US Lacrosse Magazine’s 2021 Division I Men’s Preseason All-Americans
US Lacrosse Magazine’s 2021 Division I Men’s Preseason All-Americans
Mon Dec 21 2020 | US Lacrosse | College
PHOTO BY JOHN STROHSACKER
In 2020, Brendan Curry notched 14 goals and five assists while also shooting 36.8 percent.
US Lacrosse Magazine announced Monday its 2021 Division I Men’s Preseason All-Americans, part of the magazine’s immersive coverage leading to the upcoming spring season.
Thirteen student-athletes from 10 schools make up the preseason list, headlined by likely 2020 Tewaaraton favorite Michael Sowers and two-time finalist TD Ierlan. Continue below for breakdowns of each player selected.
US Lacrosse Magazine Preseason All-Americans
Division I Men
|Chris Gray||North Carolina||Attack|
|Ryan Terefenko||Ohio State||SSDM|
|Arden Cohen||Notre Dame||Defense|
Chris Gray totaled 27 goals and 21 assists in seven games during his first season at North Carolina. He also caused two turnovers and corralled 15 ground balls.
Cornell’s Jeff Teat is back for a fifth and final season after putting his National Lacrosse League career on hold. He posted 12 goals and 15 assists in 2020.
Princeton transfer Michael Sowers comes to Duke after claiming Princeton’s all-time points crown (302). He led Division I with 9.40 points per game and 6.2 assists per game.
The top midfielder on arguably the best midfield, Brendan Curry anchors Syracuse. In five games, Curry notched 14 goals and five assists while also shooting 36.8 percent.
Sam Handley missed most of 2020 but made his impact known in one game played, scoring three goals with two assists.
Connor Kirst transferred to Rutgers to follow in his late father’s footsteps. The Villanova product scored 84 goals with 42 assists in four years with the Wildcats.
TD Ierlan holds countless NCAA faceoff records and is back for a final collegiate season. The standing neutral grip will make the faceoff a constant talking point this year, but Ierlan won 84 of 110 faceoffs and dominated last year.
Ohio State’s Ryan Terefenko, the top short stick in the country, played in all seven games in 2020 and finished with 30 ground balls, four assists and two goals.
Jared Conners of Virginia dominates as a long pole. In 2020, he contributed three goals and one assist to go with his 28 ground balls and 10 caused turnovers.
Arden Cohen, Notre Dame’s senior defender, totaled 13 ground balls and six caused turnovers in 2020, highlighted by his effort against No. 16 Denver (five ground balls, three caused turnovers).
Chris Fake was named to the Tewaaraton Award Watch List in 2020 after starting in all four games for Yale. He scored his first career goal on Feb. 22 against Penn State.
JT Giles-Harris is one of the top lockdown defenders in the country. He’s put his football dreams on hold to continue playing for head coach John Danowski.
Drake Porter led the ACC with a .577 save percentage, which ranked 12th nationally. He ranked second in the ACC in saves per game (12.8) and goals against average (9.65).
2020 All American – The Top-Performing Players In The West
2022 Player Watch List
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Max Sloat – Attack – Sacred Heart Prep/ADVNC – CA – Duke
Jake East – Midfield – Agoura/LA Mavs – Brown
Ryan Sullivan – Defense – Westlake/Sting Pacific – CA – UPenn
Quinn Krammer – Midfield – Lake Washington/Seattle Starz – WA – Princeton
Charlie Iler – Midfield – San Ramon Valley/Alcatraz Outlaws – CA – Johns Hopkins
Hugh Conrad – Goalie – De La Salle – Alcatraz Outlaws – CA – Yale
Ethan Burke – Attack – Westlake/South Star – TX – Maryland
Griffin Grant – Attack/Mid – Torrey Pines/RC – CA – Notre Dame
Max Ewald – Defense – Buckingham Browne & Nichols/3D – Harvard
Tayden Bultman – Midfield – Torrey Pines/RC – CA – UNC
Jaylen Rosga- Midfield- Henry Sibley/Lacrosse Monkey- WI- TBD
Michael Ray- Attack- Selah/Maniax- WA- TBD
Miller Marks- Midfield- Austin/Iron Horse- TX- Colgate
Jonathan Mautz- Attack- Kettle Moraine/Alpha Premier- WI- Uncommitted
Grant Schachet- LSM- Rocky Mountain/ Denver Elite-CO- Uncommitted
Grant Rodny- Attack- Air Academy/ Denver Elite- CO- Lehigh
Cole Pollard- Attack- Tesoro/ Blue Chip National- CA- Uncommitted
Luke Williams- Midfield- St. Ignatius/ADVNC- CA- Villanova
Ian Mize- Midfield- St Mark’s School of Texas/Iron Horse- TX- Princeton
Nate Warren- Defense- Tesoro/Blue Chip Nationals- CA- Uncommitted
Cole Rassas- Attack- Brophy/So Cal Bulls- CA- Air Force
Daniella Guyette – Goalie – Newbury Park/ACES – CA – Syracuse
Grace Karstetter – Midfield – St. Margaret’s/Skywalkers – CA – Johns Hopkins
Rylee Tinney – Midfield – Valor Christian/Team 180 – CO – Michigan
Phoebe Kim – Attack – Palo Alto/STEPS – CA – Stanford
Asjia Roberson – Defense – Redondo Union/Fire – CA – USC
Rachel Kennedy – Attack – Arapahoe/Team 180 – CO – CU Boulder
Briana Gardiner – Attack – Desert Vista/Team Arizona – AZ – Uncommitted
Ellie Noto – Midfield – Sacred Heart/Tenacity – CA – Notre Dame
Maya Kendall – Midfield – Colorado Academy/Team 180 – CO – Dartmouth
Harper Skeie – Attack – Palos Verdes/Fire – CA – Uncommitted
Minje Kwun – Attack – Hockaday/GRIT – TX – Dartmouth
Reese Loseke – Midfield/Attack – Torrey Pines/Aces – CA – Uncommitted
Brookelynn Hodgin – Goalie – San Clemente/Aces – CA – Jacksonville
Thayer Hubbard – Goalie – Fairview/Team 180 – CO – Denver
Grace Lichtenberger – Air Academy/Team 180 – CO – Uncommitted
Logan Risenhoover- Midfield – Westlake Academy/214 – TX – Vanderbilt
Hadley Pereur – Attack – Menlo-Atherton/NorCal Rize – CA – Uncommitted
Carly Dirrigl – Midfield – Desert Vista – Team Arizona – AZ – Uncommitted
Bree Weber – Midfield – Valencia/Vibe – CA – Uncommitted
Greta McGinnis – Attack – Pinnacle/ Team Arizona – AZ – Uncommitted
Zoe Dearborn- Attack- Palos Verde/Fire- CA- Uncommitted
Acacia Conner- Midfield- Notre Dame Prep/C2 Select- CA- Syracuse
Jaylen Rosga – Midfield – Minnehaha/Lacrosse Monkey – MN – Maryland
Anna Lewis- Attack- Desert Vista/Team Arizona- AZ- Uncommitted
Abby Moran- Midfield- St. Michael’s Catholic/Iron Horse- TX- Jacksonville
Brynn Belmont- Attack- Flowermound/214 Lacrosse- TX- Georgetown
Logan Risenhoover- Attack- Westlake Academy/214 Lacrosse- TX- Vanderbilt
Avery Williams- Goalie- Flowermound/214 Lacrosse- TX- Florida Southern
Laurel Hunter- Midfield- Campolindo/California Attack- CA- Uncommitted
Sam Riley- Defense- Park City HS/Coast- UT- Uncommitted
Elika Rodrigues- Midfield- Coronado (Vegas)/Coast- NV- Uncommitted
Allie White- Midfield- Coronado (San Diego)/Coast- CA- Uncommitted
Maddy Cole- Defense- San Marcos/Coast- CA- Uncommitted
Sydney Hoggard- Midfield- Edison/Coast- CA- Uncommitted
Meilene Hanaki- Defense- University City/Coast-CA- Uncommitted
Tatum Constant- Defense- Menlo School/Tenacity- CA- Trinity College
Nicole Lalime- Midfield- Highland/Desert Heat- AZ- Uncommitted
Sage Madden- Attack- Carondelet/California Attack- CA- Uncommitted
Wylly Willmott- Midfield- Oregon Episcopal/3d Oregon- OR- Uncommitted
Ava Mark – Defense – Monte Vista/Tenacity – CA – Uncommitted
Kate Mayle – Attack – St. Ignatius/Tenacity – CA – Uncommitted
Anna Blake Patrick- Goalie- Oregon Episcopal/3d Oregon- OR- Uncommitted
Molly Jacobson- Midfield- Santa Margarita/Mad Dog- CA- Uncommitted
Daniella Guyette- Goalie- Newbury Park/Mad Dog- CA- Syracuse
Sophia Laubner- Midfield- Newbury Park/Mad Dog- CA- Uncomitted
Four Gators Earn Preseason All-America Nods
GAINESVILLE, Fla. – Four members of the Florida lacrosse were tabbed as Inside Lacrosse Division I Preseason All-Americans, as the organization announced Monday.
