From the end of the 40s to our timeCarlos Hatchcock is one of the most famous snipers in the history of the US military. Famous for his participation in the Vietnam War, at least 300 killed enemy soldiers and officers
Snipers were active during the Korean and Vietnam Wars, when large groups of snipers were formed in the US Army. At the same time, training sniper centers appeared, which were subsequently disbanded, with the exception of the center for training snipers in the Marine Corps.
An infantry sniper ( designated marksman ) first appeared in the USSR in the 60s. Influenced by the Soviet concept, the infantry sniper specialty was introduced to the US and Israeli forces in the 1990s.
All Special Operations Combat Groups currently have snipers.
There is a sniper in the motorized rifle squad of the Russian Armed Forces of the Soviet and post-Soviet periods.
Types of snipers
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In Western countries, the word “sniper” means the following professions:
Saboteur SniperAmerican Marine sniper in “ghillie suit”. Snipers of the 2nd Foreign Infantry Regiment (France).Lower PGM Hécate in 12.7 mm, upper t FR F2 in 7.62 mm in Afghanistan, 2005
This is the most famous type of sniper (eng. sniper ), familiar from computer games, movies and literature.
- Operates alone or with a partner (providing fire cover and target designation), often far from the bulk of the troops, in the rear or on enemy territory.
- Tasks – covertly incapacitating important targets (officers, sentinels, valuable equipment), disrupting an enemy attack, sniper terror (panic on enlisted personnel, difficulty in observation, moral suppression).
- In order not to betray his position, the shooter often fires a shot under the cover of background noise (weather events, third-party shots, explosions, etc.).
- Distance of defeat – from 500 meters and more. In good conditions, a person can be hit from a distance of 1.5-2 km – for large-caliber 12.7 mm rifles. In practice, shooting at single targets of such small sizes from such a distance is not carried out, due to the large spread of even the best samples of sniper weapons.
- The saboteur sniper’s weapon is a precision rifle with a telescopic sight, sometimes with a silencer, usually a sliding bolt.
- Position masking plays an important role, therefore it is performed with great care. As a disguise, improvised materials (branches, bushes, earth, mud, debris, etc.), a special “shaggy” camouflage coat ( ghillie suit ) or ready-made shelters (bunkers, trenches, buildings, etc.) can be used. NS.).
Infantry SniperDutch ISAF sniper team. The sniper is armed with an AWSM .338 Lapua Magnum rifle, the observer has Leica / Vectronix VECTOR IV laser rangefinder binoculars.
An infantry sniper ( designated marksman ) first appeared in the USSR in the 60s. Influenced by the Soviet concept, the infantry sniper specialty was introduced by Israel and the United States in the 1990s.
- An integral part of a rifle (motorized rifle, infantry) squad, like a machine gunner or grenade launcher; acts as part of a division. Sometimes paired with a machine gunner or a pair of machine gunners (cover group).
- Tasks – increasing the radius of the infantry battle, destroying important targets (machine gunners, other snipers, grenade launchers, ATGM crews, signalmen).
- Generally does not have time to target; shoots at everyone in sight.
- The distance of the fight rarely exceeds 400 m.
- Weapon: Semi-automatic rifle, with a focus on light weight and reliability. Sometimes such snipers are supplied with serial automatic rifles (for example, the H&K G3 or FN FAL), which are selected at the weapons factory by the criterion of “hitting accuracy” and receive an optical sight. Infantry sniper rifles are rarely equipped with silencers.
- Extremely mobile, changes position frequently.
- Generally has the same disguises as the rest of the soldiers.
The radius of destruction of a police sniper rarely exceeds 200 meters – this is due to the fact that shooting, as a rule, is carried out in urban conditions. On the other hand, the targets of a police sniper are very small: in order to hit a criminal threatening with a pistol, you need to hit him in the joint of the head and neck – then he will not be able to shoot even reflexively.An alternative tactic is a finger or hand shot. One of the first tasks in the fire training of a police sniper in the USSR was to hit a target “hand with a pistol” from a distance of 100 m (for comparison: a similar task in training soldiers – to hit a growth target from a distance of 200 m).
