A Brief History of Lacrosse in Canada
Young field lacrosse players today | © Kasey Eriksen / Flickr
Known as Canada’s only official national sport from 1859 to 1994, the game of lacrosse has been in the country since the 17th century. By the turn of the 20th century, it was the most dominant sport in the country. Keep reading to find out more about its history and how it became so popular in Canada.
The First Nations, Canada’s indigenous people, were observed playing the game of lacrosse back in the 17th century by European settlers. The Algonquin people named it Baggataway, while the Iroquois Nation called it Tewaarathon. The First Nations played the game for their Creator, as it was a way for them to show their gratitude to the Great Spirit.
The name came from French settlers, who believed the stick looked like a Bishop’s crozier or staff. Crozier in French is “crosse,” which is why they began calling the game La Crosse, and the term obviously stuck. It wasn’t until the 1800s that Montreal residents became interested in the sport, and they began playing games against the First Nations.
1908 Canadian Olympic Lacrosse Team | © Library and Archives Canada
Patriot William George Beers is known as the father of modern lacrosse. In the 1860s, he produced a pamphlet that detailed the rules and instructions for the sport. He also replaced the deerskin ball with one made from hard rubber. Dr. Beers’ Montreal Lacrosse Club organized a conference in 1867 to create the National Lacrosse Association (today known as the Canadian Lacrosse Association).
It was North America’s first national sport governing body. Its goal was to standardize rules, organize national championships, and “promote good fellowship and unity across the country,” according to the CLA website. The organization’s motto was “Our Country, Our Game.” By the end of 1867, there were 80 lacrosse clubs operating across Canada.
The MANN Cup playoff to become Canada’s Senior Men Champions | © Kasey Eriksen / Flickr
At the turn of the 20th century, lacrosse was the most dominant sport in Canada. The CLA now recognizes four separate disciplines: box, men’s field, women’s field, and inter-lacrosse. Box became popular in the 1930s, as teams took advantage of vacant hockey arenas in the summertime. It’s still the most popular form of lacrosse in Canada, whereas Americans have dominated in field lacrosse competitions.
Inter-lacrosse is a newer discipline, which is non-contact and very skill-oriented. “Its main function is to introduce a wide range of young athletes to the skills of lacrosse and to provide an education tool to help develop conditioning and coordination in young athletes,” CLA says.
Young field lacrosse players today | © Kasey Eriksen / Flickr
Lacrosse was declared Canada’s national game in 1859. However, in 1994, Canadian Parliament passed Canada’s National Sport Act, which made lacrosse the national summer sport, and hockey the national winter sport. The Canadian Lacrosse Association was formed the same year Canada became a country, so they are both celebrating their 150th birthday in 2017. A three-day festival in June 2017 at McGill University in Montreal, which has a long lacrosse history, will celebrate the sport.
Lacrosse | The Canadian Encyclopedia
Lacrosse is a team sport in which players pass, catch, and carry a rubber ball, using sticks with a netted pouch at one end. The object of lacrosse is to accumulate points by shooting the ball into the opposing team’s goal. The early versions of the game involved large teams of Indigenous warriors playing over a field that could be over a kilometre in length. Since that time, lacrosse has changed significantly, and there are now four distinct games in Canada: men’s field lacrosse, women’s field lacrosse, box lacrosse, and inter-crosse.
History of Lacrosse
The history of lacrosse is difficult to trace, for fact often meshes with fiction, and many aspects of the sport’s history have been passed on as folklore. One of the most famous legends involving lacrosse dates from Pontiac’s Rebellion of 1763, in which the Odawa chief reportedly staged a game in order to distract British soldiers and gain entry to Fort Michilimackinac in what is now Michigan.
Members of the various Algonquian language groups referred to early ball games as baggataway. Strong similarities among the war club, lacrosse stick, and even the drumstick, shown in photos of early Ojibwa implements, support the connection between these early ball games and the later development of lacrosse. There is also a strong link between lacrosse and the Mohawk ball game known as tewaarathon. As with other early Indigenous ball games, tewaarathon served a number of functions; as the game was played by a large number of warriors on fields that could be over a kilometre long, it kept young men fit and strong for both war and hunting. It could also be played to strengthen diplomatic alliances, support social conformity and economic equality, and honour the gods. In general, Aboriginal women were excluded from these games, although in some First Nations women did play ball games on their own, or with men.
Early European Accounts
One of the first written Canadian references to the activity of lacrosse appears in the 1637 journals of Jesuit missionary Jean de Brébeuf. In his journal, Brébeuf records entire villages playing each other in games of “crosse.” While some authors allege that Brébeuf gave the sport its name because the stick resembled a bishop’s crosier, Brébeuf’s own writings mention nothing of the similarity; moreover, he does not provide a clear enough description of the activity to determine whether these ball games were the same as the game of lacrosse.
Historian Douglas Fisher argues that the origins of modern lacrosse lie in the Mohawk game of tewaarathon. After the American Revolution, many Haudenosaunee relocated along the St. Lawrence River and the Grand River. The Haudenosaunee had allied with the British government during the war, and were forced to leave their traditional lands when the young Republic gained its independence. The Mohawk at Saint Regis, a Jesuit mission close to Montréal, played ball games so frequently that the missionary complained it interfered with attendance at church.
In the 1830s, visiting anglophones from Montréal noticed the games and learned to play from their Mohawk neighbours, adopting the French term lacrosse for their new pastime. The first recorded match between anglophones and Mohawk took place on 29 August 1844. In 1856, lacrosse enthusiasts formed the Montreal Lacrosse Club, followed soon by the Hochelaga and Beaver Clubs. When the Prince of Wales visited Montréal in August 1860, the locals staged a “Grand Display of Indian Games,” including a match between two Indigenous teams, and another between an Indigenous and an Anglo-Canadian team.
Evolution of the Modern Sport
In September 1860, one month after the Prince’s visit, a young dentist named William George Beers wrote a pamphlet that set out some rules and instructions for the game, which until then had had no written regulations. Beers, a strong nationalist, not only designed a set of rules for the game, but also replaced the deerskin ball with one of hard rubber. He became known as the father of modern lacrosse.
In 1867, the sport made its first appearance overseas, when Captain W.B. Johnson organized a tour to England; the group included 16 paid players from Kahnawake as well as amateur players from the Montreal Lacrosse Club. In 1876, two squads (one from Kahnawake and the other from Montréal) toured Britain, playing in front of Queen Victoria at Windsor Castle. A third successful tour followed in 1883.
The National Sport of Canada?
Mythology surrounding lacrosse still abounds, particularly with respect to its status as the National Sport of Canada. Beers was so enthralled with the sport that he felt it should be the national game, even though, at the time of Confederation, cricket was the most popular summer sport in the land. In 1867, the Dominion’s first national sport governing body, the National Lacrosse Association of Canada, was formed, adopting as its motto: “Our Country and Our Game.” Beers campaigned for lacrosse to be named the country’s national game, and claimed that Parliament had made it official in 1867. However, even though many Canadians believed Beers, there is no evidence that Parliament officially proclaimed lacrosse as the national sport at that time.
While there may not have been any official parliamentary record of lacrosse being proclaimed the national sport of Canada in 1867, it was arguably the de facto national sport for many decades. In 1994, however, a zealous hockey fan and Member of Parliament, Nelson Riis, introduced a private member’s bill that declared hockey the national sport of Canada. After much debate, the bill was amended to make hockey the official winter sport and lacrosse the official summer sport. The
To many lacrosse fans, however, lacrosse has always been the only national sport — and always will be. Visitors to the Canadian Lacrosse Hall of Fame in New Westminster, British Columbia, will notice that the bronze plaques listing the Hall of Famers continue to be embossed with, “Canada’s National Game.”
Lacrosse in Canada Today
There are four distinct versions of lacrosse played in Canada today: men’s field lacrosse, women’s field lacrosse, box lacrosse, and inter-crosse.
Men’s Field Lacrosse
Men’s field lacrosse is played by two teams of 10 on an outdoor field. The most noticeable difference between field lacrosse and other forms is the use of much longer sticks by the three defencemen on each team. Canada has a rich history in field lacrosse, and from 2009 to 2013 one Canadian team — the Hamilton Nationals (formerly Toronto Nationals) — competed in Major League Lacrosse, a professional field lacrosse league in North America.
The Canadian national team is one of the top field lacrosse teams in the world, and competes in the World Lacrosse Championships, which take place every four years. In 2006, Canada won its first championship in nearly three decades when it defeated the United States of America 15–10. At the 2010 Championships in Manchester, England, Canada was narrowly defeated by the US team in the championship final.
The 2010 World Lacrosse Championships were notable for the absence of one of the strongest lacrosse teams in the world, the Iroquois Nationals. The Iroquois Nationals represent the Haudenosaunee on both sides of the Canada–US border; it is the only Indigenous team that has been sanctioned to compete in international sporting competitions. The team was accustomed to travelling with their Haudenosaunee passports, but British officials refused to allow them entry, stating that the passports were not acceptable forms of identification. The Iroquois Nationals had competed in the world championships since 1998, winning fourth in 1998, 2002 and 2006. However, as they did not play in 2010, they were automatically demoted to last place in the world standings. After the team launched two appeals, the Federation of International Lacrosse announced in June 2013 that the Iroquois Nationals would compete in the elite Blue Division in the 2014 Championship.
In 2014, Canada won the men’s world championship, defeating the United States, while the Iroquois Nationals finished third. Two years later, the Canadian team finished second at the men’s under-19 championship, with the Nationals coming third (the US won the title). In 2018, Canada won silver at the men’s world championship, losing 8–9 to th United States in the gold medal game. The Iroquois Nationals again took bronze, defeating Australia 14–12.
Women’s Field Lacrosse
Women’s field lacrosse is a non-contact sport played with 12 players per team. Ball movement and effective stick handling are key elements of the sport, and the shallowness of the stick’s pocket makes catching and maintaining control of the ball more
challenging. The first game of women’s field lacrosse took place in Scotland in 1890, and the first international women’s match was played at Richmond Athletic Ground (near London, England) in 1913 between Scotland and Wales. The game spread from the
British Isles to North America, although there seems to have been more resistance to women’s lacrosse in Canada than the United States (
Team Canada has ranked among the top women’s lacrosse teams in the world. At the FIL World Cup in Oshawa, Ontario, in July 2013, the Canadian senior women’s lacrosse team reached the final for the first time in their history, losing to the defending American champions. With their silver medal, the team moved to second in the world standings. The women’s under-19 team won the world championship in 2015. Two years later, the senior women’s team again won silver at the world championships, losing 10–5 to the United States. The Canadian women’s lacrosse team is currently ranked second in the world, while the Iroquois Nationals women’s team is ranked 12th.
Box lacrosse was developed in Canada in the 1930s as a way to take advantage of hockey arenas left vacant during the summer months. It is the most popular form of lacrosse in Canada, and is played by both men and women (indeed, many top field lacrosse athletes play box lacrosse as well).
Boxla (as it is also known) is sometimes referred to as the fastest sport on two feet. The game is played by teams of six players; rebounds and checks off the boards make the game exciting to watch, and a 30-second shot clock, which requires a team to either shoot in half a minute or relinquish the ball to their opponent, leads to a high-scoring game. Box lacrosse is usually played on a cement surface. However, professional indoor lacrosse (which is very similar to box lacrosse) is played on a turf carpet.
A number of Canadian teams compete in the National Lacrosse League, a professional indoor lacrosse league in North America, and several Ontario teams competed in the professional Canadian Lacrosse League from 2012 to 2016 (the league folded in 2016).
Box lacrosse is very strongly represented in Canada, and the national team has won every World Indoor Lacrosse Championship since the competition first began in 2003. The Iroquois Nationals team placed second in all four championships (2003, 2007, 2011, 2015), and was only narrowly defeated in overtime during the 2007 final.
Inter-crosse, the newest form of lacrosse, is a low-risk activity, designed for schools and recreation programs. The easy-to-play indoor game uses molded plastic sticks and a soft, lightweight ball, and teaches participants the fundamentals of lacrosse: scooping, carrying, passing, and catching the ball.
See also Sports History, Édouard Lalonde, Lacrosse: From Creator’s Game to Modern Sport, The Iroquois Nationals and the 2010 World Lacrosse Championships, Legends of Lacrosse Exhibit.
History | Canadian Lacrosse Association
“We believe that in lacrosse and hockey, our two National Games, we have the best moral, physical and mental developers of any games known to the athletic world.”
A.E.H. Coo, President
Canadian Amateur Lacrosse Association
April 12, 1926
Revised January 1995
The Canadian Lacrosse Association would like to thank the Montreal Amateur Athletic Association for its assistance and support in researching this document.
