Lax stick regulations: High school lacrosse stick rules 2021: Boys’ Rules
Lacrosse Rules And Regulations
Lacrosse is a fast-paced team sport that is played outdoors or indoors. The game of lacrosse originated in North America and was first invented and practiced by American Indians. Many Native American tribes played lacrosse across the eastern seaboard from Canada and into the southeastern United States. The word lacrosse comes from the French word to describe the lacrosse stick or shaft attached to a pocket with netting (the crosse) used to pass and catch the ball. Primary research suggests that when it was originally practiced by American Indians, lacrosse was both a recreational activity and a proxy for war and combat on the battlefield.
Men’s lacrosse and women’s lacrosse have several important differences in their respective rules that we will cover in this tutorial. Likewise, field lacrosse and indoor lacrosse also have distinct sets of rules.
The flow of play in lacrosse has elements that are similar to basketball, soccer and ice hockey. Lacrosse is a sport that has grown rapidly in popularity across the United States over the past fifteen years, and there are strong lacrosse communities in Canada, England, Australia and other countries around the world. Lacrosse is not an Olympic sport, but there are two major professional men’s leagues that compete in the United States and Canada, and the intercollegiate championships for men’s and women’s lacrosse are popular, televised events. The International Federation of Lacrosse hosts a world championship event for its national association members. Major League Lacrosse is the professional league for men’s field lacrosse, and National League Lacrosse is the professional league for men’s indoor lacrosse.
The lacrosse field is where the game of lacrosse is played. In outdoor lacrosse, the optimal field size is 110 yards long by 60 yards wide. There are three main areas on the lacrosse field: the offensive zone, the midfield zone and the defensive zone. The side of the field with a goaltender in the goal area is considered the defensive zone from the perspective of that team. Teams switch the direction of their offense at halftime. The playing surface can be either natural grass or artificial turf.
The objective of play is to score a goal against the opposing team. A goal is scored when the entirety of the ball travels past the goal line under the crossbar and in between the goalposts. The team with the highest number of goals at the end of regulation time or overtime is declared the winner.
To score a goal, the offense will pass the ball from one teammate to another or an individual player will run upfield with the ball in the pocket of his or her stick, a technique known as cradling. The defense, or team without possession of the ball, will try to prevent the offense from scoring a goal. Possession of the ball will shift back and forth between opposite teams throughout the game.
Moving The Ball
Players move the ball around the field by passing and catching or cradling. Cradling is the action of rotating the top hand back and forth to create centrifugal force, allowing the ball to remain in the pocket even when the player in possession is sprinting at a fast pace.
When the offense is moving the ball upfield, the objective is to complete a transition into the offensive half as quickly as possible. If the ball started in transition near the goal area or from a save by the goaltender, the offensive transition is known as a clear.
In a settled offense situation, the attackmen pass the ball, make cuts, dodge against defenders and set up feeds or assists. This ball movement is critical to challenge the defense and create a strong scoring opportunity.
Game Format and Duration
A men’s field lacrosse game is divided into four 15-minute quarters with two-minute breaks in between the first and second quarter and the third and fourth quarter. There is a 10-minute halftime period for coaches to discuss strategy with the team and for players to rest. A women’s lacrosse game is divided into two 30-minute halves with a 10-minute halftime period. If the score is tied at the end of regulation, a sudden-death overtime period begins after a 5-minute break from play. The first team to score a goal automatically wins the game. Overtime length in men’s field lacrosse is two four-minute halves, women’s field lacrosse is two three-minute halves, and overtime length in indoor lacrosse is two 15-minute periods.
Lacrosse Teams and Players
In men’s field lacrosse, ten players constitute a full team. This includes a goaltender, defensemen, midfielders and attackmen. Teams are allowed to play with fewer than ten players if injuries or penalty accumulation affects the team roster size. There can be a maximum of four players – usually all three defensemen plus one midfielder – using long crosses.
In women’s field lacrosse, twelve players constitute a full team. This is most often split up into one goaltender, four defenders, three midfielders and four attackers. Teams are allowed to play with fewer than twelve players if injuries or penalty accumulation affects the overall team roster size.
In indoor lacrosse, there are six players per side – five field players and one goaltender. In indoor lacrosse, all five field players play both offense and defense.
Lacrosse is played with lacrosse sticks and a ball that weighs approximately five ounces and is about eight inches in circumference. In competition play, each men’s field player is required to wear a team jersey, protective helmet with a face mask, mouthguard, gloves, elbow pads, shoes, shoulder pads and matching shorts. The goaltender wears a jersey, protective helmet with a face mask, mouthguard, gloves, shoes and matching shorts in addition to extra protective equipment such as a chest protector and shin guards.
Women’s lacrosse players wear a team jersey and matching shorts or a skirt, mouthguard and face mask protecting the eye area. The goaltender wears additional protective equipment including a chest protector, helmet with face mask, gloves and shin guards.
Fouls and Penalties
There are lots of penalties and fouls in lacrosse, but they can mostly be divided into two main categories called technical fouls, personal fouls. For example, slashing is a common personal foul that involves a player hitting another player with the shaft of the stick. Some examples of technical fouls include offsides and holding. Other types of penalties include unsportsmanlike conduct and delay of game.
Scoring and Winning
Teams score points by shooting the ball into the goal without incurring any penalties on the scoring play such as a crease violation or illegal stick. The entirety of the ball must cross the goal line in order for a point to count.
The attack for each team will set up offensive formations or try to start a fast break after a turnover in order to create scoring chances. The defense and goaltender on the opposing team aim to make a save or cause a turnover to win back possession of the ball.
The team with the most points at the end of regulation play and overtime (if necessary) wins the game.
Lacrosse Rules Summary
A field lacrosse game is 60 minutes long with a ten-minute halftime period.
An indoor lacrosse game is 45 minutes in total, divided into three 15-minute periods.
A men’s field lacrosse game has ten players on the field for each team, and a men’s indoor lacrosse game has six players on the field for each team. A women’s lacrosse game has twelve players on the field for each team.
The team with the most points at the end of the game wins. If the game is tied at the end of regulation play, teams compete in sudden-death overtime, and the team that scores the first goal is immediately declared the winner.
If a player commits a foul or penalty, they must wait in the penalty box for 30 seconds to three minutes, and up to a full ejection from the game depending on the severity of the penalty. A penalty will result in a change of possession or a free position shot depending on the nature of the foul and the field positioning where the foul occurred.
A lacrosse field is 110 yards long and 60 yards wide. Indoor lacrosse games are played on an oval-shaped field that is 60 yards long and 28 feet wide.
Substitutions in lacrosse can be made during the run of play and players must exchange through the substitution area. Substitutions can also occur during certain stoppages of play.
The lacrosse ball is made of solid rubber and weighs approximately 5 ounces and is about 8 inches in circumference.
A Solution to the Stick Dilemma
With new rules being put in place to regulate the length of shooters, how far down they can be placed, and whether or not to do a back test, I think it’s time we take a look at the bigger issue – the stick itself. Take the 2010 stick rules into account, and this is clearly a huge issue, but one that isn’t often discussed.
Earlier this week, Spike Malangone put forth a thought-provoking argument about what the new rules are doing to the game. You may agree with him all the way, on some of it, or maybe not at all, but you can’t dismiss the fact there is something askew with today’s rules.
While I don’t agree with everything Spike argued, he brought up some great points about putting too much judgment on the ref’s shoulders. As the introduction points out, I think the problem goes deeper than the shooters, shot clocks, or even width of the box, and it’s about time we readdress the dimensions of the sticks.
Just to make it clear, I love the new rules in regards to the box, no horns, and speeding up the play itself with quick restarts. All of those really do help to speed the game up and address the issues of safety. I was actually reading yesterday that, according to CollegeCrosse.com, goals are up 1.21 per game, shots are up 6.53 per game, and penalties are up 1.02 per game.
After restringing an old school stick I was given, it got me thinking, why have sticks gotten so pinched? Jim Brown, Jimmy Lewis, and even Kyle Harrison played with wider heads and still tore it up on the field. Even in the super wide stick I strung up, it still had a nice pocket in it. To help with accuracy, I threw in two U’s and it shot great – I actually nailed the first shot I took with it and about had a heart attack.