Tactics of fighting snipers
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- Placement of observers in a bunker or deep trench; the area is surveyed through a periscope, not binoculars.
- Field uniform of officers, slightly different from the uniform of soldiers. Non-contrasting markings do not allow the rank to be established from a distance. In addition, in the area of hostilities in the intervals between battles, it is forbidden to carry out a military salute to a senior in rank in an open area.
- Patrols from several maneuvering sniper pairs with radio communication with the command post are dispatched to the vicinity of the positions.
- The smoke screen is being used preventively.
Signs of a sniper ambush
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- A single hit against the background of sound masking – machine gun burst, artillery fire, aircraft overflight.
- Occasional single shot, eg at a wall with any visible stain. Perhaps this is zeroing in on specific landmarks and determining the range.
- Shooting “in the forehead” of a soldier who is forced to move in a straight line in a certain direction, for example, leaving a door or moving along a trench.
- Silence in a place where before that there was active movement and the presence of birds and animals.
- A rag (stocking, tape) suspended from a branch is a sign of the shot position. The sniper uses it to estimate the wind speed (useful at long distances).
- New (planted) vegetation in a place where it did not exist before. As a rule, in dry weather it quickly fades and gives out the position.
- Rising steam out of the snow. To reduce the temperature and release steam, snipers sometimes melt a little snow in their mouths.
- Other unmasking signs: traces, trampled or damaged grass and soil, accumulation of midges and mosquitoes over the position, and the like.
Sniper detection and suppression
- The witnesses of the murder are interviewed immediately – the information they gave is often enough to find out the location of the sniper. For the same purpose, trained dogs were used – being alert to the sound of a shot, the dog gives out a direction.
- There were cases when a booby-trap mine was left in a detected but abandoned ambush in case the sniper returned. Even a stretcher that is not connected to anything allows you to detain a sniper for a while.
- Sniper can be destroyed with artillery or mortar fire. Although these measures can only frighten the sniper for cover.
- There are devices that quickly determine the direction of the shot by the sound of a bullet flying at supersonic speed. Cars can be equipped with such devices.
The most acceptable solutions are massive shelling from heavy guns or MLRS in order to “plow” the detection square and the use of special anti-sniper units trained in confrontation with enemy snipers and not being distracted by third-party targets.
World War I
- Francis Pegamejebow (378 killed enemy soldiers and officers) 
Soviet-Finnish War (1939-1940)Simo Hyahya.
- Simo Hyahya (542 killed enemy soldiers and officers)
World War II
- Abdybekov, Tuleugali Nasyrkhanovich  – (397 killed enemy soldiers and officers)
- Amaev Mahmud – (177 killed enemy soldiers and officers)
- Belousov, Mikhail Ignatievich – (245 killed enemy soldiers and officers, Hero of the Soviet Union)
- Galushkin Nikolay Ivanovich – (418 destroyed fascists, Hero of the Russian Federation)
- Zaitsev, Vasily Grigorievich – (242 killed, including 11 snipers   , Hero of the Soviet Union)
- Idrisov Abukhadzhi – (349 killed enemy soldiers and officers, Hero of the Soviet Union)
- Kvachantiradze, Vasily Shalvovich – (534 killed enemy soldiers and officers  )
- Kovshova, Natalya Venediktovna – (167 killed enemy soldiers and officers, Hero of the Soviet Union)
- Culbertinov, Ivan Nikolaevich – (489 destroyed enemy soldiers and officers, Order of the Red Banner, Order of Glory 3rd degree, Orders of the Patriotic War of 1st and 2nd degrees, Order of the Red Star)
- Kurka, Vasily Timofeevich – (179 destroyed enemy soldiers and officers, Order of the Red Banner, Order of the Red Star)
- Nomokonov, Semyon Danilovich – (367 killed enemy soldiers and officers, including 1 general, many enemy snipers, the Order of Lenin, the Order of the Red Banner, etc.)
