Schoolboy Q Net Worth, Age, Height, Weight 2021
Schoolboy Q is a Californian rapper active since 2008. At present he is working with a famous label Interscope Record and an independent label Top Dawg Entertainment (TDE). One of his famous albums Setback ranked 100 on the Billboard 200. While the famous hits include Break the Bank, Collard Green and Man of the Year. His recent album CrasH Talk ranked number 3 on the Billboard Top 200 just after had been released.
He was born Quincy Matthew Hanley on October 26, 1986, just weeks after his parents had got divorced in Germany. His father was a soldier, serving in Germany, but later his mother took him to Texas. After a couple of years, they moved to California where he spent the rest of his childhood.
His initial interest was in football which he maintained until he turned 21. All his teens he served a gang in his vicinity with the same laws as the other criminal gangs had. Lately, he was found selling drugs, specifically marijuana, which caught him in the prison. At the same time, he was also writing the verses, but he never took it as a serious profession.
TDE offered a music career to Hanley in 2006 and that was just after he realized how good he could write the songs. His first release Schoolboy turned Hustla came out in 2008 and following its success, Gangsta & Soul became the next release. After 2010 he released a couple of independent albums with a rap group Black Hippy that ranked 100 on the Billboard 200 Chart.
While the second independent album Habits & Contradiction ranked amid the iTunes Top 10 Albums just after the release. His amazing hip-hop style earned him a couple of BMI R&B awards and a London Pop Award. While he got nominated for the Grammy and MTV but he could not win them.
Hanley has a daughter named Joyce, who appeared in a couple of his music videos and her name is often heard in his lyrics. That is certain he loves her a lot. But that is not certain who her mother is! Well, the Schoolboy Q has never been seen out with any girl. And there is no record that he is in relation with anyone at the moment.
Schoolboy Q with his daughter
Schoolboy Q has a net worth of $4 million.
School-age children development Information | Mount Sinai
School-age children most often have smooth and strong motor skills. However, their coordination (especially eye-hand), endurance, balance, and physical abilities vary.
Fine motor skills may also vary widely. These skills can affect a child’s ability to write neatly, dress appropriately, and perform certain chores, such as making beds or doing dishes.
There will be big differences in height, weight, and build among children of this age range. It is important to remember that genetic background, as well as nutrition and exercise, may affect a child’s growth.
A sense of body image begins developing around age 6. Sedentary habits in school-age children are linked to a risk for obesity and heart disease in adults. Children in this age group should get 1 hour of physical activity per day.
There can also be a big difference in the age at which children begin to develop secondary sexual characteristics. For girls, secondary sex characteristics include:
- Breast development
- Underarm and pubic hair growth
For boys, they include:
- Growth of underarm, chest, and pubic hair
- Growth of testicles and penis
By age 5, most children are ready to start learning in a school setting. The first few years focus on learning the fundamentals.
In third grade, the focus becomes more complex. Reading becomes more about the content than identifying letters and words.
An ability to pay attention is important for success both at school and at home. A 6-year-old should be able to focus on a task for at least 15 minutes. By age 9, a child should be able to focus attention for about an hour.
It is important for the child to learn how to deal with failure or frustration without losing self-esteem. There are many causes of school failure, including:
- Learning disabilities, such a reading disability
- Stressors, such as bullying
- Mental health issues, such as anxiety or depression
If you suspect any of these in your child, talk to your child’s teacher or health care provider.
Early school-age children should be able to use simple, but complete, sentences that contain an average of 5 to 7 words. As the child goes through the elementary school years, grammar and pronunciation become normal. Children use more complex sentences as they grow.
Language delays may be due to hearing or intelligence problems. In addition, children who are unable to express themselves well may be more likely to have aggressive behavior or temper tantrums.
A 6-year-old child normally can follow a series of 3 commands in a row. By age 10, most children can follow 5 commands in a row. Children who have a problem in this area may try to cover it up with backtalk or clowning around. They will rarely ask for help because they are afraid of being teased.
Frequent physical complaints (such as sore throats, tummy aches, or arm or leg pain) may simply be due to a child’s increased body awareness. Although there is often no physical evidence for such complaints, the complaints should be investigated to rule out possible health conditions. This will also assure the child that the parent is concerned about their well-being.
Peer acceptance becomes more important during the school-age years. Children may take part in certain behaviors to be part of “the group.” Talking about these behaviors with your child will allow the child to feel accepted in the group, without crossing the boundaries of the family’s behavior standards.
Friendships at this age tend to be mainly with members of the same sex. In fact, younger school-age children often talk about members of the opposite sex as being “strange” or “awful.” Children become less negative about the opposite sex as they get closer to adolescence.
Lying, cheating, and stealing are all examples of behaviors that school-age children may “try on” as they learn how to negotiate the expectations and rules placed on them by family, friends, school, and society. Parents should deal with these behaviors in private with their child (so that the child’s friends don’t tease them). Parents should show forgiveness, and punish in a way that is related to the behavior.
It is important for the child to learn how to deal with failure or frustration without losing self-esteem.
Safety is important for school-age children.
- School-age children are highly active. They need physical activity and peer approval, and want to try more daring and adventurous behaviors.
- Children should be taught to play sports in appropriate, safe, supervised areas, with proper equipment and rules. Bicycles, skateboards, in-line skates, and other types of recreational sports equipment should fit the child. They should be used only while following traffic and pedestrian rules, and while using safety equipment such as knee, elbow, and wrist pads or braces, and helmets. Sports equipment should not be used at night or in extreme weather conditions.
- Swimming and water safety lessons may help prevent drowning.
- Safety instruction regarding matches, lighters, barbecues, stoves, and open fires can prevent major burns.
- Wearing seat belts is the most important way to prevent major injury or death from a motor vehicle accident.
- If your child’s physical development appears to be outside the norm, talk to your provider.
- If language skills appear to be lagging, request a speech and language evaluation.
- Keep close communication with teachers, other school employees, and parents of your child’s friends so you are aware of possible problems.
- Encourage children to express themselves openly and talk about concerns without fear of punishment.
- While encouraging children to participate in a variety of social and physical experiences, be careful not to over-schedule free time. Free play or simple, quiet time is important so the child does not always feel pushed to perform.
- Children today are exposed, through the media and their peers, to many issues dealing with violence, sexuality, and substance abuse. Discuss these issues openly with your children to share concerns or correct misconceptions. You may need to set limits to ensure children will be exposed to certain issues only when they are ready.
- Encourage children to participate in constructive activities such as sports, clubs, arts, music, and scouts. Being inactive at this age increases the risk of lifetime obesity. However, it is important not to over-schedule your child. Try to find a balance between family time, school work, free play, and structured activities.
- School-age children should participate in family chores, such as setting the table and cleaning up.
- Limit screen time (television and other media) to 2 hours a day.
The ‘Seven Ages Of Man’, According To Shakespeare✔️
According to William Shakespeare’s character Jaques in As You Like It men go through seven stages in their lives:
- Young man
- Middle aged
- Old aged
- Dotage & death
The ‘Seven Ages of Man’, in detail
In Act 2 Scene 7 of As You Like It, Jaques speaks his ‘Ages of man’ monologue (better known by most as the ‘All the world’s a stage‘ speech).
In this monologue Jaques starts by explaining that “All the world’s a stage, And all the men and women merely players”, then goes on to describe these seven stages of life that men go through in some detail:
Stage 1, Infancy:
A helpless baby, just crying and throwing up.
“At first the infant,
Mewling and puking in the nurse’s arms.”
Stage 2, Schoolboy:
This is where his formal education starts but he is not entirely happy with school. His mother is ambitious for him and has washed his face thoroughly before sending him off to school but he goes very slowly and reluctantly.
“the whining school-boy with his satchel
And shining morning face, creeping like a snail
Unwillingly to school.”
Stage 3, Teenager:
He’s grown into his late teens and his main interest is girls. He’s likely to make a bit of a fool of himself with them. He is sentimental, sighing and writing poems to girls, making himself a bit ridiculous.
Sighing like furnace, with a woeful ballad
Made to his mistress’ eyebrow.”
Stage 4, Young man:
He’s a bold and fearless soldier – passionate in the causes he’s prepared to fight for and quickly springs into action. He works on developing his reputation and takes risks to that end.
Full of strange oaths, and bearded like the pard,
Jealous in honour, sudden, and quick in quarrel,
Seeking the bubble reputation
Even in the cannon’s mouth.”
Stage 5, Middle-aged:
He regards himself as wise and experienced and doesn’t mind sharing his views and ideas with anyone and likes making speeches. He’s made a name for himself and is prosperous and respected. As a result of his success, he’s become vain. He enjoys the finer things in life, like good food.
In fair round belly, with good capon lin’d,
With eyes severe, and beard of formal cut,
Full of wise saws, and modern instances”
Stage 6, Old man:
He is old and nothing like his former self – physically or mentally. He looks and behaves like an old man, dresses like one and he has a thin piping voice now. His influence slips away.
the lean and slipper’d pantaloon,
“With spectacles on nose and pouch on side,
His youthful hose, well sav’d, a world too wide
For his shrunk shank, and his big manly voice,
Turning again toward childish treble, pipes
And whistles in his sound”
Stage 7, Dotage and death:
He loses his mind in senility. His hair and teeth fall out and his sight goes. Then he loses everything as he sinks into the oblivion of death.
second childishness and mere oblivion,
“Sans teeth, sans eyes, sans taste, sans everything.”
Dress Shirt Boy Sewing Pattern PDF
Dress shirt Kid Sewing Pattern PDF | Dress Shirt PDF Sewing Size 6 to 14 For Boy, (Age 5-15 Year PDF Sewing)(patterntailor-0049)
Child Shirt PDF Sewing Pattern | Boys Shirt Sewing | Kid Shirt Sewing | Classic School Uniform Shirt | Teenage Pattern PDF
SIZES: 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 to fit children from 5 to 15 years old — always check the size chart for your correct size, chest and height measurements are the best guide. A size chart in Inches is included in the work sheet file.