Today it is just the opposite, most kids start out with super pinched heads and learn to play with something that only aids in helping them develop bad habits. They spend upwards of 16 years with pinched heads, then are required to switch to a wider head for four years once they get to college, only to be allowed to go back once they graduate. Someone please explain to me the thought process here.
I couldn’t tell you exactly when sticks started getting super pinched, but I do know that every stick I played with starting out was already too pinched for my own good. In 2010, the heads were addressed and it was required that 2010 legal heads be widened out at the throat, but were allowed to be a little more pinched up top. A good start for sure, but again, it was only required for college play.
As hindsight is always 20/20, it’s easy for me to sit here and say they should’ve just widened the heads even more in 2010. I went through multiple Super Powers because, despite the new requirements, they still pinched far beyond legality during play. This leads me to my main point though – widening heads.
My 2014 Universal Head Proposals for Youth through NCAA levels of play.
Width of Heads
Why not require all heads to be 3.25, 3.5, or even 3.75 inches across through the throat? A lacrosse ball is required to be 62.7 mm to 64.7 mm in diameter, this is roughly 2.5 inches. Adding a quarter of an inch on either side of the ball is definitely not enough for a well placed check to knock the ball out. This is especially true when you consider how deep sidewalls and pockets are, and how most heads naturally pinch through ground balls, checks and face-off play.
As a player, I can tell you right now that people schemed up ways to get passed the 4″ rule within a week or two of the rule passing. The lead in photo is a great example, just look how channeled that mesh is.
While I would never consider myself a face-off expert, I took a lot of face-offs during college and definitely held my own at the x. My biggest frustration though, was having my stick pinch to the point where the ball would get stuck and I’d get called for an illegal stick. Widen the stick out a little more and you won’t even have to worry about the ‘back test’.
Widening heads could do wonders for the proper development of fundamentals, it would make catching easier for young kids and show them they shouldn’t be dodging through four guys. I think it would also lead to less penalty minutes and more ball movement. Defenders wouldn’t have to worry about checking harder and could focus on the well-timed poke checks to knock the ball out. Offenses in turn, would be forced to make smarter decisions, and move the ball quicker.
The above heads are all 2010 legal for play (or were in some cases). I am currently playing with an Easton Stealth Core which is pretty wide up through the throat and I actually prefer it over other pinched heads I have the option of playing with. You can see in these pictures how little wiggle room there is in some heads with the pinch.
At the end of the day, the biggest factor in making this change is going to come down to whether or not the stick manufacturers are willing to ‘buy-in’ to the new requirements. Considering the amount of money a lot of them could potentially lose in not being able to sell their old heads, I could see a lot of backlash in making this happen – and if that is the case, and the narrow heads are holding back the game, then that is pretty sad.
No matter if the rules change or not, the youth and NFHS need to align more with the NCAA rules. As you read previously, it blows my mind that we allow our youth and high school players to grow up with a false sense of security with their pinched heads.
It would make learning how to catch the ball a ton easier and would teach kids that you can’t dodge through an entire defense just because your older brother strung you up a sick pocket with a lot of hold. I look at many of the kids on the high school team I coach and see the same thing. The heads are all pinched, so of course they are going to take advantage of it.
To make sure I just wasn’t up here sitting on my soapbox (which I probably am), I reached out to a local referee and a coach, who have both been around the game as players, coaches, and refs since the late 80’s. I asked each of them the following two questions (easiest interview ever) and they both offered me great viewpoints on the new rules and how the game has changed.
1.) From your perspective, do you think the 4″ rule on sticks was the best move to make?
2.) Big picture, should the NFHS and youth levels consider adopting these new rules as well?
I think it is very important to consider both because one is from the referee’s side, and the other the coach’s side.
From the Ref’s perspective:
In my opinion the ability to customize your pocket is one of the most unique aspects of lacrosse that is virtually non-existent in every other sport.
I personally don’t believe that it will have any major impact as players will just find new ways to manipulate the pocket. Honestly this seems to me to be more of a situation where the head measurements need to change in order to actually have a real impact on the game.
As far as the bigger picture, I really think all the organizations should get together and come up with a complete specification and adopt it for a set number of years instead of the constant changing back and forth so kids don’t have to constantly relearn their game.
Furthermore, I personally believe that the head and stringing technologies have made it increasing more difficult to create a loose ball situation, which is why we have seen much more violent play over the years. As defenses have realized that they can’t possibly take the ball away with simple checks, it has forced them to switch to a more passive containment defense which has also contributed to the slowing down of the game.
Additionally, the defense players now are well aware that the only guaranteed way to make sure a shooter can’t somehow dodge through them (with one handed cradling shenanigans a la Mark Matthews) is to put the player on the ground leading to much more violent and risky body checks (like the horrid hit on Billy Bitter a few years ago).
These days at the higher levels you literally have to flat back a short stick in order to get the ball loose as best illustrated in last year’s Syracuse vs Albany game where a d-pole was just hammering on one of the Thompson kid’s gloves to zero avail. (EN: see below video)
From the Coach’s perspective:
In the late 90’s to early 00’s Brine came out with the first offset head (Edge) and that was the next revolution in head technology. By this time 90% of pockets were mesh and you were starting to see multiple shooting strings and the U and V shooting string formations. STX came out with the Proton (my brother Aaron was the designer of this head!) and due to patent issues called it the “forward cant.” These were the heads that REALLY began to change the way lacrosse is played today. The head design made it nearly impossible for a player to self eject the ball and seemed to naturally funnel the ball into the sweet part of the pocket. Warrior started in the late 90’s and became the 3rd manufacturer in the lacrosse head market and started pushing the envelope for the stick widths. I think Warrior started the pinched head craze that we enjoy today.
Do I think that the shooting string changes and the head width requirements will have a significant impact on the college game? No. I think it will eliminate some of the crazy stick fakes and cause players to work harder on some shooting techniques. I think that the shooting strings will cause the pockets to become less channeled and potentially allow for more dislodging of the ball.
Yes, I think it would be easier to regulate this with a wider head than measuring the shooting strings. In my opinion shooting strings are easier to move/change than head width, which makes the official’s job more difficult. Kinda like the deep pocket. It could be deep one minute and be legal the next. Shooting strings can slide down, especially with the resurgence of the traditional pocket.
Do I think that the shooting strings and the head width have hurt the overall passing skills of lacrosse players in the past 20 years? Yes. I think that passes today require stick head to move further 10-2 versus 11-1 with the old style pockets. This is what they mean by passes come out “slower” than they did in the old days. It takes longer to basically load the stick.
Am I in favor of a wider lacrosse head? Yes. I think it makes the game more exciting when defenses are able to create more turnovers. I think that you are seeing a resurgence of the “old rules in an effort to make lacrosse more marketable for television. Lacrosse doesn’t want the soccer image of 90 minutes of action and a 2-1 final score. Americans like scoring. Scoring sells. If you look at NCAA trends the scoring is down dramatically. I used to tell people lacrosse would typically have 20-30 goals scored between both teams. Today that number is close to 15-20.
The truth is today’s athletes are bigger, stronger, faster on average than the old stick era. If a player can really play-the head and pocket can be overcome or adjusted to. Does it make it easier to play with-yes. Tiger Woods could be 90% of the worlds golfers with 1980 Wilson clubs in his hand-the equipment helps equalize players-it doesn’t make the player. In my opinion.”
I’d like you to take away a couple main points away from both of these: the safety aspect from the ref’s perspective, and the adaptation aspect (last paragraph) from the coach’s perspective.
From a safety aspect, having more checks actually work would mean defenders wouldn’t be forced to check harder and more aggressively to get the ball out. They still could sure, but you could really see the whole surgeon vs. butcher mindset come into play more.
From an adaptation aspect, people will adapt. You saw it in 2010, this year, and any other year there are rule changes. People find ways to get around the rules when the items in question are able to be manipulated. People would probably complain about the width of heads if this were to ever happen, but I think they would be just as inclined to adapt and change the way they play.