We would also like to extend our appreciation to the Lacrosse Hall of Fame in New Westminster, British Columbia and the Public Archives of Canada in Ottawa for their assistance in preserving our legacy with such care and dedication.
Thanks also to Mike Mitchell, Director of the North American Indian Travelling College for his contribution.
The roots of our country lay in many cultural soils, and Canadian society has grown and benefited from the contributions of people of many cultural backgrounds. The English and French are recognized as the dominant influences in the creation of this country and the foundation of our nation.
Before the English, French and many other immigrants to this continent strove and competed to build Canada, the aboriginal societies and cultures dominated North America. Unfortunately today there is little common knowledge among Canadians of the nature and complexity of the societies of the First Nations. There is even less understanding or appreciation of the rituals and activities of those cultures.
Lacrosse, because of its unique history, exists as a link between these disparate components of Canadian society. It is one of the rare examples of the culture of the First Nations being accepted and embraced by Canadian society. To the religious and social rituals of the first North Americans, the settlers brought the European concepts of structure and rules, and together they produced one of the first symbols of the new Canadian nation, the sport of Lacrosse. “There is a long history of speculation about where the game of Lacrosse originated, but as Natives of North America, this question has little significance. We do not wonder who invented Lacrosse, or when and where; our ancestors have been playing the game for centuries – for the Creator.” Tewaraathon, Akwasasne’s Story of Our Indian National Game: North American Indian Travelling College, 1978
LACROSSE ‘A GIFT FOR PEOPLE OF CANADA’
by Mike Mitchell, Director, North American Indian Travelling College
One of the greatest contributions of our Native people in Canada is that of the game of Lacrosse, which in turn has been shared with the world.
At the time of European settlement in Canada it was discovered that all nations and tribes across the country played Lacrosse in one fashion or another and they all had names for their sport.
The two largest linguistic families in Canada both had names for Lacrosse; the Algonquin referred to it as “Baggataway” and the Iroquois Nation referred to it as “Tewaarathon”.
To the early French settlers, the stick reminded them somewhat of a Bishop’s crozier or staff. The French word for crozier is “crosse” and soon they started calling the game “La Crosse”, which is the name everyone is familiar with now.
Originally, Lacrosse, when played only by the Native people, had a spiritual significance in the Indian’s way of life. Lacrosse was a game to be played for their Creator, for the Native people to show their gratitude to the Great Spirit for living a full life, one that allowed them to live in harmony with nature and at peace with themselves.
Lacrosse was also played for honoured members within the Indian nation, and a game would be played to acknowledge to the Great Spirit that they were grateful that an elder or medicine person with great knowledge of many things existed in their midst.
In early days, contrary to popular belief, a Lacrosse game would be played to settle a dispute between two tribes. In times of differences between Indian nations, the leaders and elders would arrange a Lacrosse game and the winner of that game would be considered the one with the correct viewpoint, sanctioned by the Great Spirit.
Lacrosse was very much a part of the culture of the Indian people, as well as a spiritual link with their Creator. Once settlers began to establish themselves in Canada, they took a great liking to Lacrosse and it wasn’t long before almost every small community in Canada boasted of a Lacrosse team. During that time, rules were established for the number of players on each side and the playing area to be covered.
Today, Lacrosse has evolved from a spiritual game of our Native people to the exciting, thriving sport played in every province in Canada.
It is commonly referred to as the “fastest sport on two feet” and rightfully so. In addition Lacrosse is one of very few sports in this country that can boast of originating from the land proudly called Canada.
HISTORY OF LACROSSE IN CANADA
No one can question the origin of this sport. Jean de Brebeuf recorded observations of a Lacrosse game in 1683 in what is now Southern Ontario, Canada. The legacy of the original North Americans to the European settlers, Lacrosse remains one of the few aspects of Native culture which has survived and prospered under the settlers’ tutelage. Pre-dating recorded history, the sport has roots which are long and deep in North American society in general and the life and culture of the Natives of Ontario and Quebec.
“Many centuries before the white man set foot on the North American continent, our Native people were given the gift of lacrosse from the Creator. Although there was a great variation in the kind of stick used and the kind of game played, the philosophy, the spirit and the relation of lacrosse and the Creator was one; each tribal group held lacrosse in very high esteem.”
Tewaarathon, Akwesasne’s Story of Our Indian National Game, North American Indian Travelling College, 1978It was in the early 1800s that the Montreal townspeople became interested in this activity of the Mohawk tribes. In the 1840s the first games of Lacrosse were played between the townsfolk and the Natives. The action and skill of the game soon won the hearts of the locals, and though it was many years before any significant wins were logged against the Natives, the game of Lacrosse was quickly winning the loyalty and interest of the newest North Americans.
By the late 1850s and early 1860s Lacrosse had its foothold in the sporting society of the time and the first non-native Lacrosse clubs were being formed. This quickly led to the formation of inter-city rivalries and challenges, and the competitive base of the sport of Lacrosse was born.
The role of the Montreal athletes and organizers in creating a structured sport which captured the imagination of a young nation cannot be ignored. Those visionaries took the Native game with all its beauty, skill and dedication of spirit and molded it into a competitive sport which won the hearts and minds of the early Canadians.
Lacrosse was first declared the National Game of Canada in 1859. Although the original government records have never been located, hundreds of references cite this event, from renowned encyclopediae, books on Canada’s history, government communications and educational textbooks to newspaper and other media accounts dating back in history.
One such reference occurs in Scribner’s Monthly, Volume 14, May-October 1877. “The game of Lacrosse, which was adopted as the national game of Canada on the 1st of July, 1859, the first Dominion Day…
“The game of Lacrosse was granted this status in the 1800s, not merely because of its popularity or economics, but because it has made significant and lasting contributions to the history and development of this nation, its people, and the sport community. Indeed, Lacrosse is known as Canada’s National Game throughout the world.
SYMBOL OF A NATION
The birth of a nation is soon followed by a need for the populace to establish their identity and proclaim themselves to the rest of the world. Peter Lindsay stated in his paper to the Symposium on the History of Sport in Canada (1972) that nationalism can be seen to manifest itself in predictable characteristic ways such as the attempt to focus attention and promote positive identity. George Beers, a staunch Canadian patriot, embodied this reality in his words and deeds as a leader of sport and science in this country.
Beers clearly understood and accepted the role of sport in integrating the disparate aspects of the new Canadian society, and his love of the new country demanded that the symbolic sport through which this nationalism be channeled would be wholly and uniquely Canadian. He wrote in 1869: “If the Republic of Greece was indebted to the Olympic Games; if England has cause to bless the name of cricket, so may Canada be proud of Lacrosse. It has raised a young manhood throughout the Dominion to active, healthy exercise; it has originated a popular feeling in favour of physical exercise, and has, perhaps, done more than anything else to invoke a sentiment of patriotism among young men in Canada; and if this sentiment is desireable abroad, surely it is at home.”The acceptance of this principle by Beers’ peers in the sporting community was reflected in the motto of the first national sport governing body which proclaimed “OUR COUNTRY – OUR GAME”.
So too did the press of the era willingly accept and promote this principle as they proudly proclaimed for one and all to read that Lacrosse was our “National Game”. Lacrosse is deeply entrenched in Canada’s history, tradition, and culture.
As our nation spread from coast to coast, Lacrosse played an essential role in bringing those far flung regions together. Douglas Fisher, in his article entitled Sport as Culture, looked at the ways in which sport united this country. In 1885 the federal government rushed troops, via the newly completed railway, to put down the Riel rebellion. That same year a Lacrosse team from New Westminster used the very same steel road to travel across the nation to challenge a Toronto team for the National Championship. While political realities tore the country apart, Lacrosse was bringing the regions of the country closer together.
THE NATIONAL LACROSSE ASSOCIATION
As was the nature of their European background, the settlers soon felt that the game needed more structure and stability. This transition occurred through the 1860s, largely as a result of the efforts of Dr. George W. Beers of Montreal. The name of Dr. George Beers remains etched in Canadian sport annals as he was chiefly responsible for setting the tone and direction of the development of sport in this country which continues today. Though well deserved, this recognition is not given often, but as the former Minister of State for Fitness and Amateur Sport Iona Campagnolo stated in her introduction to Sport in Canada: a Historical Perspective: “Lacrosse, on the other hand, originated in this country. The wild, melee-like Indian game of baggataway was transformed into modern lacrosse by a young, energetic Montreal dentist named George Beers.””Beers was our pioneer sport builder.”
In 1867 the Montreal Lacrosse Club, headed by Dr. Beers, organized a conference in Kingston, Ontario in order to create a national body whose purpose would be to govern the sport throughout the newly formed country. This was a highly significant development as the National Lacrosse Association, the predecessor of the CLA, became the first national sport governing body in North America dedicated to the governance of a sport, the standardization of rules and competition, and the running of national championships to promote good fellowship and unity across the country.
The first symbol of the national championship was a set of banners donated by T. J. Claxton of Montreal. The Claxton Flags, as they were known, proudly displayed the motto of the organization, “OUR COUNTRY – OUR GAME”.
RISE TO PROMINENCE
Through the 1880s Lacrosse grew at a phenomenal rate until, by the turn of the century, it was the premier sport in Canada. By the end of 1867 there were about 80 clubs operating across the country. By 1877 there were 11 clubs in Montreal alone and 7 in Toronto. Major clubs also operated out of Ottawa, Hamilton, Quebec City, and there were more than 100 clubs throughout the towns and communities in Ontario and Quebec (Allen Cox, History of Sport in Canada, 1969).
The game, however, was not restricted to just those two provinces. Manitoba joined the ranks of Lacrosse-playing provinces as early as 1871 with clubs operating in Fort Garry and Winnipeg (J.K. Munro in Canadian Magazine, 1902, vol. 19). By the spring of 1883 Albertans were playing the game (Edmonton Bulletin, March 31, 1883). Lacrosse spread into the Maritimes by 1889 in New Brunswick (New Brunswick Reporter, April 25, 1889) and Nova Scotia in the following year (Globe and Mail, April 14, 1890). British Columbia, long one of the major forces in Lacrosse, began playing the game in the 1880s and by 1890 the British Columbia Amateur Lacrosse Association was formed. In 1893 the last remaining province, Saskatchewan, had formed its first clubs and was active in the sport (Winnipeg Free Press, April 18, 1893).
In addition to the number of clubs playing the sport, fans and the press became obsessed with Lacrosse. Games in the 1880s were commonly attended by 5,000 fans, and it was not unusual to see as many as 10,000. The press of the time took great care and attention to report not only the most recent games and scores, with full descriptions of the games, but also to report all the activities of meetings and assemblies. A common message that was repeated time and again was the reference to Lacrosse as the “National Sport of Canada”. The Canadian press knew that it was the most important sport to their readers.
Among the many accomplishments of the sport of Lacrosse from that era was innovation in presenting sport to the fans. One of the first night games to be played under the new “Electric Light” was played in August of 1880 at the Shamrock Lacrosse Field in Montreal. In order to help the fans follow what was occurring on the field at night, in a second game the promoters decided to coat the ball with phosphorous. Another major innovation was the concept of presenting other sports as entertainment during the breaks in the game. It was common practice to hold track and field competitions and demonstrations during the half time breaks of Lacrosse games.
THE TURN OF THE CENTURY
The advent of the 20th century saw Lacrosse as the dominant sport in Canada. There were extensive amateur and professional leagues across the country and teams routinely travelled from Quebec and Ontario to B. C. and vice versa to challenge for supremacy in the game. As an example of its popularity, in 1910 a Montreal team travelled to New Westminster to challenge for the Championship of Canada. The game was attended by more than 15,000 fans. The total population of New Westminster at the time was less than 12,000.
In 1901 Lord Minto, the Governor General of Canada, aware of what the game meant to the public of Canada, donated a silver cup to become the symbol of the senior amateur championship of Canada. The Minto Cup, today the symbol of supremacy in the Junior ranks, remains one of the proudest prizes of Lacrosse. The fierce competition for senior supremacy in Canada led to the dominance of professional teams and soon the Minto Cup became the trophy of the professional leagues. In 1910 Sir Donald Mann, chief architect of the Canadian Northern Railway, donated a gold cup to be awarded to the national amateur senior champion. When donated in 1910, the Mann Cup was appraised at $2500.00. Today it is one of the most valuable and beautiful trophies in all of sport, and the championship prize of the best Senior team in Box Lacrosse in Canada. So popular was the sport that such notables as P.D. Ross, owner and editor of the Ottawa Journal, donated trophies for competitions in their areas. The Ross Cup, first donated in 1906 for the championship of the Ottawa area, has been rededicated by the C.L.A. as the championship trophy of Senior Men’s Field Lacrosse.
