Lacrosse Sticks | Lowest Price Guaranteed
The new STX Eclipse 2 goalie head was stiffened up by the engineers at STX. These guys understood that although the first version was the best selling goalie head of all time, increased shot speeds by carbon shafts and bigger players necessitated a stronger head up towards the scoop for high school and collegiate level play. The best part is that they increased the overall stiffness of the head without adding any weight. Be sure to check out what our Pro has to say in this exclusive video about the new STX Eclipse 2 goalie head. The scoop on the Eclipse 2 head was flattened a bit as well as re-angled for better ground balls. It is no secret that today’s coaches expect goalies to get out of the cage and win some ground balls. STX can’t give you the hustle… but they just gave you one of the flattest scoops in the game. Pair that up with complimentary Memory Mesh ( the mesh is free from STX and we can have it professionally strung for you for only $35 ) and you have the best goalie head in the game. Memory Mesh simply eats rebounds and if strung properly, will throw outlet passes on a rope. Check out the MEMORY MESH PRO REVIEW HERE. STX also has a special new handle that can be paired with the Eclipse 2 called the Outlet. This is the second generation of a traditional 40 inch goalie shaft that they cur down to 34 inches. So many players ( especially in the advanced youth and high school brackets ) were playing with attack shafts because the 40 inch models were too slow to whip around. STX got smart with this design and added a textured grip zone towards the top and also made the handle oval shaped where you grip to to stop twist on big saves. You can get the whole package together and strung up by one of our gurus or simple get the head and/or handle separately. Until September, STX is only selling the full combination. If you want to get an Eclipse 2, they are making everyone get the full stick before they release the head only in the fall .LAX.COM PRO STRUNG OPTIONS CUSTOMIZE: CHOOSE COLORS, POCKET and SETUP
The World’s Fastest Dictionary : Vocabulary.com
stick lac lac in its natural state as scraped off twigs and dried
stickler someone who insists on something
stickleback small (2-4 inches) pugnacious mostly scaleless spiny-backed fishes of northern fresh and littoral waters having elaborate courtship; subjects of much research
stickball a form of baseball played in the streets with a rubber ball and broomstick handle
stickball game a form of baseball played in the streets with a rubber ball and broomstick handle
stickily in a sticky viscid manner
stickle dispute or argue stubbornly (especially minor points)
sticking extending out above or beyond a surface or boundary
stochastic being or having a random variable
stick insect any of various mostly tropical insects having long twiglike bodies
schtickl a really little shtik
stickup man an armed thief
sarcastic expressing or expressive of ridicule that wounds
optimistic hopeful that the best will happen in the future
stick shift a transmission that is operated manually with a gear lever and a clutch pedal
stick a long thin implement resembling a length of wood
stickiness the property of sticking to a surface
stick with keep to
stick horse a child’s plaything consisting on an imitation horse’s head on one end of a stick
stick out extend out or project in space
Lac Culture: Commercial Cultivation and Processing of Lac Insect, Lac Insect Products and their UsesCOMMERCIAL PRODUCTION OF LAC
Lac cultivation is a complicated process. Proper care of the host plants, the propagation process and the collection of lac are the prominent steps in the cultivation of lac. The following are the process involved in the cultivation of lac:
- Selection of site and the host plants
- Harvesting of lac
Selection of site and the host plants
The selection of suitable host plants is of primary importance in lac cultivation as the quality and yield of the lac is directly proportional to the host plant number. The host plants include Babul, Pipal, Palas, Kusum, Khair etc. So, the site for the cultivation should have more and more numbers of the host plants.
The host plants must be quick growing, have low sap density, able to withstand heavy infestation of the lac insects. Of all the plants stated above, the lac from the host plant Kusum (
The time of pruning also plays a prominent role in lac production. During pruning, proper care of the host plant is needed so that the host plants do not loose health, nutrition and also produce better quality and quantity of lac.
Pruning is generally done 6-12 months before inoculation of lac insect. The normal time of pruning is January-February if inoculation is to be done in June-July and pruning time is April-May is inoculation is to be done in October-November. The following points must be taken care of during pruning:
- Avoid excessive pruning. This helps in maintaining general health and strength of the tree.
- Cut only old branches of the host plant. Branches more than two inches of diameter must not be cut.
- Allow good shape of the tree to allow plenty of room for the growth of new shoots.
- Cut thin branches close to the trunk from which they arise.
- Remove dead and diseased branches
- Cut the split or broken branches below the split or break
- Avoid indiscriminate cutting of the lac bearing branches.
Inoculation is the first step in the cultivation of the lac insect. It is the process whereby the young ones get associated properly with the host plants. Inoculation can be done in two ways namely, natural inoculation or artificial inoculation.
Natural inoculation takes place in normal routine and it is very simple process where the swarmed larvae infect and suck out the sap from the same host plant again. On the other hand in artificial inoculation the twigs bearing the insect larvae which are about to swarm are cut. These cut pieces are tied to fresh trees so that the larvae swarm out to the new host plant. Artificial inoculation is generally considered to check all possible drawbacks of natural inoculation.
Swarming is the important phase of the lac insect. At the time of swarming, the upper surface has yellow spot on the anal region. At this stage, the muscles contract and insect gets detached from the place of attachment. This leaves a hollow cavity which is later filled with resin. The exact time of swarming can be learned by experience.
Harvesting of lac
The process of collecting ready lac from host tree is known as harvesting. Harvesting can be of following two types:
Immature harvesting: Harvesting of the lac even before swarming is called immature harvesting. The lac thus obtained is called as Ari lac. This process has few drawbacks as the insects may be destroyed during harvesting and this will leave the cultivators in great loss. Ari lac harvesting is recommended only on Palas host plants.
Mature harvesting: Harvesting of the lac after swarming is called mature harvesting. The lac thus collected is called as mature lac.
The largest yield of lac is obtained by harvesting twigs with the females still living. Harvesting can be done twice a year. The twig bearing the lac along with the eggs is called brood lac stick and the lac is called as brood lack or stick lac.
PROCESSING OF LAC
Processing is done, after harvesting of the lac from the host plants. Processing starts with the scraping of the stick lac from the twig. Now this scrapped lac must be cleaned of the impurities like dead lac insects, eggs and coloring matter. After cleaning the lac is finally crushed with the help of hand-operated mortars. This crushed lac is air dried after which it forms pale yellow colored granules. This is called as seed lac.
Seed lac is then soaked in water, washed, dried in sunlight, bleached and heated to melt in on charcoal file in cloth bag. During heating the bag is twisted and the lac is squeezed out of the bag with the impurities left out in the bag. This lac is called as Kirri lac.
Kirri lac is allowed to cool down and solidify around button shaped forms to form button lac or pure lac. This pure lac is stretched into thin sheets called as sheet lac. The sheet lac when dissolved in water produces white or orange colored lac called as shell lac.
The quality of the lac depends on the host plant. Kusumi lac is said to be the best and costly lac while dhak lac is said to be the worst and the cheapest one. The quality and the color of the lac vary depending on the presence of gum and resins in the host plant.
Types of lac
Ari lac- It is immature lac harvested from the host plants
Stick lac- It is matured lac harvested in the form of stick from host plants
Seed lac- It is obtained after removing and washing the lac from the stick
Dust lac- It is obtained after grinding seed lac
Shellac- It is prepared after heating the seed lac and dust lack
Composition of lac
Lac is a complex substance and it also contains sugar, water and other alkaline substances along with large amounts of resins. The percentages of various constituents ate as follows:
Albuminous matter- 5-10%
Mineral matter- 3-7%
Uses of lac
Lac has been used for the welfare of human beings from the great olden days No doubt the development of many synthetic products have made its importance to a little lesser degree, but still it can be included in the list of necessary articles.
- Lac is not soluble in water but is readily soluble in alcohol. This property is used for insulation of electrical connections.
- Lac fuses easily on heating
- It has adhesive property
- When mixed with alcohol it exhibits binding properties
- It is also soluble in weak alkali like ammonia
- It is a bad conductor of heat and thus finds use in electrical appliances
LAC PRODUCTS AND THEIR USES
Lac dye is a mixture of anthroquinoid derivatives. The following are the uses of lac dye:
- It is traditionally used to colour wool and silk. Its colour varies between purple red, brown and orange often depending upon the mordant used.
- It is also used in food and beverages industry for colouring. In recent past, lac dye has been replaced by synthetic dye. But, now-a-days with increasing stress and awareness on use of eco-friendly and safe material, there is a great demand of lac dye as a colouring material.
Lac wax is a mixture of higher alcohols, acids and their esters. It is used in,
- Polishes applied on shoes, floor, automobiles etc.
- Food and confectionary
- Drug tablet finishing
Shellac is a natural gum resin. It is natural, nontoxic, physiologically harmless and edible resin. The following are the important uses of shellac,
- It is used in fruit coatings, e.g. for citrus fruits and apples, parting and glazing agents for sweets, marzipan, chocolate etc. Also used as binder for foodstuff stamp inks, e.g. for cheese and eggs.
- It is used as binder for mascara, nail varnish additive conditioning shampoo, film forming agent for hair spray, micro-encapsulation for perfumes.
- It is used for enteric coatings for tablets and as odour barrier
- It is used in manufacturing of photographic material, lithographic ink and for stiffening felt and hat material.
- It is utilized in preparation of gramophone records.
- Jewellers and goldsmiths use lac as a filling material in the hollows in ornaments.
- It is also used in preparation of toys, buttons, pottery and artificial leather.
- It is also used commonly as sealing wax.
- With increasing environmental awareness of consumers, this natural and renewable raw material is being used in the development of new products like,
- Leather: Seasoning, Leather care products
- Printing inks: As binder for flexographic printing inks for non-toxic printing of food packaging
- Wood treatment: Primers, polishes, matt finishes
- Textiles: As stiffeners
- Electrical: Insulation, capping, lamination
- Abrasives: Binder for grinding wheels
- Others: Binder for inks and water colours, Micro-encapsulation for dyes
Bleached shellac is non-toxic, physiologically harmless (edible), and is widely used in the food industries, food packaging and allied industries. Apart from the above, bleached shellac is also used for its qualities i.e. binding, adhesive, hardening, gloss, odourless, fast drying, and extending shelf life (in absence of refrigeration ) etc. Clear and transparent or very light coloured alcoholic or water – alkali solutions can be obtained from bleached shellac. Bleached shellac is widely used in the following industry:
- Paints (as primer for plastic parts and plastic film)
- Aluminium industry (as primer for Aluminium and Aluminium foils)
- Flexographic printing inks
- Pharmaceuticals (for coating of pills, tables and gel caps and coating for controlled release preparation)
- Confectionery (in coating of confections, chewing gums, marzipan chocolates, nutties, jelly- and coffee-beans etc)
- Binder for food marking and stamping inks and Binder for egg coating
- Barrier coating for processed food, vegetables, fruits and dry flowers
- Textiles (used as textile auxiliaries and felt hat stiffening agents)
- Cosmetics (used in hair spray, hair and lacquers, hair shampoos, and binder for mascara)
- Wood finishing (as binder for wood coatings and wood stains and as filler/sealer for porous surfaces and cracks)
- Antique frames for paintings and Wood polish (French polish)
- Fireworks and pyrotechnics ( as binder for fireworks, matches etc and used in coating of magnesia
- Electrically as binder for lamp cements
- Electronically it is binder for insulation materials, serves as additive to moulding compounds. Mass coating for print-plates and is adhesive for si-cells.