I’ll leave you with highlight video, it has a solid mix of newer and older lacrosse, but watch for two main things, 1) how quickly the ball moves in the older shots and 2) how the defense gets more aggressive and check focused in the newer shots. I’d like to say this can be attributed to the sticks.
Announcers may say passing is crisper and shooting more precise, but I think a lot of those things are more a factor of the actual game play rules than themselves. Either way you look at it, I think it’s about time we focus on the root problem here – the sticks.
Essential Lacrosse Rules for Fans and Players – LaxWeeklyThe Lacrosse Rules You Need to Know
Are you a new fan of lacrosse trying to learn more how the game works? Are you a new player trying to learn the rules of the game? Do you just want to learn more about lacrosse rules? Read on.
Lacrosse is a fun sport to both watch and play, but sometimes the rules can be confusing, especially if you are not familiar with the game. Here are the basic rules of (boys) lacrosse that will help you become a better fan or player:
Table of Contents
Positions – What does each position do?
Specialty Players – Who are the specialty players in lacrosse?
Face-offs – What is a face-off?
General Rules – Game length, penalties, etc.Lacrosse Rules – Positions
- Attackmen: Attackmen can be compared to the “forward” position in soccer or hockey. Attackmen line up close to the goal, and their primary job is to score goals and assists. They must stay on the offensive side of the field, in other words, the half of the field that has the goal that the team is trying to score on. Here’s an illustration to show you what I mean
- Midfielders: Midfielders are the “do-it-all” lacrosse players. Unlike attackmen, midfielders can go anywhere on the field, which means that they play both offense and defense. Midfielders can score just like attackmen, but they are also must play defense then the opponent has the ball.
- Defensemen: Defensemen are the players that play defense against the opposing team’s attackmen. Just like attackmen, defensive players are only allowed to stay on one side of the field; the side that they are defending on. You’ll often find defensemen with longer lacrosse sticks than midfielders and attackmen. Each team is allowed to have 4 players with long sticks on the field at one time.
- Goalies: In lacrosse, there are 2 goalies on the field, one for each team. Much like a goalie in hockey or soccer, goalies in lacrosse try to stop the ball from going in the net. The best goalies have quick hands and great reflexes.
- Face-off man (FOGO): In recent years, this position has risen to popularity. FOGOs (face-off get off) are players whose sole purpose is to win possession of the ball when there is a face-off. Usually once the a player wins the face-off, he leaves the field in exchange for an offensive midfielder.
- Long-stick midfielder (LSM): As I alluded to earlier, each team is allowed 4 players with long sticks on the field at one time. When a team is playing defense, they will often times sub a regular midfielder in exchange for a long-stick midfielder. This gives the defensive team an advantage, since players with longer sticks have an easier time playing defense.
Note: If you’re watching youth lacrosse, you might not see any players at these specialty positions. These positions are geared toward a higher level of play, where coaches think more strategically about their offensive and defensive sets.
Lacrosse Rules – Face-off
Generally speaking, at the very beginning of each game, after halftime, and after every goal, a face-off happens. Face-offs happen when two players line up at the center of the field with the lacrosse ball in between them. Each player tries win possession for their team. You can think of the face-off like a “jump ball” in basketball. Here’s a gif showing you what a face-off is like:
Quick Notes: There are 10 players for each team on the lacrosse field at any given time. This usually includes 3 attackmen, 3 midfielders, 3 defensemen, and 1 goalie. Sometimes there can be more than 3 of a position on the field at a time, but there will always be 10 players on the field, unless there is a penalty. The team who has the most goals at the end of each game wins.
These are the basic rules of lacrosse. There are many nuances that will be explained in other articles, but knowing these rules will give you a better understanding of the game.
If you would like to learn more about lacrosse rules, here is a video that goes into greater detail about different facets of the game.
History of Lacrosse | Cambridge Youth Lacrosse
The History of Lacrosse
By Thomas Vennum Jr.
Author of American Indian Lacrosse: Little Brother of War.
Lacrosse was one of many varieties of indigenous stickball games being played by American Indians at the time of European contact. Almost exclusively a male team sport, it is distinguished from the others, such as field hockey or shinny, by the use of a netted racquet with which to pick the ball off the ground, throw, catch and convey it into or past a goal to score a point. The cardinal rule in all varieties of lacrosse was that the ball, with few exceptions, must not be touched with the hands.
Early data on lacrosse, from missionaries such as French Jesuits in Huron country in the 1630s and English explorers, such as Jonathan Carver in the mid-eighteenth century Great Lakes area, are scant and often conflicting. They inform us mostly about team size, equipment used, the duration of games and length of playing fields but tell us almost nothing about stickhandling, game strategy, or the rules of play. The oldest surviving sticks date only from the first quarter of the nineteenth century, and the first detailed reports on Indian lacrosse are even later. George Beers provided good information on Mohawk playing techniques in his Lacrosse (1869), while James Mooney in the American Anthropologist (1890) described in detail the “[Eastern] Cherokee Ball-Play,” including its legendary basis, elaborate rituals, and the rules and manner of play.
Given the paucity of early data, we shall probably never be able to reconstruct the history of the sport. Attempts to connect it to the rubber-ball games of Meso-America or to a perhaps older game using a single post surmounted by some animal effigy and played together by men and women remain speculative. As can best be determined, the distribution of lacrosse shows it to have been played throughout the eastern half of North America, mostly by tribes in the southeast, around the western Great Lakes, and in the St. Lawrence Valley area. Its presence today in Oklahoma and other states west of the Mississippi reflects tribal removals to those areas in the nineteenth century. Although isolated reports exist of some form of lacrosse among northern California and British Columbia tribes, their late date brings into question any widespread diffusion of the sport on the west coast.
On the basis of the equipment, the type of goal used and the stick-handling techniques, it is possible to discern three basic forms of lacrosse—the southeastern, Great Lakes, and Iroquoian. Among southeastern tribes (Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, Seminole, Yuchi and others), a double-stick version of the game is still practiced. A two-and-a half foot stick is held in each hand, and the soft, small deerskin ball is retrieved and cupped between them. Great Lakes players (Ojibwe, Menominee, Potawatomi, Sauk, Fox, Miami, Winnebago, Santee Dakota and others) used a single three-foot stick. It terminates in a round, closed pocket about three to four inches in diameter, scarcely larger than the ball, which was usually made of wood, charred and scraped to shape. The northeastern stick, found among Iroquoian and New England tribes, is the progenitor of all present-day sticks, both in box as well as field lacrosse. The longest of the three—usually more than three feet—it was characterized by its shaft ending in a sort of crook and a large, flat triangular surface of webbing extending as much as two-thirds the length of the stick. Where the outermost string meets the shaft, it forms the pocket of the stick.
Lacrosse was given its name by early French settlers, using the generic term for any game played with a curved stick (crosse) and a ball. Native terminology, however, tends to describe more the technique (cf. Onondaga DEHUNTSHIGWA’ES, “men hit a rounded object”) or, especially in the southeast, to underscore the game’s aspects of war surrogacy (“little brother of war”). There is no evidence of non-Indians taking up the game until the mid-nineteenth century, when English-speaking Montrealers adopted the Mohawk game they were familiar with from Caughnawauga and Akwesasne, attempted to “civilize” the sport with a new set of rules and organize into amateur clubs. Once the game quickly grew in popularity in Canada, it began to be exported throughout the Commonwealth, as non-native teams traveled to Europe for exhibition matches against Iroquois players. Ironically, because Indians had to charge money in order to travel, they were excluded as “professionals” from international competition for more than a century. Only with the formation of the Iroquois Nationals in the 1980s did they successfully break this barrier and become eligible to compete in World Games.
Apart from its recreational function, lacrosse traditionally played a more serious role in Indian culture. Its origins are rooted in legend, and the game continues to be used for curative purposes and surrounded with ceremony. Game equipment and players are still ritually prepared by conjurers, and team selection and victory are often considered supernaturally controlled. In the past, lacrosse also served to vent aggression, and territorial disputes between tribes were sometimes settled with a game, although not always amicably. A Creek versus Choctaw game around 1790 to determine rights over a beaver pond broke out into a violent battle when the Creeks were declared winners. Still, while the majority of the games ended peaceably, much of the ceremonialism surrounding their preparations and the rituals required of the players were identical to those practiced before departing on the warpath.