The Olympics of 1904 and 1908 saw Lacrosse, very popular in Canada, the United States and Great Britain, chosen as part of the program. The sport, so much a part of the community life, provided one of Canada’s gold medals in 1904, which was the first Olympics to which Canada sent an official delegation. The Olympic program of those early years was determined a great deal by the host country. Therefore when the venues shifted to European sites, Lacrosse, not popular on the continent, was dropped from the program of competition. Though its career in the Olympics was short lived, Lacrosse still remains the only team sport in which Canada has won more gold medals than the rest of the world combined.
The society of the early 1900s was influenced by changing technology and social evolution. The arrival of the automobile as an affordable means of transportation, the desire to leave the growing cities in summer, and the growth of mass participation sports such as baseball and golf created a difficult atmosphere in which a summer sport fought for attention and participation. In addition, it was difficult to promote participation of the young in schools, as the season for competition fell during summer break. However, beyond these circumstantial issues, the single most important problem was the rise of professionalism in the sport.
In the period from 1880 to 1915, Lacrosse, clearly the country’s most popular sport, found itself increasingly in conflict with the social values and mores of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. As early as 1880 the intrusion of “professionalism” into the sport became an issue within the organizations and between the organizations and a society which for the most part reviled such activity in favour of the amateur ideal. In May 1880 press articles referred to professionalism as the “evil” and that “its hateful presence has fully declared itself” (Toronto Star, May 25, 1880).
Professionalism had become such a major issue within the sport that in the late 1890s the National Amateur Lacrosse Association, splintered and fractionalized, gave way to the formation of a professional body, the National Lacrosse Union, and an amateur body, the Canadian Lacrosse Association. Though they continued to compete against each other, the battle lines were clearly drawn. A few years later saw the creation of a second professional league, the Dominion Lacrosse Union.
The status of professional athlete was at first not a major concern as remuneration was not significant. As the sport flourished, however, the importance of professional players on all teams increased, and eventually all professional teams created a demand for higher salaries and more benefits. In his 1972 paper on the history of Lacrosse in B.C., David Saveleiff indicated that in 1908 an average player could make as much as $100.00 per season and stars could make $1,000.00 per year. Cyclone Taylor, the famous multi-sport athlete, made almost $2,000.00 that year playing for the New Westminster Salmonbellies. In 1917 Newsy Lalonde made more than $3,000.00 while playing for Vancouver.
The sport of Lacrosse, years ahead of its time in becoming professional, had made a virtue and a standard of a practise which was in direct conflict with the majority view of a society which still reflected the Victorian ideals of amateurism and excellence in sport for its own sake. The nature of this controversy was reflected in the struggle within the Montreal Amateur Athletic Association to resolve the fact that Lacrosse was the only “professional” sport in the organization. It resulted in major conflicts between factions of the organization and by 1920 the Montreal Lacrosse Club, part of the M.A.A.A. and founder of the sport of Lacrosse, had been so severely restricted and penalized by the organization for professionalism that it could no longer compete in any league (M.A.A.A. Minute Books, 1911 – 1920).
THE ADVENT OF BOX LACROSSE
In 1925 the organizers of Lacrosse throughout the country began to realize the need for solidarity and combined effort to revive the game. That year saw the re-creation of the Canadian Amateur Lacrosse Association with all the sport united under one banner. The Mann Cup was awarded to the senior champion of Canada and the Minto Cup was awarded to the junior champion. Unfortunately the war years and the new freedoms provided by technology and the attraction of the countryside took their toll of available athletes and the sport still struggled with participation.
The coming of the 1930s brought innovation once again to the sport. Promoters began to consider alternatives to the game of Field Lacrosse. Hockey popularity was rising and in order to capitalize on the familiar winter venue of indoor rinks, the promoters married the two most popular games, Lacrosse and Hockey, and created indoor Lacrosse, also known as Box Lacrosse or Boxla. The game was built upon speed and action and very quickly won massive support within the organization. By the mid 30s the field game had been completely replaced by Boxla and the box version became the official sport of the Canadian Lacrosse Association. Soon, nowhere in Canada was anyone playing the original version of the game of Lacrosse.
As Canada turned its back on the game of Field Lacrosse, the sport was gaining popular support and growing rapidly south of the border and overseas. Introduced into the United States in the 1870s, Lacrosse had continued to expand and win acceptance along the eastern seaboard. The more hospitable weather conditions helped to make Lacrosse prosper in the institutions of higher learning, especially in the Ivy League schools, as a spring sport. England continued its passion for the Canadian game introduced in the 1870s and following the example of exhibition games played before Queen Victoria, it became a sport of the upper classes and found a welcome home in private schools and universities. Australia was the other hotbed of Lacrosse. Imported from Britain, it took hold and has existed happily and popularly since the 1880s and 90s. Thus outside of Canada, sport enthusiasts had taken to our game with a passion and while they held to the traditional game, back home in Canada Box Lacrosse was the passion.
The game of Lacrosse has evoked Canada’s uniqueness and individuality as a nation for well over a century. It has accomplished this function largely because of the willingness of government, historians, writers and the sports community to use it as a symbol of Canada. It has been accepted around the world that it is an integral part of Canadian culture and history.
Participation in Lacrosse has had a roller-coastered history. While the game grew in the late 1800s, participation waned in the 1920s until the introduction of Box Lacrosse. And although the game grew tremendously since then, it has had further ups and downs, but leading into and during the 1990s, participation rates grew exponentially in all forms of the game. Currently more than 100,000 players register with the Canadian Lacrosse Association.
The Canadian Lacrosse Association today recognizes three separate disciplines in the game of Lacrosse: Box, Men’s Field, and Women’s Field. Box Lacrosse, to which we as a nation have uniquely stayed committed, comprises the major part of the Canadian Lacrosse scene. Field Lacrosse, the traditional game, has for all intents and purposes been dominated by the Americans, though it is played in Great Britain, Australia, Japan and other countries.
Women’s Field Lacrosse is a very popular sport in Canada, Great Britain, Japan, Australia and the United States and has remained true to the traditional form of the game. Men’s Field Lacrosse has been modified from the original version of the game so much that the separate disciplines of Men’s and Women’s Lacrosse bear little or no resemblance in the rules of play and strategy. The Men’s game is a contact game in which participants wear protective equipment and players are highly specialized. The Women’s game is non-contact wherein equipment is not worn and is in fact discouraged. The players tend to be required to be versatile and the game stresses ball movement.
The other discipline is Inter-Lacrosse. A recent innovation, this game is a non-contact, skill oriented activity. Its main function is to introduce a wide range of young athletes to the skills of Lacrosse and to provide an education tool to help develop conditioning and coordination in young athletes. The game stresses cooperation and respect for opponents and is extremely flexible in how and where it may be played.
The World Championships of Lacrosse, which are attended every four years, are very significant to this country. The major difficulty in the 1960s and 70s was that while the other countries were playing Field Lacrosse, here in Canada we played only Box Lacrosse. For the first few world championships, the CLA was forced to convert its premier Box players to field players and try our best.
The culmination of this effort came in 1978, when against all odds, the Canadian team pulled off a major upset and defeated the powerful American team in the championship game. This was the only time the Americans have lost the World title since its inception. Having lost badly to the Americans in the round robin by a score of 24-3, the Canadian team stormed back to win the championship in overtime 17-16.
The fallout of that win has been the renewal of interest and participation in the sports of Men’s and Women’s Field Lacrosse in Canada. The resurgence of those games has produced a form of Lacrosse which is unique to Canada. The marriage of the skill, patience and strategy of the pure field game with the speed and reaction of the Box game is what makes Lacrosse in Canada different than anywhere else in the world.
Dozens of countries are now involved in Lacrosse – from the USA, Australia, England, Scotland and Wales to the relative newcomers Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Singapore, Sweden, etc. The Iroquois Nationals, a Native North American team, participate in the Men’s World Cup as a separate “national team”.
Lacrosse has made a comeback, and there is no sign of any wane in its current level of growth and increased popularity.
CONTRIBUTION TO SPORT IN CANADA
The National Lacrosse Association, formed in 1867, was the first national body dedicated to the governance of sport, the standardization of rules and the holding of National Championships to promote unity and fellowship throughout the nation.
Canada, because of its nature as a large sparsely populated country, was one of the first nations interested in the growth of the concept of national championships. Lacrosse was the first body able and willing to organize these competitions, thus creating an integral part of modern sport. This provided a non-political venue and a social milieu to bring the regions of Canada together. Likewise, the N.L.A. pioneered the concept of a nationally standardized set of rules and making the maintenance and modification of these rules the function of a governing body.
Very early, the organizers of Lacrosse accepted the principle that sport should be for all participants. This was not restricted to a consideration of merely economic or social status, but encompassed the need for sport to be for both males and females. Dr. George Beers created a set of rules which would allow women, still hampered by the social standards of the times, to play the sport of Lacrosse.
In addition to promoting their own sport, Lacrosse organizers provided a venue for other sports of the time to spread their own popular appeal. Half-time demonstrations of other sports was a common occurrence at Lacrosse matches, and special occasions for competition in other sports were often sponsored by the Lacrosse organization in the community.
Many other innovations, social and technological, came directly from the minds and hearts of the Lacrosse community. The concept of all-star games began in the early 1800s with Ontario challenging Quebec to an annual match. When the city of Memphis, Tennessee was decimated by Yellow Fever, Lacrosse clubs across Ontario and Quebec held benefit games to raise funds to help relieve the suffering there. Early attempts by promoters to utilize the latest in electric technology has been previously mentioned.
The desire and motivation for Lacrosse enthusiasts to create a national governing body extended to other sports. The Montreal Lacrosse Club along with the Montreal Snowshoe Club formed one of this country’s most historically important sporting bodies, the Montreal Amateur Athletic Association. The widespread influence of this organization was recognized by former Minister of State Iona Campagnolo:
“It (the M.A.A.A.) proved to be the major force behind the organization of much of sport in this country. Its members were responsible for the Canadian Wheelmen’s Association, the Canadian Hockey Association and the Canadian Rugby Football Association.”
Sport in Canada, Lindsay P.C., 1977
CANADA’S NATIONAL SPORT
Lacrosse has been known as Canada’s National Game since 1859.
In 1925, A.E.H. Coo, President of the Canadian Amateur Lacrosse Association refers not only to Lacrosse as Canada’s National Summer Game, but also to Canada’s other National Game, hockey!
In 1967, the late Honourable Lester B. Pearson, the Prime Minister of Canada, who was himself an accomplished Lacrosse player, when discussing the confirmation of a National Game in the House of Commons, suggested that Canada should have a National Summer Game (Lacrosse), and a National Winter Game (Hockey). Although either Hockey or Lacrosse has been discussed on several occasions, the debate was not resolved.
In 1976, Canada hosted its first Olympics. With much pomp, Canada proclaimed itself to the rest of the world and used the Games as a showpiece of that which is Canada. The $10.00 Olympic commemorative coin depicted a Lacrosse game being played by Native North Americans. Lacrosse was the only sport not in the Olympic program to be so represented, and it was used because it is a symbol of Canada.
In 1978, though Lacrosse was a demonstration sport at the Commonwealth Games in Edmonton, the medal being awarded also proclaimed it as Canada’s National Game.
February 8, 1994, Nelson Riis introduced a private members bill (C-212) in the House of Commons to recognize Hockey as the National Sport. Substantial support for Lacrosse, however, resulted in the introduction of an ammendment to the bill (proposed by the Parliamentary Assistant to the Minister of Canadian Heritage) which was accepted unanimously.
On May 12, 1994, the following Bill C-212 received Royal Assent and became law: “To recognize Hockey as Canada’s National Winter Sport and Lacrosse as Canada’s National Summer Sport.”
This decree is known as Canada’s “National Sport Act”.The recognition of Lacrosse as Canada’s National (Summer) Sport in 1994 is a re-affirmation of the importance of the contributions of the Native North Americans to the development of our society and culture, recognition by the Canadian government of the importance of the sport to this country and confirms our pride in the game that we gave to the world. Canada is the product of an evolution which began with the Natives and was molded by the European settlers. It took the combined efforts of these people to open this country to development. Part of this development led to the invention of Canada’s National Winter Game – Hockey.
Again in 1994, Lacrosse was the Official Demonstration Sport of the Commonwealth Games, once again illustrating its importance to Canada. Canada Post issued a Lacrosse stamp for the Games, along with a statement of the game’s importance to our country.