✂ SEWING PATTERN MODEL ✂
✓ Dress Shirt Kid Sewing Pattern
✓ Long Sleeve Shirt Pattern.
✓ Regular Fit Shirt Pattern.
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✓ Size 6 to 14 For Boy Sewing Pattern.
✓ Support Age 5-15 Years Pattern.
✓ Sewing US Size 6 to 14 And Chest From 27-37 Inch.
✓ 1 Round Front Pocket.
✂ SEWING PATTERN INSTANT DOWNLOAD ✂
The purchase includes a 5 Size PDF file in ALL US SIZES ( Size 6// Size 8// Size 10 // Size 12 // Size 14)
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So you can just print off the size you need and an A0 format for printing at a copy shop.
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Discipline for School-Aged Kids: Strategies and Challenges
Kids between the ages of 6 and 9 can be a lot of fun. But, they can also be a challenge. Their sophisticated skills will require you to possess some more sophisticated strategies to discipline them.
Fortunately, the strategies you use to address behavior problems now can teach your child valuable life lessons.
Illustration by Emily Roberts, Verywell
Typical School-Age Kid Behavior
No longer a “little kid” and not yet able to keep up with the “big kids,” your school-age child’s behavior is likely to reflect a transitional period of development.
By and large, school-age kids are able to demonstrate prolonged concentration and will have greater patience when facing obstacles and setbacks. Their attention spans will be longer as well as their ability to focus on multiple activities
They also have better cognitive and physical skills and are able to perform everyday tasks more readily. This translates to less frustration and better self-control as they learn to juggle school, social life, and home life with greater ease.
With that being said, this period of child development is one in which kids tend to test boundaries. Your school-age child is likely to whine and may still exhibit an occasional meltdown although full-fledged temper tantrums will be less common.
Behavior problems such as talking back may take on a whole new meaning as children become more articulate and able to express their thoughts.
Many school-age kids crave a fair amount of independence. But, you might find that despite knowing the skills you’ve taught, your child might forget to use them sometimes.
Whether he gets swept up in teasing another child or repeatedly forgets to feed the cat, there’s a good chance many of their social, emotional, and behavioral skills will need some fine-tuning.
Longer attention span
Along with the wonderful milestones your school-age child will meet, there is also the less-pleasant emergence of common behavior problems for this age group.
While child-discipline issues, such as defiance and back talk, may have cropped up at earlier ages in a child, these behaviors take on an entirely more challenging aspect as children become older, more verbal, and more independent.
Defiant behavior is common among school-age children. So don’t be surprised if your child tests your responses by refusing to do almost everything you ask. Usually, defiance is a phase that comes and goes for a bit throughout childhood.
School-age children are likely to lie sometimes too. Whether they’re trying to present themselves in a favorable light by bragging about something that didn’t really happen, or they’re lying in an attempt to avoid getting in trouble, lying can become a bad habit if it’s left unaddressed.
As much as your children may love one another, sibling rivalry and fighting is a very common part of many sibling relationships. Whether your child still gets aggressive with his siblings or he’s constantly tattling on them, sibling rivalry is bound to occur.
Dawdling can be another frustrating behavior. Whether your child takes 10 minutes to put on his shoes or he’s the world’s slowest eater, dawdling can be frustrating.
Whining can also be frustrating. It’s one of the most unpleasant sounds known to man. And many school-age kids have perfected the art.
Discipline Strategies That Work
A good discipline plan should include positive reinforcement as well as negative consequences. Reinforce the good behavior with praise and privileges and provide negative consequences when your child breaks the rules. Below are the most effective discipline strategies for school-age kids.
Praise Good Behavior
Provide genuine praise for your child’s efforts and you’ll boost her confidence. Use praise to encourage her to keep trying, study hard, and do her best. Rather than saying, “Great job getting a 100 on your test,” say, “Good job studying so hard.”
Place Your Child in Time-Out
School-age kids aren’t too old for time-out. It can be a good consequence when your child needs to cool off or when she’s refusing to follow instructions.
Use ‘Grandma’s Rule of Discipline’
A subtle change in the way you word your phrases turn a consequence into a reward. Rather than saying, “You can’t ride your bike because your room is a mess,” say, “You can ride your bike as soon as your room is clean.” Then, your child will learn he can earn privileges by making good choices.
Provide Logical Consequences
Use consequences that are directly related to your child’s offense. If your child refuses to get off the computer when you tell her to do so, take away her computer privileges for 24 hours.
Allow for Natural Consequences
Let your child face the consequences of her choices when it’s safe to do so. If your 9-year-old doesn’t pack her snack for the park when you tell her to do so, the consequence is she won’t have a snack to eat. She might remember to do so next time if she experiences the natural consequence.
Create a Token Economy System
Establish a simple token economy system that allows your child to earn chips or tokens for good behavior. Then, allow her to exchange those tokens for privileges, like time on her electronics or an opportunity to go on a special outing.
Preventing Future Problems
School work becomes more demanding as your child gets older. Some behavior problems may stem from a child’s frustration over not understanding the work. Many kids would rather have their peers view them as the “class clown” rather than the kid who can’t do the math.
While behavior problems that stem from learning issues should still be addressed with consequences, you also need to address the underlying problem.
Help your child establish good habits that will help them be successful at school. Create a homework area, designate a homework time, and stay on top of your child’s progress.
Minor concerns can be addressed through after-school time with a teacher or tutor. More significant concerns may lead to a diagnosis of a mental health issue such as ADHD or learning disability such as dyslexia.
Seven-year-olds, eight-year-olds, and nine-year-olds may veer between bouts of brassy over-confidence and uncertainty and doubt about their own skills. They may compare themselves to their peers by saying, “He is better at drawing than I am” or “She is a better soccer player,” so it’s important to teach your child that with practice and effort, she can improve her skills.
Research shows an authoritative approach to parenting leads to the most successful outcomes in children. Establish high expectations for your child but give plenty of support and warmth.
Validate feelings and show empathy, but establish clear rules and give consequences when those rules are broken. Those efforts can help you become a more authoritative parent, which is key to helping your child become a healthy, responsible adult.
Children depend on adults for reassurance and security. One of the best ways to give your child a sense of security is by providing plenty of positive attention.
Set aside a few minutes each day to give your child your undivided attention. No matter how much they misbehaved, play a game, talk about your day, or play catch. By giving your child plenty of positive attention, you’ll reduce attention seeking behaviors and your child will be more inclined to want to follow your rules when you maintain a healthy relationship.
While you don’t want to have long drawn-out conversations that shame your child for misbehaving, brief chats about how to make better choices can be instrumental in helping your child learn.
Your child will be looking to you to learn how to deal with his emotions and difficult social situations so it’s important to stay calm when you’re communicating. Here are some strategies that communication tips that can help with your discipline plan:
- Problem-solve together – When your child exhibits specific behavior problems, sit down and problem-solve the issue together. School-age kids can be very honest about what would help resolve the problem. Ask questions like, “This is the third time you’ve forgotten your homework. What would help you remember?”
- Explain your rules – Provide a simple explanation for the reasons behind your rules. Talk about safety, health, morals, or social etiquette. Then, your child will understand you aren’t simply trying to make his life miserable, but instead, you want the best for him.
- Encourage your child to express his feelings – Teach your child that feelings are OK. It’s what he does with those feelings that matters. Encourage him to express himself in healthy ways, by drawing, talking, or writing.
Cool 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 Year Old Boy Haircuts (2021 Styles)
With so many cool haircuts for 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 year old boys, kids have a number of cute boy hairstyles to get right now. From a taper fade or undercut on the sides and back to a mohawk, comb over, slicked back, side swept, or spiky hairstyle on top, it’s important that your little boy’s haircut reflect his personality and age.
While the top 7, 8, and 9 year old boy haircuts are basically the same as the best 10, 11, and 12 year old boy haircuts, there are definitely some edgy good hairstyles for older boys worth exploring. But ultimately, what styles are trending for a 10 year old boy are going to also look stylish on all kids this young. This versatility should make your visit to a barbershop a little less stressful.
To help parents find a trendy cut and style, we’ve compiled the best school hairstyles for boys ages 7 through 12. And all of these great haircuts are dress-code appropriate for elementary and middle school.
Cool 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 Year Old Boy Hairstyles
Let’s take a look at the best boys haircuts and hairstyles that are trending this year. Whether your little guy likes long, medium, or short haircuts, we’re confident you’ll discover countless cool ideas to try!
Taper Fade Haircuts
The boys fade haircut is the most popular way for kids to cut hair on the sides and back. Low-maintenance and easy to style, taper fades offer very short haircuts that focus the eyes on the styling on top.
There are many kinds of fades for little boys to choose from. Whether your kid wants a low, mid, high, or skin fade will determine where the tapering begins and how short the hair gets.
The low fade starts just above the ear and tapers down to the neckline. Classy and handsome, this haircut may be good for a 4, 5, 6, or 7 year old boy whose mom wants to retain some semblance of innocence.
The high fade starts the blending process very high on the sides and back, just below the hairstyle above. Edgy and bold, this type of fade may be the perfect short haircut for a 10 year old boy or older.
Finally, the bald or skin fade is a haircut that blends hair down to the skin. Cool and trendy for young tween boys, this clean cut looks nice with fashionable, sleek hairstyles such as the comb over, slick back, mohawk, and spiky hair. Some kids even like to ask their barbers to shave a design or add a hard part into their cut.
Many of the best hairstyles for kids ages 6 through 12 start with short sides and long hair on top. Taper fade haircuts provide plenty of variation and work with most hair lengths, types, and textures.