A number of factors led to the demise of lacrosse in many areas by the late nineteenth century. Wagering on games had always been integral to an Indian community’s involvement, but when betting and violence saw an increase as traditional Indian culture was eroding, it sparked opposition to lacrosse from government officials and missionaries. The games were felt to interfere with church attendance and the wagering to have an impoverishing effect on the Indians. When Oklahoma Choctaw began to attach lead weights to their sticks around 1900 to use them as skull-crackers, the game was outright banned.
Meanwhile, the spread of nonnative lacrosse from the Montreal area eventually led to its position today worldwide as one of the fastest growing sports (more than half a million players), controlled by official regulations and played with manufactured rather than hand-made equipment—the aluminum shafted stick with its plastic head, for example. While the Great Lakes traditional game died out by 1950, the Iroquois and southeastern tribes continue to play their own forms of lacrosse. Ironically, the field lacrosse game of nonnative women today most closely resembles the Indian game of the past, retaining the wooden stick, lacking the protective gear and demarcated sidelines of the men’s game, and tending towards mass attack rather than field positions and offsides.
- Culin, Stewart. “Games of the North American Indians.” In Twenty-fourth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1902-1903, pp. 1-840. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1907.
- Fogelson, Raymond. “The Cherokee Ball Game: A Study in Southeastern Ethnology.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1962.
- Vennum, Thomas Jr. American Indian Lacrosse: Little Brother of War. Washington, DC and London: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1994.
Read this article and more on the origins of lacrosse directly from the sport’s national governing body, USA Lacrosse.
US Women’s Lacrosse: Revised Rules for 2016
This week US Lacrosse released new rules for all women’s leagues, many of which are designed to ensure better safety standards in players. US Lacrosse is the governing body that writes the rules for men’s and women’s lacrosse, which is followed by the National Federation for State High Schools Associations(NFHS) and collegiate club lacrosse (WCLA).
Among the many revisions listed below, an important ammendment is the change to pentalty card calls. As per the new rules, officials will be giving mandatory yellow cards to players who engage in dangerous contact.
Similar to other women’s sports, in women’s lacrosse, contact and stick checking is prohibited. The new pentalty rule aims to discourage players from engaging in potentially dangerous injuries. Unlike men’s lacrosse, the girls dont have the correct gear (gloves, pads and helmets) to withstand that type of contact.
Aside from actual game play rules, additional safety changes have been made for mouthguards. White and clear mouthguards remain illegal and guards with graphics of teeth are now prohibited. This is to help officials make sure players are wearing a mouthguard.
These are the much needed efforts which help reduce the risk of injuries with potentially long term effects, like concussions and dental injuries. Maintaining and updating these safety standards play an important role in a players life even after sports. Enforcing these practices doesn’t always come easy. It takes participation from everyone involved: players, coaches, parents, equipment manufactuers, officiators and governing bodies.
Rule 1, Section 9: Two small circles/dots shall be added to the field marking and placed five yards below the goal line in line with the 8-meter mark on goal line extended. These marks will designate the spot for the ball to be put in play when a foul occurs in the critical scoring area below the goal line.
Rule 2, Section 5: The ball may be lime green in addition to yellow or bright orange in color.
Rule 2, Section 8:Mouthpieces shall be any color other than clear or white and must not have graphics of white teeth. This adjustment makes it easier to determine if a player is properly wearing a mouthpiece.
Rule 2, Section 9: Eyewear used in 2016 may meet the ASTM standard of F803 or F3077. The new ASTM standard (F3077) shall be in effect on January 1, 2017.
Rule 2, Section 10: Effective January 1, 2017, the only optional headgear allowed for use must meet the new ASTM standard, F31317.
Rule 2, Section 14: Effective January 1, 2018, home team jerseys shall be light in color and visitor jerseys must be dark in color.
Rule 2, Section 16: Effective January 1, 2018, visible undergarments (long or short sleeve) must correspond to the team’s predominate jersey color, or be light in color with a light jersey and dark in color with a dark jersey.
Rule 2, Section 17: Eye black must be one solid stroke with no logos/numbers/letters and shall not extend further than the width of the eye socket or below the cheekbone.
Rule 3, Section 10: Beginning January 1, 2017, the game must be officiated by at least two certified officials. Three officials are recommended.
Rule 4, Section 7: Overtime play shall be sudden victory (first goal ends the game).
Rule 4, Section 7:In overtime, there shall be no substitutions during the changing of ends.
Rule 5, Section 1 and Rule 5, Section 19: The goalkeeper must remain below the restraining line on the draw.
Rule 5, Section 2 and Rule 5, Section 19: The goalkeeper may not draw, shoot or score for her own team.
Rule 5, Section 20: The throw shall be eliminated and replaced by a procedure of alternate possession. The winner of the coin toss shall have the option of choosing ends of the field or having the first possession that occurs.
Rule 5, Section 23: The penalty administration for an illegal player discovered after a goal and before play is restarted shall be at the center.
Rule 5, Section 28: Stick check requests must include the number of the player whose stick is to be checked.
Rule 6, Section 1: A new foul for dangerous contact has been added. Dangerous contact shall be any action that thrusts or shoves any player, with or without the ball, who is in a defenseless position. This includes blind side, head down, or from behind.
Rule 6, Section1j: The free position for a three seconds violation will be the spot of the ball.
Rule 7, Section 28: The delay of game progression has changed. The first violation remains the same. On the next delay of game, the official will show a green and yellow card to the offending player and award the appropriate penalty (major foul). The offending player must leave the field for two minutes of elapsed playing time. No substitute is allowed. Any subsequent delay of game calls will result in a yellow card for misconduct.
Rule 7, Section 31: On goalkeeper misconduct, if a second goalkeeper is dressed, she must enter the game. A field player may not substitute for the goalkeeper.
Rule 8, Definition of Terms: The Critical Scoring Area shall be defined by the 12-meter fan in front of the goal and the area behind the goal between the 12-meter marks at the goal line extended and extending to the end line.
Three rule changes were made specifically to the youth rules:
1) Three seconds shall not be in effect for U-9 and below as players in this area are required to be playing 1-on-1 defense.
2) Also for U-9 and below, possession of the ball after goals shall alternate and restart at the center.
3) For U-11 and below, games should feature 7-vs-7, including a goalkeeper if there is one, and should be played on a modified field.
Hockey stick parameters
Hockey stick parameters
Hello everyone again! In the last article, we figured out what parameters are available for clubs, and now we will look at how to choose a club for ourselves.
First, you need to understand which side you are playing on. Left or right. There is a very simple way to check. Whichever hand you have upper when you vacuum, mop the floors or dig a hole with a shovel (which is preferable to whom) – that hand will be the upper one on the stick.
So let’s define what exactly you need?
First, let’s figure out the growth of the club. This point is the most important of all of the above.
Sticks are: YTH – 45 inches (115cm), JUNIOR – 50, 52 and 54 inches (127, 132 and 137cm), INT – 57 inches (144cm), SR – 60 and 64 inches (152 and 162cm) . The club is measured from the heel of the feather (base of the stick) to the top end. To understand which length you need, you need to keep your feet together and stand up straight and put the club in front of you on the tip of the feather.The stick should be strictly upright.
Depending on the length of the club, the fit and manner of play change. There is one regularity: the lower the stick, the better the technique. But then, first of all, the area of your influence on the field suffers. How far from your current body position you can interact with the puck in the 360 areola. Secondly, the effective throwing range is reduced. That is, the further you are from the goal, the less accurate and weak the shot will be.
Conversely, if the stick is long, it will be easier for you to knock it out of your opponents, pass it, and click more efficiently.It is also very accurate and strong to give long passes. In this case, it is better not to resort to beats, fast dribbling and feints. As a rule, such clubs, regardless of the pen, are chosen by those who know what the defenders want. They clearly limit their responsibilities, but perform them perfectly.
How to prepare a hockey stick.