Fifth-year defender Cara Trombetta was named First Team Preseason All-American, while senior midfielder Shannon Kavanagh earned a spot on the Second Team.
Redshirt senior attacker Brianna Harris and redshirt sophomore goalie Sarah Reznick each found themselves on the Honorable Mention squad.
All four Gators are coming off a strong 2020 season, which was shortened to just eight games due to COVID-19.
Trombetta and Kavanagh were each named ILWomen First Team Media All-Americans, while Harris was tabbed as an ILWomen Third Team Media All-American.
Reznick finished her freshman campaign with a spot on the All-ILWomen Rookie Team.
This quartet and the rest of the Gators kick off the 2021 season with a Feb. 13 matchup at Louisville. This will be the first time these two teams face off in program history.
Below are the accolades for each Gator:
Cara Trombetta | 5th year | Defender
- 2021 Preseason Inside Lacrosse All-American First Team
- 2021 Preseason US Lacrosse Magazine All-American
- 2020 ILWomen First Team Media All-American
- 2020 Tewaaraton Watch List
- 2020 AAC Defender of the Week (2/10, 2/17, 3/2)
- 2020 Inside Lacrosse Division I Preseason All-America First Team
- Served as Team Captain in the 2020 season
- Recorded two games with multiple caused turnovers, including a season-best three against High Point (3/7)
- Registered six multi-groundball, including a season-best four against Maryland (2/15)
- Ranked 10th in the conference and 131st in the nation in caused turnovers per game (1. 25)
- Sits fourth among active Division I players with 120 caused turnovers
- Sits ninth among active Division I players with 146 groundballs
Shannon Kavanagh | Sr. | Midfielder
- 2021 Preseason Inside Lacrosse All-American Second Team
- 2021 Preseason US Lacrosse Magazine All-American
- 2020 ILWomen First Team Media All-American
- 2020 Tewaaraton Watch List
- 2020 IWLCA National Offensive Player of the Week (2/18)
- 2020 US Lacrosse National Player of the Week (2/17)
- 2020 AAC Midfielder of the Week (2/10, 2/17, 3/2, 3/9)
- 2020 Inside Lacrosse Division I Preseason All-American Second Team
- Served as Team Captain in the 2020 season
- Had a career-high day against then-No. 1 Maryland, scoring eight goals on 13 shots to secure the victory
- Registered 13 draw controls against High Point (3/7), not only tying her career-high, but also tying the second-highest total in program history
- Recorded at least five draw controls in seven of the eight games this season
- Became the fourth Gator to record at least 200 draw controls, doing so against Kennesaw State (2/26)
- Currently holds the streak for most consecutive games with a draw control (42 games)
- Sits 12th among active Division I players in draw controls with 238
- Sits 18th among active Division I players in goals with 139
Brianna Harris | R-Sr. | Attacker
- 2021 Preseason Inside Lacrosse All-American Honorable Mention
- 2020 ILWomen Third Team Media All-American
- 2020 AAC Attacker of the Week (2/17)
- 2020 AAC Honor Roll (2/10, 3/9)
- Recorded seven multi-goal games on the season, including six games with three or more goals
- Registered a career-best five goals in three different games this season: Colorado (2/8), High Point (3/7) and Navy (3/10)
- Recorded a career-high eight points against High Point (3/7) with five goals and three assists
- Became just the 18th Gator to record 100 career points, doing so against Dartmouth (3/3)
- Led the team in points and assists, while sitting second in goals and third in draw controls
Sarah Reznick | R-So. | Goalkeeper
- 2021 Preseason Inside Lacrosse All-American Honorable Mention
- 2020 All-ILWomen Rookie Team
- 2020 IWLCA National Defensive Player of the Week (2/18)
- 2020 AAC Freshman of the Week (2/10, 2/17, 3/2)
- Her best performance came against then-No. 1 Maryland, where she recorded a career-high 14 saves. That marks the third-best total in program history
- Against then-No. 3 Stony Brook, she notched 13 saves – one off her career-best
- In her first appearance of 2020 – Colorado (2/8) – she recorded 11 saves, the most for any Gator goalie in their debut
- Those 11 saves, plus the 14 she had against Maryland put her at 25 through two games played, the most for any freshman goalie through two games
- Sat first in the league and 26th in the nation in save percentage (.482)
- Sat first in the league and 12th in the nation in total saves (79)
- Sat first in the league and 29th in the nation in saves per game (9.88)
- Sat third in the league and 37th in the nation in GAA (11.05)
Follow the Gators:
Bri Carrasquillo – 2021 – Women’s Lacrosse
2020 (First Year): Started all six games… 25th national rank in free position percentage (.667) and 44th in draw controls per game (5.17)… First on team in draw controls (31)… Sixth in Ivy League and second on team with 16 goals… Scored three or more goals in four out of six games… Career-high five goals in 17-10 win at Hartford Feb. 25… Season canceled after six games due to coronavirus pandemic.
USA Lacrosse: 2018 U19 Women”s National Lacrosse tryout invitee.
Milton High School: US Lacrosse All-American 2018 and 2019 … Six-year varsity player (five-year starter, since eighth grade) on varsity lacrosse … 2019 Georgia High School Sports Zone Athlete of the Week … 2019 Brine/US Lacrosse Athlete of the month … 2019 Senior Under Armour All-American South Team … 2018-2019 AJC High School Player of the Year … 2018 and 2019 first team all-state … 2018 and 2019 Milton MVP … 2018 Under Armour South Highlight Team … 2018 Long Island girls’ lacrosse Player to Watch list … 2018 ILWomen Young Gun Seniors Top 100 On the Rise List … Three-time Brine/US Lacrosse Player of the Week 2018 … Two-time South Brine/US Lacrosse Player of the week 2018 … 2016 and 2017 All County Award … 2017 Coaches Award … 2017 ILWomen Young Gun Juniors Watch List … 2016 Nike Elite 120 Top Performer … 361 career points, led Milton 2018 and 2019 in goals and draw controls — 80 goals 128 draw controls junior year, 80 goals 188 draw controls senior year … 2018 and 2019 GHSA 6A-7A State Champions … 2017 Suffolk County ‘B’ finals … Also ran cross country (2015 first team all-league) … On winter track team 2014-17, co-captain sophomore year … All-league in track 2014 … 2017 Coaches Award recipient in track … Member of National Honor Society senior year.
Long Island Yellow Jackets: 2016 Lax for the Cure Champs … 2016 U15 US National Champions … 2015 Summer Classic Champs.