- Grinding wheels (it is binder for additive of grinding wheels)
- Plastic (it is primer for plastic parts and films)
- Rubber (it is additive to natural rubber)
- Leather (in leather auxiliaries)
Dewaxed bleached shellac
Dewaxed white shellac is used in the same way as any other grade of shellac. The major difference between this shellac and the others is that it is a bit harder, shines a bit brighter, is completely free from wax. Bleached lac has super characteristics and qualities i.e. adhesive, binding, hardening, gloss, odourless. It has good film forming properties, a high gloss and excellent adhesion to various substrates including the human hair. It is non-toxic and physiologically harmless. Good solution can be obtained in ethanol and lower alcohols. It can also be dissolved in water by adding an alkali like Ammonia. It is compatible with many other resins, raw materials and additives used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and food formulations. It is used in,
- Coating of fruits and vegetables
- Coating in tablets & capsules
- Coating in confectionary
- Coating in aluminium foil, paper
- Coating in cosmetic industry
- In cosmetics, it is used in hair sprays (pump sprays or aerosol sprays, hair setting lotions, hair shampoos, mascara, eyeliners, nail polishes, lipsticks, micro encapsulation by coacervation of fragrances and perfume oils.
- In food, it is used for coating of confections, chewing gum, candles, cakes, eggs, citrus fruits and apples, and printing inks for eggs and cheese.
Aleuritic Acid (Shellac Aleuritic Powder)
Aleuritic Acid (9, 10, 16-trihydroxypalmitic acid), obtained from shellac by saponification, is a unique acid containing three hydroxyl groups of which two are of adjacent carbon atoms. Aleuritic Acid is white powder or granule. It is moderately soluble in hot water or lower alcohols (viz. methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, and isopropyl alcohol) and crystallizes out on cooling the solution. It is soluble in the lower alcohols such as methyl, ethyl and isopropyl alcohols. Technical grade Aleuritic Acid (purity 99%) a slight yellow and almost odourless solid. The uses are,
- There is a continuous growing demand of Aleuritic acid in the fields of perfumery and pharmaceuticals due to it being an excellent starting material for the synthesis of civetone, ambrettolide, isoambrettolide etc, which have the musk like odour. Civetone is obtained from Shellac Aleuritic Acid.
- It is used for manufacturing of perfumes and is very much in demand with perfume manufacturing companies in France, Italy, Germany, USA etc.
- Synthesis of Glucose monoaleuritate (a non-toxic non-hemolytic water-soluble compound) in medicine as an isocaloric substitute for dietary tripalmitin.
- Preparation of plastics with good adhesive properties by the condensation of Aleuritic acid with pithalic andydride and glycerin, rosin etc.
- Aleuritic acid esters used in the preparation of lacquers, plastics and fibres.
- Explain the steps incolved in the commercial cultivation of lac.
- What is pruning? What are the points to be taken care of while pruning?
- Write about the harvesting of the lac. Also mention types of harvesting.
- What are different types of lac. Define each of them..
- Write the composition of lac.
- Enumerate the uses of Lac.
- Write the used of shellac.
- Enumerate the uses of Bleached shellac.
- What are the uses of dewaxed bleached shellac.
- Differentiate between the uses of lac dye and lac wax.
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Average Lacrosse Stick Cost (+31 Real Price Examples) – Lacrosse Pack
The lacrosse stick is the main cornerstone of all the lacrosse gear. It is crucial to the quality of the player experience to have a reliable lacrosse stick. One of the very first questions that potential lacrosse athletes and parents ask is “How much does a lacrosse stick cost?” This is essential information for prospective lacrosse players and parents to know prior to investing in lacrosse equipment.
There is just one problem. Nowadays, there is such a vast selection of lacrosse sticks it is challenging to get an accurate gauge of the price of a lacrosse stick. Having to sift through all of the prices on the different parts of a lacrosse stick is a challenging task in itself.
Seeing this glaring problem, I decided to take it upon myself to make an easy to follow, illustrated guide for the average cost of a lacrosse stick. I personally collected price data from a variety of major lacrosse companies and compounded the data into infographics and tables for you.
The summary of all of my findings are found in the sections below.
Average Cost of a Lacrosse StickAverage Cost of Complete Beginner Lacrosse Stick: $99
|Average Cost of Complete Attack/Midfielder Beginner Lacrosse Stick||Average Cost of Complete Defense Beginner Lacrosse Stick||Average Cost of Complete Beginner Goalie Lacrosse Stick|
|Average Cost of Midfielder/Attack Lacrosse Stick||Average Cost of Defensive Lacrosse Stick||Average Cost of Lacrosse Goalie Lacrosse Stick|
|Total Average Cost of Custom Lacrosse Stick||$215||$260||$213|
So what does all of this mean?
The average cost of a completely game ready beginner lacrosse stick is $99. The average cost of a game ready custom lacrosse stick is $229. These prices of lacrosse sticks vary depending on position, level of customization, and product quality.
Lacrosse Stick Pricing Factors
Now, that we have an idea of the average cost of a lacrosse stick, let us analyze the various factors that affect the price of a lacrosse stick. We will dive into how position, level of customization, and product quality impact the price points of lacrosse sticks.
If you are completely new to the game of lacrosse, there are different types of lacrosse sticks suited to each lacrosse position. There is a distinct type of stick for the midfielder and attack position, a distinct type of stick for the defense position, and a distinct type of stick for the goalie.
Consequently, each different type of stick has their own individual price point. As opposed to looking at the average price of a lacrosse stick, it is more beneficial to look at the average price of a lacrosse stick in terms of player position.
The amount of material needed for production varies for these different types of position specific lacrosse sticks. For instance, the lacrosse stick for attack and midfield players is 40 to 42 inches in length. The lacrosse stick for defensive players is anywhere between 52 and 72 inches in length.
The additional length of defensive lacrosse sticks requires additional material to produce. For this reason, defensive lacrosse sticks are priced higher than attack and midfield lacrosse sticks on average.
Level of Customization
Level of customization is another key factor in the pricing of lacrosse sticks.
There are multiple parts that make up a lacrosse stick. If you are unfamiliar with the specific parts of the lacrosse stick, I included an image below for your benefit.
The lacrosse head is the plastic portion at the top of the lacrosse stick. The lacrosse pocket is the stringed portion that is attached to the lacrosse head where the ball sits. The lacrosse shaft is the long, narrow pole where players keep their hands during gameplay.
Players are able to purchase all of these parts fully assembled and game ready as a complete lacrosse stick. All of these separate lacrosse parts do not have to be fixed together however.
The lacrosse head, lacrosse pocket and lacrosse shaft can all be bought separately. This allows lacrosse players to mix and match to create their own individualized lacrosse stick that is tailored exactly to their playing style. For certain players, this additional customizability can have a tremendous impact on their gameplay.
This higher level of customization comes at a higher price. Customized lacrosse heads, lacrosse pockets, and lacrosse shafts are much more expensive on average as compared to complete lacrosse sticks.
For lacrosse newcomers, purchasing a lacrosse stick in its complete form is the standard route to go. For the more intermediate and advanced players, customized lacrosse sticks are more of a commonality.
Generally, the higher caliber lacrosse sticks are more expensive. The idea is that the more durable, more impactful lacrosse equipment comes at a greater cost.
Of course, this is not always the case. There are numerous inexpensive options that complement some of the best lacrosse players in the world perfectly. So do not fall into the trap of believing that you need a more expensive lacrosse stick to take your game to the next level.
As the old lacrosse adage goes…
It’s the wizard, not the wand.
Average Cost of Complete Beginner Lacrosse Stick
As aforementioned, lacrosse sticks vary in structure and price depending on player position. For this reason, the average prices of the subsequent complete beginner lacrosse sticks will be broken down by position.
I recorded the specific costs of 15 different complete attack/midfielder beginner lacrosse sticks from an assortment of major lacrosse companies. These lacrosse companies were sportstop.com, Universal Lacrosse, Modell’s Sporting Goods, laxzone.com, Amazon, Lacrosse Monkey, and lax.com.
I compiled all of the data findings into an easy to follow infographic below:
The lowest priced complete beginner lacrosse short stick is $25. On the other end of the spectrum, the highest priced complete beginner lacrosse short stick is $150.
According to the data, the average cost of the complete beginner lacrosse short stick is approximately $83.
I compiled these conclusions into the data table below:
|Lowest Cost of Complete Beginner Lacrosse Short Stick||$25|
|Highest Cost of Complete Beginner Lacrosse Short Stick||$150|
|Average Cost of Complete Beginner Lacrosse Short Stick||$83|
I applied this same strategy to the complete defensive lacrosse sticks. I recorded the specific costs of 10 different complete defensive beginner lacrosse sticks from an assortment of major lacrosse companies. These lacrosse companies were Lacrosse Monkey, sportstop.com, Modell’s Sporting Goods, lax.com and Lacrosse Unlimited.
Only 10 different costs were recorded for this data set since the defensive stick selection is far more limited relative to the attack/midfield stick selection.
I compiled all of the data findings into an easy to follow infographic below:
The lowest priced complete beginner lacrosse long stick is $25. The highest priced complete beginner lacrosse long stick is $210.
The data indicates the average cost of the complete beginner lacrosse long stick to be around $104.
These findings are summarized in the following table:
|Lowest Cost of Complete Beginner Lacrosse Long Stick||$25|
|Highest Cost of Complete Beginner Lacrosse Long Stick||$210|
|Average Cost of Complete Beginner Lacrosse Long Stick||$104|
I recorded the specific costs of 6 different complete beginner goalie sticks from a multitude of major lacrosse companies. These lacrosse companies were sportstop.com, Amazon, Lacrosse Monkey and lax.com
Goalies play with unconventional lacrosse sticks. The price varies with goalie lacrosse sticks. Furthermore, there is far less selection in the area of lacrosse goalie sticks given that there is far greater demand for field position lacrosse sticks. Thus, I only recorded 6 different costs for this data set since the goalie stick selection is extremely limited.
I compiled all of the data findings into an easy to follow infographic below:
The lowest priced complete beginner goalie stick is $70. The highest priced complete beginner goalie stick is $160.
The data indicates that the average cost of a complete beginner lacrosse goalie stick is about $111.