- Okhlopkov, Fedor Matveyevich – (429 killed enemy soldiers and officers, Hero of the Soviet Union)
- Pavlichenko, Lyudmila Mikhailovna – (309 killed enemy soldiers and officers, Hero of the Soviet Union)
- Passar, Maxim Alexandrovich – (237 killed enemy soldiers and officers. He made a great contribution to the development of the sniper movement in the Red Army, took an active part in the practical training of shooters. The snipers of the 117th rifle regiment trained by him destroyed 775 enemy soldiers and officers, 2 orders Red Banner, Hero of the Russian Federation 
- Pilyushin, Iosif Iosifovich – (about 100 killed enemy soldiers and officers)
- Polivanova, Maria Semyonovna – Hero of the Soviet Union
- Pchelintsev, Vladimir Nikolaevich – (456 killed enemy soldiers and officers, Hero of the Soviet Union)
- Sidorenko, Ivan Mikhailovich – (about 500 killed, Hero of the Soviet Union) 
- Surkov, Mikhail Ilyich – (702 killed  )
- Tulaev, Zhambyl Yesheevich – (313 killed soldiers and officers, Hero of the Soviet Union)
- Shanina, Rosa Yegorovna – (54 destroyed enemy soldiers and officers, holder of the Orders of Glory 3rd and 2nd degree)
- Moldagulova, Aliya Nurmukhambetovna – (over 90 killed enemy soldiers and officers, Hero of the Soviet Union was also awarded the Order of Lenin)
- Hetzenauer, Matthias (345 confirmed slain, Knight’s Cross)
- Allerberger, Josef (257 confirmed killed, Knight’s Cross (presumably))
- Koenig, Erwin (400 killed  , World War II, Zaitsev’s most famous rival)
- Frederick Payne (200 confirmed killed)
- Bruno Sutkus (209 confirmed killed.Volksdeutsche, Lithuanian by his father. For several years after the war, he concealed true information about himself. I contacted the forest brothers. He was arrested by the Soviet authorities in 1949. From 1949 to 1971 he spent in camps and settlements in logging in Siberia. Six years before his death, in 1997, he received German citizenship and moved permanently to Germany.)
- Carlos Hatchcock (USA, 93 confirmed murders and over 300 unconfirmed)
- Chuck Mavinney (USA, 103 confirmed murders and 213 unconfirmed) 
- Adelbert Waldron III (USA, 109 confirmed killed) 
- Zhang Taofang (PRC, Korean War; credited with 214 killed enemy soldiers and officers in 32 days, while Zhang did not use special telescopic sights on his rifle.  )
- Rob Furlong (Canada, anti-terrorist operation in Afghanistan; considered the author of the defeat at the longest recorded distance – 2430 m, used a McMillan TAC-50 rifle, the bullet flew to the target for more than 3 seconds) [ source not specified 63 days ]
- Juba (Iraq, Iraqi war; from 37 to 143 are attributed to him  murders of American soldiers, however, the fact that this is one real person remains in question)
Sniper in Popular Culture
- I.Pilyushin, “At the walls of Leningrad” (Notes of a sniper).
- Stephen Hunter, “Sniper” “Point of Impact” .
- Zarubin Sergei Mikhailovich, “Sniper’s Pipe”. About sniper Semyon Nomokonov
- V. G. Zaitsev, “There was no land for us beyond the Volga. Sniper’s Notes ”- memoirs.
- Don Miller. “Sniper” – about the distinguished snipers, about the technique of work, etc.
- Belyakov Petr Alekseevich, “In the sight of the” Brown Bear “- the memoirs of a sniper who passed the military way from the Volga steppes.The book covers the events of the battles in Kalmykia, the liberation of the Rostov region, the confrontation on the legendary “Mius Front”
- Josef Ollerberg, “German sniper on the eastern front. 1942-1945 “
- Gunter Bauer, “Death through a telescopic sight; new memoirs of a German sniper “
- Evgeniy Nikolaev, “Sniper duels. Stars on a rifle “(Memoirs)
- Dan Simmons, Darwin’s Razor
- Dmitry Sillov “Law of the Sniper”, “Kremlin 2222”, “Law of the Marked One”, “Law of the Mercenary” (all S.T.A.L.K.E.R .. The main character has a name – Sniper)
- Frederick Forsyth, The Day of the Jackal.