Notes: Hobbies include skiing, hiking, mountain biking, going to the beach and spending time with her family … Coach for Eagle Stix 2027/2028 Rising Stars youth lacrosse team and gives lessons to other youth girls … Multiple college athletes in her family… Aunt attended Harvard where she ran cross country and cycled … Grandfather attended Villanova where he played DI football … Mother played DII basketball at Dowling College.
Why Yale? “I chose Yale because it offers infinite opportunities both in the classroom and on the lacrosse field. I was immediately drawn to the camaraderie and culture embodied by the team.”
Three UMO Men’s Lacrosse Student-Athletes are Named to 2021 Division II Men’s Preseason All-American List
MOUNT OLIVE, N.C. — The US Lacrosse Magazine the 2021 Division II Men’s Preseason All-Americans, part of the magazine’s immersive coverage leading to the upcoming spring season. Mount Olive had three Trojans land a spot on the team.
Thirteen student-athletes from seven schools make up the preseason list.
The University of Mount Olive men’s lacrosse team picked another national recognition of the year as the Trojans had three members; Brady Elbin, Jacob Williams and Andrew Avarello were listed as 2021 Division II Men’s Preseason All-Americans. During the 2020 season UMO was 4-3 overall, 0-0 in conference play, and ranked as high as No. 11 in DII before their season was cut short due to the COVID-19 Pandemic.
Senior midfielder Brady Elbin was a first-team All-Conference selection last season, a United States Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association (USILA) Scholar All-American, and named a Maverik Men’s Lacrosse Division II Media All-American by Inside Lacrosse. Elbin caused two turnovers and picked up eight ground balls in 2020.
Senior defender Jacob Williams was also named a 2020 Maverik Media Division II All-American, USILA Division ll Preseason All-American First team and Inside Lacrosse Division ll Preseason All-American First team. Williams caused 11 turnovers and picked up 26 ground balls in 2020. In the Trojans’ season finale, Williams shined with three ground balls and two caused turnovers.
Senior goalkeeper Andrew Avarello who was just named preseason goalie of the year by USLM heading into the 2021 season, was the final member to land a preseason All-American. Avarello saved 55.1 percent of shots and allowed 9.16 goals per game for Mount Olive in 2020.
Full US Lacrosse Magazine Release
Four Notre Dame Players Selected IWLCA/US Lacrosse All-Americans – Notre Dame Fighting Irish – Official Athletics Website
May 29, 2009
Notre Dame, Ind. – For the first time in the 13-year history of the Notre Dame women’s lacrosse program, the Fighting Irish have had two players selected first team Intercollegiate Women’s Lacrosse Coaches’ Association (IWLCA)/US Lacrosse All-American and a total of four players selected across the first two All-American teams.
Selected first team All-American for the first time in their careers are seniors Jillian Byers (Northport, N.Y.) and Shannon Burke (Timonium, Md.) while teammates Shaylyn Blaney (So., Stony Brook, N.Y.) and Gina Scioscia (Jr., Summit, N.J.) were chosen second team All-Americans for the first time. By being named first team, Byers becomes the first four-time All-American in the program’s history after being named second team for the first three years of her career.
“In a season that was full of brilliant moments and record setting achievements, having four players named to the 2009 IWLCA/US Lacrosse All-American team is another notable milestone for our program,” said head coach Tracy Coyne.
“This type of individual recognition only happens when the team plays well. Our success in 2009 can be directly attributed to the outstanding leadership and commitment Jill (Byers), Shannon (Burke), Gina (Scioscia) and Shaylyn (Blaney) have demonstrated to our team goals. It is a tremendous honor for them and I believe they are truly deserving of the recognition.”
The IWLCA and US Lacrosse will honor the National All-Americans at an awards banquet on June 13, 2009 in King of Prussia, Pa.
In choosing the student-athletes for this recognition, the IWLCA has strict nominating guidelines that must be adhered to by all member institutions. The 2009 All-Regional and All-American honorees have met both the nominating and selection criteria.
Before being named to the national All-American teams, Byers, Burke, Blaney and Scioscia were selected to the first team IWLCA West/Midwest Regional Team where they were joined on the second team by junior defender Rachel Guerrera (Wantagh, N.Y.). In all, 128 Division I women’s lacrosse players were chosen to either the Mid-Atlantic, South or West/Midwest regional teams and were eligible for selection to the All-American teams.
The five Notre Dame players chosen as regional selections were the second highest total for the Irish in the program’s history as they had six players named to the all-Regional team (three first team and three second team) following the 2006 season.
Byers capped her brilliant Notre Dame career by being named first team All-American for the 2009 season and becomes the fourth first team All-American in the program’s history. She also was selected first team all-Region in each of her four years with the Irish.
A finalist for the Tewaaraton Trophy and a candidate for the Honda Sports Award, Byers set a Notre Dame single-season record for goals (83) and draw controls (55) in a season while recording career highs in assists (28), points (111), ground balls (34) and caused turnovers (26). The 83 goals ranked her second in the nation and the 111 points were third best in the country.
A four-time unanimous first team all-BIG EAST selection, she was the BIG EAST co-attack player of the year as she led the conference in goals and was second in points.
For her career, Byers, the 2009 team captain and team Most Valuable Player, is Notre Dame’s all-time leader in games played (76), goals (262), points (336) and draw controls (154). She is the BIG EAST’s all-time leader in goals for a single season (31 in 2009) and career goals with 78. Her 42 points this season are the second-highest single-season total and her 101 career points are the second-best total in BIG EAST history. During her senior year, Byers set the conference’s single-game point mark with 12 (seven goals and five assists) in an April 18 win over Connecticut. In NCAA history, she ranks sixth all-time in goals with 262 and 10th in career points with 336.
Sophomore Shaylyn Blaney was selected as a 2009 second team IWLCA All-American. She finished the year with 44 goals and 47 points from her midfield position.
Burke becomes the fifth player in Notre Dame history (and the first defender) to be selected first team All-American. She became one of the BIG EAST’s most dominant defensive players over the last two seasons. This year, she was a first team all-BIG EAST selection and a first team all-region pick. In 2008, Burke was a second team all-BIG EAST defender and selected second team all-region.
In 2009, Burke served as a team captain and turned in career highs in ground balls (60) and caused turnovers (44), setting a Notre Dame single-season record in that category while her 34 draw controls were fifth on the team. A four-time monogram winner and three-year starter, Burke was selected by her teammates as the winner of the team’s 2002 Award as the team’s top defensive player.
During the season, Burke had 16 games with two or more ground balls and caused turnovers in 17 of 21 games on the season. In the final regular season game of the year versus Cornell, she set career highs with six ground balls and six caused turnovers with the turnovers tying a Notre Dame school record in that category.
For her career, she finished third on the all-time ground ball list with 139, was third in draw controls with 124 and was second, just one off the school record of 107, with 106 career caused turnovers.
Blaney, a sophomore midfielder, was a second team IWLCA/US Lacrosse All-American for the first time in her career. A first team all-BIG EAST selection, she was fourth on the Irish in goals (44) and points (47). A first team West/Midwest all-region choice, the all-around midfielder tied for seventh on the team with 31 ground balls, was second with 46 draw controls and fifth with 16 caused turnovers.
A second team all-BIG EAST and all-region choice as a freshman in 2008, Blaney is already among Notre Dame’s top 10 players in several categories – goals (8th with 87), points (10th with 99) and draw controls (9th with 88).
Junior Gina Scioscia was a second team IWLCA All-American after finishing fifth in the nation in scoring with 53 goals and 43 assists for 96 points.
Joining Blaney as a second team All-American was Scioscia who teamed with Byers to give Notre Dame one of the top 1-2 scoring duos in the nation. The junior finished second on the team in goals (53), led the team with a school record 43 assists and was second in points with 96. The 53 goals were the sixth best single-season total for the Irish while her 96 points was the third highest point total in the program’s history. She was fifth in the NCAA in points and sixth in assists for the year.