The sport of Lacrosse is an intrinsic part of Canadian culture, tradition and heritage. The recognition of Lacrosse as the National Game for Canada in 1859 is a positive statement of the contributions of the sport to this nation’s development. The passing of Bill C-212 by the Government of Canada attests to the enduring nature of the Sport of Lacrosse – Canada’s oldest sport.
And, we owe it all to the people of the First Nations – and the Creator.
Five Sports Invented in Canada Lacrosse
The transition from traditional custom to a national sport.
For Canadians today it would be quite remarkable to witness a traditional, Indigenous game of what we now call lacrosse. These games were often played on an open area or meadow, sometimes there were up to several hundred competitors from the two teams, and astonishingly a game could last for many days. The physical skills and endurance of the participant’s was impressive, but the game was more than simply a physical activity, it was an important cultural and spiritual custom for the well-being of the players, communities, and First Nations. These Indigenous games were different to sport as we understand it today.
In 1856 the Montreal Lacrosse Club was the first organization of the sport ever formed, which was a pivotal moment in the development of the game from a First Nations cultural practice into a national sport. In the mid-nineteenth century, European Canadians began playing, other club teams were formed in Ontario and Quebec, and in 1860 the first rules of the sport were published in a Montreal newspaper.
In 1876 and in 1883, the Canadian government organized two Lacrosse tours of Britain. The government wanted to attract immigrants to move to Canada, and these tours used lacrosse as a national symbol to market Canada as a great nation. Two teams toured, one team of First Nations players and another team of European Canadian players, who wowed the thousands of British spectators at each game. One match in particular was remarkable, as it was held privately for none other than Queen Victoria at her castle in Windsor, England. These tours are one example of the ways in which lacrosse played an important role in developing our Canadian national identity, and in 2003 the federal government of Canada celebrated these early developments by identifying lacrosse as Canada’s national summer sport. Today it is played as a professional sport.
George Beers was instrumental in promoting the game of lacrosse in Canada. He codified the rules of the sport and promoted it as Canada’s national game. He promoted the game as one that trained a young man to temperance, confidence and pluck. Lacrosse was reconfirmed by parliament as Canada’s National (Summer) Sport in 1994.
Collection: Canada’s Sports Hall of Fame
George Beers brought the game of lacrosse to European audiences in 1876 and 1883. Lacrosse was played at two Olympics Games, 1904 in St. Louis and 1908 in London. This is the gold medal was won by the Canadian team in 1908. Lacrosse is now played internationally by men and women.
Collection: Canada’s Sports Hall of Fame
Lionel Conacher was a multi-sport athlete who played football, ice hockey, baseball, boxing, rugby and lacrosse. In lacrosse he was considered one of the greatest amateur players of all time, often dominating games by charging the field and overpowering the opposition. Part of the Conacher lacrosse legend is his participation in two championship games on the same day in two different sports. He hit a game winning double in baseball and then joined a lacrosse game already in play where he helped his team win the game. The Lionel Conacher Award is presented annually to the male athlete of the year.
Collection: Canada’s Sports Hall of Fame
This lacrosse stick was used by Roy “Red” Storey when he played lacrosse in Ontario and Quebec. Red Storey was an all-round athlete and also played football, baseball and ice hockey. After his retirement as a player he was an official for many sports including lacrosse and ice hockey between 1943 and 1959. He was respected for his integrity and leadership as an athlete and an official.
Collection: Canada’s Sports Hall of Fame
Ike Hildebrandt played both of Canada’s national sports – ice hockey and lacrosse. As a lacrosse player he played over sixteen seasons and won the national championship four times between 1951 and 1954. He was a prolific scorer, winning the league scoring championship twice. He also enjoyed an outstanding ice hockey career, winning the World Championship in 1959 as both coach and player. His passion for both games and his leadership made him an outstanding athlete.
Collection: Canada’s Sports Hall of Fame
The Canadian Lacrosse Association, the national governing body for the sport, recognizes four separate lacrosse disciplines of Box (Indoor), Men’s Field, Women’s Field and Inter-Lacrosse. Box Lacrosse, which is played on both the amateur and professional levels, is a uniquely Canadian game relying on speed and action. It is played with five runners and a goaltender on a standard sized arena floor.
Collection: THE CANADIAN PRESS/Geoff Robins
Origins of Lacrosse – Lacrosse Victoria
Lacrosse has its origins in a tribal game played by all eastern Woodlands Native Americans and by some Plains Indians tribes in what is now Canada. The game has been modernized extensively by European immigrants to create its current form.
Modern day lacrosse descends from and resembles games played by various Native American communities. These include games called dehuntshigwa’es in Onondaga (“men hit a rounded object”), da-nah-wah’uwsdi in Eastern Cherokee (“little war”), Tewaarathon in Mohawk language (“little brother of war”), baaga`adowe in Ojibwe (“bump hips”) and kabocha-toli in Choctaw language (“stick-ball”).
Lacrosse is one of the youngest team sports in North America. There is evidence that a version of lacrosse originated in Mesoamerica or canada as early as the 17th century. Native American lacrosse was played throughout modern Canada, but was most popular around the Great Lakes, Mid-Atlantic seaboard, and American South.
“An Indian Ball-Play” by George Catlin, circa 1846-1850, Choctaw Indians. Native American ball games often involved hundreds of players.
Traditional lacrosse games were sometimes major events that could last several days. As many as 100 to 1,000 men from opposing villages or tribes would participate. The games were played in open plains located between the two villages, and the goals could range from 500 yards (460 m) to several miles apart.
Rules for these games were decided on the day before. Generally
there was no out-of-bounds, and the ball could not be touched with
the hands. The goals would be selected as large rocks or trees; in
later years golden posts were used. Playing time was often from sun
up until sun down.
The game began with the ball being hit against the refs head and the two sides rushing to capture it. Because of the large number of players involved, these games generally tended to involve a huge mob of players swarming the ball and slowly moving across the field. Passing the ball was thought of as a trick, and it was seen as cowardly to dodge an opponent.
The medicine men acted as coaches, and the women of the tribe were usually limited to serving refreshments to the players. (There was also a women’s version of lacrosse called amtahcha, which used much shorter sticks with larger heads.)
Lacrosse traditionally had many different purposes. Some games were played to settle inter-tribal disputes. This function was essential to keeping the Six Nations of the Iroquois together. Lacrosse was also played to toughen young warriors for combat, for recreation, as part of festivals, and for the bets involved. Finally, lacrosse was played for religious reasons: “for the pleasure of the Creator” and to collectively pray for something.
This content from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_lacrosse
History of Lacrosse
Enduring Values to Guide the Future of Lacrosse
The modern variations of lacrosse – field lacrosse, box lacrosse, and women’s lacrosse – are all descended from stick and ball games played by Native peoples as early as 1100 AD. By the 17th century, Native lacrosse in various forms was well established across the eastern half of North America and was documented by Jesuit missionary priests in present-day Canada. These priests called the game they witnessed la crosse, meaning “the stick” in French.
Native peoples, particularly in present-day New York State and neighboring areas of Canada, continued to play lacrosse into the 19th century. English-speaking Canadians from Montreal were the first non-Native players. They began playing among themselves in the 1930s after having observed games being played by Native peoples. In 1856, the Montreal Lacrosse Club was founded, and the club’s founder codified rules in 1960. Compared to the Native game, these rules shortened the length of each game and reduced the number of players to 12 per team. The first official game played under these rules took place in 1867.
In the early stages of this growth, Native teams were active participants. They played in competitions and demonstrations in the United States, Canada, and Great Britain. By the 1880s, however, Native teams were routinely banned from international competitions due to their dominance. Box lacrosse was invented in Canada during the 1920s and 1930s. Canadian field lacrosse players experimented with indoor games at unused ice hockey rinks during the summer, with strong support from arena owners. Canadian players enthusiastically adopted the new six-man indoor format. It quickly became the more popular version of the game in Canada, supplanting field lacrosse. Also, Native peoples adopted box lacrosse as the primary version of the game played in their territories, both in the United States and Canada.
A Rapidly Growing Game
In the United States, lacrosse during the late 1800s and first half of the 1900s was primarily a regional sport centered around the Mid-Atlantic states, especially New York and Maryland. However, in the last half of the 20th century, the sport spread rapidly outside this region, and can be currently found in most of the United States.
The total number of players at all levels at the end of 2017 was 3.3 times the number of players at the end of 2001. Recently, the strongest growth has been at the high school level, where both boys’ and girls’ lacrosse have been the fastest growing sports nationally. Some 22 U.S. states now have full championship status for lacrosse. At the collegiate level, women’s lacrosse has been the fastest growing sport of any kind. Some 498 colleges and universities sponsor a women’s lacrosse team in one of the NCAA’s three divisions (376 for men’s lacrosse).
Internationally, there has been a significant increase in the number of countries playing all three versions of lacrosse – field lacrosse, box lacrosse, and women’s lacrosse. Each holds a world championship tournament every four years. At the most recent world championship, there were 46 participating nations for field lacrosse (2018), 25 nations for women’s lacrosse (2017), and 20 nations for box lacrosse (2019).
Lacrosse has a history at the Olympic Games, having been a medal sport more than a century ago and a demonstration sport on other occasions. Given its international growth, lacrosse likely also has a future at the Olympics, and the governing bodies of the sport are working to make that dream a reality, with current ambitions set on the 2028 Olympic games.
A Game with Native Roots
For players, coaches, officials, and fans in the United States and, increasingly, across the world, a fundamental truth about the game deserves emphasis: Lacrosse is a Native game. Native nations and communities throughout North America played different versions of “lacrosse.” Indeed, the traditional Native names highlight the diversity of indigenous stick and ball games. For the Mohawk people of the Northeastern region, the game is called tewaa:araton, which translates to “little brother of war.” For the Choctaw of the Southeast region, the game is named kabucha, which means “stickball.” And for the Ojibwe of the Great Lakes region, the game is called baaga’adowenwin, translating to “knocking the ball with an instrument.”
While there are many different historical and modern variations of Native “lacrosse” games, three principal styles come from the Great Lakes, Southeast, and Northeast regions. In the Great Lakes region, Native nations such as the Ojibwe, Menominee, Sauk, Fox, Potawatomi, Winnebago, Santee Dakota, and others traditionally played with a single three-foot stick that had a rounded head about four inches in diameter. Stories are told that each player made his own stick from white ash, decorated with symbols of personal meeting. In the Southeastern region, which includes the Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, Seminole, and Yuchi peoples, players used two small lacrosse sticks – one in each hand – usually carved from hickory and adorning symbols (e.g., lightning design to symbolize swiftness) of community or personal significance. Many of these traditional games continue to be played in Native communities today.
The modern field version of lacrosse, however, traces its roots most closely to the Northeastern region, which is home to the Iroquois, or Haudenosaunee, people. The word, Haudenosaunee (pronounced, “hoe-dee-no-sho-knee”), means “People of the Longhouse.” Located in the northeastern woodlands, the Haudenosaunee refer to Native peoples who traditionally lived in longhouses – large, rectangular wooden buildings – and shared a common language family and cultural beliefs.
About the Haudenosaunee
The original five Native nations who called themselves Haudenosaunee were the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca. These nations were – and continue to be – principally located in what is now known as upstate and western New York, and the provinces of Ontario and Quebec, Canada. These nations enjoy a government-to-government relationship with the United States and, as sovereigns recognized under the U.S. constitution, possess the ability to govern their own affairs, such as creating and enforcing their own laws, controlling their natural resources, and administering health care for their citizens.
It is important to appreciate that the Haudenosaunee contributions to the United States extend well beyond their status as the original stewards of the game of lacrosse. Of particular importance are the Haudenosaunee contributions to the principles of democratic governance. In the 12th century, the five Haudenosaunee nations came together to form an alliance, often referred to as the League of the Iroquois or, more commonly, the Iroquois (or Haudenosaunee) Confederacy. The confederacy was formed to ensure peace among the five nations, and established a sophisticated set of democratic laws and processes by which the nations would interact with each other and outsiders. The confederacy later became a source of inspiration for America’s founding fathers, who drew upon the Haudenosaunee model when crafting the U.S. Constitution, which was signed in 1787. Several years later, a sixth Native nation, the Tuscarora, joined the Haudenosaunee Confederacy.
The Haudenosaunee flag is a representation of the Hiawatha wampum belt, commemorating the union of the five original nations in the Haudenosaunee Confederacy. From west to east – or left to right – they are the Seneca (keepers of the western door), Cayuga, Onondaga (which is the capitol of the confederacy and is represented by the Great Tree of Peace), Oneida, and Mohawk (keepers of the eastern door. This confederacy remains active to this day, and the flag is often featured on Haudenosaunee lacrosse gear and uniforms, and donned by those – both Native and non-Native – to honor the Native roots of the game.
