Oregon Ducks Lacrosse: Up And Down All Season Long
Oregon came into 2011 with high hopes and big expectations. They were still unranked on March 22nd but started to climb into the top 25 the next week. The Ducks went from 24 to 20, to 18. Last week they climbed an additional spot to #17. For a 4-6 team with losses to Santa Clara, Cal, Michigan, Chapman, Michigan State and Colorado, the Ducks look improved. Early in the season, they lost games that they might win now, but those Losses won’t disappear as the season wears on.Oregon taking on Michigan State earlier this year.
Photos courtesy Friends Of Oregon Lacrosse and Joe Richter
The Ducks’ biggest win came recently over the University of Minnesota-Duluth 7-6 and BHSVideoDad has great highlights with narrative, as always.
UMD used a slow down, spread offense, a la Johns Hopkins earlier in the year, and they were able to keep the game close. After going down 3-0, UMD fought back furiously but couldn’t overcome the difference late in the game.
Oregon’s biggest upside is that they allowed their opposition to control the pace of the game but they still came out with the W. This is a big accomplishment that can’t be overlooked. Although Oregon did follow up their win over UMD with a loss, it was to Colorado, a team that is really just starting to show their potential.
Oregon has 2 games coming up against San Diego State and Portland State that are simply MUST WIN games. Then they take on Simon Fraser and Cal Poly and they have to take at least one of those Top 20 matchups. If they can do that, and beat Oregon State at the end of their regular season, the Ducks will be 8-7 3 wins over Top 20 teams. A couple of bad losses will haunt them, but they should still get a shot at Denver. And once a team gets there, anything can happen.
University of Oregon Women’s D1
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Lacrosse Hosting Oregon Ducks Tonight
The Florida lacrosse team looks to bounce back Tuesday night when they host Oregon at 6:30 p.
The Florida lacrosse team looks to bounce back Tuesday night when they host Oregon at 6:30 p.m. at Donald R. Dizney Lacrosse Stadium in Gainesville. The Gators are 6-4 on the season after dropping a 14-9 decision at No. 17 Ohio State in their second American Lacrosse Conference game last Saturday. The Ducks are 4-6 on the season after losing at Johns Hopkins over the weekend.
The two teams have had four common opponents this season, with each picking up wins against Jacksonville and St. Bonaventure. Both teams lost to North Carolina and Johns Hopkins.
Florida’s offense has been hot and cold this season. In their six wins, they are averaging 16.67 goals scored per game. In four losses, they have only scored 8.25 goals per game. On the season, UF averages 13.30 goals. Six players have scored 10 or more goals, led by Ashley Bruns who has 31 goals and 23 assists.
Oregon has been very inconsistent this season. In six losses they average 9.83 goals, and in their four wins they scored 18.25 goals per game. Four Ducks have 10 or more goals on the season. Jana Drummond has a team-leading 30 goals.
In five of Florida’s six wins, they have held opponents to six goals or less. In the four losses, opponents have scored 15.25 goals per game. Goalie Cara Canington has played outstanding lately, posting a .489 save percentage in the last four games and allowing 6.00 goals per game with 23 saves.
The Oregon defense has allowed 17.17 goals per game in six losses this season and they have held only three opponents under 10 goals. In nearly 500 minutes in the net, goalie Salliebeth Finnegan has 74 saves and a 13.93 goals against average.
Fans have several options to follow the game live. Video will be streamed through the GatorVision website, and live audio will be available on WRUF AM850 locally and online. Live stats will be available via GameTracker and fans can follow scoring updates on Twitter by following GatorZoneLax.
SDSU Lacrosse Tops Oregon for First Win of 2021 SeasonSAN DIEGO – The San Diego State lacrosse team earned its first win of the 2021 season with an 11-9 nighttime victory over the University of Oregon Ducks Friday, Feb. 19 at Aztec Lacrosse Field.
The Aztecs’ scoring attack was led by senior captain Bailey Brown whose stat line includes three goals on five shots and four draw controls. Junior Cailin Young, senior Emily Resnick, and senior Lexi Tan each added two points to SDSU’s total. Resnick’s impressive performance throughout the night include an assist, four ground balls, five draw controls, and a caused turnover. Sophomore Camdyn O’Donnell added a score and three assists for four total points while adding two ground balls to her stat line. Oregon was led by two goals from Nakeeya McCardell, Lillian Stump, and Hannah Hilcoff, while both Morgan McCarthy and Brooke Rooney each assisted on two scores.