I recommend that you always cut your club based on your current height. For beginners, I recommend sawing the club along the bridge of the nose. So they will not have to bend too much when the club is in two hands, respectively, the riding technique is mastered without flaws.In children, it is not necessary to saw off too much with a margin (often the clubs are sawed off for growth), a maximum of 2 centimeters, otherwise this may negatively affect the teaching of the technique. It’s easier with adults. The growth of the player is already stable and you can choose, the club gradually, using different options. The best option is if a knowledgeable trainer tells you, taking into account your data and riding technique, coupled with the technique of hand control and their movement. The popular belief is that the club should be sawed off under the tip of the nose.My personal opinion is that it is necessary to saw off, especially for beginners, up to the chin. In this form, the club, when moving, does not hinder the movement of the hands, and the technique will “lie down” more correctly.
It was not in vain that I paid such attention to the length of the club, as I believe that this is the most important thing for a hockey player. For a professional, even millimeters matter. A small deviation and you will no longer get exactly the same throw that has been practiced for a long time. I personally have been playing for many years so long that the tip is exactly at the level of the upper lip line (yes, so picky), or 58.7 inches.But I recommend starting with a slightly longer club than necessary, because you always have time to saw off, the main thing is not to be afraid to experiment.
In the next article we will look at what feathers are. That is, their forms are options for bends, and at the same time we will understand their numerical designations.90,000 Alexander Polyakov: There are no new rules on deterrent fouls: News: Kontinental Hockey League (KHL)
Head of the Refereeing Department Alexander Polyakov commented on the new guidelines introduced at the beginning of the season in determining violations of the rules regarding restraining fouls with the use of a stick.
– The first days of the championship are underway, and after some time it became clear that not only the fans, but also many coaches and players do not understand where these or those violations come from, and are also perplexed about their number.
– The wave of misunderstanding is understandable: it’s one thing to talk about changes in the settings of the rules, and another thing to see them in action. When I spoke about this at a meeting with the leaders of the clubs, I warned that there would be many deletions, the teams would often play in unequal compositions.What to do next? Then we will keep the same line that was set at the beginning of the season. In the established standards, we will try to get rid of the “weak” deletions, which are inevitable at the beginning of the season. If we talk about the pre-season games, then there were the same settings, only the intensity of matches in the regular season is completely different, and the increase in the intensity of the struggle led to a greater number of deletions.
At the start of the season, the referees are undoubtedly trying to show the standards of sending off, somewhere they overdo it.All this will now go away, only a stricter interpretation of the above rules will remain: holding with a club, hitting an opponent with a club, pushing with a club, etc. Many people talk about new rules, but there are no new rules. The rules are the same and the violations are the same. It’s just that the referees began to look at them more closely in order to save our hockey from dirty actions that do not allow good, technical players to prove themselves. These fouls are committed mainly by those who do not have the proper technique and skating. And in this situation, we need to decide what we want: to see beautiful hockey, abandoned pucks, or we want to protect those who can neither skate well nor play well.If we want the first, then we just need to toughen the approaches to the definitions of violations of the rules, which we, I mean our entire hockey community – clubs and leagues, did.
– Players say: you can’t hit the club from below.
– You can. This bias comes from moments in the game when the referees may have given such penalties that it is completely wrong. Moreover, this information comes from somewhere else and circulates among the players. You can knock out the club from below.You can hit the club below the lower arm, but not hard. She can work: put your stick on the player’s stick, pat on the stick and even on the body. It all depends on the strength with which it happened. If a player hits from the full swing from top to bottom, or from the side with a baseball blow, this is a blow with a club. Even if he hits the club below the lower arm, not to mention the stick between the arms. If the player does this, he does not need to run after the opponent: he hit the arms or body from behind, distracted his attention, and the job is done.It’s good if after this blow he did not injure.
– Many were taught to play this way from childhood, someone came to such a technique himself. And relearn at 30 is not easy.
– These words are understandable. In response to them, one can say only one thing: it is never too late to learn. Anyone who learns throughout his life achieves high results. There is one more saying: that judges turn hockey into ballet. This is absolutely not the case. Watch the NHL. Is there ballet there? Or the Swedish league.No, there is great hockey.
– Will the chosen interpretation of the rules on deterrent fouls be in line with the North American one or the one proposed by the IIHF?
– We want it to be the same with us. It all depends on the nuances in each country, and, of course, on the judges: how they see this or that moment on the ice. We can watch TV as much as we like, but it is the referees who can “feel” the force of the blow and make the right decision. After all, two identical hits on ice can look completely different.As for the NHL and Sweden, there such violations are punished even more severely. Likewise, where there are countries where judges are worse than ours. Of course, one could argue that some violations, for example, in the NHL, go unpunished – but these are the usual passes. Even the two most qualified arbiters cannot see everything.
– At the same time, speaking about the strict interpretation of violations, we do not mean a power struggle at all.
– Of course. We’re only talking about club hold, club strikes, hand hold, footrests.No one is going to prohibit power techniques if they are performed correctly: without hitting the head, without attacking from behind, without pushing on board, and not just for the sake of hitting. Even now, in any country, I can find a lot of examples when a player beats another player after he parted with the puck, and no sanctions are applied to him. Strength reception cannot be regulated “from and to”. It is important how exactly they hit and why: to take the puck, or to injure the opponent. You can also carry out a power reception after the conditional three seconds, as the player parted with the puck.The only question is its purity: there should not be a blow to the head, jumping and other things. It is possible to prohibit power techniques altogether, then there will definitely be ballet on ice. The same should be the case with the blow with the club. If, in the heat of the struggle, the player simply touched his hands, a violation of the rules should not be recorded.
– Since players and coaches do not always understand the new interpretations of the rules, the more questions remain among a wide range of spectators.
– In the near future we will prepare and publish on the website a video with detailed explanations of the interpretation of violations in order to try to clarify the situation for the fans.Most of them know hockey, reacting negatively to just “weak” violations.
– With the tightening of the interpretation of deterrent fouls, the likelihood of simulating the so-called “fish” may increase.
– I don’t see a problem here. If there was a foul, then it was. What does the player do next: does not pay attention or falls, crumpled in pain, this is the next episode. If there was no blow, and the player threw away the glove, feigning pain, he must be punished.Of course, there is also a downside: after playing with a high-raised stick, the hockey player lies on the ice, he has nothing on his face, the referee gives 2 minutes for a violation, and the simulator continues to play. Such things will be punished.
– In the 2005/2006 season, the NHL also changed the interpretation of restraining fouls, there were a large number of penalties, the teams played almost the entire match in unequal compositions and, as a result, there were large, sometimes illogical results. At first.
– From my experience with NHL referees, I can say that the situation was not easy.There were complaints from coaches and players, and numerous statements about the same ballet. Everything was the same. And the decision, like ours, was made collectively by the clubs, not by the judges, and it had to be carried out by all together. You can’t make decisions and then refuse – it looks ridiculous. If there is a goal to be pursued, a result must be achieved. If the referee does not follow the general instructions for the league, you need to work with him. If players do not like the new interpretations now, this is not a reason to cancel them.
– Before the 2006/2007 season, new interpretations were announced in the Russian Super League, corresponding to the global ones. The judges seemed to start working according to the new guidelines, but then all this was somehow forgotten, and now we seem to be returning to what we have already passed.
– The level of judges was different – some worked at the international level, others in the old fashioned way. When the referee of the international category served, the coaches said: stop interfering with us, judge, as we were judged in the previous match.The referees who carried out the league’s directives became black sheep. All this quietly died down. Four years ago, we also started implementing the same interpretations again. But there were complaints from the clubs, and this initiative again curtailed. Now the clubs themselves, together with the judges, have made a decision, and to cancel it again means to take two steps back again. The judging department wants to move forward.
– How has the interpretation of the International Ice Hockey Federation changed over the past 20 years?
– They changed as hockey changed.Over time, there were more oversized players. At first, they were slow, they began to use the club more often to try to reach the player. Then everyone started to do it. When inspecting matches, it was clearly visible how technical hockey players with excellent skating could not do anything against the holds. I put the player on the pitchfork (delaying the player’s body by pushing the stick between the body and hands and then raising it – MS’s note), and he will not go anywhere. I had to draw conclusions, make changes to the rules and interpretations.The ultimate goal of all this is to see beautiful technical actions, more goals scored. Why do players get paid big money? First of all, in order for them to score goals, show skill, demonstrate their, first of all, attacking skills, so that the viewer goes to them. And those who do not know how to play correctly, use a stick: it clings, hits it on the body, on the hands, on the legs, incapacitating those who can please us with their game, should be punished.