A Special Relationship
One of the core beliefs among the Haudenosaunee is that lacrosse is much more than a game.
According to the Haudenosaunee oral tradition, the very first game of lacrosse was not played between humans, but rather was a game between the winged animals (i.e., birds) and the four-legged creatures (i.e., the land mammals). And while the story is told in slightly different ways among the various Haudenosaunee communities, one version is as follows:
Our Grandfathers told us many stories that would relate to lacrosse and how one should conduct themselves and the importance of the individual to the game. Lacrosse was a gift to us from the Creator, to be played for his enjoyment and as a medicine game for healing the people. The Haudenosaunee people know that all creatures, no matter how big or small, are significant and have a contribution to make to the overall cycle of life.
Long ago we were told the following story about a great ball game that took place between the four-legged animals and the winged birds…
The captains for the four-legged animals were: The Bear – whose weight overpowers all opposition, The Deer – whose speed and agility to stop and go made him invaluable to the team, and The Great Turtle – who could withstand the most powerful blows and still be able to advance towards the opposition.
The captains for the winged birds were: The Owl – who excelled in the ability to keep his eye on the ball, no matter what position or direction the ball may be traveling. The Hawk and Eagle – both excel in quick, swift movements. These three represented all the winged animals.
While the birds were preparing for the game, they noticed two small creatures, hardly larger than a feather, climbing up a tree where the winged leaders were perched. Upon reaching the top, they humbly asked the captains to be allowed to join the lacrosse game.
The Eagle, easily noticing that they were a squirrel and a mouse, inquired as to why they didn’t ask to join the animal team. The little creatures explained that they had asked, but had been laughed at and rejected because of their small size.
On hearing their story, the bird captains took pity on them, but wondered how they could join the birds’ teams if they had no wings. After some discussion, it was decided to that they would try to make wings for the little fellows, but how would they to do it?
By happy inspiration, one bird thought of the water drum that is used in social and ceremonial gatherings. Perhaps a piece of the drum’s leather could be taken from the drumhead, cut and shaped and attached to the legs of one of the small creatures. It was done and thus originated the bat. The ball was now tossed into the air, the bat was told to catch it. With his skill in dodging and circling he kept the ball constantly in motion, never allowing it to hit the ground. Through his impressive performance he convinced the birds that they had gained a valuable ally.
The birds thought they could do the same for the squirrel, but, to their dismay, all the leather had been used on the making of the bat’s wings. There was no time to send for more. At the last minute it was suggested that perhaps stretching the skin of the squirrel itself could make suitable wings. So, by tugging and pulling the fur between the front and hind feet, the task was completed and there originated the flying squirrel. When all was ready, they began the game.
Eagle and Bear met, a face-off ensued and the flying squirrel caught the ball, cradled it up the tree and passed it off the Hawk. Hawk kept it in the air for some time. Then, just as the ball was to hit the ground, the Eagle seized it. Eagle, dodging and doubling, maintained possession and kept the ball from even the Deer, the opposition… the fastest of the four-legged team. Eagle then faked to Squirrel and passed to Bat, who moved in hard and left to score the goal. This goal won the victory for the birds.
This story shows that regardless of how unworthy you feel an individual is that person may have qualities that could be a great help to you some day. (Source: Iroquois Nationals Lacrosse)
In the original Haudenosaunee form of the game for humans, large sticks were used that had a triangular pocket that extended down two-thirds of the stick. The ball featured a fiber core wrapped in leather. Though the Haudenosaunee stick has evolved over time, certain features have remained consistent. Hand-cut, steam-bent, and hand-carved almost exclusively from hickory trees, the sticks use leather, and animal gut (or a contemporary equivalent), and are considered “living” instruments that deserve great respect and care. The significance of the wooden stick is evidenced by a longstanding Haudenosaunee tradition that a baby boy is gifted his first stick upon birth. To this day, a significant proportion of Haudenosaunee baby boys sleep in their cradles next to a small wooden stick. The traditional wooden stick is also brought along to those going on to the afterlife; many Haudenosaunee believe that being buried with their favorite stick allows them to be ready to play with their ancestors in the most beautiful and never-ending game when they greet the Creator.
For the Haudenosaunee, lacrosse is a gift from the Creator, to be played for His enjoyment as a medicine game that heals and strengthens individuals, families, and communities. There is “medicine” in lacrosse if the game is played traditionally and with the right frame of mind. Specific medicine games continue to play an important role in contemporary Haudenosaunee community life. An individual player may call for a medicine game to bring blessings to a community or particular person. For example, if a player’s brother or sister is ill, he might call a medicine game to bring the sibling to good health. Many players will ask the spirit of an animal for guidance, so the he may have the eyes of the hawk, the toughness of a turtle, or the agility of a deer. Thus, while lacrosse is a sport pursued by non-Native players around the world, it is still a medicine game imbued with a sacred significance and special powers.
Lacrosse also is viewed as a cultural legacy that succeeds in teaching the lessons of how to live a good life. The game demands teamwork, leadership, commitment, sacrifice, and physical prowess – virtues that benefit the Haudenosaunee on and off the playing field. The game serves as the bond that brings the Haudenosaunee together as individuals and nations and, as such, it is used for community advancement.
Finally, for the Haudenosaunee, lacrosse is an expression of Native sovereignty. In 1983, the United States National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) invited the Haudenosaunee to field a team and play an exhibition match at the National Lacrosse Championships in Baltimore, Maryland. They did, and were roundly defeated by the Canadian national team. This loss, while disappointing, mobilized the Haudenosaunee to take a stand on a global level. Team members and coaches decided that, as the originators of the game and as citizens of the Iroquois Confederacy, they would participate in international field lacrosse competitions and recapture their status as the best lacrosse players in the world. More importantly, they were determined that their participation should stand as a symbol of their sovereignty. With the sanction of the Haudenosaunee Grand Council of Chiefs, a dedicated group of Haudenosaunee citizens organized the Iroquois Nationals Lacrosse Team to represent the confederacy in international competition. Today, the Iroquois Nationals Lacrosse Team is the only Native national sports team in international competition. The Team, which has won numerous medals and awards, travels overseas using Haudenosaunee passports, and in so doing, has successfully engaged state departments, embassies, and consulates around the work in recognizing the sovereignty of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy and its member nations. (Source: Harvard Kennedy School, Honoring Nations tribal governance award)
Enduring Native Values with Contemporary Relevance
All of us – Native and non-Native – have an opportunity to understand, respect, and adopt the core values associated with the Creator’s game. As players, coaches, officials, fans, and supporters, we can learn a great deal from studying these values. By understanding and, ultimately, embracing these values, we ensure that lacrosse is played in the right spirit, and the game is made stronger.
The game of lacrosse requires diverse gifts. From an individual perspective, it requires skill, athleticism, intelligence, and perseverance. From a team perspective, it requires offense, defense, goalkeeping, gaining possession, and transition. Each of these requirements has many constituent elements, and no one single type of player can cover all of these elements. As a result, every player has something to offer, and a successful lacrosse team is an effective combination of the diverse talents of its individual players. The Haudenosaunee story about the first lacrosse game between the animals and the birds is also a story about inclusion and the coordination of unique talents. Whether a person is fast, slow, strong, weak, or embodies a variety of characteristics, everyone has something valuable to contribute, and, therefore, we have a collective obligation to make the game as diverse and inclusive as possible. For the Haudenosaunee, the game is made stronger when we bring diverse talents together – which, indeed, provides valuable guidance for those who want to grow the game, especially at the youth level.
The game of lacrosse requires the hard work of individual and team preparation. At the core of individual preparation are caring for your stick and equipment, caring for your body, and caring for your mind. In some Native communities, young children learn to value the lacrosse stick and what it represents long before they develop the skills to use it. The high-maintenance and fickle nature of the traditional wooden sticks reinforces the need to care for the stick and equipment. By its nature, lacrosse is meant to be played hard, and proper preparation and conditioning of the body is critical. Also by its nature, lacrosse is meant to be played with the right spirit, and proper preparation of the mind is equally important. For the Haudenosaunee, the “power of the good mind” is a fundamental tenet of their cultural and spiritual beliefs, and players have an obligation to step onto the field or into the box with a good mind, void of ill thoughts, ready to play in a way that pleases the Creator. Great lacrosse (and great fulfillment) is made possible when the hard work of preparation and the right mindset come together to produce a hard-fought game.
The game of lacrosse is played best when it reflects creativity and innovation. In Native communities, the Creator’s game is considered a thing of beauty, and both individual and team creativity are highly valued as expressions of that beauty. That lacrosse is an important platform for creative expression among Native players is evidenced by an endless variety of innovative stick skills, hidden ball tricks, and pick-up game formats. The beauty and effectiveness of these inventions is honed by much individual and collective repetition. The importance of innovation in the game of lacrosse is reflected in the first game between the winged birds and the four-legged creatures. By thinking creativity, the birds added valuable members to their team. This ancient lesson teaches us that the game is meant to be played creatively, and this type of thinking not only keeps the game exciting but also helps explain the prowess of Haudenosaunee players.
The game of lacrosse requires integrity. For centuries, the Haudenosaunee have used lacrosse games – medicine games – as pathways to healing and personal and communal transformation. The community’s expectation is always for fierce competition to be followed by mutual appreciation. Each participant’s ability to both play hard and respect opponents reflects positively on the community. It is in this spirit, along with the understanding that we are all brothers and sisters in lacrosse, that we show our respect by shaking hands and giving sincere thanks after a well-played game. With a growing number of unfortunate incidents occurring in youth sports – from the way officials are sometimes treated poorly to offensive sideline behavior – it is more important than ever to underscore that lacrosse is a different kind of game, one that puts a premium on playing and acting with integrity.
The game of lacrosse requires generosity. For Native peoples, lacrosse is a gift from the Creator. Native peoples have freely shared the game with non-Natives. Most notably, prior to the invention of the plastic stick, every lacrosse stick ever used was created by a Native stick maker. Non-Native lacrosse would not have been possible without this gift. The generational transfer of skills, knowledge, and spirit is an important part of both Native and non-Native lacrosse communities. It’s critical that this culture of generous sharing and gift giving. The Haudenosaunee principle of seven generations is inspiring. The principle holds that whenever leaders make decisions, they have a solemn obligation to consider the wisdom of those who came seven generations before, and to make decisions that will benefit those to be born seven generations ahead. For all lacrosse players, coaches, officials, and supporters, the principle of seven generations means that we always need to be mindful about the roots of the game and, importantly, act as responsible and generous stewards so that children born seven generations ahead can enjoy this beautiful game.
Note: We would like to thank Andrew Lee and Andy Phillips who authored this article and who generously shared it with us.
How Indigenous people in Canada are reclaiming lacrosse
First Nations youth participate in a traditional lacrosse game in Montreal in June THE CANADIAN PRESS/Graham Hughes
Updated March 31, 2018
Comyn Jamieson, 3, trains with his lacrosse team every week in the Six Nations of the Grand River reserve in Ontario. In the locker room, he gets dressed in rib guards, shoulder and elbow pads, a helmet and jersey, his legs bare but for his shorts. Comyn and his fellow top-heavy toddlers belong to the Six Nations Warriors junior paperweight squad. “It’s in our blood,” says Comyn’s father, Cody Jamieson, who is a professional player for the Rochester Nighthawks in the National Lacrosse League. “We are, literally, born with sticks in our hands.”
In the 1700s, Mohawk men near present-day Montreal were first to play tewaarathon, a ball-and-net stick game that was given to them by the Creator and taken from them by Canadian settlers. French immigrants renamed it, and an English dentist changed the rules to create a “gentleman’s game,” banning Aboriginal athletes from rosters. Later, lacrosse leagues went Ivy league, and the athletes on Canadian and American teams became predominantly white. But Indigenous communities now see potential for the sport to help prevent depression, obesity and diabetes, and to offer youth a shot at scholarships to college and university. Beginning with the youngest generation, Indigenous athletes are reclaiming Canada’s national sport.
“It’s our game,” says Rusty Doxtdater, Indigenous director of the Canadian Lacrosse Association (CLA). “We’ll let the non-Natives put in any rules they want. Then we’ll just beat them under their rules.” The CLA doesn’t know how many of its players are Indigenous, but next season it will begin asking registrants to self-identify (the association had 82,952 players last year, about one-seventh the number of Canadians who play hockey).