Young and junior Shelby Hook drove the Aztecs’ defensive play as the duo each caused two turnovers. Young added two draw controls to her stat line while Hook also accumulated three ground balls throughout the evening. Goalkeeper Katy Sharretts led the team in ground balls with five on the night while earning 13 saves and a caused turnover. For Oregon, the Ducks’ Rooney caused three turnovers while netminder Alle Dunbar recorded a stat line of four ground balls and 13 saves.
Oregon’s Stump scored the first goal of the same with just 1:37 expired from the game clock, but the Aztecs responded just 30 seconds later with Young’s first points of the day. The Ducks would add another goal before San Diego State went on a 5-0 scoring run, bringing the game’s score to 6-2. Scoring then went back-and-forth between the programs to close out the first half, as the Ducks added two points to the board for a score of 4-6, the Aztecs retallied with two scores of their own, and Oregon finished the first 30 minutes of play with two goals to head into the halftime break with the score at 8-6.
The Ducks opened the second half with a score from McCardell with 24:13 left to play, leading to a 10-minute scoring drought between the two programs. The Scarlet and Black responded with 14:29 left to play, scoring on an unassisted goal from Resnick to bring the score to 9-7. Both teams would close the night with two more goals before the clock expired.
In a back-and-forth battle, the Aztecs outshot the Ducks 29-to-26, won the draw control battle 13-to-8, and earned nine more free position attempts than their opponent throughout the match-up. The Ducks won the turnover battle 17-to-18 and both netminders grabbed 13 saves.
“I am proud of how we competed tonight,” noted head coach Kylee White. “Oregon is a tough opponent but we did not back down throughout the entire game and played together to earn the win.”
SDSU hits the road for the first time in 2021, traveling to Tempe, Ariz. for a match-up with their third consecutive Pac-12 foe in the Arizona Sun Devils. The opening draw is set for 1 p.m. MT.
College football rankings: Cincinnati climbs, Oregon, Florida fall in AP Top 25 poll for Week 6
Week 5 of the college football season saw nine top-25 teams lose, including four teams that were ranked in the top 10 — No. 3 Oregon, No. 8 Arkansas, No. 9 Notre Dame and No. 10 Florida. For the Ducks, Razorbacks and Fighting Irish, it was their first losses of the season, which was bound to lead to some major shakeups in the latest AP Top 25 poll.
Here are our takeaways from the latest AP poll.
Here’s the complete AP poll ahead of Week 6.
AP Top 25 Poll: Week 6
school (first-place vOtes)
|23||North Carolina State||279||23||4-1|
|25||San Diego State||111||NR||4-0|
Others receiving votes: Clemson 96, Texas A&M 41, Oregon State 27, Baylor 24, Mississippi State 18, Virginia Tech 13, Stanford 11, UTSA 10, Pittsburgh 6, Fresno State 5, Texas Tech 4, Western Michigan 3, Appalachian State 2, Kansas State 2, Boston College 1, UCLA 1
A new-look top 10
Three teams climbed into the top 10 of the AP poll after Week 5 — Ohio State from No. 11 to No. 7, Michigan from No. 14 to No. 9 and BYU from No. 13 to No. 10. They replaced Arkansas (previously No. 8), Notre Dame (No. 9) and Florida (No. 10).
Within the top 10, Iowa and Cincinnati each improved their respective rankings by two spots each, to No. 3 and No. 5, respectively, after wins over Maryland and Notre Dame. Oregon is still a top-10 team after losing to Stanford in overtime, although the Ducks are now No. 8.
The biggest movers
Kentucky, which defeated then-No. 10 Florida on Saturday, was the week’s biggest mover as the Wildcats went from being unranked to No. 16 in the latest AP poll. The ‘Cats are undefeated at 5-0.
Oklahoma State improved its ranking by seven spots from No. 19 to No. 12 as it also remained undefeated on the season at 5-0 after the Cowboys beat No. 21 Baylor 24-14. Michigan State (six spots), Michigan (five spots), Wake Forest (five spots) and Ohio State (four spots) also made notable improvements.
On the other end of the spectrum, Texas A&M fell out of the AP poll after being ranked No. 15 last week. Florida fell 10 spots from No. 10 to No. 20, while Oregon, Ole Miss and Notre Dame each fell five spots.
Week 6 ranked matchups to watch
- No. 13 Arkansas at No. 17 Ole Miss | 12 p.m. ET | ESPN
- No. 6 Oklahoma vs. No. 21 Texas | 12 p.m. ET | ABC
- No. 2 Georgia at No. 18 Auburn | 3:30 p.m. ET | CBS
- No. 4 Penn State at No. 3 Iowa | 4 p.m. ET | FOX
This year’s Red River Showdown will feature two ranked teams, just like both of their matchups in 2018, as well as their meeting in 2019. The Sooners have defeated the Longhorns three years in a row and in five of the last six meetings.