The information listed above is organized in the following table:
|Lowest Cost of Complete Beginner Lacrosse Goalie Stick||$70|
|Highest Cost of Complete Beginner Lacrosse Goalie Stick||$160|
|Average Cost of Complete Beginner Lacrosse Goalie Stick||$111|
Average Cost of a Custom Lacrosse Head
I gathered price data on 15 distinct lacrosse heads from several lacrosse companies. These lacrosse retailers were Lacrosse Monkey, lax.com, Universal Lacrosse, and Unlimited Lacrosse.
The prices were organized into the following infographic:
The most inexpensive unstrung custom lacrosse head came in at $40. The most expensive unstrung custom lacrosse head came in at $120.
The results of the data suggest that the average cost of a custom unstrung lacrosse head to be approximately $81.
|Lowest Cost of Custom Lacrosse Head||$40|
|Highest Cost of Custom Lacrosse Head||$120|
|Average Cost of Custom Lacrosse Head||$81|
Average Cost of a Custom Lacrosse Goalie Head
I gathered the prices of six different custom lacrosse goalie from four high end lacrosse companies. These companies were sportstop.com, Lacrosse Monkey, lax.com, and lacrossefanatic.com.
I laid out the data into the following infographic:
The lowest priced custom lacrosse goalie head is $70. The highest priced custom lacrosse goalie head is $100.
According to the data, the average cost of a custom lacrosse goalie head is right around $82.
|Lowest Cost of Custom Lacrosse Goalie Head||$70|
|Highest Cost of Custom Lacrosse Goalie Head||$100|
|Average Cost of Custom Lacrosse Goalie Head||$82|
Average Cost of a Custom Lacrosse Pocket
Lacrosse pockets are the primary determinant of how a lacrosse stick will throw. A poorly strung lacrosse stick will prevent a lacrosse player from reaching their peak performance on the lacrosse field. Consequently, there is a wide range of price points on custom lacrosse pocket stringing services.
A few prices from some of the most prominent lacrosse string services are listed below.
Stylin Stringing Service Prices
Stylin Stringing is a renowned stringing service in the lacrosse community.
As far as how much their services cost, their work ranges from $29 at its low end to $55 at its high end. These prices depend on the specific type of pocket being strung as well as the quality of stringing materials used.
Lax.com Stringing Service Prices
Lax.com is another reliable stringing service in the lacrosse community. The exact prices of their stringing service are listed in the following table:
|Factory Stringing Service (Tier 1)||$10|
|Personalized Stringing Service (Tier 2)||$20 – 30|
|Premier Stringing Service (Tier 3)||$80|
As you climb to higher customizable tiers, the average cost of their stringing service goes up as well.
Average Cost of a Custom Lacrosse Attack Shaft
From various online lacrosse retailers, I documented the prices of 15 different lacrosse attack shafts. These online lacrosse retailers were Lacrosse Monkey, Dick’s Sporting Goods, lax.com, sportstop.com and Universal Lacrosse.
The data findings are presented in the following infographic:
The lowest priced custom attack shaft is $60. The highest prices custom attack shaft is $150.
After crunching the numbers, the data suggests that the average cost of a custom lacrosse attack shaft is roughly $104.
|Lowest Cost of Custom Lacrosse Attack Shaft||$60|
|Highest Cost of Custom Lacrosse Attack Shaft||$150|
|Average Cost of Custom Lacrosse Attack Shaft||$104|
Average Cost of a Custom Lacrosse Defense Shaft
I applied this same data collecting method to the defensive lacrosse shafts, using the same online lacrosse retailers as before.
This infographic displays all of the price data on defensive lacrosse shafts. I gathered:
The lowest priced custom defensive lacrosse shaft is $35. The highest priced custom defensive lacrosse shaft is $220.
The data collected indicates the average price of a custom defensive lacrosse shaft to be about $149.
|Lowest Cost of Custom Lacrosse Defense Shaft||$35|
|Highest Cost of Custom Lacrosse Defense Shaft||$220|
|Average Cost of Custom Lacrosse Defense Shaft||$149|
Average Cost of a Custom Lacrosse Goalie Shaft
Finally, I researched the prices of various lacrosse goalie shafts. Drawing data from lax.com, sportstop.com, Lacrosse Monkey, and Lacrosse Unlimited, I put together the following infographic:
The most inexpensive lacrosse goalie shaft came in at $75. The most expensive lacrosse goalie shaft came in at $120.
The statistical data indicates the average cost of a custom lacrosse goalie shaft to be approximately $101.
|Lowest Cost of Custom Lacrosse Goalie Shaft||$75|
|Highest Cost of Custom Lacrosse Goalie Shaft||$120|
|Average Cost of Custom Lacrosse Goalie Shaft||$101|
Is It Possible To Get A Good Lacrosse Stick at an Inexpensive Cost?
So if you are like me, you are probably pondering this question to yourself. As I mentioned before, it is absolutely possible to find a reliable lacrosse stick at a cheap cost.
More and more lacrosse companies are bursting onto the scene and releasing what are perceived as “newer and better products” every lacrosse season. These new, high caliber products definitely lie on the higher end of the price range when they first come out.
What most people overlook is the fact that the release of these newer products plummet the price of lacrosse stick equipment from years prior!
For this reason, you can find so many top notch lacrosse products that are marked for clearance at a variety of major lacrosse retailers. You just have to know what you are looking for and not get duped into buying into whatever lacrosse stick has the most buzz at the time.
The metaphor I typically use as a basis of comparison is the frequent release of new iPhones year after year. The newest iPhone may seem like the best and brightest there ever was when it first comes out. When you take a step back and look at it from an outside perspective however, you may find that the previous iPhone models stack up pretty well against the newest version.
The bottom line is to just do your own research and dig to find out what type of lacrosse stick works best for you and your budget. Reach out to lacrosse coaches and teammates and ask for their recommendations. Try out your buddies’ lacrosse sticks and explore what sort of products you like. All of these methods will eventually lead you to getting the most bang out of your buck.
Is Investing in a More Expensive Lacrosse Stick Worth It?
This answer depends on a number of factors. Available budget, level of player experience, and future lacrosse plans all have a significant impact on whether a more expensive lacrosse stick is worth the price.
The available budget that you are working with is one of the more crucial factors to consider when determining the value of investing into a higher priced lacrosses stick.
As aforementioned, there are plenty of high caliber lacrosse sticks that lie within an affordable price range. However, if you have a bit of extra money to spend, quality does rise slightly as you explore the more expensive options that retailers have to offer. This rise in quality may be blatant or barely noticeable, but it is a rise in quality nonetheless.
Level of Player Experience
Level of player experience is another determinant of whether a more expensive lacrosse stick is worth the investment. Players that are just starting to grasp the game of lacrosse do not need an individualized lacrosse stick to succeed.
Novice lacrosse players barely have had time to discover their particular playing style. How are they supposed to invest in a lacrosse stick that complements their playing style if they have yet to know what their playing style is?
It makes more sense for advanced players that have been around the block once or twice to go the more expensive route. A player that has crossed the experience threshold and established a definitive style of play has a more practical idea of what type of lacrosse stick suits their individual needs.
Future Lacrosse Plans
The final piece to the puzzle is the future lacrosse plans of a player. Players that have a lot of years of lacrosse ahead of them may want to invest a bit more money into their lacrosse stick. If you play your cards right, a lacrosse stick could last through multiple seasons. Purchasing an expensive, higher caliber lacrosse stick prevents the hassle of having to adjust to a new lacrosse stick every season.
Players that do not have a lot of lacrosse mileage left in them probably do not need a higher end lacrosse stick. For instance, a high school senior that has no plans of playing college lacrosse likely does not want to spend an exorbitant amount of money on a new lacrosse stick when they only have one season left.
Is the Average Price of a Lacrosse Stick Justified?
I would say that the average price of a lacrosse stick is justified. Although lacrosse newcomers do have to invest a large sum of money at the front end, a solid lacrosse stick will typically last for multiple seasons.
Lacrosse shafts and heads rarely break at the youth level. Most youth lacrosse players lack the strength necessary to deliver checks that are forceful enough to shatter lacrosse equipment.
At the high school and college level, damage to lacrosse shafts and heads is more commonplace, but most lacrosse sticks will stay intact throughout the entirety of the season.
The part of the lacrosse stick that typically causes the most problems is the lacrosse pocket. Strings are much more likely to snap relative to metal lacrosse shafts and plastic lacrosse heads. Although these strings do occasionally snap from time to time, it is usually not necessary to pay a professional to fix it.
Almost every lacrosse team has a stringing guru. Whether it be a player or coach, they are almost always willing to take on the challenge of fixing up your lacrosse pocket if you ask them to.
The interchangeable parts of a lacrosse stick make it so that you do not have to purchase a completely new lacrosse stick every time a part breaks. This way, you do not have to overpay for lacrosse materials that you do not need. You only have to pay for the specific lacrosse part that is defective.
The bottom line is that the prolonged durability and interchangeable parts of lacrosse sticks justify its price. Ultimately, you get what you pay for.
Will Lacrosse Sticks Get Cheaper in the Future?
At the moment, I am not entirely certain of the answer to the question.
As I previously discussed, the establishment of new lacrosse companies has definitely driven up the competition and knocked down the prices of previously released lacrosse stick products.
However, lacrosse companies are also beginning to experiment with innovative technologies that may revolutionize lacrosse sticks in the coming years.
For example, lacrosse companies are starting to integrate what is known as flex technology into their lacrosse shafts. The premise behind flex technology is that the added whip like motion of the shaft will deliver more force with shots and checks. The added flex capability of these lacrosse shafts must be purchased at an increased price.
If this same trend is applied to other innovative lacrosse stick technologies, the prices of lacrosse sticks may inflate across the board. At the end of the day, nobody knows for sure except the lacrosse companies themselves. This something to definitely keep tabs on in the years going forward.
Where to Purchase High Quality Lacrosse Sticks
There are numerous lacrosse retailers out there that sell high quality lacrosse sticks. Some of the most renowned online lacrosse retailers can be found in the subsequent list:
- Lacrosse Monkey
- Lacrosse Unlimited
- Universal Lacrosse
If you notice, I collected virtually all of the lacrosse stick price data from the sites listed above.
I personally have ordered lacrosse equipment from lax.com, Lacrosse Monkey, and Sportstop in the past and had no problem with them whatsoever. This is not to discount Lacrosse Unlimited or Universal Lacrosse. Both are reputable lacrosse retailers that have serviced several of my lacrosse teammates many a time.
Is Buying Used Lacrosse Sticks Something Worth Considering?
I would highly recommend browsing through a few used lacrosse sticks, especially if you are on a budget.
As you just saw, lacrosse sticks can definitely get a bit on the pricey side. Used lacrosse sticks are an effective means at purchasing perfectly good equipment at a discount. There is a massive marketplace for used lacrosse sticks online.