Marat Safin, specially for khl.ru90,000 No assault. Refereeing department and referees explain how to select the puck – Hockey news
Starting with the seventh season, the KHL has new regulations on deterrent fouls. A large number of deletions in the first matches of the championship raised questions and even criticism. The KHL refereeing department and the league referees explain how these violations are determined and how the puck should be selected so as not to get two minutes for it.
Already in the opening match of the 7th season of the KHL, the press box was perplexed: “What’s going on?” The players ride next to each other, the referee raises his hand – sending off, and nothing is clear. Moreover, after a couple of playing days, the same question began to be asked by players and coaches, and a little later – by general managers. Now, when the indignation has subsided, the head of the Refereeing Department, Alexander Polyakov, and the chief referees of the KHL, Vyacheslav Bulanov and Roman Hoffman, are finally putting everything in its place, answering questions that have recently agitated the hockey community.
WHAT IS REMOVED FOR?
– The wave of misunderstanding is understandable, – says Alexander Polyakov . – It’s one thing to talk about changes in the settings of the rules, it’s another thing to see them in action. On the ice, it happens exactly as everyone sees it now. When I spoke about this at a meeting with the leaders of the clubs, I warned that there would be many deletions, the teams would often play in unequal compositions.
ROMAN HOFMAN: For example, we fight with punches to the arms and between the arms.If this happens during the struggle and if the player gets slightly between the hands, then these are elements of the game. If he strikes with the aim of hitting, it is two minutes. I would not say that a lot has changed: if before, after a slight blow between the hands, the referee watched what happens next – whether the opponent managed to perform a technical action after that, whether he lost the puck, now we punish any blow to the hands and between hands. The goal of the puck taker is to play the stick below the lower hand, not backhand.You can hit it from below, you can hit the club from the side, but not hard. It doesn’t have to be hit for hit, and players should forget about hitting between hands. The goal of the player should be the selection of the puck, and not the blow, which, in principle, is already rudeness in itself.
VYACHESLAV BULANOV: Everything related to hand and stick delays, as well as blockings, remained at the same level, there are no innovations. The only thing is that we have increased the control over the blow with the club: we are talking about chopping blows on the clubs and between the hands.Until this season in the IIHF and NHL, this violation was assessed more severely.
POLES: It is possible to tap the stick from the bottom. You can hit the club below the lower arm, but not hard. She can work: put your stick on the player’s stick, pat on the stick and even on the body. It all depends on the strength with which this happens. If a player hits from the full swing from top to bottom or from the side with a baseball blow, this is a blow with a club. Even if he hits the club below the lower arm, not to mention the stick between the arms.If the player does this, he does not need to run after the opponent: he hit the arms or body from behind, distracted his attention, and the job is done. It’s good if he didn’t inflict injury with this blow.
WHERE DOES THIS INSTALLATION COME FROM?
BULANOV: The NHL and the International Ice Hockey Federation are arguing over whose innovation it is. The IIHF at its tournaments since the early 2000s has shown the required level of penalties, including for restraining fouls. They had video examples, paper explanations of club and hand delays, and blocking.But the IIHF tournaments are short-term, innovations were applied there, and in the domestic European championships all this was safely forgotten. In the NHL, however, the program to combat deterrent fouls was purposefully launched in the 2005/06 season, providing it with numerous teaching materials. The IIHF supported this trend: in February 2006, the hockey tournament at the Olympic Games in Turin was to be judged according to the same NHL standards with the IIHF. Before the Olympics, the referees were specially assembled and explained to them what restraining fouls were.In Russia, in the middle of the championship, we could not introduce new interpretations, so we began to apply them in practice from the 2006/07 season, based on the experience of the NHL and IIHF. In the summer, we held several seminars and meetings
in teams. As a result, there were a large number of penalties at the preseason tournaments, and then the players lowered their clubs, and there were several times fewer hand delays. Hockey has really become cleaner.
POLYAKOV: From my experience with the NHL referees, I can say that their situation was not easy.There were complaints from coaches and players, and numerous statements about the same ballet. The same as we have now. And the decision, as in our situation, was made collectively by the clubs, not by the judges, and it had to be carried out by all together. You can’t make decisions and then abandon them. It looks ridiculous. If there is a goal to be pursued, a result must be achieved. As for the introduction of new interpretations in our country even before the creation of the KHL, then the level of judges was different. Some were judged internationally.Others do it the old fashioned way. When the game was served by an international referee, the coaches said: stop interfering with us, judge as we were judged in the previous match. The referees who carried out the league’s directives became black sheep. All this quietly died down.
BULANOV: Yes, there was such a moment. The support of the leadership of those who follow this line is very important here. Those who deleted a lot raised a lot of questions from hockey players and coaches. Those who judged the old fashioned way were less scolded.Now we need to support all the referees in how they adhere to the line of the Department of Judging. Even if the team plays three against five, you still need to remove their player again if the violation is obvious.
POLYAKOV: Four years ago we also began to implement the same interpretations. But there were complaints from the clubs, and this initiative again curtailed. Now the clubs themselves, together with the judges, have made a decision, and to cancel it again means to take two steps back again.The judging department wants to move forward.
WHY SO MANY WHISTLE?
POLYAKOV: At the start of the season, the referees, of course, try to show the standards of sending off and overdo it somewhere. All this will now go away, only a more strict interpretation of the above rules will remain: a delay with a club, a blow to an opponent with a club, a push with a club, and so on. Many people talk about new rules, but there are no new rules. The rules are the same and the violations are the same.It’s just that the referees began to look at them more closely in order to rid our hockey of these dirty actions that do not allow good, technical players to prove themselves.
BULANOV: Of course, there are also errors. But they are inevitable at the beginning of the season. Yes, all judges cannot define moments in the same way. It’s like in hockey: there is the first, and there is the fourth link. You just need to catch up with everyone, because the goal of the referees is the same.
HOFMAN : Perhaps someone understood this literally: they say, any blow with a stick on a stick should be punished, and such judges began to give a fine for everything.But this, I think, is also wrong. If we remove any touch with the club, it will really be difficult for the players. Some mistakes at the beginning of the season can be attributed to misunderstandings. But at the same time, we are keeping the line, strictly fulfilling our tasks, understanding exactly what Alexander Polyakov demands of us. And, of course, we try not to go too far, not to fix everything in a row when there are blows with a club on the club in order to take away the puck.
HOW TO PLAY NEXT?
HOFMAN: There were really a lot of questions in my first game this season.Probably not everyone got the information. The players asked questions in the correct form, asked how to proceed. In my opinion, after a few games, they began to get used to the new setups. If we compare my first game and the sixth, then for hitting an opponent with a club, pushing or holding a club in the first match, 8 violations were recorded, and in the sixth – only 4. Now, if a player loses a position, he does not make an automatic hit with a club, due to which he could stop his opponent for a while, as he had done before.Now he starts to run after the opponent, tries to lift his stick, play the puck. It reminded me of the Swedish championship, where I was judging by exchange. There, too, there was a struggle with such techniques, and this is how they play there now. Then I was pleasantly surprised that people are trying to play the puck. At the moment, I think we are keeping the required level, and the teams are gradually starting to get used to it. The essence of the new installations was this: to remove the reflex of hitting with a club from the players when the position is lost.We are on the right track. By the middle of the season, hockey in our league will be much cleaner.
BULANOV: If you compare hockey in 2005, 2010 and 2014, this is heaven and earth. You watch your match and ask yourself a question: “Why didn’t you delete for this?” Obvious (in the modern view) violations were overlooked, but then there were completely different attitudes. It seems that certain points were spelled out in the rules, but if the player did not fall immediately, it would not be considered a violation. Even I was taught at the children’s sports school: “First, pull up your opponent on the stick, slow down his speed, and then hit with your shoulder.”This has been going on since childhood.