There’s a huge top-four matchup in Iowa City next Saturday when undefeated No. 4 Penn State travels to undefeated No. 3 Iowa in a game between the two highest-ranked teams in the Big Ten. Both teams dominated in Week 5 with the Nittany Lions shutting out Indiana 24-0 while holding the Hoosiers to 3-for-14 on third-down conversion attempts and 0-for-2 on their red-zone trips. On Friday, Iowa forced seven Maryland turnovers in a 51-14 win in which the Hawkeyes scored 31 points in the second quarter.
After a massive win over Arkansas, No. 2 Georgia travels to No. 18 Auburn, which defeated LSU on the road in Week 5. It’s another opportunity for a potential ranked win for the Bulldogs. Auburn’s only loss this season came on the road at Penn State.
Speaking of Arkansas, the Razorbacks and the Ole Miss Rebels will both seek a bounce-back win after they lost to the two highest-ranked teams in the country in Week 5 — Georgia and Alabama, respectively.
Click or tap here to view the complete FBS scoreboard for Week 6.
Pac-12’s CFP chances not quite dead even after Oregon loss
By JOHN MARSHALL
The knee-jerk reaction to Oregon’s loss to Stanford was that the Pac-12’s College Football Playoff hopes are gone.
The conference still has a shot to get a team into the playoff for the first time since 2017, but the road definitely got a lot tougher with Stanford’s 31-24 overtime win over the Ducks on Saturday.
“Our team has to make sure that times like this, when the noise surrounds your program, you got to make sure that you stick together and have each other’s back,” Oregon coach Mario Cristobal said. “And go attack the processes that are going to put you back on track to be 1-0, to continue playing in a conference that has a lot of good football teams, a lot of good football players.”
The Pac-12 has been mostly an afterthought for the playoff in recent years due to perception, lack of performance on the field and its teams knocking each other off.
The conference hasn’t had a team reach the playoff since Washington in 2017 and hasn’t won a playoff game since Oregon reached the title game in 2014. The Pac-12’s last national championship in football was by Southern California in 2004, a title that was later vacated by the BCS due to NCAA sanctions.
The conference has lacked consistently dominant teams like in the SEC, Big 12 and, until this season, Clemson in the ACC.
Oregon has won the past two Pac-12 championships, but missed out on a chance at the playoff in 2019 thanks in part to a late-season loss to Arizona State. The Ducks finished 4-3 during the pandemic-ravaged 2020 season, so were never in consideration.
Oregon started the season as the Pac-12’s best bet to end the four-year CFP drought, opening at No. 11 in the preseason AP Top 25. The Ducks picked up a massive resume-building win by beating No. 3 Ohio State in Week 2 and worked their way up the poll to No. 3.
Then came the Stanford stumble, dropping Oregon to No. 8 in .
The good news is the loss came early in the season.
If the Ducks (4-1, 1-1 Pac-12) can run the table the rest of the way and inch up the CFP rankings — the first one is Nov. 2 — an early-season road loss to a conference opponent isn’t going to look as bad as one late in the season. That early win at Ohio State also could be enough to erase the negativity of the Stanford loss if the Ducks can win out.
And one loss doesn’t automatically count a team out. In the seven years of the playoff, just 11 of the 28 qualifying teams have been undefeated.
Oregon still has road games against solid teams, UCLA and Utah, and closes out the season against surprising Oregon State (4-1, 2-0). The Ducks have been battling injuries but have a bye week before playing California on Oct. 15.
“In terms of anything regarding anything outside of our next practice and our next game, it’s never been relevant to the process,” Cristobal said. “Do they know that big picture implications are always out there? They always will be out there. I don’t think you try to overhype anything.”
UCLA appeared to be the Pac-12’s only other hope of reaching the playoff, but lost to Arizona State last week to drop to 3-2.
And don’t count out the 22nd-ranked Sun Devils.
They have the road win over then-No. 20 UCLA on their resume and the only loss so far has been to BYU, which moved up to No. 10 in this week’s poll.
Arizona State (4-1, 2-0) has two tough games coming up, at home against Stanford and at Utah, but get by those and run the table, it could be in contention for a playoff spot.
Maybe it’s a longshot, but don’t discount their chances in what’s been an unpredictable season — outside of Alabama and Georgia — so far.