The number one worry with buying used lacrosse sticks online is potentially being scammed. Make sure to do your research on the seller if you are going the online route. Most sellers are reliable, however, it only takes one bad apple to spoil the bunch.
In addition, be certain to conduct your business on a reputable site. Although there are numerous online outlets for used lacrosse equipment, not all of them are scam-proof. Again, it is necessary to dive into some research of your own prior to purchasing a used lacrosse stick online.
Many members of the lacrosse community opt to use resources such as SidelineSwap or Play It Again Sports. These online retailers have established a trustworthy name for themselves by conducting numerous transactions with lacrosse equipment. I would begin my search at these specific sites if you are seriously considering purchasing a used lacrosse stick.
If you have friends that play lacrosse, ask if they have any extra sticks they would be willing to sell. This is another viable option to consider when searching for high quality, inexpensive lacrosse sticks.
Lacrosse Sticks – Gopher Sport
From first shots to winning goals, purchase lacrosse sticks for your students and athletes from Gopher Sport!
Motivate players of all ability levels with lacrosse sticks from Gopher. Browse our selection of adult and youth LAX sticks to find the ideal option you need for PE class, teams, or recreational programs.
Composed with thick ABS shafts and textured handle options, users will maintain a secure grip throughout the game. Wide baskets are a safe solution for indoor practice and learning fundamentals. As skills advance, players will benefit from more control offered by a narrow basket. Lacrosse sticks also evolve from basic options to impact-absorbing and flexible choices that provide a sturdy feel and precision.
Looking to get the entire PE class or team ready to play? We have a wide assortment of convenient packs in 12- or 24-player options to quickly outfit the entire class! If you don’t need an entire class pack, we also offer sticks individually.
Which Lacrosse Stick is Right for Me?
- Wide: Makes catching and deflecting passes easier; for learning the fundamentals.
- Narrow: For throwing and controlling the ball while moving; best for experienced players
- Onset: Head extends straight out from shaft with large throat for easiest catching and carrying; best for beginners and skill building.
- Offset: Throat angle for maximum carrying control and medium cant for accurate passing/shooting; great for intermediate players.
- Curved: Similar to an offset angle, with cant that allows for accurate and powerful shots; for advanced players.
- Forward Cant: Provides a shallow pocket for quicker passing and shooting; great for advanced players
- Aluminum: Light, maneuverable, and more rigid; for experienced players or competitive play.
- Plastic: More affordable and forgiving than aluminum; good for beginners.
- 30”-35”: Young or beginner players.
- 36”-42”: Women and youth.
- 40”+: Men.
Instill an appreciation of lacrosse with your purchase of sticks from Gopher Sport!
Top 10 Best Lacrosse Sticks in 2020 (Review and Buying Guide)
It’s tough to purchase Best Lacrosse stick no matter how experienced you are or you have just started enjoying this game. While buying these sticks you may find all look similar in shape and sizes.
But to win a Lacrosse game you need a perfect piece of equipment that can match your spirit and performance in the game. So, we are going to discuss everything like brand, size, quality, and price.
Best Lacrosse Sticks Available Online For Purchase
Best Youth Lacrosse Sticks for Kids
#1. STX Lacrosse Stallion 50 Youth Lacrosse Complete
Position: Attack, Midfield, Face-off
Skill Level/Length: Beginner/Youth
Legality: Youth Only
STX is the major producer of Lacrosse Sticks and other equipment. Even the price of this lacrosse stick is low and it comes with Stallion 550 head.
The head is made in such a way to give a forgiving response. That is why it made in best youth lacrosse sticks for kids
Stallion 50 is suitable for Lacrosse Sticks for youths and kids because of its short length and thin handle which lets them easy handling to learn the game in the best way possible.
#2. WARRIOR Mako Junior Lacrosse Stick
Length: Half Inches, a Shorter stick
Skill Level/Length: Beginner/Youth
Legality: Youth Only
Young boy lacrosse players love Warrior Mako Jr. Warrior Mako Junior is not as durable as other sticks but length, weight, and diameter are good for little hands and little kids.
But these youth lacrosse sticks are not allowed in a high school play or sports events. You can prefer this lacrosse stick for practicing purposes only.
Due to lightweight, Warrior Mako makes the game more fun. So, kept it in the list of Youth Lacrosse sticks for kids based on its uses. Based on its durability this stick is in the list of best youth lacrosse sticks fo kids.
Best Lacrosse Sticks for Beginners & Intermediate
#1. STX 200 standard lacrosse stick for men STX Lacrosse Stick
Position: Attack, Midfield, Defense, Face-off
Skill Level: Beginner
Length: Attack/ Midfield – 30
Weight: 13.6 oz
The STX 200U stallion is another step for those who know the game and want to take it to the next level.
It has a durable and light aluminum handle, good balance and an excellent legal reading head.
This means that you can use this key not only for business days but also for events sponsored by the NCAA or NFHS.
The 200U standard weighs less than a pound, which means it is not a ball and a chain.
The universal head is suitable for virtually any style of play and has a good whip that can make very aggressive passes and punches.
Using this whip can take a while. But if you’re an advanced player, you want something like this.
The Stallion 200U is not only light, handy and legal, but also a wonderful wand that effectively combines form and function.
So you will not be ashamed to use it in real game situations. Some advanced users may want to sew factory mesh bags to their specific tastes, but for most of them, it’s more than enough.
Although not a single universal lacrosse racket, the Stallion 200U is a noticeable feature, at least for beginners and advanced riders of all ages.
It is strong, light, flexible, attractive and is often used for various sports. So start playing because there are many advantages to playing lacrosse.
#2. String King Complete Attack Lacrosse Stick
Type: 2x Semi-Hard mesh
Weight: 4.9 ounce
Recommended for: Age Group between 10-14 Years old
Due to lightweight shaft, it saves your strength also most of your movements are sliding movements, which means that the speed of your stick works for every inch.
It is best for beginners.
Age group between 10-14 years old prefer this Lacrosse Stick on the field for an attack. You can make adjustments and win with no wastage of time.
You can also replace the head of this lacrosse stick to enjoy the game right away.
#3. Maverik Lacrosse Lacrosse Stick Maverik Lacrosse Charger
Shaft: 6000 series aluminum
Position: Attackers and midfielders, Electricityand control in a single factory
Weight: 1.2 pounds
The Maverik Charger is one step ahead when it comes to a complete, ready-to-use embroidery screen.
It has a level 3 bottom rail for more precision and power, a larger area and a narrow groove to improve control of the ball as you move.
The bag is designed with a competition-designed mesh that more advanced players want to change as they please, but it’s more than satisfactory.
The word “Ideal” in the name indicates
that it is a mixture of tree and head. There is not a single head or handle.
The column is made of 6000 series aluminum. So, it is durable and flexible. It is 30 cm long, which means it is intended for attackers and midfielders.
The entire head bar is only 40 inches long. The Maverick loader also has what the company calls “grip zone” technology, which seems a little annoying but offers a good grip in almost all situations.
In this price range, It is one of the best complete clubs. However, a potential problem is a ram, which tends to absorb water.
Again, this can affect performance. Some people recommend changing it immediately, but it’s probably best to wait and see what you think first.
Finally, the Maverik charger offers you a competitive stick that can take your performance to the next level. And that’s all
#4. NIKE Vapor 6000 Lacrosse Men’s Lacrosse Stick
Head: Steam LT
Pocket: Soft mesh pocket
Skill level: Beginners or advanced
Sports expert Nike Lacrosse entered the equipment market with this perfect entry-level stick, called Steam 6000 for Men.
6000 is an extension of the well-known and respected steam product line. Flutter lets the bucket play fast, while the 30-inch handle is an attacker’s or midfielder’s weapon.
In-store, which includes everything from golf clubs to nails, with an emphasis on style and performance.
The Vapor 6000 lacrosse stick is certainly beautiful, but it is beautiful and light, well balanced, with a large and durable head that allows aggressive play and promotes good shape.
With a little practice, beginner and advanced players will reach the mark more regularly.
The Steam 6000 is a low pocket and high trigger point, where you can apply a little power behind your shots.
Wood is not the most difficult in the market, but it will last a long time and will not be thrown when first encountered or an unpleasant fall.
Although the 6000 is marketed as a universal racquet, it is best suited for mid-level players who are working on improving their passing and shooting skills with skills in the basics.
Best Lacrosse Sticks for Girls
#1. STX Lacrosse Youth Girls Lilly Complete Stick
Player Level: Entry level
Pocket Type: Precision pocket
Colors: Lime, Pink, Columbia Blue, White.
The String King full stick is ready to use. This is a pre-fight for a factory with a semi-rigid mesh pocket while promoting a better look while allowing for a more aggressive attack style.
The stick and the head work well together. They are light and perfectly balanced, which means they don’t move you.
If you are new, you will appreciate the ease of handling the stick.
If you are an advanced user, you will appreciate the fact that it allows you to take quick and precise photos and that it has a good amount of whip under control.
For more advanced users, however, the job board is more than enough.
These features make it to the best lacrosse sticks for girls.
The String King Complete Attack Stick is at the top of the price range, but there is no doubt that it is durable, versatile, beautiful and ready to play.
So it justifies its costs. The build quality is first-rate and comes with a pre-cut glute roll that gives you a better grip. Over time, stability decreases.
#2. Lacrosse Stick Warrior Evo Warp Lacrosse stick next
Shaft Type: Aluminum alloy shaft
Position: Attackers and midfielders
The device weighs 1 pound. The Warrior EvoTana is a full stock racket designed to help players develop better handling.
While it is meant to be played, it should be seen as a truly advanced tool not only for advanced players but also for riders and budding fielders.
So that is why keeping it in the list of best lacrosse sticks.
However, the racket is nice and light, so don’t get tired, whether you use it for long workouts or sporting situations.
Mesh pockets with greater concentration than normal pockets promote good projection movement. If your bases are not healthy, you simply cannot make a good pitch.
And this is a good thing. This will help you or your child develop healthy skills over the long term.
The shaft is made of corrosion-resistant aluminum alloy. Factory-installed synthetic mesh bags do not absorb large amounts of water under the rain and affect performance.
And the balance of the stick is generally remarkable. The stick is good and comfortable to hold for a long time.
However, he does have a 30-inch club, which means it is not a defense club. The real goal of the warrior Ivo Tana is to help beginners to develop their skills.Keep this in mind.
The Best Lacrosse Goalie Sticks
#1. STX FiddleSTX Three Player Game Set
Length: 30-inch rods
Model : FX 923 MP / MP
Weight: 1 Pound
STX is one of the first names for lacrosse devices and their FiddleSTX lacrosse stick is a great idea for new ideas in the game.
They are light and balanced rods that are not so heavy as they are carried by the novice. This is a complete set.