- Bruno Syutkus, “The Iron Cross for a Sniper. An assassin with a sniper rifle.
A sniper often acts as one of the characters in computer games, while almost all the features of the sniper profession disappear – in the vast majority of games, an eye or instrumental assessment of the distance, excess and crosswind is not implemented, there is no consideration of bullet deflection factors and the introduction of corrections to the sight.In order for the player not to relax too much, this is usually compensated by “walking” the sight from side to side, which forces the player to carefully aim and choose the optimal moment for the shot.
Kalashnikov Club | Through the eyes of front-line soldiers: snipers of the Great Patriotic War
An important role in the outcome of the battle is played not only by the quality of weapons, but also by the ability to use them, therefore a survey was conducted among the front-line soldiers about sniper work.We tell you what shortcomings were most often pointed out by the soldiers of the Red Army
Nowadays, on the Internet, you can find different opinions about the capabilities of sniper rifles during the war. Sometimes they are even expressed by people who own authentic rifles and scopes.
However, their results, albeit quite real, should be treated “by taking the amendment”.
Firstly, one must take into account that not all sights and rifles have survived to this day. As in the case, for example, with the famous Japanese swords, which we judge by the works of the best masters, and not by the much more ordinary-looking weapons of military labor of ordinary samurai – the best samples were sent for storage after the war.
Secondly, the capabilities of sniper weapons especially depend not only on their technical characteristics, but also on the shooter’s ability to use them.
This was well understood by the officers of the General Staff of the Red Army, who conducted polls among the front-line soldiers. In particular, at the end of 1944, the questionnaire “Use of snipers in combat based on the experience of the Patriotic War” included 36 questions concerning not only the weapons of snipers, but also the ability to use these weapons.
One of the most important was the question of determining the distance to the target.
“The best way to determine the distance to the target is to determine the distance with a telescope or binoculars. But most snipers determine the distance with an eye and allow an error of 19 to 15%.”
“The distance is determined mainly by eye and, in rare cases, by the angular values of local objects, while an error of 5-8% is allowed.”
“With a fairly frequent training, mistakes were 5-7% of the distance.Good snipers made mistakes up to 10-15% of the distance without training for 15-20 days, especially on hilly terrain. “
“The distance was determined mainly with an eye. The magnitude of the error did not exceed 1 / 10-1 / 12 of the distance.”
“Errors are allowed on sections of terrain up to 20%, through optics from 8% to 12%.”
The next block of questions related to how snipers are able to take into account various external factors when firing.
“The degree of snipers’ ability to use the direct firing range has not been studied. Snipers have little understanding of derivation and the effect of crosswinds.”
“The snipers choose the aiming point taking into account the battle of their rifle and the weather conditions. When shooting at well visible targets, set the appropriate distance and, if necessary, raise the aiming point by 0.5-1 target, since most snipers do not know how to use the exceeding table trajectory above the line of sight “.
“Derivation, lateral deflection of a bullet in a crosswind, change in external conditions (temperature, pressure, altitude), are taken into account and determined by zeroing in with tracer bullets, theoretical calculations are not carried out.”
“In practice, snipers fire up to 600 m. Above this distance, they rarely fire, primarily because of the uncertainty of one-shot defeat. There are three main factors here: poor shooting training of snipers at these distances and some fear of being spotted by snipers. enemy positioned on the front line; the chosen position does not allow viewing the enemy’s position at a distance of up to 800 meters. “
“Only experienced snipers take into account derivation when shooting at a distance of over 500 meters by appropriately moving the aiming point.
Deviations of external firing conditions from normal (temperature, pressure, altitude, longitudinal wind) are almost never taken into account by snipers and, as a result, they do not hit targets at long distances. “
“All this is achieved by the personal experience of each sniper, because the theory of this section of ballistics, as a rule, is poorly mastered by snipers.
Due to insufficient theoretical training of snipers, the influence of external conditions on the accuracy of shooting (temperature, pressure) is almost not taken into account by them. To a certain extent, the altitude of the target location and the longitudinal wind are taken into account, as factors that are most easily established by external signs.