Scioscia was a second team all-BIG EAST choice in 2009 as she finished seventh in the conference in goals, second in assists and third in points. Notre Dame’s top playmaker, Scioscia continues to improve each season. After recording eight points (4g, 4a) as a freshman, she had a 47-point improvement in 2008 as a sophomore when she had 20 goals and 35 assists for 55 points. This season she scored 33 more goals and eight more assists, giving her just a 41-point improvement over her sophomore season. She had points in 20 of the team’s 21 games, including 17 with four or more points.
Junior defender Rachel Guerrera was one of five Irish players named to the IWLCA West/Midwest regional team. The tough, tenacious defender was a second team choice.
In just three seasons, Scioscia has become Notre Dame’s all-time assist leader with 82 while ranking ninth in goals (77) and sixth in points (159). Her 82 career assists will put her among the active leaders in the NCAA when the 2010 season starts.
Rounding out Notre Dame’s list of honorees was Guerrera who was selected second team West/Midwest Region for the first time in her career. The junior defender has been a two-year starter on the Irish back line and has proven to be one of the best one-v.-one defenders in the conference. She is Notre Dame’s top match-up defender and has excelled in that role.
“I am very pleased that Rachel (Guerrera) has been recognized as one of the best defenders in our region. She did an outstanding job in her role as our top match up defender,” said Coyne.
“She’s a relentless competitor who thrives on the challenge of her defensive assignments. Rachel played great in the BIG EAST Tournament and was a key reason behind winning our first title. She is very deserving of this honor.”
Guerrera recorded career highs in ground balls (33) and caused turnovers (22). Her best game this season came versus Louisville in BIG EAST action when she had career highs with five ground balls and five caused turnovers to go with two draw controls while limiting the Cardinals to just eight goals in the game.
An all-BIG EAST tournament selection, she was a key member of a defensive unit that ranked 13th in ground balls and 16th in caused turnovers on the season.
Notre Dame set a school record during the 2009 season with 16 wins in a 16-5 campaign and won their first-ever BIG EAST Tournament. The Irish were ranked sixth in the IWLCA coaches’ poll and advanced to the NCAA Tournament for the third time in the last four seasons. They knocked off Vanderbilt in the first round before falling to North Carolina in the quarterfinals.
IL Preseason All-Americans; Duke Picked 2nd in ACC
Inside Lacrosse Preseason All-America
DURHAM, N.C.—The preseason awards continue to roll in for the Blue Devils as Inside Lacrosse revealed its preseason All-America teams and the ACC announced the All-ACC squad and the predicted ACC order of finish according to the conference’s head coaches.
Duke, tabbed the nation’s No. 1 team heading into the 2021 campaign, was picked to finish second in the ACC in a vote of the five head coaches. Syracuse topped the list with 21 points, while Duke had 20. Virginia is third, while North Carolina and Notre Dame round out the group. All five programs are ranked in the top eight of the Inside Lacrosse Face-Off Yearbook Preseason Poll.
Graduate students JT Giles-Harris and Michael Sowers both were voted to the Preseason All-ACC team as well as to the Inside Lacrosse Preseason All-America first team. This is just the latest of a plethora of awards for the duo, which included the Preseason Defenseman and Attackman of the Year awards from US Lacrosse Magazine.
Joining Giles-Harris and Sowers on the Inside Lacrosse All-America squads are Mike Adler (2nd Team) and Owen Caputo (HM), Nakeie Montgomery (HM), and Dyson Williams (HM).
Giles-Harris, the 2019 ACC Defensive Player of the Year and considered the top defenseman last season, returns to anchor Duke’s defense again in 2021. He enters his final year as a Blue Devil with 113 ground balls and 70 caused turnovers. Prior to the abrupt end to the 2020 season, the Nyack, N.Y., native had 21 ground balls and 13 caused turnovers, earning Inside Lacrosse All-America First-Team recognition.
The two-year team captain has started 63 of the 64 games in his career and is on his way to becoming the fourth Duke close defenseman to earn All-America First Team honors twice in his career. Amassing 70 career caused turnovers, he needs 15 caused turnovers to climb into the top 35 in NCAA history and 19 to surpass Luke Duprey’s Duke record of 88.
Graduating from Princeton as the program’s all-time leading scorer with 302 points (121 goals, 181 assists), Sowers led the nation in points (9.4/gm) and assists (6.2/gm) last year, both of which would have been Division I records. He broke the Ivy League single-game record for points in a game with 14 against Colgate. He had 11 assists versus the Raiders to set a Princeton single-game record. Against reigning NCAA Champion, Sowers notched four goals and four assists.
With 302 points to his name, the Dresher, Pa., native has the potential to become just the second person in NCAA history to reach the 400-point plateau. Lyle Thompson currently holds the career scoring record with 400 points. Sowers’ 181 assists currently rank ninth in NCAA history and are 51 shy of breaking Pat Spencer’s record of 231. For his career, Sowers is averaging 6.4 points per game and 3.9 assists per game. He scored 80-plus points in each of his three full seasons with the Tigers and had 47 through five games in 2020.
Adler joins the Blue Devils after a standout career at Saint Joseph’s. A three-year starter in the cage, he graduated from Saint Joseph’s ranked fourth all-time in career save percentage (. 569), fifth in career goals against average (9.37) and fifth in career saves (426). He was voted to the All-NEC second team in 2018 and 2019 and was the team’s pick for Outstanding Defensive Performer in 2018 and 2019 as well as the overall Most Outstanding Performer in 2018.
Caputo had a breakout sophomore season in the midfield, ranking second on the team in scoring with 12 goals and eight assists for 20 points. Montgomery was just starting to hit his stride in 2020 as the season came to a screeching halt. For his career, he has started 22 games and 69 points from 43 goals and 26 assists.
Montgomery is a veteran midfielder for the Blue Devils. He registered 14 points from eight goals and six assists last season, hitting his stride just as the season came to a halt. A starter in 22 of his 43 games, the Dallas, Texas native has 43 goals and 26 assists to his name. He garnered third team All-America recognition as a sophomore in 2019 after ranking second on the team in assists.
Williams had a stellar rookie campaign despite only playing eight games. The Ontario native started all eight games at attack and led the Blue Devils with 26 goals and 30 points overall. He led all freshmen nationally in goals per game (3.13) and ranked fifth among rookies in points per game (3.75).
2021 ACC Preseason Coaches Poll
1. Syracuse, 21
2. Duke, 20
3. Virginia, 14
4. North Carolina, 13
5. Notre Dame, 7
2021 Preseason All-ACC Team
Chris Gray, Sr., North Carolina
Michael Sowers, Gr., Duke
Matt Moore, Sr., Virginia
Dox Aitken, Sr., Virginia
Brendan Curry, Jr., Syracuse
Jamie Trimboli, Sr., Syracuse
JT Giles-Harris, Sr., Duke
Will Bowen, Jr., North Carolina
Jack Kielty, Gr. , Notre Dame
Goalkeeper: Drake Porter, Sr., Syracuse
Face-off: Kyle Gallagher, Gr., Notre Dame
Longstick Midfielder: Jared Conners, Sr., Virginia
Shortstick Midfielder: Peter Dearth, Sr., Syracuse
Shortstick Midfielder: Connor Maher, Jr., North Carolina
Shortstick Midfielder: John Hallenbeck, Sr., Notre Dame
90,000 US heavy reconnaissance satellite suddenly “came to life”
Amateur astronomers have recorded the orbit correction performed by the most “ancient” multi-ton US reconnaissance satellite. This means that the United States now has nine operational intelligence satellites in space – something that has never happened in American history before.
In January 2006, amateur astronomers, united in an international network by Canadian expert Ted Molczan, determined from optical observations that the American Lacrosse-2 radar reconnaissance satellite had made a small correction in orbit altitude.This curious fact means that the longest-lived LEO in the world has given “signs of life” – the satellite was launched in 1991 and has been in orbit for 15 years.