You receive two field player sticks one goalie stick mini goal and balls.
You don’t have to purchase everything separately. This makes it the best lacrosse goalie sticks.
However, they are strong enough to withstand the rules of the game and allow the beginner to adapt to attack, run and hit.
The game is quite tougher than what appears on paper.
If you are an experienced lacrosse player, you know what works for you and what doesn’t. He has no messages.
However, there is no doubt that if you or your son or daughter has to get your feet wet in the game, you have to make sure before you lose a lot of money.
For example, fiddlesticks are a great starting stick. This racquet is 30 inches long and is considered ideal for midfielders and attackers.
The head is relatively large so the player can catch the ball relatively easily, anyway.
A traditional lacrosse head with woven pockets allows the ball to jump better, and the entire shaft is lighter and easier to handle.
If your child starts playing this game, he or she can grow up.
They allow for easy catching and passing and do not crash like other sticks that begin after the accidental contact.
#2.Maverik Base Jr Mini Lacrosse Goalie Stick
Shape: Wide face for better grip
Length: 30-inch bars
Construction: Aluminum alloy construction
The Stick Attack and Clutch Attack have been developed specifically for larger than normal heads and allow quick and efficient handling.
It is a mesh pocket factory that helps to promote the correct size and the aluminum alloy handle is lightweight and relatively powerful.
Flutter lets the bucket save a goal and make a let you be a perfect goalkeeper. This gives this lacrosse stick 2nd list for the best goal lacrosse goalie sticks.
Throwing is usually quicker and with less experience, although semi-rigid shovels mean less aggressive player than whips. It is always a harvesting machine that allows you to grab, pick, point and drop everything around you in one movement with precision and speed.
Here are the 4 Things You Need to Know When Buying a New Lacrosse Stick
While purchasing a lacrosse stick, there are several factors to be considered. Many innovative players purchase different rackets and heads separately and then they customize multiple it.
However, beginners do not have to think about such things and only focus on finding an entire setup that meets their needs and allows them to adapt to the game.
How Much You Should Pay For Lacrosse Stick
Most beginners may not realize that not all lacrosse players use the same racket. The price of a Lacrosse stick may vary from 11 $ to 250 $ on Amazon based on brands and specifications. But we are not going to focus on the price we have to find a perfect match for ourselves.
Lacrosse Stick For Boys vs Girls
Boys and girls between 4-8 years old can purchase youth lacrosse sticks as a first stick. But, as they get older, they have to purchase different Lacrosse sticks. Also, Men Lacrosse Sticks vary from the girl’s Lacrosse sticks.
It’s all about the game and skills you have and then decides the Lacrosse stick. Beginners don’t have to purchase an expensive lacrosse stick. Also, an experienced lacrosse player must decide their lacrosse sticks based on their requirements.
Lacrosse Stick length and weight
Most beginners may not realize that not all lacrosse players use the same racket. The scam you choose affects the situation in which you play. Attacking midfielders and small, lightweight rackets is not easy, fast and tiring.
So, the length of the previous post is about 30 inches. For defenders who can add 60 extras. In this way, they can proceed to capture a shot. After all, the goalkeeper’s stick bar is about 40 inches long.
You can run with a small pole as the area they cover is limited. Smaller axes are lighter and therefore maintain higher mobility and react faster.
Lacrosse Sticks Best for Beginners
What’s suitable for you is discussed here based on the requirement. As a beginner, you don’t have to spend lots of money buying head and sticks separately. That will just cost you extra expenses. You can just buy the cheaper one for practice.
If you are experienced then we have really good options for you. Just follow our guide and read the product review to find a perfect match for you.
The Last Stroke:
Lacrosse is a high-intensity sport that requires physical strength. Think of it as ice-free hockey.
But when you’re in hockey, most of your movements are sliding movements, which means that the speed of your stick will have to work for every inch. Therefore, players must have the right lacrosse equipment.
If your racket is larger, heavy-weighted, or unbalanced, it will make you slow down, you will be less efficient, and then it may negatively affect your ability to play the ball properly. Whether you are a beginner or a major league star, you need the right racket.
And That’s it for Best Lacrosse Sticks; Hope this helps you choosing best for your needs.
Legal Women’s Sticks | US Lacrosse
The following list represents those sticks legal for play in women’s lacrosse. The list is arranged alphabetically by manufacturer.
List Updated: 5/14/21
|A1 (formerly Amonte)||4|
|A2 (formerly Amonte 2)||4|
|Brine Cup Classic||1|
|Dynasty Elite II||4|
|Dynasty Elite III||4|
|Dynasty Rise (2018)||4|
|Dynasty Warp Junior||4|
|Dynasty Warp Next||4|
|Dynasty Warp Pro Mid||4|
|Dynasty Warp Pro KO||4|
|Eraser II||GK 4|
|Impulse Pro 2||4|
|Web Pro||GK 2|
East Coast Dye
|Viktoria No. 3||1|
|Lunar Elite (former Lunar 10)||4|
|Lunar Elite (2018)||4|
|Lunar Elite 3||4|
|Prime Elite Goalie||GK 4|
|Eclipse II||GK 4|
|Exult 100 (formerly Level)||4|
|Fortress 100 (formerly Ava)||4|
|Fortress 300 (Ntrance)||4|
|Mark 2 Offense||4|
|Mark 2 Midfield||4|
|Mark 2 Defense||4|
|Mark 2G Goalie||GK|
|Nemesis II||GK 4|
1 All wooden crosses are legal. The wooden crosses have been measured, but because wood is a “living” material, they will not be certified. Wooden crosses have set the standard for women’s field lacrosse since the game’s inception, and their basic design has not undergone significant changes over the years. Future models will be monitored and action will be taken by the Rules Committee if warranted.
2 These sticks do not meet the most current specifications, or were not submitted to the lab for testing and measureing, or have been discontinued by the manufacturer. They will remain legal for play but will no longer be manufactured.
3 Manufactured prior to the new specifications. Currently at the lab for testing.
4 This stick meets all the current specifications listed in Rule 9.
GK Goalkeeper stick
Y Youth stick
Legal Women’s Pockets — Listed By Manufacturer
The following list represents pre-sewn and/or “named” pockets that are legal for use. The list is provided for informational purposes and is not meant to imply that other pockets are not legal.
List Updated: 3/1/21
- adidas pre-assembled Synthetic Pocket
- Cling Pocket
- Grid-Flex X
- ISO Warp Mesh
- Gripper Pro
- Gripper Pro 3
- Trakker Pro
- Rail Flex
- Rail Pocket
- Rail Elite Pocket
- Swivel Pocket Pro
- Vertex Pocket
- Launch Pocket
- Launch II Pocket
- Precision Pocket
- Ramp Pocket
- Runway Pocket
- Flex Pocket
- Illusion VX
Sally Hansen set “Salon Efects” nail polish strips, nail file, wooden stick, tone Violet Night, 18 gDescription Characteristics
Manicure lacquer strips. Packing: 2 blisters of 8 varnish strips in each 1 nail file, 1 wooden manicure stick. Ease of use: no drying time required! Ease of use: real varnish that can be removed with nail polish remover.Firmness: Stays invariably on nails for 2 weeks.
Ingredients : Ingredients for special finishes and some shades may vary. See package of specific product or contact local Consumer Affairs NITROCELLULOSE, POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE, ADIPIC ACID / NEOPENTYL GLYCOL / TRIMELLITIC ANHYDRIDE COPOLYMER, BIS (GLYCIDOXYPHENYL) PROPANE / BISAMINOMETHYLNORBORNANE COPOLYMER, ACETYL TRIBUTYL CITRATE, TRIPHENYL PHOSPHATE, ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL, BUTYL ACETATE, CALCIUM ALUMINUM BOROSILICATE , POLYVINYL BUTYRAL, ACRYLATES COPOLYMER, STEARALKONIUM BENTONITE, SHELLAC CERA / SHELLAC WAX / CIRA DE LAQUE, DIHYDROXYETHYL COCAMINE OXIDE, BENZOPHENONE-3, SILXICUT, TIN OIDE 77891), IRON OXIDES (CI 77491, CI 77492, CI 77499), D&C RED NO.6 BARIUM LAKE (CI 15850), D&C RED NO. 7 CALCIUM LAKE (CI 15850), FD&C BLUE NO. 1 ALUMINUM LAKE (CI 42090), FD&C YELLOW NO. 5 ALUMINUM LAKE (CI 19140), D&C YELLOW NO. 10 ALUMINUM LAKE (CI 47005), D&C ORANGE NO. 5 (CI 45370), D&C YELLOW NO. 11 (CI 47000), D&C RED NO. 22 (CI 45380), D&C RED NO. 28 (CI 45410), ULTRAMARINES (CI 77007), FERRIC AMMONIUM FERROCYANIDE (CI 77510), ALUMINUM POWDER (CI 77000)].
Instructions : Do not use for purposes other than the intended use of the product
Shelf life : 48 months
Country of origin : UNITED STATES
Manufacturing company : Sally Hansen
Which drumsticks to choose?
Are you an aspiring drummer? Then you need to choose exactly the drumsticks that suit your playing style.Why is it so important? The wrong attachments can quickly break down, and the sound produced with their help will differ from the desired one. There is a huge assortment of drumsticks on the music market. They are designed to be played in certain musical styles, for example, marching, jazz, rock. They also differ in material, shape, weight, coating, brand, so it is very important for a beginner to be able to navigate in all this diversity. So let’s start in order.
The structure of drum sticks
- The butt is the balanced part (thick tip).The butt can be used as an impact tip to increase impact force and volume.
- The body is the main and most part that serves as a grip and also as a striking part when playing a rim shot.
- The shoulder is the area of the stick just behind the tip that many drummers use for crashing cymbals, rim shots, and kickbacks. The alternating end and shoulder strikes on the hi-hat create the basis for rhythm guidance.
- The neck is the part of the stick that acts as the transition from the shoulder to the tip.
- The tip of drumsticks has various shapes and sizes, which influence the intensity, volume and duration of the sound produced.
Drum stick material
Drumsticks are usually made of wood. The most commonly used walnut, maple or oak. Many drummers play with sticks made from other types of wood. For example, rosewood or bubinga.Let’s consider the properties of the most popular breeds.
- American walnut (Hickory) is the most popular material. Strong and solid wood absorbs recoil when hitting, effectively dampening vibrations transmitted from shocks. It has an average weight, is not very susceptible to bending. It has greater strength, weight, density than maple.
- Maple is the lightest and most flexible tree with a soft structure. Although maple is not as hard and durable as American walnut or oak, maple sticks are the perfect choice for quick response.Maple sticks are considered “docile” with excellent recoil absorption. Due to their flexibility and good rebound, they are mainly used for soft or fast playing, getting a light “airy” sound, especially when playing cymbals. Maple is good for energetic play as it absorbs impact energy well. With it, you will feel less punching. But maple is a rather loose and soft material, sticks from it quickly wear out or break.