Just make sure to get your boy a good hair product so he can style all his favorite looks. Alternatively, if you think he’s grown-up enough, check out the top styling products for guys, including pomade, wax and cream.
The undercut is one of the coolest haircuts for boys right now. As its name implies, an undercut involves keeping the hair on the top of the head and buzzing underneath it to shorten or remove hair on the sides and back of the head.
The end result is a one-length cut that looks fresh and stylish for all types of kid’s hairstyles.
As one of the best 9, 10, 11 and 12 year old boy haircuts you can get, the undercut has limitless styling options. Like the fade, it works with all hair lengths and can be styled with slick back, comb over, pompadour, quiff, spiky, and messy styles.
While boys with thick hair pull off the undercut best, the look can work with a variety of types. Talk to your child’s barber to see if the cut is right for your kid’s look.
Spiky hair is universally cute and has been a timeless hairstyle for boys of all ages. Compatible with long, medium, and short hair, spiked up hairstyles can be worn in a slew of ways to pull off vastly different looks.
For instance, short spiky hair looks best when textured on top to create a naturally messy look.
When combined with a high taper fade, short thick spikes draw the eyes to the awesome styling on top of the head.
Medium to long haired boys can choose to spike their hair in the front, style thick spikes all over, or to combine the style with a faux hawk.
A great spiky haircut can really transform your kid’s style and looks flattering on a 8 or 11 year old boy.
Mohawk and Faux Hawk
Daring and adorable, the mohawk is an exceptional hairstyle for self-expression. While it allows young boys to feel rebellious, wild and crazy, mohawk styles are incredibly versatile depending on how extreme of a cut you let your child try.
From shaved sides to short taper fade cuts, the length of hair on the sides and back of the head will influence the overall look. For instance, a mohawk with shaved sides is much more outgoing and unique than a sleek faux hawk fade.
Nevertheless, how short or long you keep your hair on top will is really what will affect the styling of your mohawk. Regardless of whether your little boy chooses a long or short mohawk, he will need a strong gel or pomade to keep the hair up.
Kids mohawk and faux hawk haircuts work for all hair types, including fine, thick, and curly hair.
Just to note, if your child is looking for the best back to school haircuts and wants something to stand out, we recommend you start with the faux hawk and fade.
Pompadour and Quiff
The pompadour and quiff are classy retro styles your kid will love. While the pompadour hairstyle was made famous by celebrities such as Elvis Presley and James Dean, the modern pompadour is less structured and more fluid with good volume and flow. However, nothing beats the casual and effortless look of the modern quiff.
Since the styling of each requires creating volume at the front of the head, it’s no surprise that the pompadour and quiff are easily confused.
The difference between the quiff and pompadour is that the famous pomp is brushed up and back to achieve a sleek, rock star look. It requires a good hair product and some effort.
On the other hand, the quiff flows beautifully as it is brushed up and forward to create an airy volume that is equal parts attitude and functionality.
As very cool hairstyles for 10, 11 and 12 year olds, these haircuts are better-suited for older kids.
Shaggy and Messy Hair
Shag tops and messy hairstyles are always fun and easy to get. If your boy has thick or curly hair, then shaggy or messy hair can be a perfect fit. After all, this is the ideal time in life for him to experiment with different looks, so embrace the shag haircut and forget about the upkeep that comes with other short, medium and long styles.
The good news is that messy doesn’t have to mean unkempt or dirty. In fact, when styled correctly, these simple hairstyles can be quite handsome and chic, especially for unruly coarse hair and hard-to-manage curls.
The secret to wearing a nice shaggy or messy hairstyle is to add layers to the hair and style it with a light hold cream. In addition to creating volume and texture, the styling cream will maximize control while moisturizing and conditioning to minimize frizz.
Short messy hair continues to be a hot trends, but the curly hair fringe is a trendy idea as well.
Crew Cut and Buzz Cut
The crew cut and buzz cut are cute yet masculine hairstyles for little boys. These awesome short boy haircuts are low-maintenance and simple. As a matter of fact, you can buzz cut your boy’s hair at home with good clippers.
With a kid’s buzz cut, the hair is the same short length all over the head, creating a handsome, clean-cut look that’s effortless. Good for boys with strong jawlines, high bones, and rugged features, it’s generally a great cut for the summer.
Similarly, with the boy’s crew cut, the hair on top is longer. Usually combined with a fade on the sides, a barber will leave between 1 to 3 inches of length.
The extra hair will allow your child to style a number of different styles, including the Ivy League haircut with side swept hair in the front, a textured crop top, or short spikes.
These practical yet stylish school boy haircuts are perfect for athletes and kids who have trouble getting ready in the mornings.
Side Part and Comb Over
The side part and comb over are two of the most iconic hairstyles for boys, and they look great with any hair length, type, or texture. It’s important to note that the modern comb over and current gentleman’s side part is different than their classic counterparts.
The comb over fade continues to be a popular short sides, long top haircut. Countless men and boys ask their barbers to shave in a hard part for a bold look.
The hard part comb over does add one great functional benefit – it tells your kid exactly where to part and comb the hair to one side.
Whichever style you choose, be sure to use quality shampoo, conditioner, and styling products to keep your boy’s hair healthy.
Slicked Back Hair
Sophisticated and adorable, slicked back hair is a look every kid can pull off. With a fade or undercut on the sides and longer hair on top, slick back haircuts for little boys just need to be combed straight back.
For a suave and mature look, use a high shine pomade or mousse for a glossy finish. Otherwise, a textured finish for a natural look can be achieved with a matte product such as wax or clay.
For more ideas and styles, check out all the hottest kids haircuts right now.
Are We Facing a Mental Health Crisis for Boys?
While Niobe Way was working toward her PhD in counseling at Harvard University in the late 1980s, she was struck by the fact that boys frequently told her during therapy sessions that they wished they had better friendships.
Decades later, Way, now a professor of developmental psychology at New York University and the author of Deep Secrets: Boys’ Friendships and the Crisis of Connection, has interviewed more than a thousand boys and has found that little has changed. “The culture of hypermasculinity makes it harder for boys to form relationships, and that leads to a crisis of connection,” said Way, who has discovered that while boys desire connections with peers, they tend to distance themselves as they age, due to social stigmas.
“I feel pretty lonely and sometimes depressed… because I don’t have no one to go out with, no one to speak on the phone, no one to tell my secrets,” confided one high school boy in Way’s book, expressing a typical sentiment. “I tried to look for a person, you know, but it’s not that easy.”
While the teenage years have always been a time for critical development and heightened emotions, America’s teens now seem to be struggling more than ever—especially boys. One study found that the rates of depression increased by 52 percent in teens between 2005 and 2017, and in 2019, 70 percent of teens reported anxiety and depression as major problems. For boys in particular, there has been an alarming rise in suicides among older teens (15 and older) since 2000, and they die by suicide at three to four times the rate of girls.
@doondevil via Twenty20
From an early age, boys are encouraged to bury their feelings and present a tough exterior. Experts say these social dynamics have long-term implications for their mental health.
While there is no one cause, psychologists and educators point to increasing pressures to succeed in school and a growing reliance on technology that can leave kids feeling isolated and vulnerable—a situation exacerbated by Covid-19. According to experts, boys can struggle more than girls because they have fewer tools to cope with emotions and stressors, and they are less likely to get the help they need. Without the means to effectively process emotions, boys are more prone to lash out in unhealthy ways or alienate themselves.
“Our expectations and stereotypes of boys are preventing us from seeing boys—their social and emotional desires and capacities—in broad daylight. The consequences of such disconnection and blindness are evident in the statistics suggesting a ‘boy crisis,’” Way said in her book.
But it’s not hopeless. Boys can benefit from a school culture that destigmatizes mental health issues, creates opportunities to connect with other boys, confronts ingrained masculine stereotypes, and provides support from adults who understand their needs.
Just Don’t Talk About It
Many boys—though certainly not all—have trouble talking about emotions and feelings because social norms have encouraged them to conform to a masculine ideal that emphasizes values like stoicism, toughness, and competitiveness, according to Phyllis Fagell, a school counselor in Washington, DC, who has run support groups for boys. Generosity and compassion, in contrast, are seen as feminine characteristics and therefore present a threat to their socially constructed identities.
These pressures, which begin when they are very young, deprive boys of the self-awareness and emotional vocabulary to recognize and process their feelings; they are, in turn, unlikely to seek help from an adult or peers when they struggle. Despite the uptick in depression among teens generally, a recent study found that only one third of boys ages 12–17 sought out help for depression in the last year, compared with 45 percent of girls.
Sometimes, even when boys have the emotional language and recognize the flaws in societal norms, they still conceal their emotions in order to fit in. This can take a serious toll on their mental health, according to Fagell, who is the author of Middle School Matters. “If you are expending energy to pretend you’re something that you are not, if you are constantly faking it, that contributes to anxiety and depression,” she said, alluding to the high rates of mental health issues in teens.
Destigmatize mental health: To help boys process emotions in a productive way, schools need to destigmatize mental health challenges generally, “so boys feel that it’s a little bit easier to talk about their feelings,” said Peter Faustino, a school psychologist at Scarsdale High School in New York. A 2020 survey of more than 1,500 youth ages 13 to 19, for example, found that 81 percent of them reported mental health as a significant issue and 79 percent wished their school talked more about it.
Faustino said that his school has tried to build a positive culture around mental health through a variety of efforts, such as the Mental Health Awareness Club, which has partnered with Glenn Close’s mental health foundation Bring Change to Mind. They also offer designated wellness days, during which teachers can take a break from academics and talk with their students about social and emotional well-being.
Courtesy of Peter Faustino
A Compassion Wall at Peter Faustino’s school encourages students to leave positive thoughts for peers.
When social and emotional skills are infused into the entire curriculum—not just taught in health classes—boys feel more comfortable opening up, according to Melissa Holland, a professor of school psychology at California State University, Sacramento.