The results of observations indicate that, thanks to the maneuver, the orbit of Lacrosse-2 rose by about 50 m. According to experts, the purpose of the maneuver was either to unload the force gyroscope, or, much more likely, the satellite made a collision avoidance maneuver with another body.
As a result of the last launch of a secret satellite in October 2005, the United States created in orbit the largest ever constellation of reconnaissance satellites in history. Nine multi-ton spacecraft conduct round-the-clock survey of targets of interest anywhere on Earth.
Over the past decades, the staff of the American IMINT (Imagery Intelligence) satellite system included two types of satellites – with KeyHole optical telescopes (or KH – “keyhole”, in the press they are referred to as “Advanced crystal” / KN-11 or KN-12) and radar reconnaissance Lacrosse.The spatial resolution of optical equipment, according to the press, is about 10 cm, and of radars – less than 1 m.In addition, according to open publications, in 1999 an invisible satellite with low radar and optical signature Misty-2 was launched into orbit, which can take pictures of objects, remaining unnoticed by space tracking stations of other countries. The first satellite, Misty-1, was launched in 1990 and is probably no longer in use.
At the end of 2005, the American non-governmental organization UCS (Union of Concerned Scientists) published a database
on operating spacecraft, compiled from open publications.Taking into account the clarifications made by optical observers, the number of the US surveillance group IMINT at the end of last year reached a record value – 9 satellites, including 4 – KeyHole, 4 – Lacrosse and one – secret stealth satellite Misty-2. All of these secret satellites have been observed by astronomers, except for Misty-2, which was lost by observers immediately after launch. According to Ted Molzhan’s estimates, a light decoy target or a fragment of the Misty-2 launch remained in an orbit with an altitude of about 3 thousand km.
The IMINT constellation of classified Earth imagery rose to a record high in 2005 as a result of two successful launches of KeyHole and Lacrosse-5. Not a single old spy satellite has been de-orbited, indicating that they have a residual working life.
90,023 90,000 Schools in America – teaching in private schools USA
Blairstown, NJ, USA
Age of enrollment: from 14 years old
Number of students: 460
Cost: from $ 66,500 per year
Canaan, New Hampshire, USA
Age of enrollment: from 11 years old
Number of students: 225
Cost: from $ 74,400 per year
Carpinteria, California, USA
Age of enrollment: from 14 years old
Number of students: 298
Cost: from $ 66 800 per year
Ashburnham, Massachusetts, USA
Age of enrollment: from 15 years old
Number of students: 390
Cost: from $ 65 950 per year
Deerfield, Massachusetts, USA
Age of enrollment: from 14 years old
Number of students: 658
Cost: from $ 62,040 for the year
Plymouth, New Hampshire, USA
Age of enrollment: from 13 years old
Number of students: 281
Cost: from $ 66 100 per year
Idlewild, California, USA
Age of enrollment: from 13 years old
Number of students: 311
Cost: from $ 68,432 for the year
Napa, California, USA
Age of enrollment: from 14 years old
Number of students: 575
Cost: from $ 73 600 per year
Kent, Connecticut, USA
Age of enrollment: from 14 years old
Number of students: 590
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Lake Forest, Illinois, USA
Age of enrollment: from 14 years old
Number of students: 435
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Groton, Massachusetts, USA
Age of enrollment: from 15 years old
Number of students: 181
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Thompson, Connecticut, USA
Age of enrollment: from 14 years old
Number of students: 400
Cost: from $ 60 793 for the year
90,000 Americans apologized for the US “rash statements” against Russia: Politics: World: Lenta.ru
The Americans sent letters to the Russian embassy, in which they apologized for the “rash statements” of the United States to Russia. This was stated by Russian Ambassador Anatoly Antonov, his words are quoted on the embassy’s Facebook page.
Antonov expressed “deepest gratitude” to the citizens of the United States who sent letters in support of the development of friendly relations between the countries.
“Many expressed their disagreement and apologized for the hasty statements made recently from Washington to the Russian Federation.I am deeply touched by the caring and active position of ordinary Americans, who understand that dialogue between states should be based on mutual respect and equality, ”the text says.
12:06 – March 18
20:43 – March 18
The Ambassador stressed that this approach of American citizens speaks of the remaining potential for “normalizing ties between the Russian and American peoples.” In conclusion, Antonov expressed the hope that the administration will listen to the “voice of voters” and stop the course of “further collapse of the already excessively confrontational relations.”
On March 18, Russian President Vladimir Putin invited Biden to talk live. The Russian head of state said he was ready to discuss the topics of the coronavirus pandemic and regional conflicts. Biden initially ignored the journalists’ question about whether he agreed to a conversation with the Russian president. A day later, he replied that he was sure that at some point the dialogue would take place.
On March 17, Biden said in an interview with ABC News that he wants to hold the Russian state accountable for alleged interference in the US elections.He spoke about a conversation with Russian leader Vladimir Putin and added that he would pay if he was found guilty. In the same conversation, Biden made a critical statement about the Russian president.
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90,000 Athletic scholarships at US universities
Sports scholarships from the US University is an opportunity for free or almost free of charge to get higher education in the States, while doing your favorite sport at the highest level.
Sports are an important part of the American education system. Each higher educational institution in the United States provides its wards with the opportunity not only intellectual, but also physical development. At the service of students – fully equipped sports and gyms, stadiums, tennis courts, golf courses, swimming pools and other elements of the sports infrastructure.
I must say that the attitude to physical education in US universities is more than serious.Students not only periodically visit the pool or do a circle or two on a treadmill, they purposefully engage in this or that sport, participate in interuniversity competitions, and win prizes.
By the way, university team competitions are a big source of income for educational institutions. For example, tickets for an intercollegiate American football game cost between $ 50 and $ 100. Both students themselves and local residents come to watch the competition.
However, for university games to be popular with spectators, the participating teams must demonstrate a high level of professionalism.In other words, universities need strong athletes. That is why some of the money earned from competitions goes to providing sports scholarships at universities.
Since higher education in the United States costs a lot of money, scholarships that fully or partially cover the cost of education are an excellent way to attract to the university those children who distinguished themselves in the sports field at school, which means that they will be able to glorify their alma mater in the future.
33 sports at 1,500 US universities
There are 33 sports for which you can get an athletic scholarship in the USA:
About 1,500 higher education institutions participate in the sports scholarship program in the United States.
Benefits of getting a sports scholarship
There are 2 types of US sports scholarships:
- The full ride scholarship covers the student-athlete’s expenses not only for university tuition, but also for food and accommodation. In some cases, the full ride scholarship includes the cost of insurance.
- Partial scholarship (partial scholarship) covers tuition costs (either 100% or 50-90%).The student pays for accommodation and meals on his own.
The amount of the scholarship is determined individually based on the level of sports and academic training of the applicant.
In addition to the obvious advantage in the form of financial support, the sports scholarship provides a number of other advantages:
- Unlike an ordinary applicant from Russia, an athlete does not need to spend time and money on preparatory courses – to make up for the missing year of school. A certificate of 11 grades of education is enough to get a sports scholarship and enter an American university.
- SAT and TOEFL score requirements for athletes are lower than for other students, which greatly simplifies the admission procedure. For example, at the University of Miami, an ordinary student must pass SAT for 1200-1300 points, TOEFL for 80 points, an athlete – SAT for 700-900 points, TOEFL for 60-70 points. GPA for an ordinary student – 3.5-4.0 points, for an athlete – 2.8-3.5 points.
- For both full and partial scholarships, university sports (equipment from top sports manufacturers such as Nike and Adidas; personal nutritionist; visiting games, etc.)are paid by the athletic department of the university.
- Participation in guest games is a great opportunity to travel around the United States, to get to know the culture of the country better. In between competitions and training, athletes will have a rich cultural program: excursions to historical sights, visits to museums and restaurants. All this is again at the expense of the university.
How do I get an athletic scholarship to study at a US university?