- Oak is a very strong wood, weighs more than maple and walnut, and is more durable.Oak sticks are the heaviest, densest, rarely break, but when playing, you will feel the vibration much more due to the low ability to absorb impact energy. Oak is a very moisture resistant tree.
- European Beech has a straight grain wood structure, flexible. The hardness and density of the base differ, depending on where the trees grow. In terms of mechanical properties, the material is similar to oak.Also, beech quickly and strongly reacts to changes in humidity.
- Hornbeam – a tree with a medium density structure, good recoil absorption, medium between walnut and maple, high wear resistance. The weight of the wood ranges from very light to medium-heavy. The flexibility of the hornbeam is slightly lower than that of beech and oak. Devices made of it are resistant to shock loads, do not tolerate high humidity.
- Rosewood is a very durable and hard wood.Sticks made from it are preferred for their wonderful tonal shade and feel, but they are not suitable for cymbal play and are quite expensive.
- Synthetic sticks. Manufacturers of synthetic products use a variety of processing methods. These options provide greater strength than wooden ones and offer additional capabilities that cannot be achieved with wooden sticks. For example, AHEAD poles have a polyurethane-coated aluminum body that can be replaced as they wear out.They are also additionally equipped with screw-on tips, such as beaters, to create various sound effects.
- Steel. For training, you can also use steel sticks, the weight of which significantly exceeds the weight of wooden ones. They cannot be played on a drum kit, but they are indispensable in practicing technique.
Drumstick tips can be categorized into different groups of shapes and materials.
In terms of shape, the tips are grouped into four main groups:
- With round tip.
– The small round tip produces a bright, highly focused sound and is especially delicate with cymbals.
– Large – produces a fuller sound.
- The keg tip has a large contact area and therefore produces a medium fill sound with a wider focus.
- The pointed tip produces a medium focused sound.
- The drop or olive tip produces a full low sound. This type is a good choice for those who play hard.
According to the material, the tips are divided into wood and nylon.
- Hardwood wooden tips provide a brighter sound than softwood tips.But over time, the wood wears out, becomes loose, and the sound is washed out and dark with less focus.
- Nylon tips are stronger and harder, so they produce brighter tones with more attack and projection. The most important advantage of nylon tips is their durability, they do not lose their density and do not chip like wooden ones.
Drum stick marking and size
Looking at any drum stick, you will surely see that it has a number and letters on it.Let’s see what they mean.
Previously, the letter designations indicated the scope of this model, but now they have almost completely lost their meaning. Different manufacturers interpret the same letter design differently.
- The “A” symbol is used on sticks that have thinner necks and relatively small heads, which allows the drummer to produce a quieter and softer sound. Usually, they are used in “light” music such as jazz or blues.
- Symbol “B”. Sticks of this model have a larger (compared to “A”) size of the shoulder and head for louder playing. Often used in heavy music. Their movements are easy to control, so they are recommended for beginner drummers. The Model 2B is especially recommended by drum instructors as the ideal starting sticks.
- The letter “S”. This is how they mark products of the largest size, which were previously used in street and marching bands. Now they are almost never used for drumming.
- The “N” stands for Nylon. This letter is added at the end of the marking (for example, “5A N”) and indicates that the stick has a nylon tip.
The numbers indicate the diameter (thickness) of the stick, which affects the sound. The numbers indicate the thickness: the higher the number, the narrower the stick. All brands use the same numbering system. For example, a 2B stick is thicker than a 5B stick.
So, there are 3 main categories of drumsticks:
- 7A are the thinnest and lightest for soft sound.They give the drums a more orchestral sound, but they are rarely used for playing rudiments, as thicker sticks are suitable for this. This format is great for jazz music and young drummers.
- 5A are the most common medium thicknesses. Allows you to play loud or quiet. Versatile and suitable for any style, especially rock music.
- 2B / 5B – Thicker than the previous ones, they get a loud sound from the drums. They are ideal for playing metal and hard rock.
Choosing the right drumsticks
The choice of sticks depends a lot on what kind of music you will play, but the material, size, shape and tip – on personal preference.
Like any instrument, the stick should feel comfortable in your hand and should be suitable for producing the sound you want to achieve, and the size should be appropriate for your hand, both in diameter and length. The correct length can be determined by measuring the distance from the inner bend point of the elbow to the tip of the ring finger.
Parameters to consider when choosing drumsticks:
- Dia. Choose the thickness of the sticks so that they fit comfortably in your hands and suit your playing style. Larger diameter sticks are heavier and are capable of developing higher volumes.
- Length. The longer the stick, the more difficult it is to control, but the sound will be more powerful.
- Weight.Weight affects sound, strength, and your ability to control it. Typically, heavy sticks sound louder and lighter ones softer. The aspiring drummer will appreciate the fact that thick sticks are easier to handle, making them well suited for training. In addition, playing heavier develops the drummer’s stamina.
- Density and strength. For wooden sticks, density is an indicator of strength: the heavier the wood, the greater its density, and hence the strength. All wood species differ in these indicators, but even among two different trees of the same species, complete similarity in density cannot be found.Therefore, it is boring to hold the sticks in your hand and feel their weight with your own hand. Instances of the same manufacturer and with the same mark may differ slightly. Synthetic sticks have good density and strength, but they are more expensive and feel different than wood of the same size.
- Material. If the stick does not indicate what wood it is made of, then leave it in the store, let it lie on the window.In this case, there is no need to talk about compliance with quality standards.
- Tip selection. There are two main types of ferrules: nylon and wood. Wooden tips are more common, suitable for many types of play. The main disadvantage of the wooden tip is rapid wear with frequent use. Nylon tips last longer and are indispensable for a bright cymbal sound and good bounce. Unfortunately, it also happens that the nylon tips fly off during the performance.When playing electronic drums, it is recommended to use nylon-tipped drumsticks, as wooden sticks can break and severely damage the mesh on the pad. With plastic tips, the cymbals sound amazing. They give the drums a more pronounced sound. Wood tips (the most common) give drums a deeper, more traditional sound, like jazz or old rock.
- Size selection.We talked about marking above. All parameters should be considered.
- Coverage. Sticks can be polished or varnished. The varnish protects the wood from moisture and dust, gives the surface a beautiful intense even shine, and the texture – contrast. The surface becomes more durable. Polished sticks look much better. It is worth noting that some drummers do not like varnished and polished sticks, as they can slip out of sweaty hands when playing.
- Brand. Choosing a brand is a matter of experience. If you cannot boast of its presence yet, then be guided by the advice of friends, professionals, advertising.
- Originality. Nowadays, you can find unusual drum sticks of different colors and shapes in music stores. For example, rubber ones are gaining popularity, promising to become “eternal”, although they are quite expensive, they are damaged on the edges of cymbals, and are inconvenient for playing a rim shot on a snare drum.Colored ones attract attention, but they are not very practical, as over time they leave marks on the plates.
Armed with the above information, you can safely go to a reliable music store to choose drum sticks. This is a very personal activity, almost a ritual. Choose products that are comfortable for your hands and play style, rather than those recommended by the consultant. Take the stick in your hand, feel it. Compare several models.With experience, you will already find a specific brand. So don’t be afraid to experiment with different sizes and styles.
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History of oriental varnishes
HISTORY OF ORIENTAL varnishes
An article about the origin and distribution of decorative varnishing techniques.
Author O.G. Novikov (GE)
Lacquer has been used in Southeast and East Asia since ancient times.
In Yunnan, lacquer was obtained already in the Bronze Age. Since ancient times, the sap of lacquer wood has been used in China for the base of paint coatings. At first, varnish was painted like ink, using bamboo sticks, later it began to be used for protective and decorative purposes: it was used to cover dishes for food, and then ceremonial vessels.Since the reign of the Zhou Dynasty (c. 1027-256 BC), the scope of varnish has expanded – they began to decorate carriages, teams, bows and arrows, and other objects. The use of varnish was regulated by the official charter. At the same time, varnish began to be mixed with gold. Legends have reached that in the east of China during the Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD) they were able to make varnishes of great beauty. During this period, the use of varnish increased even more. The first samples of lacquer painting on utensils, silk, and paper appeared.
The Chinese masters did not reveal the technological secrets of varnishing. Varnishes were not only a luxury item: varnish coatings extended the lifespan of items in humid tropical climates. But gradually, despite the precautions, these secrets became known in the countries of Southeast Asia, which happened simultaneously with the spread of Buddhism. In addition, Chinese varnishes and varnishes were delivered to neighboring countries during military conflicts and through trade contacts. Apparently, Korea and Japan were the first countries to export varnishes.The first painted lacquerware in ancient Joseon (Korea) began to be made after the conquest of the country by the Han troops (108 BC). And in the future, for many centuries, the art of Korea has experienced Chinese influence.
The lacquer art of Korea:
The earliest lacquers in Japan (6th century AD) are made in China. Trade contacts of the ancient Japanese state of Yamoto with China were especially intensive in the III-V centuries. But despite the fact that the earliest report on the manufacture of varnish, which the Japanese refer to, is the Taihoryo Code (701 BC).), the lacquer production technology was brought to Japan in the VI-VII centuries. BC. from China via Korea. Artisans from these countries voluntarily and forcibly moved to Japan, contributing to the development of lacquer crafts. According to legend, simultaneously with the technology, the Chinese lacquer wood itself was imported to Japan.
Works of lacquer art from the time of the Chinese Tang Dynasty (618-907), from the collections of the Japanese Emperor Shomu (724-748), were placed after his death in the imperial treasury in G.Nara.
Strong Korean influence is evident in them. These are musical instruments inlaid with carved silvered, gilded figures or sturgeon scales immersed in a damp lacquer surface. In order for the ornament to be visible, the thickness of the top layer of varnish, after drying, was reduced by polishing with charcoal. Many fine specimens of the 7th-8th centuries, made with gold, silver or mother-of-pearl and preserved in Japan, are of Chinese origin.However, there is a known saber with a sheath covered with black lacquer, decorated with gold, which undoubtedly comes from Japan. It is dated to 756. The Tokyo National Museum has two arrows that date from the same period. The aforementioned works are considered the “ancestors” of the Japanese lacquer art itself, but later, despite the independent character of the latter, it continued to experience a strong Chinese influence.
In 794, Emperor Kammu (781-806) moved the capital from the city ofNara in the city of Heian-kyo (present-day Kyoto), which was the reason for the decoration of the interior of the new palace, where the abundant use of golden lacquer was especially noteworthy. It is this technique, makie, which differs from the methods and techniques of the work of Chinese masters, which later became a distinctive feature of Japanese national art. At this time, varnish began to be used to decorate the most important state buildings. The inlay of lacquerware with mother-of-pearl, precious stones, and corals has become very popular.The lacquer industry expanded more and more,
and no later than 905 in Japan, laws were passed regulating the proportions and quantity of used
in the composition of varnish materials. In the IX-X centuries. widespread manufacture of lacquer temple and secular utensils, low tables, chests, boxes, musical instruments, lamps.