POLYAKOV: It’s never too late to learn. Anyone who learns throughout his life achieves high results. these fouls are committed mainly by those who do not have sufficient good technique and skating. And in this situation, we need to decide what we want: to see beautiful hockey or to protect those who can neither skate well nor play well? If we want the first, then we just need to toughen the approaches to the definitions of violations of the rules, which we (I mean our entire hockey community – both clubs and the league) and did.Then we will keep the same line that was set at the beginning of the season. In the established standards, we will try to get rid of the “weak” deletions, which are inevitable at the beginning of the season.
BULANOV: After some time, it is clear that the hockey players have lowered their clubs. Everyone understands that if a player enters a shooting position and the opponent uses his stick not to tackle the puck, but as a weapon to interfere with the shot, then this is a penalty. But for some reason, the press continues to write that hockey is turning into ballet on ice.In the game, by the way, much less questions are asked. But in the media, the topic is constantly being discussed, and many, unfortunately, have an amateurish approach to the topic of assessing violations.
HOFMAN: Now there is pressure on the referees: they say, the idea is good, but we are doing something wrong. I am sure we are doing everything right. If something goes wrong, the Judging Department will correct us. The screams and noise about the deletions will soon decrease, everyone will get used to it. Before the matches, I try not to read the hockey press, so as not to delve into the nuances, not to clog my head with unnecessary thoughts.I just try to do my job better from game to game.
SO WILL HOCKEY BECOME A “BALLET ON ICE”?
POLYAKOV: Watch the NHL matches. Is there ballet there? Or take a look at the Swedish league. No, there is great hockey. We do not destroy the power struggle, we are talking only about the delay with a stick, hit with a stick, hold with the hands, the stretcher. No one is going to prohibit power techniques if they are performed correctly: without hitting the head, without attacking from behind, without pushing on board, and not just for the sake of hitting.Even now, in any country, I can find a lot of examples when one player beats another after he parted with the puck, and no sanctions are applied to him. Strength reception cannot be regulated “from and to”. It is important how exactly they hit and why: to take the puck away or to injure the opponent? You can also carry out a power reception later than the conditional three seconds after the player has parted with the puck. The only question is its purity: there should be no blow to the head, bouncing and other unsportsmanlike elements.The same should be the case for hitting with a club. If, in the heat of the struggle, the player simply touched the opponent’s hands, no violation of the rules should be recorded.
BULANOV: I noticed that the power struggle has even increased in recent days. This is obvious, because instead of clinging, now you have to play with the body. Less technical teams must oppose more technical teams at the expense of speed and power struggle. This is how they must compensate for the technical lag. I believe that with high-quality physical training it is possible.
POLYAKOV: If we talk about the simulation that is possible after tightening the settings, then I see no problem here. If there was a foul, then it was. What does the player do next: just falls down or additionally makes a pirouette, crouching in pain – that’s another question, the next episode. If there was no blow with a club, and the player threw away the glove, feigning pain, he must be punished. Of course, there is also a downside: after touching the helmet with a high-raised stick, the player falls on the ice, showing everyone that he is in great pain, but he has no injury.The referee, nevertheless, gives two minutes for the violation, and the simulator continues to play. You should be fined for such things.
BULANOV: I believe that the changes in definitions and interpretation of violations of the rules in hockey were more evolutionary than revolutionary in nature. Hockey changed, the speed became higher, and the rules were gradually adjusted to the new realities of the game. It has become much more difficult to judge now. There is practically no margin for error. Most of the games are streamed live in good quality, and match recordings are also available.If you have taken a certain level, then you no longer have the right to ignore any fouls.
POLYAKOV: Over time, more and more large players appeared. They were slow at first, often using a club to reach their opponents. Then everyone started to do it. When inspecting matches, it was clearly visible how technical players with excellent skating could not do anything against the holds. I put the player on the pitchfork (delaying the player’s body by pushing the stick between the body and hands and then raising it.- Approx. author) – and he will not go anywhere. I had to draw conclusions, make changes to the rules and settings. The ultimate goal of all our efforts is to see beautiful technical actions on the ice, more goals scored. Why do players get paid big money? First of all, so that they score goals, show their skills, demonstrate their attacking skills; so that the viewer goes to them. And those who do not know how to use their stick correctly – they cling, beat it on the body, on the hands, on the legs, incapacitating the hockey players who delight us with their game – should be punished.
Material published in the KHL magazine “Hot Ice” (No. 2, season 2014/2015)
Field hockey technique
The specificity of field hockey is determined by the way the stick is used and the technical prerequisites of the rules of the game.
This specificity presupposes that a hockey player has special physical readiness, the development of which is paid attention to at the very initial stage of training (among other things, the mobility of the joints of the arms and legs, the hip joint).
In the process of training a hockey player, the main focus is on technique. The value and volume of training aimed at practicing technique is greater in field hockey compared to other sports.
At the same time, much attention is paid to the issues of tactics and general physical fitness.
Field hockey: features of the main technical elements.
The player must be able to quickly start performing all movements and actions with the club from the main position.
Field hockey: hand position.
The flat side of the club faces to the left. The left hand holds the end of the handle (athletes from Asian countries prefer not to hold the end of the handle at all), the right hand is located approximately in the middle of the putter.
Field hockey: running.
Running in field hockey is typical of an unexpected change of direction to the back or to the side. The player runs with slightly bent knees, with the body weight being mostly transferred to the toes. He holds the stick, depending on the situation, with one hand (in the right – with a long fast run; in the left – immediately before a left-sided attack) or with both hands in front of the body (at the level of the ball).
Field hockey: dribbling.
In accordance with the game situation, the ball is set in motion by weak blows of the leading hand (if there is no interference from the opponent) or when alternately changing the led and leading hands (when opposed by the opponent or when outplaying the opponent). Coordination between body and arm movements or club work is crucial.
Field hockey: stopping the ball.
When stopping the ball, the hockey player must hold the stick freely.Elastic backward sliding of the club on touching the ball prevents the ball from “bouncing”. This also applies to stopping the ball with the trailing hand, during which the club must be turned slightly differently. It is allowed to stop “high” and “low” balls by hand. In this case, it is allowed only to slow down the movement of the ball, and not to give it the desired direction.
Field hockey: continuous dribbling.
The ball remains on the field. The club hook is placed directly behind the ball and follows the ball up to 25 cm.Continuous guidance is convenient for fast, accurate transmission from any position.
Field Hockey Shot.
The flat side of the club hook slides under the ball. Then, due to a more or less strong impact, the ball can be raised to different heights and thrown at different distances. Swing shot is used for shots at goal, serves and flank passes.
Field hockey: shot on the move.
This type of blow (convenient when playing with short passes) is made by the player without changing the position of the club by means of a short swing.
Field hockey: lead and trailed throws.
When hitting with the dominant hand, the distance between both hands should be small. During the swing, the right hand slides up the handle of the club. The hockey player puts his left foot forward slightly if the right hand is in the lead. The ball at this time must lie in such a way that it can be hit with the most curved part of the club hook. During the swing phase and the final phase, the club should not rise above shoulder level. A blow with the driven hand is performed by turning the driven hand (hidden transmission).
Field hockey: start of the game.
Two players simultaneously touch the surface of the field to the right of the ball lying between them with their clubs and then touch the flat sides of the clubs above the ball. After repeating three times, the ball can be put into play.
Field hockey: taking the ball off the hockey stick.
When removing the ball from the club, it should be borne in mind that first of all it is necessary to touch the ball. Up to this point, the player dribbling the ball must not be touched by either the club or the body.
Field hockey: goalkeeper technique.
The goalkeeper deflects low balls with his boots. Balls running at knee level with shin guards. “High” balls – with your hands. He can lift the club no higher than shoulder level.
Field hockey90,000 NHL rules named after Alexander Ovechkin, Sergei Makarov and Martin Brodeur – February 22, 2021
The National Hockey League, over its more than a century of existence, has largely learned from its mistakes.There were various incidents in the history of North American hockey: in the 1974 draft, the Buffalo general manager drafted the nonexistent Japanese striker Taro Tsujimoto. If the leadership of the “blades” was funny, then many of his colleagues and the organization itself did not appreciate the reputational blow to the league.