Requirements for candidates applying for a sports scholarship at an American university differ depending on the age of the athlete.
|Eligibility Requirements for Sports Scholarship Applicants|
|Athlete’s age||Required documents||Tests||Achievements in sport|
| 15-18 years old
(schoolchildren in grades 10-11, college students)
| Certificate for Grade 11
Grades for Grades 8-11
Certificate for Grade 9 *
| Athletic resume by sport
National and International Athlete Ratings
| 18-20 years old
Students of Russian universities (1-3 courses)
|Certificate from the university about the subjects passed (only exam courses||TOEFL|
* – Sometimes required
US universities have the following requirements for applicants for sports scholarships:
American Collegiate Sports Associations – NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association), NAIA (National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics), NJCAA (National Junior College Athletic Association), which supervise university competitions, do not formally impose age restrictions on athletes.However, in practice, it is rather difficult for a student over 23 years old to receive a scholarship. The optimal age of the applicant is from 15 to 20 years. We strongly recommend to start looking for a scholarship 2 years before leaving school or on the 1st or 2nd year of study at a Russian university – this significantly increases the chances of finding the best option and calmly preparing for passing all the necessary tests.
Knowledge of English
For a foreigner, a prerequisite for admission to an American university is a good knowledge of English.Universities accept TOEFL test scores as proof of language proficiency. As mentioned above, the passing scores for athletes are usually lower than for all other applicants – this greatly facilitates the admission process.
US universities are interested in the academic performance of an athlete – however, the requirements for an athlete’s grades are much softer than for an average applicant’s GPA. A graduate of a Russian school will need the result of the SAT academic test, a certificate, as well as a list of grades for grades 8-11.If a student of a Russian higher education institution enters an American university, instead of the SAT results, he must submit a certificate from his university, indicating the number of hours and grades in the disciplines passed. At the same time, American universities are only interested in exam results, credits are not accepted.
Achievements in sport
Of course, the main criterion for the selection of student athletes is their athletic performance, as reflected in a special athletic resume.The specialists of the Global Dialogue company will help you to draw up this document competently.
How does Global Dialogue help in obtaining sports scholarships?
The procedure for obtaining a sports scholarship with the help of Global Dialogue is as follows:
- At the preliminary stage, the company’s specialists get to know the athlete and his parents, analyze his chances of receiving funding: which universities should be chosen, what type of scholarship is awaiting the student.
- After the acquaintance has taken place, the athlete receives instructions, which describe in detail what documents he needs to collect and how to draw them up correctly so that the Global Dialogue manager can continue to work. Instructions from Global Dialogue include:
- sample resume detailing athletic performance;
- instructions for filming a video (if necessary) – requirements for length, plot, etc.
- information on registration for SAT and TOEFL tests;
- instruction on school documents;
- Instruction for Registration with Athletic Associations.
If the applicant is in Moscow, the Global Dialogue specialist will fill in and send the documents. If the applicant lives in another region, then the manager of the company advises the client on the issues of sending papers.
- Having received all the necessary papers from the athlete, as well as copies of Russian and foreign passports, Global Dialogue draws up an athletic client profile and sends it to the university coaches database.
- After receiving several answers, the student receives the contacts of the trainers and enters into correspondence with them.After talking with the athlete, the coach decides whether he is ready to take this person to his team, and if so, on what conditions (amount and type of scholarship).
- While the applicant is in correspondence with the coaches, Global Dialogue is clarifying the specific requirements for applicants-athletes at the selected universities. At the same stage, the athlete begins to prepare for passing the tests.
- When the tests are passed, the student is finally determined with the university to which he will go, apply for admission and sign a scholarship contract.
- Finally, having received the i-20 (a document confirming admission to the university), with the help of the Global Dialogue manager, the athlete issues a student visa and goes to study.
After receiving sports scholarship
An athletic scholarship is one of the most stable types of funding available to a student at an American university. Unlike the academic scholarship, which can be lost for absenteeism or academic failure, the sports scholarship is allocated for the entire period of study at the university – 4 years and it is quite difficult to lose it.As a rule, athletes are deprived of funding only for egregious violations of the terms of the contract.
Athletes are allowed to skip classes during away games, and if their performance falls due to competition, they are offered free tutor assistance. Foreign athletes are also helped to learn the language and have a simplified timetable. By the way, if an athlete gets injured, which does not allow him to continue playing for the team, the university will pay for treatment. The scholarship will continue to be paid for the entire remaining period of study – these are the conditions of the athletic contract.
In addition, playing sports at the university opens up excellent prospects for professional implementation for the graduate. After graduation, an athlete who has proven himself in intercollegiate competitions can continue his sports career or choose a coach job.
Many famous athletes began climbing the sports Olympus as part of the university team: basketball player Michael Jordan played for the University of North Carolina, golfer Tiger Woods played for Stanford University, and footballer Dwayne Johnson once represented the University of Miami.
By the way, participation in interuniversity competitions will be useful for those who are not going to associate their life with sports. Aspiring, team-oriented athletes are highly regarded by recruiters around the world, regardless of the company’s field of activity.
Find Out Your Chance for a Scholarship
90,000 Kate Bosworth (Kate Bosworth): filmography, photo, biography.Actor.
She was born on January 2, 1983 in Los Angeles (California). As a child, Kate Bosworth was seriously involved in equestrian sports. The girl studied at Cohasset High School, where she studied French, and played for the football team and played lacrosse.
In 1998, Kate Bosworth made her film debut. She starred in The Horse Whisperer. The ability to ride a horse helped the girl to get a role in this film, as the producers were looking for an actress with this skill.Already in 2000, three films were released at once, in which Kate Bosworth starred. These were feature films “Remember the Titans” and “The Newcomers”, as well as an episode of the television series “Young Americans”.
In 2002, Kate Bosworth participated in the filming of Blue Crush and The Rules of Attraction. In 2003, the actress appeared in the film Wonderland. In 2004, viewers could see Kate Bosworth in Beyond the Sea as Sandra Lee and Win a Date with Tad Hamilton! As Rosalie Futch.In 2005, the actress played Chali in the film Bee Season. In 2006, she appeared in the fantastical adaptation of the comic strip Superman Returns. In 2007 she played the role of Louise in The Girl In The Park. In 2008, Kate Bosworth could be seen in the adventure film Twenty One (21). Here she played the role of Jill Taylor. In 2010, 3 more films with the participation of the actress appeared on the screens: “Straw Dogs”, “The Warrior’s Way” and “Lost Girls and Love Hotels” “).
In addition to working in films, Kate Bosworth is famous as a fashion model. In 2008, she became the advertising face of the famous company “Calvin Klein Inc”.
90,000 “He never trained.” How to Win the Olympics and Be the Best in American Football
- According to a poll conducted by the American TV channel ABC Sports, Jim Thorpe is recognized as the greatest athlete of the 20th century. Competitors included Mohammed Ali, Pele and Michael Jordan
- Postage stamp with Thorpe issued in the US
- His life story was filmed in the 1951 film Jim Thorpe: The True American
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The story of Jim Thorpe began on May 28, 1888 – at birth he was given the name Wa-Tu-Hook, which means “The Bright Path.” The birth certificate was lost, so he himself did not know for sure his roots – either the Irish-Indian tribes of the Sauks and Foxes, or the French-Indian tribes plus the blood of the Potawatomi tribe. He was baptized in America as Jacob Francis Thorpe. In 1904 he was admitted to a local school in Carlisle, Pennsylvania.She was one of those educational institutions where Native Americans were educated through the introduction of football, baseball, basketball and other traditional American sports.
The teenager was not very interested in sports, he liked a tailor’s needle – he worked for hours in a school workshop for sewing machines. He filled the rest of his free time with ballroom dancing. By the age of 16, he had grown by only 147 cm and weighed 52 kg – a failure in American football. Three years later – by 1907 – his height increased by 30 cm.While cleaning the stadium after training for the athletics team, Thorpe found himself near the high jump bar, set at 175 cm. Having estimated it by eye, he considered it not high enough, briskly shook off his shoes and jumped over. This was witnessed by the head coach of the varsity team Glenn Scobie Daddy Warner, who stood at the helm of the origins of American football: he headed the sports teams of six universities, was inducted into the University Football Hall of Fame.