“We need to twist the prism a little bit about how boys view mental health and their own emotional health,” Holland said. “We can’t totally shift what the kids are exposed to at home, but for the six to eight hours they are at school, kids can get positive mentorship about how to manage strong emotions.”
Boys and Outbursts
When boys can’t express emotions in a healthy way, they may become depressed or act out with anger and violence, experts say.
According to Holland, boys are prone to externalize their problems with anger, outbursts, or even violence. Data shows that boys are nearly twice as likely to get into physical fights as girls, for example. Often, rather than an exploration of the cause of the behavior, these outbursts result in punishment by schools and parents’ being biased and unfair, particularly for students of color and students with disabilities.
Because boys tend to lack emotional vocabulary—or they don’t feel free to express their feelings—their behavior becomes their communication, explained Fagell. “When a boy is acting out or is disrespectful, instead of personalizing it, we have to target their behaviors and not assault their character,” said Fagell, who recommended that educators give them more tools to express themselves.
Create spaces for boys to connect with boys: While boys can be reluctant to talk to therapists without nudging, one way to grow their emotional muscles is through affinity support groups at school, which research shows can be an effective tool for mitigating the impacts of distress and trauma. There, boys can start discussing common interests and superficial issues, then progress to talking about the pressures of growing up as a boy.
But these boy groups don’t necessarily have to be run by a therapist or involve sitting around in a circle. Sometimes, a group or an activity—like fundraising, volunteering, or playing sports—can help boys with some underlying issues by giving them an outlet and a focus, other experts say.
Courtesy of Phyllis Fagell
Boys from Phyllis Fagell’s school participate in an outdoor education activity. Creating opportunities for boys to connect with other boys around a shared purpose can break down their emotional walls.
Paul Groenewal, a New Jersey–based psychologist specializing in sports and teens, said he interweaves clinical lessons about feelings when he’s training high school coaches and players. Boys are most receptive when he focuses on strengths and concrete skills like cooperation and communication that they need to develop, he says. Techniques that he uses with his athletes, like deep breathing, especially work well with boys dealing with stress and anxiety at school.
“Some people will go to therapeutic programs that are aimed at ‘pathology,’ but there’s a lot to be gained from accepting our humanity and from working on our techniques, skills, or tools,” Groenewal said.
Yet even with opportunities to connect, sometimes it can be hard for boys to be emotionally vulnerable, especially with other boys, said Andrew Reiner, author of Better Boys, Better Men: The New Masculinity That Creates Greater Courage and Emotional Resiliency.
While boys may connect with each other by bumping shoulders during sporting events or by playing video games together, those games can be “a convenient distraction from meaningful connection,” explained Reiner. If and when they open up about their problems, they might do it with female friends instead, not male friends, to avoid appearing weak.
Build an empathetic school culture: As boys get older, their natural desire for connection is curbed by cultural forces that tell them that focusing on relationships is both feminine and immature, said Way. Efforts like creating an empathetic school culture can help boys learn to listen and to share—skills needed to form tight relationships, recommends Way, who is currently running a program called “The Listening Project” that helps middle-school students learn the building blocks of friendship.
John Kelly, a school psychologist at Commack High School on Long Island, New York, agrees. He and other staff at his school have worked hard to build a school environment that helps break down boys’ emotional walls through strong relationships that normalize open dialogue, he said.
As part of their efforts, psychologists and social workers visit an academic class once a year, introduce themselves, and talk about topics like character and asking for help. While they offer small groups and individualized help for students with bigger needs, all students in his school get this universal support. Teachers and parents are also trained to look for warning signs that a student is struggling mentally, including contemplating suicide.
“The relationships that you build with students help overcome some of the larger societal stigma and barriers that males tend to experience,” Kelly said. By teaching students that it’s OK to reach out for help, schools can help boys overcome those barriers to self-expression and connections with others, he says.
If you or someone you know is struggling with suicidal thoughts, you are not alone. Call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at (800) 273-TALK (8255). They provide free help 24/7.
90,000 School-age child development
The psychology of children of primary school age is the period in which the main laying in the development of the child’s psyche is carried out, therefore it is important to monitor how the child develops, because successfully acquired knowledge, habits and moral attitudes will further form a full-fledged personality.
What is special about the child. The younger school age is determined from 6 to 10 years old, i.e.from the period of the child’s education in primary school. The child’s relationship with society changes, as he becomes a social subject with significant responsibilities, assessing the child’s studies and activities. During this period, as a rule, the authority of an adult is lost. And the influence of peers, on the contrary, plays a very important role, the child begins to reason during this period, he has a vocabulary, he focuses his attention on more and more specific objects and situations, knows how to independently distribute and switch, as well as be stable.
It should also be remembered that there is such a thing as a seven-year crisis. This is the period when the child clearly realizes the significance of his own “I” and all experiences have a meaning – he can accurately characterize states – I am angry, I am hungry, I am good, I am good, I am evil, etc. , and understand that this is precisely refers to him.
A crisis of seven years, the mannerism of a child is often expressed, that is, a child can show something of himself, or, on the contrary, hide something. He can hide something from adults – for example, when he feels bad or has some problems.
With the emergence of the status of a schoolchild, the child acquires a certain independence, corresponding moral values are formed in him, which he tries to adhere to. Children begin to realize their individuality, try to distinguish their uniqueness in front of others, often strive to lead in the society of their peers. This is also manifested in the fact that children are looking for themselves in hobbies, classes, circles, they participate in group forms of activity.
But for a number of reasons, children often try to avoid failures, motivated to achieve certain successes.Such behavior should be controlled by an adult, so that the guidelines for the behavior and actions of the child, in the future, do not lead to the fear of a change in the attitude of others.
So, a child is a schoolboy, is very criticized and reacts sharply to assessment from adults, a child of this age is emotionally unstable, he may experience frequent mood swings.
Develop memory in children
Memory is the perception of impressions that remain with a person about the environment, and, if possible, these impressions are fixed and, if necessary, reproduced.Memory is the basis of a person’s abilities to perceive, store, reproduce the experience gained in the course of a person’s life.
The memory of schoolchildren is a kind of transition from involuntary and immediate to voluntary and mediated memorization. Children aged 6 to 14 are actively developing mechanical memory for logical units of information that are not related to each other.
The process of growing up of a child entails the development of awareness in actions that are aimed at accurate and high-quality memorization, as well as reproduce exactly the material retained in memory. Children most often attach importance to impressions that are obtained by visual, auditory or motor pathways. Moreover, the younger the child, the more directly the feelings of dissatisfaction or pleasure from what he saw, done or heard are manifested. The pedagogical influence on children of primary preschool age is precisely based on these feelings.
At different ages of the child, other methods of memory management, with the help of which memory is improved during learning. A significant contribution to development, first of all, is made by parents and teachers.
Memory management techniques include the following:
90,030 90,031 repetitions. The child repeats each memorized word, and then repeats the words in groups;
Peculiarities of children’s psychology
Younger preschool age is the most crucial period in a child’s life.
The characteristics of children of primary school age, first of all, are due to the fact that during this period, their own “I” begins to form, self-awareness develops.Enrichment of knowledge, at this age, contributes to the intensive development of intellectual abilities, self-realization and creative activity. In terms of physical development, this is the calmest age. There is a uniform increase in height and weight, endurance develops. The skeletal system is at the stage of formation.
This period is characterized by the improvement of the brain – that is, the analytical and systematic function of the cortex develops, processes such as excitation and inhibition change.The process of inhibition is becoming more and more intense, although the process of arousal still predominates, and younger students are highly excitable and impulsive.
The most important goal of a child is learning. The child seeks to acquire and assimilate new knowledge, skills and abilities, and also seeks to accumulate systematic information about the world around him, nature and society as a whole.
Raising a sense of self-worth in children
The upbringing of children of primary school age is of great importance in the subsequent development of her as a person.The correct laying of moral values and attitudes will bring the child, in the future, a strong foundation for his life. The task of the parents is to set the right landmarks.
For example, it is good if the child will perceive his successes and failures, that is, objectively. A child should, first of all, be confident in his abilities, be a man of his word, who knows his own worth, on whom you can rely in everything. Increased self-esteem or, on the contrary, decreased self-esteem will not be a good incentive to achieve certain results.
Correct upbringing of children of younger preschool age also implies a systematic emphasis on the merits. In other words, praise is the child’s personal success, which is very stimulating for the child. Especially if this is the praise of the parents.
It is equally important to set the right example for your child. After all, this age is the age of imitation. The child imitates people he respects. Most actions, negative emotions, harsh words or actions are the result of imitation.You should always remember this and set a good example.
It is good that at this age to instill to say the word “no” to actions that the child does not want to perform. That is, those actions that will harm the child – cigarettes, booze, drugs.
It is important to instill in a child that the safest place on earth is his home. And also, the main responsibility of the parents is to teach the child the elementary basics of safety. The child should be aware that not everything in the world is perfect and not all people are kind.Therefore, you must be extremely careful on the street, at home. And if something happens, do not hesitate to ask for help.
I would like to summarize that a lot of things parents should instill and educate in a child at the most crucial period in life. After all, this is the basis of the foundations for his entire future life, a bookmark at this age, will significantly soften the adolescence period, and also help to develop a full-fledged personality in the child. The main thing is to devote as much time as possible to the child, communicate with him, help him, get to know himself and those around him.Give him confidence in his own necessity and his place in this world.
90,000 primary school age 7-10 years
Your kid has already met his first teacher and classmates, and is gradually mastering life in a new, “school” rhythm with lessons and first homework assignments.
At the age of seven to ten, educational activities become the leading activity. The child’s subsequent success depends on how successfully the child has adapted to learning. In addition, there is a sharp leap in physical, intellectual and psychological development.Completely new social roles appear that were unknown to the child before.