In the Standing Buffalo First Nation in Saskatchewan, residential school survivors have sacrificed their settlement packages for the sake of lacrosse. In 2015, the nation didn’t have enough money to register its regular lacrosse team, so about 80 residential school survivors donated the $3,000 given to them by the federal government following the recommendations of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission.
Since lacrosse resembles the basics of basketball, the CLA has begun finding basketball coaches and referees in Aboriginal communities to train them in teaching the game. The organization also sent out six equipment packages with 30 sticks and balls, worth $800. Provincially, the British Columbia Lacrosse Association has trained more than 21,000 Indigenous players and coaches in the past five years. In remote communities, “there might only be 10 or 15 kids who will pick up a stick,” says director Rochelle Winterton, “but we want to reach those 10 to 15 kids.”
RELATED: How Alberta First Nations played host to a global sporting event
Lacrosse has been hailed as saving Indigenous lives. In February 2000, six children committed suicide in Kugluktuk, Nunavut, before a teacher named Russ Sheppard moved from Saskatchewan and started the Stay-in-School Grizzly Lacrosse Program. He demanded that his players maintain an 80 per cent class attendance record, and boosted the school’s overall attendance from 20 per cent to nearly 100 per cent rapidly. Players ran a canteen at the arena to pay for their jerseys and travel expenses for national tournaments. Kugluktuk saw no suicides for the next five years.
“The Creator himself gave lacrosse to us as a form of medicine,” says Jamieson. “The energy used in lacrosse, you can use that [to] scare sickness away from the tribe.” As a confederation of First Nations including the Mohawks, the Iroquois first played the game that became lacrosse in Michigan and modern-day Quebec. Men gambled on the games, with territory and prizes at stake, so the game mobilized goods and distributed wealth more equally between nations. As an outlet for anger between tribes, the game helped resolve conflict and also kept men healthy. Since games were timed with the seasons, it enforced spirituality, along with gender roles, as women stayed on the sidelines, though occasionally ran onto the fields to shout unsolicited coaching advice.
But to settlers, especially in the United States, the game reinforced the stigma of Indigenous people as savages, who would chase the ball on the ground en masse and bruise each other. In the 1830s, the French in Montreal changed the stick to allow for more passing and teamwork, and named it lacrosse, a generic term for a game with a curved stick.
A teenage dental apprentice from England, William George Beers, wrote rules for the game in 1860, and he went on to limit the number of players to 12 per team and introduce an umpire. He wrote, “the present game, improved and reduced to rule by the whites, employs the greatest combination of physical and mental activity white men can sustain in recreation and is as much improved to the original as civilization is to barbarism, baseball to its old English parent of rounders, or a pretty Canadian girl to any uncultivated squaw.”
RELATED: Perry Bellegarde on recognizing this land’s founding Indigenous peoples
Indigenous players were too skilled. When white men started forming their own teams, they banned Aboriginal people from participating, though they sometimes played—and lost—against all-Indigenous teams. Settlers also weren’t as fit, so they shrank the standard size of the field.
Yet, ironically, lacrosse became a tool to attract more colonizers. Indigenous players were brought on tour to 42 European cities to attract migrants to Canada in the 19th century. They attracted crowds of up to 7,000 people in Britain—as one reporter wrote, “from the professor who doffs the gown for the occasion, to the little urchin who can barely scrape together 50 cents for a crosse.”
Lacrosse sticks became plastic, and camps sprung up for children in Pennsylvania, Maryland and New York, who could earn scholarships to boarding schools. “I wouldn’t say it’s cheapened the game,” says Ansley Jemison, general manager of the Iroquois Nationals, “but at the same time, it’s turned it into the same as anything else, maybe soccer, basketball. It doesn’t have as much significance to it.” Organizers tried to start professional leagues twice in Canada, with teams like the Toronto Shooting Stars and the New Westminster Salmonbellies, though the attempts failed (twice) to turn lacrosse into the hockey of summer. Americans established the National Lacrosse League in 1986, and three Canadian teams currently play in it: the Toronto Rock, the Saskatchewan Rush and the Vancouver Stealth. Equipment and travel expenses pushed the sport into the upper middle class, and top players started coming from Johns Hopkins, Princeton and Syracuse universities.
RELATED: What if feels like to play box lacrosse with the Victoria Shamrocks
No Indigenous players are currently on Team Canada, and at the 2017 World Indigenous Games in Alberta, there was so little interest in the sport that the organizers had to cancel the events and merely demonstrate the sport. However, the Iroquois Nationals is one of the top three teams in world competitions, and the level of play is improving at the North American Indigenous Games. In B.C., Rohelle Winterton says, “you used to beg kids to come.” This year, she says around 60 players tried out for the province’s team.
Cody Jamieson earned a full lacrosse scholarship to Syracuse, having played since age three, himself. He’s teaching his son to shoot outside the crease and carry a ball in the net of his stick, a skill called “cradling,” while Comyn’s still small enough to be cradled himself. When Jamieson’s wife was pregnant, he had a wooden lacrosse stick made. On Comyn’s first night, he placed it in the crib.
Lacrosse in Canada – Lacrosse in Canada
Modern lacrosse in Canada has been a popular sport since the mid 1800s. Only the lacrosse field was not played until 1930, when the lacrosse box was invented. In 1994, Parliament passed the National Sports Canada Act , in which declared lacrosse the “national summer sport of Canada” and ice hockey the national winter sport.
Lacrosse was played by indigenous peoples before the arrival of European colonists.The first documented description of the game dates from to 1637. The game was called Baggathaway and Tevaarathon , played by two teams of 100 to 1000 people each on a field that stretched from 500 m (1600 ft) to 3 km (1.9 mi). ) a long.
Montreal’s English-speaking middle class took over the game in the mid-1800s. The first known game between Europeans and Aboriginal nations took place in 1843.
The Montreal Lacrosse Club was founded in 1856; by the mid-1860s, active teams already existed in eastern Ontario.The National Lacrosse Association was formed in 1875; in 1880 the league became the National Amateur Lacrosse Association. By the 1880s, organized sports spread throughout the country and became a popular spectator sport. To combat violence, middle-class propagandists spoke of the ideal of “muscle Christianity” in terms of the Social Gospel. As the working class players and spectators became more visible, the rhetoric focused on winning at any cost.
1860s Montreal Shamrocks introduced a new level of aggressiveness; he was Irish, Catholic, and he fought for victory. During the 1870s and 1880s, the Shamrocks had bloody clashes with the Protestant middle-class clubs of Montreal and Toronto. Field lacrosse was spread across Canada by English-speaking migrants from Ontario and Quebec. In February 1887, the Toronto Lacrosse Club began using ice hockey as a form of exercise during the winter months. By the early 1890s, it was the most popular summer game in Canada; The 1900s were a golden year when two professional leagues were formed.The escalation of violence led to the collapse of the professional leagues in 1914, and the game’s support base shrank to Montreal, Victoria, Vancouver, New Westminster and a few small towns. Failure to build a solid foundation on a weak organizational infrastructure; for example, it was not played by schools or churches. Lacrosse Canadian Association, founded in 1925, is the governing body of lacrosse in Canada. It currently hosts national junior and senior men’s and women’s championships in both field and boxing lacrosse.
In 1931, big city hockey promoters introduced “box lacrosse” to make winter hockey fans a year-round public. Boxing lacrosse was played in a smaller indoor arena, the competition could also be played in baseball stadiums, and again the game was fierce. However, an insufficient number of cities could support the teams, and the hard times of the Great Depression of the 1930s reduced the number of fans. The entrepreneurs, failing to achieve major commercial success, have transformed Canadian amateur lacrosse, making it completely different from the field lacrosse that is played in the United States, Great Britain and Australia.In 1987, the National Lacrosse League began; she has clubs in twelve cities in the US and Canada.
In 2003, Canada competed in the first Indoor Lacrosse World Championship.CLA
, along with 5 other national sports associations, divested of their charitable status in June 2010 as part of Revenue Canada’s crackdown on Parklane Financial’s tax haven scheme, in which charitable organizations issued receipts far in excess of any material donation.The fact that the CLA Board of Directors has agreed to participate in such a scheme may in part be attributed to the fact that the CLA Board of Directors is mainly composed of elected lacrosse representatives with little experience in legal or financial management issues.
At the provincial level, the Ontario Lacrosse Association controls most of Ontario’s lacrosse. OLA is governed by a larger Board than CLA, although it also mainly consists of members with strong lacrosse experience.OLA lacrosse officials are sanctioned by OLA and represented by the Ontario Lacrosse Judges Association (OLRA). Unlike typical refereeing associations, OLRA has a governance structure that is only open to the lacrosse referees who serve the junior / senior / major series games, although the vast majority of referees do not work at this level. OLRA is an extension of OLA and does not constitute an independent union of judges.
National Lacrosse League is the professional league lacrosse box, with franchises in Canada and the United States.The 2006 World Lacrosse Championship was held in London, Ontario. Canada beat the United States 15-10 in the final, ending the United States’ 28-year winning streak. One of the best lacrosse players of all time, Gary Gate was born in Victoria, British Columbia and has won every major lacrosse championship possible. Great achievements in Canadian lacrosse recognized by the Canadian Lacrosse Hall of Fame.
Debate on Canada’s National Games
In May 1964, former president of the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association and later incumbent Member of Parliament, Jack Roxburgh, conducted extensive research to find out if the Canadian Parliament had ever declared a national game, and specifically looked into whether lacrosse had been officially declared.After examining parliamentary reports, he found that not a single law had been passed. The Canadian press reported at the time that the myth of lacrosse as Canada’s national game may have originated from a book published in 1869 titled Lacrosse, Canada’s National Game , and that the Canadian Lacrosse Association was founded in 1867. Canada’s national game coincided with the Great Canadian Flag Debate in 1964. On October 28, 1964, Roxburgh introduced Bill C-132 to declare ice hockey the national game of Canada.
Members of the Canadian Lacrosse Association have responded to this proposal by calling it offensive and “inappropriate” and have pledged to fight it. On June 11, 1965, Bob Pritty responded by introducing a separate bill to declare lacrosse a national game for Canada and stated, “I think now that we are looking at national flags, national anthems and other national symbols, it is appropriate that this particular issue should be addressed now.” The choice of Canada’s national game was debated in 1965, but no legislation was passed when parliament was dissolved. “Russians don’t win lacrosse?” … Winnipeg. Free Press . Winnipeg, Manitoba. June 14, 1965 c. 9.
- Fisher, Donald M. Lacrosse: The Story of a Game (Johns Hopkins UP, 2002)
- Metcalfe, Alan. Sports and Athletics: An Example of Lacrosse in Canada, 1840-1889, History of Sport Magazine (1976) 3, No. 1, pp. 1-19.
- Metcalfe, Alan. Canada Learning to Play: The Emergence of Organized Sports, 1807–1914 (1987).
- Morrow, Don and Kevin Wamsley. Sports in Canada: A History (2005). 318 s.
- Mott, Morris, ed. Sports in Canada: Historical Readings (1989).
- Robidou, Michael A. (2002). Imagining Canadian Identity Through Sport: A Historical Interpretation of Lacrosse and Hockey. Journal of American Folklore . 115 (456): 209-225. DOI: 10.1353 / jaf.2002.0021.
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Sports in Canada
Canadians are passionate sports fans, and most cities and towns throughout the country will have the opportunity to watch a sporting event. Although lacrosse is considered the national sport – an indigenous game of Canada in which two teams try to hit the opponents’ goal with a ball using a stick-like projectile – Canadians love hockey the most.Baseball, basketball, and Canadian football (similar to the American variation of the game) also have a large following. Major cities regularly host golf and tennis tournaments with the participation of world-famous stars.
The popularity of ice hockey in Canada knows no boundaries. Every city has its own ice rink, and every school, college or university has its own team. The North American National Hockey League (NHL) was founded in 1917., and its main award, the Stanley Cup, was established back in 1892 by the Canadian Governor-General Lord Stanley. Today the League includes 30 teams, 6 of which belong to Canadian cities; Monreal Canadiens, Calgary Flames, Edmond Oilers, Toronto Maple Leafes, Ottawa Senators, Vancouver Ceyax “(Vancouver Canucks). Although most of the players on the US and Canadian teams are of Canadian origin, in recent years, athletes from Russia, America and Sweden have begun to appear on the largest teams.The season runs from October to April when the Stanley Cup streak begins.
Hockey stars like Wayne Gretzky become national idols. He retired in 1999 after 20 years on the ice, setting 61 NHL records.
Tickets for the main matches are not so easy to get, they are always booked in advance. The best solution would be to contact the club itself or book through Ticket-master. Easier to get into minor league games or college games; good teams at the Universities of Toronto and York, Concordia University in Montreal, University of Albert in Edmonton.Tickets can be purchased directly at the stadium ticket offices or in the administrative center.