After some time in athletics, Jim still pleaded with Glenn Warner to give him a chance on the football team.The coach was worried that his best runner might be injured in contact sports and therefore hesitated for a long time. As a result, I allowed it. In the first training session, Jim ran around, between and past each of the defenders twice, then ran up to Daddy, spinning the ball in his hands, and said: “Nobody will beat me.”
Until 1911, Jim played in four positions (panther, running back, defensive back, kicker). Carlisle beat Harvard, Pennsylvania, Brown, Pittsburgh, Minnesota and Chicago – the top of the then American football.In 1912, his team won the national university championship thanks to Thorpe’s quality play – 25 touchdowns and 198 points. In a match against the United States Military Academy, his 92-yard touchdown was canceled due to a violation of the rules by his teammate – the next day he performed a 97-yard touchdown.
“There are some people who are highly gifted. Jim Thorpe always comes up in my mind. He never trained, but he could always do better than any other footballer I have met. ”- Dwight D. Eisenhower, statesman and military leader, 34th President of the United States, played against Jim in that match.
In the spring of 1912, Jim was preparing for the Olympic Games. Before the start of the competition in Stockholm, he was found several times immersed in a deep sleep, lying in a hammock or on a sun lounger. The athlete had an amazing talent – his entire training consisted of imagination and meditation. One of the coaches of the national team, Mike Murphy, did not like this very much, who complained to the main one – Jim Warner. But he was full of calm, because Thorpe did not need penny exercises, he was already constantly playing football, lacrosse and baseball.
At times Jim would only look around the high or long jump, tie a handkerchief to a post a little over 6 feet or put it a little more than 20 feet from the line, sit peacefully under a tree and mentally project the jump. To win two gold medals (pentathlon and decathlon) he was not prevented even by the lack of normal shoes, which were stolen before the performance. Jim, apparently through a good imagination, found two shoes from different pairs in the trash can.
In January 1913, the Worcester Telegram newspaper published the story of how Jim, accompanied by two baseball players from Carlisle, traveled to North Carolina, where they were all accepted into Rocky Mount from the minor league, an American baseball dungeon.In two seasons, he played 80 matches as a pitcher. Rocky was paying him about $ 886 a week – which was against the Olympic Games rules for meeting amateurs. By the decision of the International Olympic Committee, the medals were selected. But in 1983 they were returned.
Thorpe played baseball after the Olympics. He walked from club to club, playing over 289 games for the Boston Braves, Cincinnati Reds, New York Giants, Milwaukee Brewers and Chicago Caps.
Thorpe had little success as a baseball player. In 1915, he signed a contract with the Canton Bulldogs football team, where he received an exorbitant salary for those times – $ 5828 per game. Prior to joining the Ohio team, the average match attendance was 1,200, and 8,000 people settled on the trumpets during his debut.
In 1920, the Cantonese, who took three championship titles in a row, were included in the list of 14 teams that participated in the founding of the American Professional Football Association (APFA) (later – NFL).Jim Thorpe became its first president. He completed his full sports career at the age of 41 on the eve of the Great Depression.
In his old age, the former athlete tried to engage in absolutely non-sports activities: he worked as a bouncer and a security guard, and also mastered acting, starring in the extras of a couple of Westerns. But it turned out to be difficult for him to live in a non-sports environment, so Jim did not stay for a long time with any employer. Soon there was not enough money and Thorpe started drinking, by the end of his life he turned into an ossified alcoholic with lip cancer and a bunch of debts.The disease was overcome thanks to a philadelphia hospital charitable foundation, where he was paid for treatment. During a press conference on the occasion of her recovery, Patricia’s wife told why only the city hospital helped:
“We are broken. Jim had nothing left but his name and memories. He always gave money to close people, which he did not receive in return. It was just used by everyone. ”
Jim suffered from heart failure, having suffered three heart attacks, the last of which happened during a dinner with his wife at the family home in California.He was given artificial respiration, and he regained consciousness, but after a couple of minutes he lost consciousness and did not wake up. He died at the age of 64.
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Space as a presentiment – Russia in global affairs
The third decade of the 21st century promises to be marked by a cosmic renaissance.Ambitious public and private programs have been launched, branches of the armed forces are being created, new services are being provided. All this leaves an imprint on international security.
Strategic stability is the cornerstone of military-political relations at the level of great powers. In a narrow sense, it is based on nuclear deterrence and is understood as the lack of incentives to launch a first strike – through a guaranteed retaliatory strike that carries inevitable nuclear retaliation.At the same time, the development of space infrastructure raises the concern of a number of countries in terms of undermining a relatively stable state by providing the possibility of a first disarming strike. The purpose of this work is to describe the current state and prospects of the space infrastructure of the United States and its allies, its potential in the context of a first strike, as well as outline the contours of possible ways to prevent the undermining of strategic stability. The issues of the appearance of space-based strike systems are beyond the scope of this study.
As for directly American satellites in the area of responsibility of the US National Space Intelligence Agency ( NRO ), spacecraft of the Keyhole families (optoelectronic) and Lacrosse (radar) are of greatest interest. Now in orbit there are four satellites Keyhole of the eleventh generation, each of which, based on the construction of the orbit, makes up to five flights over the object of interest per day.In this case, the angle for shooting and the distance will be optimal no more than twice a day, including at night . By default, the satellite ground path is typically repeated at four-day intervals.
The quality of photography at night (in the infrared range) of this type of apparatus is still unknown, however, domestic sources mention the possibility of reconnaissance from 20:00 to 02:00 local time .
Radar surveillance satellites Lacrosse were originally designed to monitor missile and naval bases of the USSR and Russia (both stationary and mobile), then tasks for objects in the Middle East were added .Obviously, filming is being carried out in China as well. In contrast to the optical spectrum, spacecraft with radar reconnaissance equipment do not depend on the weather, and the current level of development of radar makes it possible to achieve comparable detail. For obvious reasons, there is no reliable information about the promptness of adjusting the orbit of these satellites, but such a possibility, no doubt, exists.
In addition to the already mentioned satellites for satellite imagery, American planners probably have information from several dozen military satellites of NATO allies (plus Japan, South Korea and Israel), as well as commercial operators capable of providing space images (optoelectronic and radar) with a resolution not exceeding one meter.ERS satellites of the families SAR-Lup e (Germany), COSMO (Italy), KOMPSAT (South Korea), Ofeq (Israel), commercial WorldView (DigitalGlobe) and Pleiades (CNES) presumably inferior in their characteristics to the best American models . Taking into account the advances in the field of automated analysis of big data, we can confidently speak about the likelihood of adjusting the orbits of the satellite satellite reconnaissance to ensure continuous monitoring of specified areas of the earth’s surface for a long (albeit limited) period of time.
It is impossible not to mention some projects that remained at the stage of “promising”, but opened the way for new developments. In particular, the program Starlite , also known as Discoverer-II , deserves special attention. The main idea was to launch into space equipment similar to that used on the combat control and target designation aircraft E-8 JSTARS with a synthetic aperture radar, for even more complete and operational coverage of a possible theater of military operations and the issuance of target designation in the interests of strike platforms  …In the mid-2000s, including due to contradictions between various branches of the American military organization ( DARPA and NRO in this situation), the project was not implemented, but there are no insurmountable obstacles. And, we emphasize, we are talking about target designation.
Starlite with radar was conceived in the interests of the US Air Force, but other branches of the military are also interested in satellite support for combat operations. So, in the interests of the US Army, project Kestrel Eye was carried out, ideologically close to Starlite , but based on opto-electronic solutions.To ensure situational awareness, it was supposed to withdraw a group of “nanosatellites” and supply the units with operational information directly in the theater of operations . This project also stopped at the prototype stage, but on its basis three new programs have already been launched: Gunsmoke, Lonestar and Polaris .