Traditionally, I am a Parent gives ten recommendations to parents of children aged seven to ten.
Child development at 7-10 years old
Physical development of the child
A child at the age of seven to ten years becomes strong, enduring and agile, has a need for regular exercise. Understands and accepts the rules of team games and the requirements of the coach while playing sports. Performs sweeping movements easily.Fine movements become clearer towards the end of primary school age.
Intellectual development of the child
At this age, children are already successfully mastering the school curriculum. In lower grades, they learn to generalize and get acquainted with various abstract concepts, comparing and distinguishing them among themselves. Towards the end of the period of primary school age, the child already knows how to independently reason, analyze, draw conclusions, becomes capable of reflection – assessing his inner state.He can, with an effort of will, focus on completing a certain task and think when it is needed, and not only when he is interested in something or just likes it.
Psychological development of the child
A child at primary school age realizes his belonging to society, and tries on many new roles: student, classmate, friend, citizen. Knows how and loves to communicate with adults and peers, taking into account not only their own interests, but also the interests of other people. Able to assess actions and events. Needs the support and approval of an adult: teacher, parent. Becomes more independent and proactive. At this age, the processes of excitation and inhibition begin to level out, and the child calms down more easily, reacts more easily to failures.
10 recommendations for parents of primary school children
I am a Parent brings you ten tips for raising your primary school child that will help him successfully move to a new stage in life.
1. Ensure regular physical activity and daily walks in the fresh air
The body of a child aged seven to ten is experiencing a sharp growth spurt. For harmonious development, it is necessary that good physical activity be present on a regular basis in the life of a younger student: active walks, sports activities in sections or a dance circle. The child should spend at least one and a half to two hours a day outdoors.
2. Assess the child’s readiness for school work
Consult with a competent psychologist who will assess the child’s readiness for classes. Not all children of the same age have the same level of psychophysical and emotional development. Someone will be bored in the classroom from the simplicity of tasks and requirements, while others may be unbearably difficult. Knowing your child’s strengths and weaknesses will help you better with homework.
3. Pay attention to the relationship between the child and the primary educator
In the primary school, the child continues to lay the foundation for his future personality. And what kind of teacher a younger student comes across plays a big role in its formation.
The teacher’s temperament, appearance, even the pace of speech may not suit one child, and, conversely, will delight another.
For example, if your child withdraws into himself when his voice is raised, then a teacher with a loud voice is likely to be difficult for him to perceive. Or, your child prefers to do everything “with feeling, with sense, with consistency,” and the teacher is quick and active: these two temperaments can give rise to misunderstanding and difficulties with learning. This does not mean at all that it is necessary to change the class: such situations rather show parents where it is necessary to additionally teach the child to communicate with people of different temperaments.
4. Awaken and encourage the child’s interest in reading
At primary school age, the child shows an interest in reading and reads independently. Many parents believe that at this age the child should read everything himself, but in this case it should not be surprising that the interest in reading may disappear.
Interest must be maintained.Go to libraries with your son or daughter, buy books together, exchange books with friends. Buy the books for your child that interest him. Younger students have visual-figurative thinking, so it is important to choose books with good illustrations. To draw attention to this or that literature, read interesting episodes with an intriguing plot, funny play on words, and poems. Become a role model and read yourself at home.
If your child is interested in reading descriptions in the toy catalog, comics about superheroes or articles in a fashion magazine, this is a sign that you are likely to have a thoughtful book lover in your home in middle school age.
5. Encourage the child to play and involve him in play
At primary school age, play activity is still vital. Ideally, she accompanies the child at school and at home.
Children perceive information visually and through action, they are not able to keep their attention for a long time on words that are not supported visually or by action. The range of games is expanding, along with plot-based role-playing, children show interest in games with clear rules: board games, team games and team sports.
In addition, the game helps to preserve the child’s spontaneity, relaxedness, which are often lost under the yoke of new life circumstances and psychological experiences at the age of seven.
You can teach your child to play chess at home. This will help develop logic in a junior schoolchild, develop strategic thinking and teach tactics.
6. Provide your son or daughter with a reliable rear
There are many changes and excitements going on in your child’s life.And you are his “main adult”. Make sure that a nutritious and healthy lunch, comfort, calm atmosphere, and sincere conversations await him at home. Be caring and supportive in external conflicts, but do not resolve them for him.
7. Watch when the child goes to bed
The daily routine will help to avoid fatigue during the school period. Remember that getting up early requires getting out early.
If the child is studying in the second shift, think about when it is more convenient and more effective for him to do homework.Reschedule extra activities in the morning to free up the rest of the evening for relaxation and family communication, walks and games.
8. Strengthen the will and moral qualities of the child
At the primary school age, willpower begins to strengthen, moral character traits are formed. The upbringing of will and moral ideals should come not only from the school, but also from the family.
If you want your child to be purposeful, responsible, honest, responsive, fair, teach him this by your own example.
9. Encourage independence at school and at home
Voluntary attention is formed at primary school age. A child who has previously achieved the goals that adults set for him learns to set goals on his own. In this way, the son or daughter learns to learn.
The same applies to self-service. A child at the age of seven to ten years is able to control himself whether he brushed his teeth, whether he collected a portfolio, whether he did his homework. It is also important that the child has his own household responsibilities and fulfills them.
10. Follow the best interests of the child
Encourage the child’s interests and imaginations. Rich imagination, interest in various areas of life often cannot find development or develop insufficiently in an overly theorized modern school, which is why it is so important for parents to support the child’s creative interests and guide him along the right path, revealing his abilities and talents.
Each person is individual, therefore it is not easy for two different people with a child to get along under one roof.This test will help you to look at your family from the outside and get some recommendations from the specialists of the portal I am a parent.
90,000 Age characteristics of students. Middle school age.
Age characteristics of students
Middle school age.
Middle school age (from 11-12 to 15 years old) – transitional from childhood to adolescence. It coincides with schooling (grades 5-9) and is characterized by a deep restructuring of the whole organism.
A characteristic feature of adolescence is puberty. In girls, it begins almost at the age of eleven, in boys, a little later. Puberty makes serious changes in the life of the child, upsets the inner balance, brings new experiences, affects the relationship between boys and girls.
It is worth drawing the class teacher’s attention to such a psychological feature of this age as the selectivity of their attention.This means that they respond to unusual, exciting lessons and cool activities, and the rapid switching of attention does not make it possible to focus on the same thing for a long time. However, if the class teacher creates difficult and non-standard situations, the children are engaged in extracurricular work with pleasure and for a long time.
A significant feature of adolescent thinking is his criticality. A child who has always agreed with everything has his own opinion, which he tries to demonstrate as often as possible, thus declaring himself. Children during this period are prone to disputes and objections, blind adherence to the authority of an adult is often reduced to zero, parents are perplexed and believe that their obedient child is exposed to someone else’s influence and it is time for a crisis in families – the “upper classes” cannot, and the “lower classes” cannot want to think and behave in the old way.
Middle school age is the most favorable for creative development. At this age, students like to solve problem situations, find similarities and differences, determine cause and effect.Children are interested in extracurricular activities during which they can express their opinion and judgment. Solve the problem yourself, participate in the discussion, defend and prove your case.
Studies of the inner world of adolescents show that one of the most important moral problems of middle school age is the inconsistency of beliefs, moral ideas and concepts with actions, actions and behavior. The system of value judgments, moral ideals are unstable. Difficulties in the life plan, family problems
, the influence of friends can cause great difficulties in children
in development and formation.The work of the class teacher should be aimed at the formation of moral experience, the development of a system of fair value judgments.
At this age, the sensory sphere becomes important.
Adolescents can show their feelings very violently, sometimes affectively.
This period of a child’s life is sometimes referred to as a period of severe crisis.
Signs of it can be stubbornness, selfishness, isolation, withdrawal,
outbursts of anger. Therefore, the class teacher should be attentive
to the inner world of the child, pay more attention to individual work
, solve the child’s problems alone with him.At this age, the teenager is quite imitative. This can lead him to erroneous and even immoral ideas and actions. Teenagers – boys tend to choose strong, brave and 90,047 courageous people as their idols. Not only
book pirates and robbers, but also quite green local hooligans can become attractive for them.
By imitating them, adolescents, without realizing it, cross that dangerous line
beyond which courage becomes cruelty, independence – meanness, self-love – violence against others.Teenage girls differ in that they are physically different from boys in early adulthood and want to interact with older boys. Research shows a noticeable shift in emphasis from traditionally positive moral values to imaginary, false and even antisocial ones. Some teenage girls consider the work of a prostitute to be ideal, speculation, parasitism, and are proud of their acquaintances with offenders. Many adolescents, both boys and girls, do not want to associate their future life not only with labor in the sphere of material production, but also with labor in general.The ideal of an honest worker has ceased to be attractive.
The class teacher needs to pay attention to the formation of the moral qualities of the individual and familiarity with examples of positive ideals.
The class teacher needs to deeply comprehend the features of the development and behavior of a modern adolescent
, to be able to put himself in his
place in the most difficult contradictory conditions of real life. This
will provide an opportunity not only to overcome alienation, but also to establish good relations in the system:
school —— ► family —— ► society —— ► child.
Of particular importance for a teenager at this age is the opportunity
of self-expression and self-realization. Students will be interested in such 90,047 class activities that serve the active self-expression of adolescents and 90,047 take into account their interests. Children are attracted by the opportunity to organize class activities themselves, to enter into dialogue and polylogue, to make independent decisions. When organizing work with students, the class teacher should not act as a performer, but as a conductor by an orchestra named “class”.
Many students of this age have problems with teachers. A student who has all A’s in many subjects only gets “2” and “3” in others. And this sometimes has nothing to do with his performance or intellectual capabilities. Often this is due to a sharp drop in interest in learning, a change in learning motivation. The class teacher should timely investigate the causes of the student’s learning problems and use the results obtained in work with the class. The following techniques can help with this:
Method No. 1.