Over time, lacquer techniques became more complicated, more and more new ones appeared; the number of components in the formulations increased.By now, information has been preserved about a large number of lacquer techniques, in which the paint layer is a composition of a large number of layers. Some varnishes have up to 200 layers of various compositions, which are identical to each other only in that urushiol is their film former. But almost every layer differs from the neighboring one in the composition of the pigment part, modifiers and plasticizers. Each operation for processing juice, each composition, application or surface treatment had its own name.Most often, black and red varnishes were used, sometimes applied to layers of varnish of other shades. The lacquering technology strictly corresponded to the canons prescribing only one operation or another to be performed in each specific case, be it architectural details, tombs, or temple sculpture. We will understand the strict adherence to the canons of the Buddhist artisan and varnisher in the manufacture of religious objects, if we recall the strict observance of Orthodox statutes by icon painters when writing an icon.The icon painter could not change the sequence of operations in the production of levkas, illuminating each stage of his work; also, an oriental artisan could not “accidentally confuse” the sequence of applying varnish layers of different composition. The master had already called the blank of the Buddha carved out of wood “essence”, and the process of dyeing was, in essence, a “manifestation” of the deity from the tree. For a believer, it was natural and immutable that the body of the divine essence of the Buddha should be only golden.That is why the colored lacquer layers of the Buddha’s garments sit on top of the gold coating. (Often, without taking into account the sacred meaning of the object, during the attribution of the work, this fact was cited as an argument for the late renovation of the object and the author’s layers of clothing were removed during restoration.)
Over time, the binder of varnishes began to be used not only for coatings, but also as a reinforced polymer, impregnating with it leather, fabrics, bamboo, papier-mâché. In Japan, they were reinforced with fabrics from which crowns for statues were made.They began to make very light, unbreakable bulky items from it – dishes, cups, cases for sutras, etc. In Burma, household lacquerware gradually replaced the previously used ceramic dishes, and this was due to the fact that dried lacquer has many characteristics of modern plastics. In Burma, it was used extremely widely: boxes, containers, book bindings, pages of books, hats, musical instruments, umbrellas, architectural decorations, sculptures, temples, accessories, even coffins were varnished.The hardness to the blow of varnish is such that in Japan it was covered with military armor and weapons.
But the most remarkable thing during the Nara period (645-794) was the production of lacquer sculpture of excellent quality. She was guided by the lofty examples of Tang China, but her development was promoted by the ideals of Japanese society, with its characteristic notions of beauty. Initially, Japanese lacquer sculpture imitated bronze – in the treatment of the surface and its gilding. But as the monasteries were built, the sculptures began to be painted in canonical or close to natural colors.The manufacturing process was brought from China, but in a short time the Japanese lacquer sculpture became of such high quality that it replaced the sculpture made of wood. A figure or vessel made using the kanshitsu technique consists of many layers of varnished cloth laid on a base. Surface details were made with a mixture of varnish, ash, sawdust, crushed clay stone and other materials.
During the reign of the Song dynasty (960-1279), the lacquer industry in China developed more and more, and the use of gold and silver lacquer in palace utensils became record-breaking.The main centers of lacquer production were Jiaxing and Suzhou. Typical lacquer boxes from the early Song period are rhino horn (shades of brown) or black and red with inclusions of gold dust or silver wire. They are among the most common and well-known examples of lacquer art from this period. By the end of the dynasty’s reign, lacquer products from the port of Quanzhou were brought to Java, Persia and Mecca . Gradually, the art of varnishing penetrated into Indochina: Vietnam, Laos and Thailand.During the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368), Chinese authors wrote that along with the existence of carved red varnishes, so-called pierced varnishes inlaid with mother-of-pearl appeared. Items made of red carved lacquer (boxes, trays, screens, cabinets, tables, thrones, etc.) were decorated with complex multi-faceted carvings depicting flowers and plants. But there were also painted varnishes covered with gold and floral patterns, complemented by inlay. They were used to cover screens, furniture, panels, and the main center of their production was g.Fuzhou. Painting on the cut-through black lacquer background began to develop (later these varnishes were called “Coromandel”).
Between the countries of Southeast and East Asia, there was an active exchange of not only products, but also original lacquer technologies, influencing the development of their national lacquer art. Shu-urushi brown lacquers came from China to Japan fifteen centuries later. The Chinese tsuishu varnishing technique penetrated the Japanese islands after two centuries.(Products of this technique in China date back to the middle of the 13th century, in Japan – the 15th century). However, the makie gold lacquer technique, which appeared in Japan (mid-12th century) and achieved greater perfection there (9th-10th centuries), began to be used in China only from the 15th century. In Japan, under the influence of Chinese varnishes, new types of products appeared, the craftsmanship of artists became more sophisticated.
Burma also had centuries-old contacts with China. From time to time, the country was visited by Chinese envoys, and the ancient Burmese state of Srikshetra of the people I drink (II-IX centuries.) was of Chinese origin. Burma is also believed to have acquired lacquer technology from China, which has been used there for three millennia. But neither the period in which the Burmese received the lacquer technology nor the route of its import are precisely known. The earliest example of Burmese lacquer technology is a simple cylindrical teak box lacquered with yellow ocher. It dates back to the period of the Pagan dynasty (1044-1287). A small amount of Burmese lacquers of the 12th century is known, but this art form flourished there in the 15th century.In the XV-XVIII centuries. during the multiple wars between the Burmese and Siam (Thailand), there was an intensive exchange of lacquer products and the artisans themselves. During this period, the tradition of varnishing wooden and bronze Buddhist sculptures penetrated into Siam, but lacquer techniques were used there, in a simplified form (much earlier they varnished wooden sculptures) and only in the north of the country. Some of the compositions were brought from Burma or from Yunnan, for example, red lacquer (nam-hang – cinnabar on an oil binder).
For centuries, craftsmen intuitively, through trial and error, have improved and changed technology and modified varnishing compositions.The foundations of the lacquer industry in China in the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) were the treatises devoted to the production of lacquers – “Ko Ku Jo Lun” (1388), “Ching pi-ang” (1595) and “Hsinshihlu”. The latter was written in the 16th century. by the varnisher Guan Chen, and during the correspondence in 1625 it was supplemented with a foreword by the master Yun Ming. It is clear from these works that excellent compositions of carved lacquers were invented during the reign of the emperors Yongle (1403-1424) and Xuande (1425-1435). Well-known works of art of that time, made with carved varnishes.They have a distinct pattern, they do not have a large number of small details that are characteristic of the later lacquer production in China; their color is much deeper and richer than that of objects of the 18th century. During the Ming Dynasty, painted varnishes (painted with a brush in gold outlines) began to be made in Beijing, and varnishes produced in Suzhou and Izyansi were inlaid with mother-of-pearl. During the reign of Emperor Suan-te, lacquerware decorated with finely ground gold began to be imported from Japan from Japan.
In the future, the development of lacquer production in the countries of Southeast Asia experienced very strong impacts from changes in the socio-economic situation of each individual country, undergoing periods of oblivion and prosperity.During the Kamakura period (1192-1333) in Japan, as a result of the turmoil caused by the struggle between the Minamoto and Taira clans, the military seized power. A feudal shogunate was established; the samurai code took shape – bushido; the influence of the Zen sect increased; the ethical ideas of society have radically changed, all this had a great impact on the nature of Japanese art.
But lacquer production continued to develop during the Kamakura period. A distinctive feature of the varnishes of that time was the perfect inlay methods (skillfully crafted metal, shells) and wonderful designs.Varnish products in the XIII-XIV centuries. began to find new uses in Japanese society – military ammunition, leather saddles, parts of armor. During this era, people began to frequently refer to images of nature and flowers in the drawing of gold lacquer and in inlaid with tin. This was facilitated by the emerging new technological methods. The method of simultaneous use of different grades of coarse-grained and fine-grained gold powder, gold foil began to be applied. In the XIII century. the takamakie painting technique appeared (applying a multilayer varnish relief to the surface of an object, followed by applying gold powder).The kamakura-bori technology (carved wood, lacquered with red or black lacquer) is also dated to this period, later it was used for more than two centuries.
During the Muromachi period (1338-1573), the technique and art of varnishing developed further, with the broad support of Shogun Ashikaga Yoshimasa (1443-1473). He gave a great impetus to the development of tea and smoking ceremonies, which expanded the scope of lacquer art to decorate the exquisite utensils of rituals. At the beginning of the Muromachi period, the manufacture of cosmetic boxes and incense boxes was also widespread.The products have become more rounded in shape, and the composition of their decor has become more free. However, at the same time, products for the Zen sect were made, outwardly simple, but for their manufacture they took black lacquer of the highest quality, sometimes minimally decorating with ornaments. The lacquer work with mother-of-pearl inlay has become even more delicate. The method of imitation of Chinese carved varnish began to be applied, in which gold, red or green varnish was applied to a carved wooden base. The varnishing technique was enriched by the method of imposing gold paste on the painting.In neighboring countries, the gold lacquer of the craftsmen of the Muromachi time was so highly appreciated that artisans from China came to Japan to learn this technique. And although it is known that almost all the artists of this period were monks or priests, the names of the leading Japanese varnishers have survived – Koami Mitinaga (1408-1478), Igarashi Shinsayidr.
The civil wars that rocked Japan during the Middle Ages were an obstacle to the development of the lacquer industry. But the Ashikaga shoguns (1335-1572) became the patrons of the founders of the court school of painting, Kano-Kano Masanobu (1434-1530) and Kano Motonobu (1434-1559), who came from the military class.
During this period, strong changes in public consciousness become noticeable.
In previous centuries, religion determined the spiritual life of Japanese society, had a decisive impact on aesthetic consciousness. At the beginning of the XV century. the secularization of art began, the proportion of not religious, but secular forms increased. Due to the increase in decorativeness, the spiritual significance of religious objects began to decline, and this was one of the manifestations of the general process of secularization of Japanese art. However, it continued to develop within the framework of previous traditions, and changes took place within them.During the Momoyama period (1573-1615) secular professional painting was formed. During the reign of Azuta Momoyama (1574-1600) one of the greatest Japanese lacquer masters, also known as a painter and calligrapher, Honami Koetsu (1558-1637) worked. He invented a wonderful and original style of ornament, very national in character. His drawings were voluminous and simple in detail, especially made in the technique of high relief with inlaid metal or mother-of-pearl.