Thus, in addition to the serious reconnaissance and surveillance capabilities already available, new systems are continually being developed.
Constellation reconfiguration and orbit correction
Even the optimal configuration of spacecraft is not capable of providing continuous observation of individual parts of the earth due to the laws of celestial mechanics. A significant body of scientific works of both domestic and foreign authors is devoted to the solution of the corresponding ballistic problems. There are two basic approaches :
- “chain-system”: satellites are distributed in the orbital plane, form a continuous service band,
- the rule of kinematically correct systems: satellites are located at the vertices of the “crystal lattice”, and their relative motion is repeated at regular intervals.
An interesting study was carried out by Chinese specialists (albeit with an emphasis on the task of “monitoring in an emergency”), who considered several options for constructing satellite constellations with an emphasis on an increased frequency of the survey . According to the available calculations, it is possible to provide two flights of the satellite per day over a given object for ten or nineteen days, after which a significant correction of the trajectory will be required.
The task of forming optimal constellations of spacecraft and approaches to adjusting their architecture and its reconfiguration, taking into account various inputs, was also reflected in the open press .
The mechanism of using space infrastructure for the use of high-precision weapons is described in detail in domestic sources . Of particular importance, in addition to reconnaissance and target designation, is the space communications infrastructure, which ensures the timely transfer of information between various elements. But it is advisable to focus specifically on the forces of nuclear deterrence. Based on the available information on the state of the Russian strategic nuclear forces , only to “monitor” the mobile strategic missile forces will need to provide a constant overview over the combat patrol areas of twenty two missile regiments of seven missile divisions.Nearly two hundred launchers of mobile ground-based missile systems (PGRK) should be in the swath, and in addition to detecting them, it is necessary to provide escort. In China, according to estimates , the total number of launchers (including intermediate and shorter-range missiles) also exceeds 150 units.
By aggregating all available information from all suitable spacecraft, a “cast” can be obtained for a short time, but two additional factors must be taken into account. Firstly, missile systems will not wait for enemy missiles to reach them, especially since long-range subsonic cruise missiles remain the basic type of high-precision weapons before the appearance of mass “tactical” hypersonic systems.Of course, modern missile weapons are quite “smart” and to a certain extent capable of additional reconnaissance of targets (especially taking into account the proliferation of loitering ammunition), but nevertheless. Secondly, and this is much more important, this threat is recognized and considered not only and not so much in the political dimension. To stop it, both technical and operational developments are underway, which will be discussed further.
It should be noted that there are no official indications of the United States’ desire to “undermine” the possibility of a retaliatory strike by Russian (or Chinese) strategic nuclear forces, including with the use of space infrastructure.However, annoying references to such scenarios appear from time to time. In particular, the Lockheed-Martin company in a commercial demonstrated the joint work of satellites, unmanned aerial vehicles, stealth aircraft and cruise missiles to destroy a mobile launcher of ICBMs (reminding of the Yars PGRK), despite the echeloned air defense (reminding elements of the S-400 air defense system) .
The most unpleasant signal is the appearance of reconnaissance satellites in the interests of strike operations in the framework of the “zero echelon” of the US missile defense in the diagram (Fig.1) presented in the review of the budget request of the ABM Agency for the 2021 fiscal year .
Fig. 1. Space potential for the operational activities of the missile defense system
As already mentioned, the issues of PGRK vulnerability from the point of view of hitting the lenses of spacecraft are being investigated in detail . Measures are being developed to reduce visibility as such (camouflage, imitation, and others), and approaches to assessing the potential of satellite groupings of a potential enemy.Moreover, there are corresponding software solutions .
However, in addition to passive measures, including a further increase in the area of patrolling of the PGRK, work is also underway to actively counter possible threats associated with space reconnaissance. Of course, today everyone is hearing about the Peresvet mobile combat laser complex, especially since its role in the “cover of maneuvering actions” of the PGRK is officially declared . But the technology of this cover was not explained.Perhaps we are talking about the creation of interference by intense laser radiation entering the optoelectronic systems of spacecraft. According to estimates in the open press, even partial (up to 40%) illumination of the pixels involved in the construction of the recognized object leads to incorrect recognition of the image area or non-detection of the object as such .
Another important area is the development of electronic warfare. In particular, one of the ways to counteract “unauthorized observation” is to block the receiving on-board equipment of relay satellites used by reconnaissance satellites at the time of passage over the protected object .It is curious that in this case, one of the key elements is obtaining reliable information about the movement of spacecraft. If such an impact on the satellites of a potential enemy is carried out, then, probably, already in the conditions of an armed conflict. In parallel with relatively “non-destructive” effects, it is possible to use systems of various bases with anti-satellite potential.
In any case, monitoring of near-Earth space, including in order to ensure situational awareness , that is, to obtain a reliable picture of the activity of all its “users”, is an extremely important task for a timely and reliable assessment of threats, as well as the organization of countermeasures.It seems that in this way a kind of “transparency enforcement” can be achieved in relation to the target tasks of certain spacecraft.
Transparency as such is not something of value in itself. In particular, a number of American authors believe that satellite constellations, protected from malicious influence by appropriate agreements or technical means, can help arms control or even save it .American colleagues admit that commercial satellite constellations can also be used to monitor troop movements and the state of nuclear arsenals “of unprecedented duration,” and this is of great benefit to the military from the “right countries.”
The concerns of Russia and China in connection with the potential threat from such “benefits” are only mentioned and actually discarded, as well as the “deeply flawed” Russian-Chinese initiative of the Treaty on the Prevention of the Placement of Weapons in Outer Space.
On the contrary, a new idea of non-interference in the operation of satellites is proposed (which is partly already spelled out in relation to national technical means in the existing agreements in the field of arms control, even if there are very few of them). Obviously, the initiative is designed for “like-minded people”, and this is a very dangerous precedent – it is very difficult to implement individual rules for certain groups of countries in space, and conceptually this approach does not contribute to the peaceful exploration of outer space, although it has already been reflected in the American “Agreements Artemis “in terms of the development of lunar resources .
In the summary of the new US strategic document on “Space Defense” ( Defense Space Strategy ), the word “superiority” ( “superiority” ) and its derivatives are used ten times. Perhaps, it is this fact that perfectly characterizes the attitude of the American military to all areas of armed confrontation – real, virtual or potential.
In such a situation, it is very difficult to talk about any kind of cooperation.For both Russia and China, officially listed as threats and adversaries, the simplest response will be to further build up their own anti-satellite capabilities. As a result, at least in the short term, we will continue to develop kinetic, laser, radio-electronic and other means of struggle in space and “against space.” The transformation of the Russian-Chinese draft treaty on the prevention of the placement of weapons in outer space, the use of force or the threat of force against space objects (DPROK) into a real instrument of international law, unfortunately, seems less and less likely.
It would seem expedient for the Russian side to publish (following the “Fundamentals of State Policy in the Field of Nuclear Deterrence” ) a publicly available declarative document on aerospace defense. Thus, it would be possible to dispel fantastic theories about Russian intentions in this area, while simultaneously demonstrating a readiness to ensure domestic interests in the face of growing confrontation in space.
The development of space monitoring systems, both quantitatively and qualitatively, is a natural process, in addition to threats, it opens up very broad opportunities, including in the field of transparency and arms control (not counting the solution of obvious strictly military tasks) .One of the priority areas should be not so much counteraction to potentially threatening infrastructure, but the creation of our own spacecraft and their constellations, which would make it possible to effectively perform the corresponding tasks in the interests of domestic users.
The study was supported by a grant from the Russian Science Foundation (project No. 18-18-00463).
Moderate global fleet
A key trend in the development of the Navy is shifting the center of gravity of the development of world sea power to the East, primarily to the Asia-Pacific region.
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