Although baseball is considered an American sport, there are also many fans in Canada. Only one Canadian team made it to the big leagues: the famous Toronto Blue Jays, who won the championship in 1992 and 1993. Baseball is played in the summer and runs from April to September (playoffs in October). Going to a baseball game on weekends is fun for the whole family, you can buy beer, popcorn, and many different events are arranged during the breaks so that those who are not particularly keen on the game itself do not get bored either.
The Blue Jays play their games at Rogers Center, an architectural marvel with a retractable roof. Getting good tickets is pretty easy, you just need to book them a day or two before the match. Back row tickets can usually be purchased on game day. It will also be interesting to watch the game of one of the minor league teams.
The Canadian football variation is generally recognized as the more interesting modification of American football.And although the best Canadian players often emigrate to the United States for higher earnings, the game also attracts a wide audience at home. The Canadian Football League is divided into two groups, with four teams each. All of them participate in the matches of the season from July to November.
There are the most cheerful married couples among the fans, and you never get bored here, especially at the final matches of the Gray Cup. The final match is traditionally held on the last Sunday in November; there are festivals and a large parade in the host city in the week leading up to the game.
Football is also played in most of the country’s universities.
Basketball, which was once only a fan of Americans, has now spread throughout the world and become one of the most popular sports, and its popularity continues to grow.
The game was invented in the USA by Canadian James Naismith, and is now dearly loved by the compatriots of the “inventor”.The Toronto Raptors play for the National Basketball Association, the most professional league in the world, against teams such as the Chicago Bulls, Boston Celtics, Los Angeles Lakers and New York Knicks.
The season begins in October and ends in late spring. It’s worth heading to the Air Canada Center in Toronto and watching one of their fast-paced, thrilling games. Most universities in Canada have their own basketball teams.
Canada hosts two of the most significant tournaments each year (both in September), attracting huge crowds and the world’s best players.
The largest tournament is called the Canadien Open and usually takes place in Toronto at Glen Abbey on a pitch designed by Jack Nicklaus. The annual Greater Vancouver Open is a traditional part of the Professional Golfers’ Association tournament, although the course is not as great.
Golf is an extremely popular sport in Canada, with approximately 1,700 excellent courses throughout the country.
Known for its snowy, sunny and cold winters, Canada is one of the world’s best winter sports destinations.Canadian resorts are not as crowded as their European competitors and are located in the most beautiful locations. Vacationers will appreciate the resort’s services, from Whistler in the Rocky Mountains to Mont Ste-Anne in Quebec. Here you can not only go downhill skiing or snowboarding, but also in a sleigh pulled by dogs, as well as learn what heli-skiing is.90,000 15 Facts Many Don’t Know About Canada – N4A
Miscellaneous, Parts of the world
Even those who have never been to Canada have heard a lot about what it is famous for: free healthcare, amazing courtesy of local people, the popularity of hockey, maple syrup and horse police.But these are not all the features about Canada – today you will find out 15 more! 15. Thank you Canada for basketball
For many years of its existence, basketball has been one of the largest and most popular professional sports in the world. Basketball has brought incredible athletes to the world, including LeBron James, Shaquille O’Neal, Larry Bird, Michael Jordan. We would never have known about these greatest athletes if not for Canada, namely the Canadian who invented basketball. Dr. James Naismith was born in Ontario in 1861 and worked as a physical education teacher at the International Training School in Springfield, USA.Naismith invented basketball to keep athletes in shape during the winter season, and the game originally used fruit baskets and a ball much like modern football.
14. National animal
Most countries have their own national symbol, or even several. In Russia it is a two-headed eagle, in the USA it is a bald eagle. Usually, images of the national animal are used in the symbols of the country, most often in the national currency.In Canada, there are as many as four national symbols: a beaver is depicted on five cents, an elk on 25 cents, a black-billed loon on a dollar and a polar bear on two dollars. At the same time, it is the beaver who is proudly called the national symbol – apparently, Canadian politicians have especially warm feelings for beavers.
13. Hockey is not the main sport
Surprisingly, hockey is not the main national sport in Canada, although it is the most important and widespread in the country.Every Canadian child has played hockey at least once in their life, and hockey fans treat their favorite game as a religion. In 1994, when the government was choosing the national sport, hockey was named the National Winter Sport and lacrosse the National Summer Sport. In any case, lacrosse is a form of hockey, so the government can be somewhat forgiven.
12. A slice of Mars named after a Canadian city
The province of Newfoundland and Labrador is famous for its fish production, however, this is not the most interesting fact about this place.The province is home to the city of Gander, known for its achievements in the development of aviation and space exploration technologies. In 1991, the International Astronomical Union made an official decision to name a crater on Mars in his honor, which is very rare. Gander Crater is located in the south of Mars and is almost 40 km in diameter.
11. One of the provinces was almost named after a bison
Canada is a federal state with 10 provinces and 3 territories, but this was not always the case.At the beginning of the 20th century, Sir Frederick Holtain, the prime minister of the Northwest Territories, attempted to name the territories under his control the province of Buffalo (in honor of the bison, the province is the birthplace of the animal). However, the Prime Minister of the country strongly disliked this idea, and in 1905 the Northwest Territory was divided into two parts. The southern part, in turn, was divided into the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan.
10. Canada’s National Park is larger than some countries
In many countries there are special areas protected from human interference – national landmarks and parks.Canada’s vast forested area has several national parks, including Wood Buffalo, founded in 1922. Canada’s largest national park is located in central Canada and is one of the largest parks in the world. The area of the park is 44 thousand square meters. km., which exceeds the size of many countries, including Malta, Cyprus and even Switzerland.
9. Funny city names
There are several cities in Canada with quite remarkable names.The capital of the province of Saskatchewan, Regina, has always served as a pretext for vulgar jokes because of the consonance with the name of the intimate part of the female body. However, as it turned out, there are more fun places in the country. For example, in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador there is an island called Dildo, and in Ontario there is a small town called the Swastika. Many people find these names not only funny, but also vulgar and offensive.
8. Aboveground crossings for animals
Canada has invested a lot of money in the protection of animals, especially those living in the wild.By 2014, Canada had built 38 elevations and 6 underground passages specifically for animals such as moose, wolves, bears, deer and cougars. It has cost Canadian taxpayers millions of dollars since the first crossing came to Ontario, but with the number of animal car accidents declining significantly, the money was well worth it.
7. The US national currency owes its color to Canada
The national currency of Canada, the Canadian dollar, is available in a variety of colors, including blue, purple, green, red and even brown banknotes.Few know that the green ink used in the production of American currency was invented in Montreal in 1857 by Thomas Sterry Hunt, a Canadian geologist, chemist and professor at the world famous McGill University. The green color of American dollars is another merit of Canada.
6. Icebergs are harvested in Canada
Another interesting fact about the province of Newfoundland. The province is known mainly for its fisheries, but few people know that some people there make money by catching icebergs.On the northern and eastern coasts of the province, there are territories that are called the Iceberg Alley. There is a rather strong current on these coasts, which brings icebergs, some of which were formed more than 10,000 years ago. Icebergs are driven to the coast and large chunks of ice are cut from them, which are then sold for the production of various products, such as wine, beer, vodka and even cosmetics.
5. Secret underground laboratory
Secret underground laboratories are not only in spy films – Canadians have got their own in real life.It is located in Sudbury, Ontario, and conducts its experiments at a depth of 1.8 km from the surface of the Earth, making it the deepest underground laboratory in the world. The laboratory bears the name SNOLAB and is known for developments in the field of physics, specifically neutrinos and dark matter. SNOLAB is located deep enough to avoid any interference generated by solar radiation and environmental factors.
4. Canadians moonlight as Santa Claus
Although the vast majority of adults have already guessed that Santa does not exist, many children from all over the world still believe that he, his deer and workshop with elves live in the North Pole.In the strangest way, their letters to the North Pole always get a response, despite the fact that the addressee does not exist. This is the merit of the good-natured Canadians, who every year during the holidays volunteer at the post office specifically in order to answer children’s letters. Santa messages come from all over the world in over 30 languages, including Braille. Canada Post has only two rules regarding letters to Santa: they must not contain cookies, and the zip code must be HOH OHO (ho-ho-ho).
3. The world’s first UFO landing site
Many people want to believe that if an advanced extraterrestrial race ever wants to contact us, they will come in peace, so some countries prepared in advance to welcome alien guests with open arms and built landing sites for them. Canada is not just one of these countries – in 1967 it became the first country in the world to boast such a site.It was built in St. Paul, Alberta, during the country’s centenary celebrations. Local residents warmly welcomed the idea, and the country’s defense minister even flew to the city for the official opening ceremony of the site.
2. Annual Bath Race
All races are united by one idea – the one who first crosses the finish line wins, but even with such simple rules people still manage to come up with very extraordinary, and sometimes even strange types of races.Since 1967, Canada has annually held bathtub races on Vancouver Island. The very first event was attended by about 200 people, and only 48 of them completed the race. A lot has changed in 50 years – now the celebrations stretch for a week and include a sea festival and a bath parade.
1. USA invaded Canada twice
Although the United States and Canada are now close allies, their relationship has not always been peaceful. The southern neighbors tried to take over Canada twice, and the first time was in 1775, during the Revolutionary War.Then the Continental Army invaded Quebec in order to get support from the local French-speaking population in the battle with the British, but the British managed to stop the invasion in December. For the second time, the United States looked to Canada during the war of 1812, in an attempt to take Canadian territory from the British. This invasion was also stopped, and in retaliation, Canadian soldiers even burned down the White House.
Source – therichest.com
Google+90,000 13 facts about Canada
Despite being the second largest country in the world, Canada has a population of 1 / 10th that of the United States.Thus, many do not notice it on the map, despite this, Canada is an amazing country.
How many facts do you know about Canada? Here are some amazing things you may not know about the US’s northern neighbor:
1. Head of the Canadian Government – Queen Elizabeth II
Here is one of the most interesting facts about Canada that amazes Americans. Did you know that the Canadian Head of State is still Queen Elizabeth II, the British monarch? Canada changed hands between French and British monarchs for centuries before becoming an independent state.The Queen no longer “reigns” over Canada, but she still plays an important role in the government and in the national identity of Canada, and is prominently placed on the Canadian currency.
2. Winnie the Pooh descended from the Canadian bear
In 1915, a black bear cub from Canada named Winnipeg, or “Winnie”, was donated to the zoo in London. Christopher Robin Milne, a child, saw the bear and quickly realized that he had become one of his favorite animals in the park.His father, A.A. Milne took this as part of the inspiration for his Winnie the Pooh stories.
3. West Edmonton Mall, the largest in North America.
West Edmonton Mall, located in Edmonton, Alberta, was once the largest shopping center in the world, but is now ranked only tenth. However, it still has the second largest indoor amusement park on Earth, as well as the largest shopping mall in North America.It was # 1 in the ranking on the planet until 2004, and nine other centers have been built over the past decade.
How big is West Edmonton Mall? The parking lot is designed for twenty thousand cars, as well as more than 800 different shops and 23,000 employees. 60,000 to 150,000 shoppers come to the mall every day. Among the attractions are Galaxyland, an indoor amusement park. There is also a large water park, mini golf, several indoor sea lions with a lake, an ice rink, a casino, an entertainment club, and a huge concert hall.
4. The lowest temperature recorded in North America was recorded in Canada
The lowest temperature in the history of North America was recorded in Canada in the town of Sang, Yukon Territory. The record temperature was minus 63 degrees Celsius on February 3, 1947. Parts of Canada are covered with snow for about six months of the year.
5. Quebec, the only city in Canada and the USA that is walled
You may think of the concept of a walled city as a relic of times gone by, but Quebec still retains its ramparts today.This makes it the only remaining walled city in North America and north of Mexico. The walls surround the Old Quebec district of the city, which is also a World Heritage Site. At the moment there are four gates, some of which have been destroyed and have been rebuilt. Only the Port of Kent gate, built in 1879, is still original.
6. The name “Canada” was a linguistic error
The name “Canada” is an amusing linguistic mistake due to a misunderstanding by the French explorer Jacques Cartier.When Cartier visited the new world, the indigenous people tried to invite him to visit their village. The word “village” in the indigenous language sounded like “kanata”. Cartier misunderstood thought that they did not mean the village, but the whole country. Thus, he described this country as “Kanata”, which bears its name to this day “Canada”.