The dictator Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1582-1598), who established peace in Japan, actively patronized the arts.Under his patronage, a real revival of lacquer art began. The range of techniques of the makie technique is becoming even more diverse, but at the same time, the volume of production of products made in the technique of relief has decreased. After Hideyoshi’s death, his widow erected a memorial in Kyoto, in the decoration of which various lacquer decorations of the takamakie technique were used. The castle also contains lacquer art objects donated to her. During the Momoyama period, the first contacts of the Japanese with foreigners began, along with Christianity, scientific knowledge penetrated the country from Europe (astronomy, cartography, metallurgy, medicine, printing).
In China, by the end of the Ming dynasty (1368-1644), as a result of the disorder that accompanied the fall of the last Ming emperor, lacquer production fell into decay. The second and perhaps greatest of the Manchu dynasty emperors was the Kangxi Emperor (1661-1722), who revived the lacquer industry in 1680 (it was he who established a group of 27 art shops in his Beijing palace). At the same time, carved varnishes began to be made in Canton, Suzhou and Fuzhou. Saint Louis le Comte, who arrived in China in 1687., left a description of the greatest flourishing of the lacquer industry of that time. The reign of Kangxi marked the first significant period of imports of lacquer products to Europe. There is a known screen, made by order of Kangxi specifically for a gift to Emperor Leopold I, his coat of arms is used in the lacquer drawing – a two-headed eagle.
The carved varnishes of the Kangxi period are less significant and hardly reach the saturation of color, the breadth of volume and the simplicity of the carved varnishes of the Ming period. But in the technology of production of varnishes made in that period, successes are obvious.Kangxi lacquers do not have even small cracks, so often found on products of the Ming period. This property of lacquer coatings of products of that time (regardless of their artistic performance) was developed and perfected during the Qianlong Emperor (1735-1796). He was a devoted fan of this art. Varnishes were used in large quantities not only for decorating the interiors of his palaces, but also for ceremonial and memorable gifts. The items commissioned by this emperor are supremely magnificent; but their color has become sharper in comparison with the early lacquer works, and the drawings are stereotyped and formal.
After the next wars and the redistribution of power in Japan, the power of the Tokugawa shogunate (1615-1868) was established, which lasted until the restoration of legitimate imperial power in 1867. At the beginning of this period, significant Chinese influence in the painting of varnish was evident. However, further a policy was proclaimed to isolate the country from foreign influences and appeal to the ancient principles of life. The peaceful life has contributed to the revival of traditional arts and crafts.
In Edo (modern.Tokyo) the shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu (1542-1616) established a school of artists (“School of Fine Arts”). She kept and developed the artistic traditions of the past centuries. A whole galaxy of varnish masters, known outside of Japan, emerged from it. During this period, the technical processes of varnishing were further enriched with new techniques, such as engraved chinkinbori varnishes, etc. The number of variations of the makie technique increased (the background of painting, the so-called “pear background”, reminiscent of the texture of a pear fruit, began to be widely used).
With the growth of cities, there was a tendency to expand the sphere of culture, in the works of Japanese decorative art, both expensive exquisite and cheap mass things appeared, meeting the tastes of the middle strata. New ideas about beauty, formed among the townspeople, gave a new social meaning to things: the lacquer box at the belt reflected not only the social status of the owner, but also the size of his wealth. The weapon has lost its practical function and has become a decorative addition to a man’s costume.The scope of application of varnishes, developing towards a further increase in ornamentalization, has expanded significantly – lacquer tubes, hairpins, and powder boxes appeared. However, by the middle of the Edo period (the first half of the 17th – the second third of the 19th centuries), the lacquer production, which had acquired a mass character, significantly reduced its artistic level due to the deliberate luxury created by the oversaturation of decor and the intrinsic value of technical virtuosity. Only the varnishes of major masters – Kaami Nagashige (1595-1651), Ogata Korin (1847-1891) – have retained their previous perfection.Since the end of the XIX century. Japanese varnishes stand out in the arts and crafts. The masters of that period adhered to the canons of the Edo era, developing centuries-old national traditions – Ogawa Semin (1847-1891) and others.
The volume of international trade increased, developing an interest in oriental subjects in Europe. The increase in imports led not only to an increase in the production of varnish products in China, but at the same time to the development of an entire industry for the production of their imitations (easier to manufacture and from cheaper materials, because the process of obtaining and applying genuine varnish is extremely difficult, time-consuming and unsafe for human health. ).In the XVI century. in Ta-Lin and Yunnan there were special factories for the manufacture of carved lacquers, where, in addition to real lacquer products, imitations were made. The emergence of a large number of counterfeits became a distinctive feature of “Chinamania” in Europe by the 17th-18th centuries.
But nevertheless, the XVII century. cannot be called a period of decline in Chinese lacquer art. The beautifully performed works of this time are evidence of the fact that respect for tradition still prevailed in Chinese society, and this saved the lacquer art from adverse influences, from innovations, and also from criticism of being unfashionable.The decline of this course began only in the 19th century, which first manifested itself in a decrease in the originality and variety of objects, and later the quality of lacquer objects came to a complete decline due to the increasing spread of counterfeits. In 1869, the imperial factories, which industrially made lacquer objects, burned down, and although the manufacture of carved red lacquers continued later, industrial lacquer production in China ceased.
Crisis of the Qing Empire at the end of the 18th-19th centuries., the penetration of foreign powers into China and its transformation into a semi-colony, affected the national culture. Apparently, it was modern industrial lacquer technologies that practically ruined the ancient and beautiful art of lacquering. In Japan, it was almost forgotten for two and a half centuries due to foreign influence. The number of varnish painters has dropped dramatically. The Koami School, numbering 16 generations of followers of the varnish master Koami Mitinaga (1408-1478), fell into decay with the death of the last representative of the school, Kawanobe Itcho (1830-1910).In the 30s of the XX century. in their original works, artists began to use synthetic dyes in varnish compositions. A tendency towards avant-garde solutions in products, a departure from traditional forms and patterns began to appear.
Nowadays lacquer products are produced in the countries of Southeast Asia in small quantities, mainly for the tourist business. However, despite the loss of industrial production of varnishes, there is a growing interest in the study of technologies for their production, in the issues of preservation and restoration of ancient varnish products.
East Asian lacquer: the Florence and Herbert Irving collection
East Asian varnishes. Restoration technique, research. VKhNRTs; M., 2000
The author of the article is Novikova O.G.
Varnish paints. Questions and answers
Posted on 03.02.2019, by SMAR, Svetlana Martynova
With the permission of Eugenia Ansari, the magnificent Master of spot painting, we will republish on our website from Eugenia’s site http: // eansari.ru full article devoted to varnish paints.
This article will answer many of your questions about varnish paints and about working with them, about the types of varnish paints and their differences, and the topic of the subtleties of their use will also be touched upon.
What types of varnish paints are there?
Lacquer, enamel or ceramic paints are water-based and solvent-based (white spirit, solvent, synthetic resins).
Water-based paints are odorless, but less resistant and require protection, i.e. finishing varnish coating.
Solvent based paints generally have a low to fairly strong odor. There are paints for firing and without firing.
May cause allergic attacks.
What is the drying time for ?
Drying time for varnish paints varies from 6 to 72 hours. Dry completely before applying varnish for at least 5-7 days.
If the paint is not completely dry, it can react with the varnish and wrinkle, ruining the appearance of the work.
What surfaces are they suitable for ?
Lacquer paints are suitable for all surfaces – ceramics, glass, metal, wood, leather. On all surfaces, the paint adheres well enough provided you degrease the surface well.
Before working with varnish paints it is ALWAYS necessary to degrease the surface with alcohol.
Is it necessary to prime the surface before applying varnish paints?
Only wood or MDF must be primed.
Is lacquer flaking the norm?
Lacquer paints may flake off, but this is not considered a defect at all. This is eliminated by simple (but very thorough) stirring with a wooden stick.
If the paint has thickened, what to do?
If the paint has thickened, thin it.
Special thinners and white spirit can be used to dilute paints. A few drops of white spirit is enough to thin the paint.Pouring in a lot of thinner can cause the paint to lose its properties or even curl.
In order to avoid drying of the paint, you must ALWAYS tightly close the lid of the can.
Also, so that the lid does not stick to the neck of the can, after use and before closing it is best to clean the neck with a napkin moistened with alcohol.
How to apply the varnish ?
The paint can be applied with wooden sticks or thin brushes.
After use, rinse the brush with white spirit or a special liquid for washing brushes.
What are the uses?
Paint is collected on a stick or brush and poured into the space limited by the outline. Using less paint, you can paint with a stick or brush over the pattern. And then, if it turned out not very neatly, then after the paint dries, you can go along the edge with a contour.
Should varnish, enamel, glass and ceramics paints be varnished with ?
The answer is hidden in the title.The base of these paints is varnish.
These paints are quite strong and resistant in themselves. The coating does not require additional protection in the form of varnish.
But if additional non-resistant acrylic or water-based paints were used in your work, then in this case it is possible and even necessary to varnish.
News :: Four Treasures: Ink – Gallery “Blue Phoenix”
All types of inkpots usually have two working surfaces: a grinding plane, sufficient for circular movements of the ink stick, and a depression where the finished ink flows down.The surface of the ink pot should be smooth so as not to spoil the hair of the brush, and at the same time it must rub the ink, i.e. not be absolutely slippery. The surface of the ink pot does not absorb moisture, but at the same time it keeps the ink on the surface and prevents it from evaporating. Experienced calligraphers blow lightly on the surface while checking the quality of the ink pot. The longer the evaporation remains on it, the better the ink pot.
The most popular inkpots among calligraphers and artists are made from stone and ceramics, although gift samples are also made from other materials.
From left to right: traditional chrysanthemum palette, student ink, “Reed Cat” brush, four treasures primer, dry ink, student ink, student ink.
In the process of rubbing the ink stick on the ink pot, there is a setting for the creative act, this process is somewhat akin to meditation. At first, the masters burned incense, then water was poured onto the ink pot from a dropper – neither too warm nor too cold.There should not be a lot of water, otherwise the ink stick will get wet, but not a little, because then you will have to often interrupt to rub the next portion of the mascara. Hold the ink stick upright and rub the ink in a circular motion. If the movement is hasty, you can splash the mascara. If you are too slow, the rubbing process will take too long. On average, rubbing mascara in one tablespoon of water takes about 200 strokes. (Therefore, modern artists and calligraphers tend to use ready-made liquid ink.)Before the end of the work, the ink is rubbed several times. At this time, the tone of the fingers is restored and the muscles of the shoulder are flexed. Rubbing mascara meditation tunes the master to the creative process and detaches him from everyday life.
In the world of ink collectors, there were unspoken norms of behavior that overlapped the rigid framework of social hierarchy. A case from the biography of Mi Fu is indicative. Having executed a calligraphic inscription in the presence of Emperor Huizong (reigned 1105-1125), Mi Fu asked as a reward for an ink-painting from the Imperial collection, with which he had just worked.