When shooting from a distance, when it is necessary to take into account external conditions (side wind, etc.), snipers rarely hit the target from the first shot. More often – from the second shot and precisely from the second, since the third shot (and this is known from experience to every sniper) the sniper almost fails to fire due to the disappearance of the target. “
“In theory, snipers know how to take into account the external conditions that affect the normalcy of shooting, but in practice they take into account by shots.”
“Experienced snipers, before going into an ambush, check the distances to targets by firing tracer bullets or armor-piercing incendiary bullets, which give a flash when hitting a solid object.”
“A well-trained sniper hits the target from the first shot and at a distance that should take into account external conditions, side wind and derivation. Other snipers do not shoot at such distances.”
“The sniper takes into account the derivation and crosswind after firing a sighting cartridge and then makes corrections.
The sniper does not take into account the deviations of the external conditions of shooting from normal (temperature, pressure, longitudinal wind, etc.) in practice.
The sniper can hit the target from the very first shot, regardless of external conditions (side wind and derivation). Practically not observed. “
Taking into account the answers to the previous questions, the conclusion regarding the distances of sniper fire for the majority was quite logical.
“In most cases, snipers fire up to 600 meters, which makes it more likely to be hit.”
“Experienced snipers hit the target from the first shot, taking into account the external conditions affecting the flight of the bullet, at a distance of up to 500 meters.”
In the block of questions concerning, in fact, the rifle and the sight, in addition to collecting information about the current state of affairs, the opinion of snipers on the need to introduce additional divisions on the sight and the so-called “double trigger” (with a warning) was also studied.
“Reviews of the snipers about the rifle are good.
There is no need to enter half marks on the scope. Most snipers are against the introduction of a double escapement, but for a short and smooth descent.
Snipers note the following shortcomings of the telescopic sight:
a) the lack of a stable mount of the sight on the rifle, which entails inaccuracy of the battle,
b) the absence of a light filter on the sight lens, which makes it difficult to shoot at sunset or sunrise,
c) there are cases of fogging of the lenses from the inside, especially when the temperature changes, and cases of unscrewing the corkscrew of the optical sight from vibration during firing.It is advisable to bring the optical sight a little closer to the shooter’s eye.
Snipers prefer the PU-44 optical sight.
“Practice shows that it is better to have a double trigger for a sniper rifle. Regarding the scope, some suggest adding half marks on the sight, and some approve of whole divisions. Snipers consider the PU sight to be the best sight.”
“All qualities of the rifle are positive, but sometimes there is a tight trigger, a poor-quality telescopic sight, and a double trigger will make it easier for the sniper to work.The sight is better than PU. “
“A sniper rifle is heavy in weight, has no uniformity in triggering. It is desirable to have a soft and short trigger. It is necessary to have a half division.
The optical sight is well mounted on the rifle, but very high above the axis of the barrel bore and when firing you have to come off the butt. There are cases of disturbance of optics during firing, sight settings go astray. It is necessary to make a protective halo from the sun’s rays and rain over the front glass (lens).
Snipers prefer the PU scope, but their visibility at dawn and dusk is insufficient. It is necessary to increase the field of view. “
“Snipers prefer the launcher sight, but it is desirable to double it again (that is, instead of 4 to 6 times).”
“A number of cases have been noted when, after 5-6 shots, the telescopic sight gets lost and a new calibration is required.As a rule, this comes at the expense of poor quality factory work.
Why are the safety caps not inserted for shooting in clear weather and in rain? Some people want a filter. “
“The modernized sniper rifle is suitable for its weight, but in the scopes you need to cut through 50 meters and have a double trigger.”
“It is desirable to have a device (silencer) to produce a silent shot.There is a lack of relevant literature. “
“Snipers prefer the PU optics more advantageously, since the weight is less. PU and PU do not bring enough closer and it is desirable to double the visibility and approach.”
“Review of the sniper rifle: a) the weight of the sniper does not satisfy the latter during prolonged work, and also in terms of length b) the meaning of the half snipers do not know … c) it is more expedient to have a single, smooth descent, because the sniper gets tired with a double descent.”
Some reports also drew attention to the quality of the cartridges:
“It is desirable to have cartridges of the 1930 sample, from the same batch (package) and from the same plant.”