Studying the attitude of students to academic subjects.
Students write answers to two questions on a questionnaire. The answer to the question must be continued using the proposed answer options.
I . Variants of answers to the question “Necessary subjects”
- Knowledge of this subject is essential for the development of the country’s economy.
- This science is rapidly developing at the present time and plays an important role in the life of society.
- This subject will be useful for admission to a technical school, university, it will be necessary in a future profession.
- This item forms useful skills that will come in handy in life.
- This subject is to teach you to understand life.
- This item is considered significant by my parents.
- This subject forms intellectual skills, broadens horizons.
- This item is subject to Republic testing.
II . Variants of answers to the question “Interesting subjects”
- It is interesting to learn about new facts, amazing events.
- It is interesting to learn about the life of people and their activities.
- It is interesting to find out the reasons for the events.
4. It is interesting to listen to the teacher’s explanations on this subject.
- It is interesting in the classroom and at home to solve problems, perform exercises, practical work, fill out tables, maps, diagrams.
- It is interesting to find additional information yourself, prepare messages, speak with them in front of the class.
- It is interesting to find an explanation for the phenomenon, to pose a problem and solve it, to conduct research.
- Interesting, because the teacher teaches in an unusual way and thus attracts students.
9. Interesting, since this subject is easy for me.
10. This subject is related to other subjects that are within the scope of my interests.
11. Interesting because it is easy to earn a grade in this subject.
12. It is interesting, because this subject mobilizes the will and makes you think with concentration.
The questions of the questionnaire allow the class teacher to find out what is the cognitive interest of the students in the class, what subjects cause difficulties for the students, with what or with whom the educational difficulties of the children are related.
Questions of the I block are questions that are united by eventfulness, theoretical foundations, moral problems.
Questions of the II block are questions that are united by the methods of cognitive activity, character, relations between students and teachers; the nature of relationships within and outside the classroom:
Methodology No. 2. “Ranking”.
The chalkboard contains all the subjects that the students in the class study.They are invited to write them down on a piece of paper according to the degree of importance for themselves. Then the teacher determines which subjects of the school curriculum the students put in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd places in terms of importance.
Method No. 3. “Associations”.
Students are asked to name associations that school subjects have in them. Pupils are named objects, and they write words on a piece of paper – associations associated with this subject.
If the subject is of interest, the associations will be positive.
If the subject is not interesting, the associations will be negative.
The class teacher needs to know and take into account in the organization of educational work that the leading activity of adolescents is communication, the personality neoplasm of adolescents is the ability to identify. The most important feature of adolescents is a gradual shift away from direct copying of adults’ assessments to self-esteem, relying on their own internal criteria.
The main form of self-knowledge is comparing oneself with other people:
adults and peers.
90,000 General scheme of age development of a child of primary school age (from 6-7 to 10-11 years old)
Social Development Situation
There is a restructuring of the entire system of relations between the child and reality. With the arrival of the school, the relationship “child-adult” is divided into two systems: “child-teacher” and “child-parent”. For the first time, the relationship “child-teacher” becomes the relationship “child-society”, in the teacher the requirements of society are embodied, in the school there is a system of the same standards, the same measures for assessment.The child-teacher system becomes the center of the child’s life and begins to determine the child’s attitude towards parents and peers. There is a desire for the social status of the student and for learning as a new socially significant activity. This is expressed, for example, in the desire to fulfill the instructions of adults. A child learns for the sake of recognition and approval of others who are significant to him. His relationship with adults and peers is determined by how he fulfills his new socially significant responsibilities.
Leading type of activity
Educational activity is an activity directly aimed at assimilating science and culture accumulated by mankind. Learning activity is not given in a finished form, it must be formed. First of all, the child must be taught to learn. School activity is the basis for building new connections and relationships between the child and reality; its content is the mastery of generalized methods of action in the field of theoretical knowledge. The paradox of educational activity is that, while assimilating knowledge, the child himself does not change anything in this knowledge. For the first time, the subject of changes becomes the child himself, the very subject carrying out this activity.Learning activity turns the child on himself, requires reflection, an assessment of “what I was” and “what I have become.” Assessment of one’s own changes, reflection on oneself is the own subject of educational activity. Activity structure: 1. educational and cognitive motives; 2. Educational task; 3. Educational action; 4. control action; 5. Evaluation action.
Arbitrariness and awareness of all mental processes and their intellectualization, their internal mediation, which occurs due to the assimilation of a system of scientific concepts. A sense of competence – allows you to gain comprehension of the basics of work and social experience and makes it possible to gain recognition from others.
In the course of mastering the full structure of educational activity, a young child develops the basic abilities of theoretical consciousness and thinking – analysis, planning, reflection.
Verbal and logical thinking (based on visualization).
Analyzing perception; the appearance of synthesizing perception (at the end of the period).
Arbitrary semantic memory.
Awareness of their own changes as a result of the development of educational activities; adequate self-esteem.
Generalization of experiences, logic of feelings and the emergence of inner life.
There are 2 main lines of development of the cognitive sphere: 1) arbitrariness; 2) intellectualization. General and special abilities are well revealed.
Thinking – mediates the development of other mental functions, intellectualization of all mental processes. There comes a transition from visual-figurative to verbal-logical conceptual thinking, a combination of all types of thinking. Theoretical thinking is developing, now a scientific concept is being formed in the child – he is guided not by external signs, but by abstract ones. Features of thinking: flexibility, reversibility, going beyond the “here and now”, multidimensionality, less egocentricity, the ability to draw logical conclusions (inferences).
Perception – there is a transition from involuntary to purposeful voluntary observation of an object that obeys a specific task. At the beginning of school age, perception is not sufficiently differentiated. Then, with the help of thinking, synthesizing perception begins to form.
Attention – voluntary attention predominates. At this age, the ability to focus on uninteresting things is formed. The volume and stability, switchability and concentration of voluntary attention to the 4th grade of school in children are almost the same as in an adult.The switchability is even higher than the average in adults, this is due to the youth of the body and the mobility of the central nervous system.
Memory – acquires a pronounced voluntary character, the child begins to realize a special mnemonic task. There is an intensive formation of memorization techniques – from the most primitive (repetition, careful long-term examination of the material) to grouping, understanding the connections of different parts of the material. Logical memory (elements of logical memory) also develops.
The inner position of the student appears in the sphere of self-awareness.The striving for it characterizes the personality of the child as a whole, determining his behavior, activity, system of relations to reality and himself. Self-awareness is realized in educational activity, in which the child learns himself, he develops an idea of himself, self-esteem. The orientation of the personality is expressed in needs: in play, in movements, in external impressions, as well as new needs: to accurately fulfill the teacher’s requirements, to successfully master new knowledge, skills, abilities, to come to school with completed assignments; the need for a good grade, for the approval and control of his actions from adults, especially the teacher, the need to be the best, beloved student; the need for communication.Leading – cognitive needs. Gullibility and diligence are characteristic, which are a prerequisite for successful training and education. Increased reactivity, imitation. Volitional regulation of behavior develops, diligence and independence are improved. The motivational sphere is developing: 1) broad social motives; 2) cognitive motives – motives of self-improvement; 3) motives of achievement – achievement of success, prestigious motivation, motivation to avoid failure; 4) compensatory motivation – compensation for insufficient interest in learning activities with interests and successes in other activities. Thus, motives are: 1) educational – cognitive, social approval, broad social motives, narrow social motives; and 2) personal – the motives for achieving success and avoiding failure. The nature of emotions in children is changing: increased restraint and awareness in the manifestation of emotions.
A feature of children of primary school age is boundless trust in adults, mainly in the teacher, submission and imitation of them.Children of this age fully recognize the authority of an adult, unconditionally accept his assessments. The time allotted for communication is increasing; children spend most of the day in contact with others. The content of communication changes, it includes topics that are not related to the game, i.e. special business communication with adults is highlighted. Cooperation with peers appears. Children learn educational material better in joint work with peers than with a teacher. In the peer group, the relationship is equal and symmetrical, and between the child and the adult – hierarchical and asymmetrical. But cooperation with an adult is a prerequisite for the mental development of a child. The child’s cooperation with peers is necessary for the formation of the child’s control and evaluative actions. Cooperation performs the function of modeling the content of the intellectual structure in the composition of the ratios of the participants in the activity.
90,000 Psychological and pedagogical characteristics of primary school children
Chikisheva, O.V. Psychological and pedagogical features of children of primary school age / O. V. Chikisheva. – Text: direct // Problems and prospects for the development of education: materials of the II Intern. scientific. conf. (Perm, May 2012). – Perm: Mercury, 2012 .– S. 90-92. – URL: https://moluch.ru/conf/ped/archive/58/2267/ (date of access: 05/02/2021).
he, a junior schoolchild, who faces a difficult path of learning a new
under the guidance of a teacher whose interest in learning is to be awakened
Junior school age –
the stage of development of the child, which corresponds to the period of study in
primary school. The chronological boundaries of this age are different in
different countries and in different historical conditions. These boundaries can
be conditionally defined in the interval from 6-7 to 10-11 years, their refinement
depends on the officially accepted terms of initial training [4, 74].
Admission of a child to school
sets a number of tasks for the institution during the period of work with junior
identify the level of his
readiness for schooling and the individual characteristics of it
activities, communication, behavior, mental processes that
will need to be taken into account during training;
compensate for possible gaps and increase school readiness, thus
the most to carry out the prevention of school maladjustment;
plan a strategy and
the tactics of teaching the future student, taking into account his individual
opportunities [5, 27].
these tasks require a deep study of psychological characteristics
modern schoolchildren who come to school with different “baggage”,
representing a set of psychological neoplasms
the previous age stage – preschool childhood.