All hockey and hockey rules were often refined on their own, often bad examples. After a flurry of concussions and head injuries, the league took up fights and then dirty power tricks.Sport24 speculated about the incidents and tricks of different clubs in the history of the NHL that led to the introduction of special rules.
Reiju Ruotsalainen Rule, 1987
The first in line is the Reiju Ruotsalainen Rule. It consists in the fact that a hockey player who played in Europe after the start of the season of the National Hockey League must go through a draft waiver in order to join the NHL club in the middle of the season. This applies to non-drafted hockey players. For example, Alexander Kadeikin was drafted by Detroit, which means that after the termination of the contract with Salavat, he has the right to play for Krylia this season.But Damir Zhafyarov, who is interested in the same Detroit, cannot do this, he will have to go through the waver procedure.
Who is Ruotsalainen and why did this rule appear? In March 1987 the Finnish defender came to the Oilers and in the same year the team won the Stanley Cup. Reiu decided to go to the Olympic Games – for this he needed to conclude a contract with a club from Europe, since hockey players from the NHL were not allowed to the Games. The choice fell on the club from the Swiss elite “Bern”.In Calgary, the Finn earned Olympic silver medals with the national team. Then the defender decided to come to the NHL again, but very quickly from the Devils he was exchanged for the already familiar Edmonton. With them, he won another Stanley Cup three years later, along the way went down in history as the person whose name was named the rule prohibiting playing in one season in the European League and NHL without going through the draft refusals procedure.Getty Images
Martin Brodeur Rule 2014
Another landmark rule in the National Hockey League is the Martin Brodeur Rule.This outstanding Canadian goalkeeper is famous not only for three Stanley Cups and four Vezinas. A rule was named after him, which seriously changed the pace of the game. In 2014, the NHL extended the trapezoid line behind the goal by two feet on either side of the net. This innovation had two polar opinions.
This is what the then president of the hockey operations of the Wisps Briaye Burke said: “The game has become similar to tennis and has turned out to be a little more dynamic. The opposing team throws the puck into your zone, and then the goalkeeper plays on it and throws it into the corner.There the fight for the puck begins and the possibility of a forecheck appears. This is what we wanted. ”
But Brodeur did not share Burke’s point of view. “It is impossible to be happy when what you have been doing throughout your career is taken away from you. You cannot feel confident when you are not able to help your partners at the same level and do what you think is necessary, – said the famous New York Times goalkeeper. “Playing with the puck is part of me, which means I’m as discouraged as possible. If there were 30 Brodeaux Martin in the league, no one would have voted for this rule.No one has such goalkeepers playing with a stick, so this innovation happened. Teams that do not have such goalkeepers benefit from such a rule, because they can finally be sure that no one will be able to interfere with them at the level at which I did it. ”
It is because of this reaction, and partly because of the desire to further strengthen Brodeur in the annals of history, this rule was named after him.Getty Images
The Don Cherry / Scotty Bowman Rule, 1979
In 1979, another funny situation occurred that went down in league history as the Don Cherry and Scotty Bowman Rule.When he was a TV expert and guru of Canadian journalism, Cherry put an end to the careers of hockey players and coaches with his show. However, according to my own recollections from an autobiography book, there was one case that everyone remembered for a long time.
Cherry wrote: “The players of Montreal and my Boston disliked each other. We lost two finals in a row to them and did not want to lose the third in a row. It was a team with no weaknesses: they had four great teams, a gorgeous goalkeeper and Scotty Bowman, who knew a lot of near-hockey tricks.One day he started releasing the whole shop after every goal he scored to intimidate my guys. I tried to appeal to the judge, but nothing came of it, they just threw up their hands. Then I told my guys to also go out on the ice after each of our goals and theirs. At some point, everything reached wild absurdity, the players began to think that I was going crazy. However, this was the only effective way to somehow respond to the circus that took place on the ice. ”
After that playoff series, it was once and for all forbidden to release the entire team on the ice after scored goals.This began to be punished by deletions. What the team coaches did not come up with in order to change the course of unsuccessfully developing meetings.Getty Images
Sergey Makarov’s Rule, 1990
Once Makarov got tired of playing in the Soviet Union, and he decided to conquer the NHL. In 1989, the Soviet striker traveled to Calgary, the franchise that drafted him in the 12th round of the 1983 draft. At the time of joining the league, the striker was 30 years old. Having started the season just phenomenally, Sergei did not lower the bar and in his debut season he scored a point per game, finishing the regular season with 86 points.The “Lights” of that time were a very cool team. Even with 86 points, Makarov could not become the team’s top scorer: that season he lost to the current Stanley Cup winner Gilmour and two other players.
Since that was the first season for our winger, no one had any doubts about who should get the Calder Trophy – the prize given to the best rookie in the league. Before the appearance in the Makarov league, there were no age restrictions for this trophy, named after the pre-war league president Frank Calder.It was after the famous Russian took this prize at the age of 31 that a number of restrictive measures were taken: for example, now, in order to qualify for the Calder Trophy, you cannot be older than 26 years. In addition, you must have played no more than 25 games in the NHL prior to this season and no more than 6 games in each of the previous two seasons.Getty Images
Bonus. Ovechkin’s Rule
Few people know, but one day a situation could have occurred in which Alexander the Great would not be in the capital of the United States, but somewhere near the Atlantic coast in Florida.In 2003, the Panthers honestly earned the right to pick the juniors first in the draft. According to the rules of the draft, then juniors who at the time of September 15 were 18 years old could participate in it. Recall that Ovechkin was born on September 17 and could only go to the draft in 2004. The Florida bosses wanted to do a crazy job: referring to leap years, they, as if nothing had happened in the ninth round, called the name of Ovechkin. Everyone was shocked then, but the team’s lawyers tried to reasonably prove that if we take into account all leap years, then Ovechkin’s date of birth fell on September 13, which means that he could participate in the 2003 draft.Since the US legal system has established case law, Dudley and his lawyers have attempted to cite a similar won case based on similar arguments.
However, Dudley could not convince neither the NHL nor the bosses of other clubs. His lawsuit was denied, and Ovechkin was drafted as expected in 2004. The Florida bosses were apparently intrigued by another similar case in hockey. In 1989, Pavel Bure was selected by Vancouver below the third round, although according to the rules, players under 19 could not be selected there.The league canceled the choice, but the agents still found a loophole in the regulations. Ovechkin himself later hounded this “bike” in numerous interviews and even tried to mentally try on a Florida jersey. This move was very reckless and insane, but it could change a lot in hockey – at least, interest the fans of the state, for whom hockey has never been the number one sport. After that incident, the league made an adjustment to the rules: no cases of leap years and other such tricks could affect the choice of players in the draft.Getty Images
These rules one way or another now may seem either crazy, or vice versa, keeping up with the times. Only one thing is important: the league, the dawn of which passed at the beginning of the last century, self-regulated and developed itself, without having a reliable neighbor at hand from where it was possible to competently adapt all ideas. That is why it is so interesting to follow the NHL: you see, after a while, North American hockey will set another trend, which after many years will be considered something commonplace.Sport24
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Ak Bars head coach Dmitry Kvartalnov summed up the results of the match with Admiral (2: 1 B).
– We took two points, again it was a tough game for us. We broke the game with deletions – some played, some didn’t, some outplayed, some stayed dry on the bench. It’s hard to say something when such deletions happen.
Honestly, I still can’t figure it out, I can’t understand the rules.We have completely different interpretations of violations, I don’t even know. You watch replays after playing with a team, send requests to the league – nothing is confirmed. Here you look – everything is there. Honestly, my head is spinning. We still have to let the teams play.
There were some deletions, of course, but this problem has become a key problem today.
– Have you tried to contact the KHL Referee Committee?
– Yes, we are addressing. For example, when we say that there was a violation against our player, we are told that they were not.Then we look at similar moments – our player is removed. It turns out a bifurcation, but some line must be single.
The games are different, I understand that a high putter or stretcher is obvious offsets. But there are some incomprehensible moments. And I think that we have played enough to remove the opponent.