In general, the snipers’ answers clearly show that their main problems were not related to the quality of rifles or scopes, although, of course, they had complaints about the workmanship and suggestions on “what to improve”. Unfortunately, the sniper movement in the Red Army was, though massive, but insufficiently systematically prepared – first of all, in matters of training.The presence of experienced snipers in the unit, who could transfer at least some of their skills to the young shooters, helped a lot. But this did not happen always and everywhere.
“The issues of sniper work are extremely insufficient from top to bottom, often in periods, surges. If the units went on the offensive (moreover, with a smaller number of personnel), snipers go into battle as shooters.”
“Experience has shown that snipers need to be removed from the units, since they are usually used not for their intended purpose (observers, messengers, etc.).and in offensive battles – by ordinary shooters, which leads to a quick and unreasonable loss of snipers. “
Unfortunately, after the war in the Soviet army, the point of view prevailed that in the context of a future nuclear-missile global conflict, snipers would no longer play their former role on the battlefield. Developed by M.E. Dragunov in the late 50s, the SVD rifle was an excellent weapon, but intended for “well-aimed shooters” – “Marksman” according to the Western classification.The experience of sniper work accumulated during the Great Patriotic War remained largely unclaimed. As a result, a lot had to be recreated in the late 90s – early 2000s virtually from scratch.
Ovechkin finished fourth on the list of snipers in NHL history. The next target is Jagr
Goal # 742, which we were waiting for the day before in Detroit, took place in Columbus. Brett Hull was left behind.
Goal # 742, which we were waiting for the day before in Detroit, took place in Columbus.Brett Hull was left behind.
It happened in the middle of the first period when the score was 1: 0 in favor of the hosts. Ovechkin received a pass at the entrance to his “office” in the left circle of the throw-in and threw in touch with his wrist, very close to the bar.
For four days, Ovechkin and Hull together stood at the fourth line in the ranking of snipers of all time, but now Golden Brett is left behind.
I must say that Hull had written down Ovi’s congratulations in advance and looked absolutely natural. A professional, he understands what it means to score so much in modern hockey:
“My great friend Wayne Gretzky has a saying that a player must live up to his nickname. Congratulations, Alex – The Great Eight. You have more than lived up to your nickname. Keep going up this ladder. I wish you success.Move ahead”.
Now the next one to be overtaken by the captain of “Washington” will be Jaromir Jagr. There are only 24 goals to the great Czech. It’s hard to believe that Ovi will maintain the fantastic scoring pace that he set at the start of the season (12 goals in 14 games). In this case, he will become the third even before the Olympic break in January. Rather, it will happen in early spring, however, let’s see, wait, in any case, not so long.https: // twitter.com / Capitals / status / 14593545921157
With this goal, Ovi also caught up with Edmonton striker Leon Dreiseitl in the top sniper of the season. True, the German in a parallel match against Buffalo then scored two more and even broke away from Ovechkin. He now has 14 goals in 13 games. The dispute over the Maurice Richard trophy promises to be heated. For Ovechkin, if successful, he will become the tenth in his career, and for Dreiseitl – the first. Here’s another intrigue from the long regular season.Photo: © John McCreary / Contributor / NHLI / Getty Images Sport / Gettyimages.ru
With regard to the outcome of the game “Columbus” – “Washington”, the plot turned out to be confusing. “Washington” was leading in the second period 3: 1, then the hosts leveled within 22 seconds, and the score lasted almost until the very end. But 82 seconds before the siren, Connor Shiri scored the winning goal from Orlov’s pass. Ovechkin could have made a double in the remaining time, but did not hit the empty goal from his half.
Washington has caught up with divisional leader Carolina, and the Capitals’ next rival will be Pittsburgh’s bosom enemies.
Washington goalkeeper Ilya Samsonov saved 26 out of 29 shots. Evgeny Kuznetsov provided an assist to Ovechkin and returned to the top five NHL assistants (13 assists).
Columbus’ newcomer Yegor Chinakhov was two centimeters away from the first goal in his NHL career, he loudly hit the goal post of Samsonov.