Each age stage
characterized by the special position of the child in the system adopted in this
relationship society. In accordance with this, the lives of children of different
age is filled with specific content: special
relationships with people around and a special, leading for this
stage of development activities.I would like to note that L.S.
Vygotsky identified the following types of leading activities:
direct emotional communication;
early childhood –
junior schoolchildren –
socially recognized and socially approved activities;
high school students –
educational and professional activities [1, 328].
to school radically changes the nature of a child’s life. From the first days
learning at school, the main contradiction arises – between constantly
growing demands placed on the personality of the child, his
attention, memory, thinking, speech, and the present level of development. it
contradiction is the driving force behind the development of a younger student.
As the requirements increase, the level of mental development
pulls up to their level.
Junior school age –
a qualitatively unique stage in the development of a child. Development of higher
mental functions and personality as a whole occurs within the framework of the leading on
at this stage of activity (educational – according to the periodization of D.B.
Elkonin), replacing play activities in this capacity, which
acted as a presenter in preschool age. The inclusion of the child in
learning activity marks the beginning of the restructuring of all mental
processes and functions [5, 48].
Of course, not immediately
younger schoolchildren develop a correct attitude towards learning. They are
do not yet understand why you need to learn. But it soon turns out that
teaching is work that requires volitional efforts, mobilization of attention,
intellectual activity, self-restraint. If the child is not for this
accustomed, then he gets disappointed, there is a negative
attitude to learning. In order for this not to happen, the teacher must
inspire the child with the idea that teaching is not a holiday, not a game, but
serious, hard work, but very interesting, as it
will allow you to learn a lot of new, entertaining, important, necessary.It is important that the very organization of educational work reinforces the words
At first, it forms
interest in the very process of educational activity without realizing it
values. Only after interest in the results of his
educational work forms an interest in the content of educational activities,
to the acquisition of knowledge. This foundation is fertile ground.
for the formation of the motives of the teaching of high
public order associated with a truly responsible attitude
to training sessions.
Formation of interest in
the content of educational activities, the acquisition of knowledge is associated with
schoolchildren experiencing a sense of satisfaction from their achievements.
And this feeling is reinforced by the approval, praise of the teacher, who
emphasizes everyone, even the smallest success, the smallest
moving forward. Younger schoolchildren have a sense of pride
a special boost of strength when the teacher praises them.
the influence of the teacher on the younger ones is due to the fact that the teacher from the very
the beginning of children’s stay at school becomes indisputable for them
authority.The credibility of the teacher is the most important prerequisite for
training and education in the lower grades [9, 151].
improving the brain – developing an analytical and systematic
function of the cortex; the ratio of excitation processes gradually changes
and braking: the braking process becomes more and more powerful, although
the process of arousal still predominates, and younger students in
highly excitable and impulsive [4, 70].
Learning activities in
primary grades stimulates, first of all, the development of mental
processes of direct cognition of the surrounding world –
sensations and perceptions.Younger schoolchildren are distinguished by their sharpness and
freshness of perception, a kind of contemplative curiosity
Most characteristic feature
perception of these students – its small differentiation, where
make inaccuracies and errors in differentiation in perception
similar objects. The next feature of student perception at the beginning
primary school age – its close connection with the actions
schoolboy. Perception at this level of mental development is associated with
practical activities of the child.To perceive an object for a child –
means to do something with it, to change something in it, to produce
any action, take it, touch it. Salient feature
students – a pronounced emotionality of perception.
In the learning process
there is a restructuring of perception, it rises to a higher
stage of development, takes on the character of purposeful and controlled
activities. In the process of learning, perception deepens,
becomes more analyzing, differentiating, takes on character
features are inherent in the attention of primary school students. The main of
them – the weakness of voluntary attention. The possibilities of strong-willed
regulation of attention, management of it at the beginning of primary school
age is limited. Arbitrary attention of a younger student requires
so-called close motivation. If older students
voluntary attention is maintained even in the presence of distant motivation
(they can force themselves to focus on uninteresting and difficult
work for the result that is expected in the future), then the younger
the student can usually force himself to work with concentration only when
close motivation (prospects of getting an excellent grade,
earn the praise of the teacher, do the job best, etc.etc.)
Much better in junior
At school age, involuntary attention is developed. All new,
unexpected, bright, interesting naturally attracts attention
students, without any effort on their part.
memories in primary school age develop under the influence of learning.
The role and proportion of verbal-logical, semantic
memorization and the ability to consciously manage your
memory and regulate its manifestations.Due to age
relative predominance of the activity of the first signaling system in
younger schoolchildren have a more developed visual-figurative memory than
verbal and logical. They are better, faster at memory and stronger.
keep in memory specific information, events, persons, objects,
facts than definitions, descriptions, explanations. Younger schoolchildren
inclined to rote memorization without understanding semantic
connections within the memorized material [3, 518].
Main development trend
imagination in primary school age is an improvement
re-creating imagination.It is related to the view earlier
perceived or the creation of images in accordance with this description,
scheme, drawing, etc. The recreational imagination is improved for
account of more and more correct and complete reflection of reality.
Creative imagination as the creation of new images associated with
transformation, processing of impressions of past experience, connection
them into new combinations, combinations, also develops [4,82].
Influenced by learning
there is a gradual transition from the knowledge of the external side of phenomena to
knowledge of their essence. Thinking begins to reflect the essential
properties and signs of objects and phenomena, which makes it possible to do
the first generalizations, the first conclusions, the first analogies, the
elementary reasoning. On this basis, the child gradually
elementary scientific concepts begin to form.
Analytical and synthetic
activities at the beginning of primary school age are still very
elementary, is mainly at the stage of visual-effective
analysis based on the direct perception of objects [9,
Junior school age –
the age of a fairly noticeable personality formation. For him
characterized by new relationships with adults and peers, inclusion in
a whole system of collectives, inclusion in a new type of activity –
teaching that makes a number of serious requirements for the student. Everything
this has a decisive effect on the formation and consolidation of a new
systems of attitudes towards people, the team, towards learning and related to them
responsibilities, forms character, will, expands the range of interests,
At primary school age
the foundation of moral behavior is laid, learning
moral norms and rules of behavior, begins to form
social orientation of the individual. The nature of younger students
differs in some peculiarities. First of all, they are impulsive –
tend to act immediately under the influence of immediate
impulses, motives, without thinking and without weighing all the circumstances, according to
random occasions. The reason is the need for an active external
discharge with age-related weakness of volitional regulation of behavior [7,
there is also a general lack of will: the younger student has not yet
has extensive experience in a long struggle for the intended goal,
overcoming difficulties and obstacles. He can give up when
failure, to lose faith in one’s own strengths and impossibilities. Often
capriciousness, stubbornness is observed. The usual reason for them is
shortcomings of family education. The child is used to the fact that all of his
desires and demands were satisfied, he saw no refusal in anything.Capriciousness and stubbornness are a kind of child’s protest
against those firm demands that the school puts on him, against
the need to sacrifice what one wants for the sake of what is needed.
Younger students are very
emotional. Emotionality affects, firstly, that their
mental activity is usually colored by emotions. All that children
observe what they think about, what they do, makes them emotionally
colored attitude. Secondly, younger students do not know how
restrain their feelings, control their external manifestation, they
very spontaneous and frank in expressing joy.Burning, sorrow,
fear, pleasure, or displeasure. Third, emotionality
expressed in their great emotional instability, frequent change
moods, tendency to affect, short-term and violent
manifestations of joy, grief, anger, fear. Over the years, more and more
the ability to regulate your feelings develops, to restrain them
undesirable manifestations [2, 14].
provides a junior school age for upbringing
collectivist relations.For several years, junior schoolboy
accumulates, with proper upbringing, important for its future
development experience of collective activities – activities in
the team and for the team. It helps foster collectivism
participation of children in public, collective affairs. Right here
the child acquires the basic experience of a collective social
Vygotsky L.S. History
development of higher mental functions // Sobr.cit .: In 6v. – M.,
Davydov V.V., Slobodchikov
V.I., Tsukerman G.A. The younger student as a subject of educational
activity // Questions of psychology. – 2002. – No.
3-4. – 14-19 s.
Danilov M.A., Kompov B.P.
Didactics / Ed. B.P. Compova. – M .: Publishing house APN
RSFSR, 2007 .– 518s.
Danilov M.A. Mental
education // Sov. Pedagogy. – 2004. – No. 12. –
Diagnostics of educational
activities and intellectual development of children: Sat. scientific. tr. / Under
ed. D.B. Elkonina, A.L. Wenger. – M .: NIIOPP, 2006.-
L.V. Zankov Development
schoolchildren in the learning process. – M., 2007 .– 152s.
Formation of examples of mental activity and mental development
students. – M .: Education, 2008 .– 288p.
Productive thinking as the basis of learning. – M .:
Pedagogy, 2001 .– 200s.
Kirillova G.D. Theory and
practice of the lesson in the context of developmental learning. – M., 2007.
Primary school age | Concepts and categories
YOUNGER SCHOOL AGE – the stage of individual mental development, which lasts from 6-7 to 10 years, when the child is trained in the primary grades (grades 1-4) of a modern school.It is characteristic of this age that the child develops learning activity as the leading activity, in which the assimilation of human experience, presented in the form of scientific knowledge, takes place. This age is the most sensitive for the formation of the ability for empirical generalization, which appears even in preschool age. At the same time, as shown in the works of V.V. Davydov, it is at the elementary school age that the foundation of theoretical thinking can and should be laid, which is based on theoretical concepts, the content of which – in contrast to empirical concepts – constitutes mediated, reflected being presented in its development ( Davydov V.B. Theory of developmental learning. M., 1996 ). Within the framework of educational activity, two main psychological neoplasms of this age arise: the possibility of arbitrary regulation of mental processes and the construction of an internal plan of action. In particular, within the framework of educational activity, which requires arbitrariness, the formation of the behavior control function takes place and the impulsiveness inherent in preschoolers is removed. In the studies of L.I. Bozhovich, it is shown that the formation of the personality of a child in childhood is based on the formation of social motives of behavior, but their origin and moral content, among which the most significant are the motives for acquiring knowledge generated by educational activity ( Bozovic L.I. Personality and its formation in childhood. M., 1968; Studying the motivation of children and adolescents / Ed. L. I. Bozhovich and L. V. Blagonadezhina. M .: Pedagogika, 1972 ).