7. Lacrosse game appeared in Canada
The sporting game of lacrosse originated in Canada. Originally played by indigenous people, it has since evolved into four different types of lacrosse, field lacrosse (on the grass or just lacrosse) for men and women, boxed lacrosse and intercross lacrosse.It is believed that the history of the game dates back to 1100 AD. Traditionally, there were more than 1000 Canadian lacrosse athletes! The games can be played on fields that are 3 km in size.
8. Basketball was invented by a Canadian
Basketball did not appear in Canada, but the man who invented it was a Canadian living in Massachusetts. James Naismith designed the game so that his students would have something to do during the cold winter months.
9.Canadian national flag was created 1965
Canada didn’t actually have a national flag until 1965. Nova Scotia received the flag from King Charles as early as 1625, but not everyone adopted the maple leaf, and it was not until more than three centuries later that it was finally recognized. Prior to this, the British naval flag served as the state flag.
10.10% of all forests in the world are located in Canada
One tenth of the world’s forests are located in Canada. Almost half of the country’s land is covered with trees.
11. First known European born in North America, born in Vinland
The first child born to European parents in North America was Snorri, born in Vinland around 1000 AD. his parents’ names were Torfin and Gudrid.
12. Nunavut is the northernmost permanent settlement in the world
The northernmost permanent warning base is located in the settlement of Nunavut.While the settlement itself is permanent, the staff changes completely. The village was named after HMS, a warning station, and is home to a number of different operations, including radio transmission of data from the Canadian Forces, Environment Canada weather station, Global Atmosphere Service, an atmospheric monitoring laboratory, and an airport.
13. Canada is in 9th place in terms of the smallest population
Canada has the 9th lowest population density on the planet.And yet how little? Approximately 8.6 people per square kilometer, according to the 2009 CIA World Factbook. Sure, most of these people are concentrated in cities and towns, but that tells you how empty rural areas really are.
Much of Canada is very desolate, making it an ideal haven for nature lovers. In terms of land mass, Canada is actually the second largest country on the planet, after Russia at 3,855,103 square miles. The border between the United States and Canada is the longest on the planet, 5525 miles.
Snow covers the ground 10 months a year, and in some places it never disappears. The warmest month is July, with temperatures around 37.9 degrees Celsius. The average daily temperature during the coldest month, February, is minus 33.4 degrees Celsius.
These interesting facts are just a few of the many; Canada is a vast and diverse country with a rich history.
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“My favorite sport”
MUNICIPAL BUDGETARY EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION
“SECONDARY EDUCATIONAL SCHOOL № 3”
Physical education teacher
Plyukhina Olga Yurievna
Lacrosse is a contact sports game between two teams using a small rubber ball and a long-handled stick called a stick.
- The game was invented by the American Indians, who used it to train warriors and peacefully resolve conflicts between tribes. According to archaeological research, the prototype of lacrosse was known in the territory of modern Canada as early as the beginning of the fifteenth century. Teams at that time often consisted of several hundred people, and the length of the field for the game ranged from several hundred meters to several kilometers.
European settlers got acquainted with this game in the 17th century, and by the beginning of the 19th century it began to gain popularity among the French population of Canada.The first official lacrosse match took place in Canada in 1867.
Lacrosse was twice included in the program of the Summer Olympic Games – in 1904 and 1908, and was also an exhibition sport at the 1928, 1932 and 1948 Olympics.
Team Winnipeg Shamrocks, 1904 Olympic Lacrosse Champions.
4. “Lacrosse in a box”
- Currently there are several varieties of lacrosse, differing in the size of the field, the number of players and the rules.There are four main varieties:
In the USA, the sport is represented by the professional lacrosse league – Major League Lacrosse. Lacrosse is also one of the official sports of the National University Sports Association. The championship of the first division includes 88 varsity teams, the second division – 46 teams and the third division – 208 teams.
Canada the game is a national summer sport.The Canadian Lacrosse Association was founded in 1867 and is the oldest in the world. There are annual indoor lacrosse championships for adults and youth, in two divisions each, as well as a three-division outdoor lacrosse championship.
Small communities of lacrosse have long existed in England and Australia. Starting in the 1990s, other national lacrosse associations began to appear, which now exist in two dozen European countries, in New Zealand, Japan, South Korea, etc.e. All of them are united in an international federation, with the exception of independent associations in India and China.
- Lacrosse, first seen on Teen Wolf. Although he was given a little time, he still liked me. He got me interested in his strange game. Players have to catch and throw the ball exactly at the stick of another player or at the goal, which is quite difficult.
- As of today, I try to watch all the games that I can watch.
Lacrosse is a contact sports game between two teams using a small rubber ball and a long-handled stick called a stick.Lacrosse is often considered a tough contact sport, but injuries are much less common than in American football and other contact sports. The top of the club is braided with a loose mesh designed to catch and hold the ball. The object of the game is to throw the ball into the opponent’s goal using the club to catch, control and pass the ball. The task of the defense is to prevent a goal from being scored and to get the ball with a stick, contact fight or correct position on the field. There are four positions in the game: midfielder, attacker, defender, goalkeeper.In lyacrosse on the field, attackers only attack, defenders only defend, the goalkeeper is the last line of defense, directly defending the goal, midfielders can be in any part of the field and play both in defense and attack. Although at a high level of play, there is always a specialization between the defensive and attacking midfielder.
1.History of appearance
The game was invented by the American Indians, who used it to train warriors and peacefully resolve conflicts between tribes. According to archaeological research, the prototype of the lyacross was known in the territory of modern Canada as early as the beginning of the fifteenth century. Teams at that time often consisted of several hundred people, and the length of the field for the game ranged from several hundred meters to several kilometers.
European settlers got acquainted with this game in the 17th century, and by the beginning of the 19th century it began to gain popularity among the French population of Canada.The first official lyacrosse match took place in Canada in 1867.
Lacrosse was included in the program of the Summer Olympics twice – in 1904 and 1908, and was also an exhibition sport at the 1928, 1932 and 1948 Olympics.
2. Description of the game
The game involves two teams that try to hit the opponent’s goal with a rubber ball 62.8 – 64.77 mm., 140 – 147 g using a special stick called a stick. A net is attached to the top of the club, called the head, so that the player can catch and hold the ball in it.The main goal of the game for the attackers is to throw the ball into the opponent’s goal. To do this, players pass passes and use a dribble. The main goal of the defenders is to prevent a goal from the opposing team. To do this, they can kick the ball with a club or push the player into the body. The team consists of four types of players: striker, midfielder, defender, goalkeeper. As a rule, in lyacrosse, forwards play only in the zone near the opponent’s goal, defenders only in the zone near their goal, and midfielders can be located in any zone and play as forwards or as defenders.In high-level teams, midfielders are often the attackers play mainly during the attack of their team and the defenders play mainly during the attack of the opposing team.
3. Variants of the game
Currently, there are several varieties of lyacross, differing in the size of the field, the number of players and the rules. There are four main varieties: lacrosse in the field on the grass or simply lacrosse, “lacrosse in a box”, intercross, polocross.Since 1967, the men’s world lyacross championships on the grass have been held, in which teams from various countries have taken part, as well as the Iroquois Indian tribe since 1990.
4. Present state
There are more than three dozen national lyacross federations in the world. Most of them are located in Europe and were created in the last decade of the 20th century, but the leading countries remain the United States and Canada, where lyacrosse is very popular.
4.1. State of the art Lacrosse in Canada
The game is a national summer sport in Canada. The Canadian Lyacross Association was founded in 1867 and is the oldest in the world. The adult and youth indoor lyacross championships are held annually, in two divisions each, as well as a three-division outdoor lyacross championship.
Mann Cup Senior “A” – held since 1901, the trophy is made of pure gold and costs about 25 thousand dollars.
Lacrosse in box
Founders Cup Junior “B”
Presidents Cup Senior “B”
Minto Cup Junior “A”
Baggataway Cup University
Ross Cup Senior Division I since 1984
Victory Trophy Senior Division II since 1985
4.2. Current state Lacrosse in the USA
In the United States, the sport is represented by the professional league of lyacrosse – Major League Lacrosse. Lacrosse is also one of the official sports of the National University Sports Association.The championship of the first division includes 88 varsity teams, the second division – 46 teams and the third division – 208 teams.
Internationally, the US is represented by the men’s and women’s lyacross teams, as well as the youth teams under 19. In addition, the Indian team “Iroquois Nationals”, representing the confederation of the Iroquois tribes of the USA and Canada, takes part in international competitions.
4.3. Current state Lacrosse in Russia
In Russia, as of February 2020, there are three teams in the following cities:
Moscow Moscow Lacrosse Club
St. Petersburg “White Knights”
Yaroslavl “Golden Ring Warriors”
- 1910 October 20, 1944 American lacrosse player and posthumous winner of the 1965 National Lacrosse Hall of Fame. Jack Turnbull Prize named after him
- The lacrosse competition at the 3rd Summer Olympics was held for the first time on July 2 and 7. 36 athletes from two countries participated, which
- suffering from nightmares and hallucinations, injured while playing lacrosse At the House Clinic meets with a mother who does not believe in vaccinations and
- Games 1908 Athletes – 5 Main article: Lacrosse at the 1908 Summer Olympics Only two teams competed in lacrosse.Athletes
- Main article: Golf at the 1904 Summer Olympics Main article: Lacrosse at the 1904 Summer Olympics Lineups Canada 1 William Burns El
- American Football Boxing Wrestling Cycling Water Polo Equestrian Lacrosse Athletics Sailing Swimming Diving Modern 90,049 for first, second and third place.Competitions in boxing, freestyle wrestling, lacrosse diving and rock were included in the program of the Olympic Games for the first time. Also
- Gorman June 9, 1886 Ottawa – May 15, 1961 Ottawa – Canadian lacrosse player champion of the 1908 Summer Olympics. At the 1908 Games in London, Gorman competed
- 1883 – 04 – 17 Montreal – December 19, 1964, Quebec – Canadian lacrosse and rugby player, hockey functionary. Played for the city’s lacrosse and rugby clubs
- George – American lacrosse player and silver medalist at the 1904 Summer Olympics.Passmoor, William – American lacrosse player summer silver medalist
- 1882 – 09 – 06 St. Louis – May 9, 1955, St. Louis – American lacrosse player, silver medalist at the 1904 Summer Olympics.At the 1904 Games in St. Louis
- March 2, 1877 1877 – 03 – 02 – November 22, 1960 Vancouver – Canadian lacrosse player champion of the 1904 Summer Olympics.At the 1904 Games in St. Louis Laidlaw
- Cf.See also: Lacrosse MGM – 18 Lacrosse – Operational tactical missile. Created in the United States of America. Was in service with the US Army 1959 – 1964
- November 1871, Kildonan – 13 December 1932, Vancouver – Canadian lacrosse player champion of the 1904 Summer Olympics. His younger brothers Rod and Magnus were
- October 15, 1885 1885 – 10 – 15 London – June 21, 1960 – British lacrosse player, silver medalist at the 1908 Summer Olympics.At the 1908 Games in London
- 1710 – 1720 Jamaica 1724 – 1734 Robert Hunter lacrosse player – American lacrosse player 1904 Olympic silver medalist Robert, Hunter
- United Kingdom – October 23, 1934 Hamilton, Ontario, Canada – Canadian lacrosse player champion of the 1904 Summer Olympics.At the 1904 Games in St. Louis Brenno
- Paddy Brennan July 30, 1877, Ireland – May 1961 – Canadian lacrosse player played for Shamrock Montreal Club At the 1908 Summer Olympics
- 18 January 1877 1877 – 01 – 18 – 20 October 1959 Montreal – Canadian lacrosse player champion of the 1908 Summer Olympics.At the 1908 London Games McCrrow
- 15 February 1879 1879 – 02 – 15 – 20 July 1921 Montreal – Canadian lacrosse player champion of the 1908 Summer Olympics. At the 1908 Games in London, Hubin participated
- Benjamin Jamison eng. Benjamin Jamieson – Canadian lacrosse player 1904 Summer Olympics champion. At the 1904 St. Louis Games, Jamieson entered
- El Blanchard fr.Eli Blanchard – Canadian lacrosse player champion of the 1904 Summer Olympics. At the 1904 Games in St. Louis Blanchard was in the first
- Same – de – pom 1908 Equestrian sport Vaulting 1920 Cricket 1900 Croquet 1900 Lacrosse 1904, 1908 Tug of war 1900 – 1920 Polo 1900, 1908, 1920, 1924
- Buckland April 13, 1884 – January 28, 1937, Manchester – British lacrosse player and silver medalist at the 1908 Summer Olympics.At the 1908 Games in London
- 1881 – 09 – 20 Manchester – December 5, 1967, Kimbles – British lacrosse player, silver medalist at the 1908 Summer Olympics.