Kondakov I.M. Psychology. Illustrated Dictionary. // THEM. Kondakov. – 2nd ed. add. and revised – SPb., 2007, p. 344-345.
Features of the mental development of children 6-7 years of age / Ed. D. B. Elkonin, A. L. Venger. M .: Pedagogy, 1988;
Elkonin D.B., Dragunova T.V. Age and individual characteristics of younger students. M. 1967;
Elkonin D. B. Psychology of teaching of a junior schoolchild. M, 197-1;
Subbotsky E.V. Ontogenesis of consciousness and the basis of rationality // Vestn. Moscow University Ser 14, Psychology 1989. No. 1.
Shumakova N.V., Shchebalinova E.I., Shcherbo N.P. Research of creative giftedness using P. Torrens tests in younger schoolchildren // Questions of psychology. 1991. No. 1;
Nepomniachtchi I.Formation of the personality of a child 6-7 years old. M .: Pedagogy, 1992;
Dusavitsky A.K. Personal development in educational activities. M .: House of Pedagogy, 1996;
Crete G. Psychology of development / Per. from English SPb .: Peter, 2000.
90,000 Junior school age
Psychological characteristics of primary schoolchildren
The younger school age is considered to be the age of children from about 7 to 10-11 years old, which corresponds to the years of his education in primary school.This is an age of relatively calm and uniform physical development.
The increase in height and weight, endurance, vital capacity of the lungs is quite even and proportional.
The skeletal system of a younger student is still in the stage of formation – ossification of the spine, chest, pelvis, limbs is not yet complete, there is still a lot of cartilaginous tissue in the skeletal system.
The process of ossification of the hand and fingers at primary school age also does not end completely, therefore, small and precise movements of the fingers and hand are difficult and tiring.
There is a functional improvement of the brain – the analytical-systematic function of the cortex develops; the ratio of the processes of excitation and inhibition is gradually changing: the process of inhibition becomes more and more powerful, although the process of excitation still predominates, and younger schoolchildren are highly excitable and impulsive.
Going to school makes major changes in a child’s life. The whole way of his life, his social position in the team, in the family changes dramatically.The main, leading activity henceforth becomes teaching, the most important duty – the duty to learn, to acquire knowledge. And learning is a serious work that requires organization, discipline, and willful efforts of a child. The schoolboy joins in a new team for him, in which he will live, study, develop for 11 years.
The main activity, his first and most important duty is learning – the acquisition of new knowledge, skills and abilities, the accumulation of systematic information about the world around, nature and society.
Of course, younger schoolchildren do not immediately form the correct attitude to learning. They do not yet understand why they need to study. But it soon turns out that learning is work that requires volitional efforts, mobilization of attention, intellectual activity, and self-restraint. If the child is not used to this, then he is disappointed, there is a negative attitude towards learning. In order for this not to happen, the teacher must inspire the child with the idea that teaching is not a holiday, not a game, but serious, hard work, but very interesting, since it will allow you to learn a lot of new, entertaining, important, necessary.It is important that the very organization of educational work reinforces the teacher’s words.
At first, elementary school students learn well based on their relationships in the family, sometimes a child does well on the basis of relationships with the team. Personal motive also plays an important role: the desire to get a good grade, the approval of teachers and parents.
At first, he develops an interest in the very process of educational activity without realizing its meaning. Only after the emergence of interest in the results of their educational work is formed an interest in the content of educational activities, in the acquisition of knowledge.It is this foundation that is a fertile ground for the formation of the motives of the teaching of a high social order in the younger schoolchild, associated with a truly responsible attitude to learning.
The formation of interest in the content of educational activities, the acquisition of knowledge is associated with the experience of schoolchildren of a sense of satisfaction from their achievements. And this feeling is reinforced by the approval, the praise of the teacher, who emphasizes every, even the smallest success, the smallest progress forward.Younger students feel a sense of pride, a special boost of strength, when the teacher praises them.
The great educational impact of the teacher on the younger is due to the fact that the teacher, from the very beginning of the children’s stay at school, becomes an indisputable authority for them. The credibility of the teacher is the most important prerequisite for teaching and education in the lower grades.
Learning activity in primary grades stimulates, first of all, the development of mental processes of direct cognition of the surrounding world – sensations and perceptions .Younger schoolchildren are distinguished by their sharpness and freshness of perception, a kind of contemplative curiosity. The younger student perceives the environment with lively curiosity, which every day reveals more and more new sides to him.
The most characteristic feature of the perception of these students is its low differentiation , where inaccuracies and errors in differentiation are made when perceiving similar objects. The next feature of the perception of students at the beginning of primary school age is its close connection with the actions of the student.Perception at this level of mental development is associated with the child’s practical activities. To perceive an object for a child means to do something with it, change something in it, perform any action, take it, touch it. A characteristic feature of students is a pronounced emotionality of perception.
In the process of learning, perception is reorganized, it rises to a higher level of development, takes on the character of purposeful and controlled activity.In the process of learning, perception deepens, becomes more analyzing, differentiating, takes on the character of an organized observation .
Some age characteristics are inherent in attention of primary school students. The main one is weakness of voluntary attention . The possibilities of volitional regulation of attention, its control at the beginning of primary school age are limited. Arbitrary attention of a younger student requires the so-called close motivation.If older students maintain voluntary attention even in the presence of distant motivation (they can force themselves to focus on uninteresting and difficult work for the sake of the result that is expected in the future), then the younger student can usually force himself to work with concentration only if there is close motivation (the prospects for getting excellent grade, earn the praise of the teacher, do the best job, etc.).
involuntary attention is much better developed in primary school age.Everything new, unexpected, bright, interesting naturally attracts the attention of students, without any effort on their part.
Age features memory in primary school age develop under the influence of learning. The role and specific weight of verbal-logical, semantic memorization is increasing and the ability to consciously manage your memory and regulate its manifestations develops . In connection with the age-related predominance of the activity of the first signal system, younger schoolchildren have a more developed visual-figurative memory than verbal-logical memory.They better, faster remember and more firmly retain in their memory specific information, events, persons, objects, facts than definitions, descriptions, explanations. Younger schoolchildren are inclined to mechanical memorization without realizing the semantic connections within the memorized material.
The main trend of the development of imagination in primary school age is improvement recreational imagination . It is associated with the presentation of previously perceived or the creation of images in accordance with a given description, diagram, drawing, etc.e. Recreational imagination is improved due to more and more correct and complete reflection of reality. Creative imagination as the creation of new images associated with the transformation, processing of impressions of past experience, combining them into new combinations, combinations, is also developing.
Under the influence of teaching, there is a gradual transition from the knowledge of the external side of phenomena to the knowledge of their essence. Thinking begins to reflect the essential properties and signs of objects and phenomena, which makes it possible to make the first generalizations, the first conclusions, draw the first analogies, build elementary inferences.On this basis, the child gradually begins to form elementary scientific concepts.
Analytical-synthetic activity at the beginning of primary school age is still very elementary, it is mainly at the stage of visual-effective analysis based on the direct perception of objects.
Younger school age – the age of a fairly noticeable personality formation.
It is characterized by new relationships with adults and peers, inclusion in the whole system of collectives, inclusion in a new type of activity – teaching, which makes a number of serious requirements for the student.
All this decisively affects the formation and consolidation of a new system of attitudes towards people, the team, towards learning and related duties, forms character, will, expands the range of interests, develops abilities.
At the primary school age, the foundation is laid of moral behavior , the assimilation of moral norms and rules of behavior takes place, the social orientation of the individual begins to form.
The character of junior schoolchildren differs in some peculiarities.First of all, they are impulsive – they are inclined to act immediately under the influence of immediate impulses, motives, without thinking and without weighing all the circumstances, for random reasons. The reason is the need for active external discharge with age-related weakness of volitional regulation of behavior.
An age feature is also a general lack of will : the younger student does not yet have much experience of a long struggle for the intended goal, overcoming difficulties and obstacles.He can give up in case of failure, lose faith in his own strengths and impossibilities. Often there is capriciousness , stubbornness. The usual reason for them is the lack of family education. The child was accustomed to the fact that all his desires and requirements were satisfied, he saw no refusal in anything. Capriciousness and stubbornness are a peculiar form of a child’s protest against the firm demands that school makes on him, against the need to sacrifice what he wants in the name of what is needed.
Younger students are very emotional . Emotionality is reflected, firstly, in the fact that their mental activity is usually colored by emotions. Everything that children observe, what they think about, what they do, evokes an emotionally colored attitude in them. Secondly, junior schoolchildren do not know how to restrain their feelings, control their external manifestation, they are very spontaneous and frank in expressing joy. Grief, sadness, fear, pleasure, or displeasure. Thirdly, emotionality is expressed in their great emotional instability, frequent mood changes, tendency to affect, short-term and violent manifestations of joy, grief, anger, fear.Over the years, the ability to regulate one’s feelings, to restrain their unwanted manifestations develops more and more.
Great opportunities are provided by the primary school age for the upbringing of collectivist relations . Over the course of several years, a junior schoolchild, with proper upbringing, accumulates experience of collective activity, which is important for his further development – activity in a team and for a team. The education of collectivism is helped by the participation of children in public, collective affairs.