More AP college football: https://apnews.com/hub/college-football and https://twitter.com/AP_Top25. Sign up for the AP’s college football newsletter: https://apnews.com/cfbtop25
Bears keep afloat: Drowned by Ducks, swim past Beavers
It’s a little over halfway through their fall 2021 season and the Bears have managed to keep afloat despite a number of early-season challenges. On Thursday, Oregon sank Cal 2-0 to end September’s slate of matches. The blue and gold then regrouped Sunday against Oregon State, thrashing the Beavers 2-1 to start the new month.
In its first of two Pac-12 matchups this past week, Cal came out flat. Beyond the statistics, in which the Bears took 11 shots to the Ducks’ 10, the game appeared to be one-sided. While Oregon capitalized on gaps in the Bears’ typically steady backline, Cal struggled to keep up.
“They’re very well organized, very well coached… We also knew that they had good speed behind our line,”said head coach Neil McGuire. “Their strength in set pieces was something we couldn’t stop.”
By the 26th minute, the Ducks’ first score came earlier than the Bears had planned. During a routine corner kick by Oregon, a Cal defender rifled the ball abruptly past junior goalkeeper Angelina Anderson in a demoralizing own goal.
Thereafter, Cal’s climb was an uphill battle.
In the 54th minute, the Ducks mounted on the pressure. Off of a perfectly placed cross from Oregon midfielder Caitlin Shaw, defender Anna Phillips was there for a header that slid through the right side of the goal. To try and answer back, the Bears had arguably their closest scoring opportunity in the 86th minute of action.
From a through ball by senior defender Sydney Collins, freshman forward Karlie Lema nearly pocketed a rocket past Oregon goalkeeper Leah Freeman. But Freeman, who currently owns an impressive save percentage of nearly 88%, dove to her left in time to punt away the shot and shut out the Bears in Berkeley.
Oregon now sits in the fifth overall spot in the conference with a record of 6-1-4. Previously behind them was its rival in Oregon State, which boasted nine total wins and only one loss heading into Sunday’s matchup against the Bears.
“Our players came in with the right mindset in preparation for a challenge in Oregon State,” Mcguire said. “We were more composed with the ball. We were more poised with possession. … We were able to keep the ball longer, making it more difficult for them to use their counterattack.”
Back in Edwards Stadium for its third consecutive home game, Cal outpaced the Beavers right from kickoff. By setting up offensive opportunities through its midfield unit, including senior Paige Metayer, junior Kaylee Nguyen and freshman Marleen Rohde, the home team looked comfortably in control throughout 90 minutes of play.
In setting the tempo, Cal struck gold first. Fourteen minutes before the halftime break, the Bears charged their way down the attacking third. Freshman forward Alexis Wright grounded a shot straight to Oregon State goalkeeper Bridgette Skiba, who fumbled the ball while attempting to recover from her feet. Swooping in for a finish was junior forward Natalie Hueston, who flew the ball high above the head of a stumbling Skiba and into the back of the net.
Remarkably, even having outshot the Beavers 19 to four, Cal’s second goal didn’t come until the 81st minute. Off a corner kick, Rohde converted while falling to her feet a couple of feet out from the goal line — the German local’s first-ever goal with the team.
“Marleen can play a number of positions. She can play the six, she can play the eight, she can play the ten — so, ultimately anywhere in the midfield, centrally,” McGuire said. “We know she’s a goal-scoring threat… but she can also control the tempo of the game. ”
Oregon State also had its fair share of impressive moments. In just two minutes after the Bears had connected on its first goal, the Beavers answered back on a set piece: Forward Brianna McReynolds drilled a shot from distance to put her team back on the board. But after such a spectacular play, Oregon State failed to follow up with another score.
With Sunday’s win, Cal is now tied for the fifth-best team in the Pac-12, alongside Oregon and Colorado. Having racked up four total points since the start of conference play, the Bears remain just as competitive as their neighboring counterparts and hope to continue swimming for future games.
“This year, the depth in the conference is as good as I’ve seen it,” McGuire said. “We know that every match is going to be a challenge. … But, we are continuing to grow from strength to strength on the details and look forward to our next two matches.”
Ryan Chien covers women’s soccer and is a deputy sports editor. Contact him at [email protected].
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Go back to your business, lacrosse. So far, only for footballers.
Rating +299 December 2015 09:25 PM | Tribune | Blog WhoDat Nation
WhoDat Nation Blog.under the traditional NCAA heading on Wednesdays, kicks off a roundup of the greatest comebacks in college football history. All the matches presented deservedly went down in the history of the NSAA and must be watched by every American football fan. For each of the fifty matches presented, a video of the full game or a selection of the best moments will be offered. For games from the middle of the last century, it is not always possible to find a video recording, in this case the description will be accompanied by a photograph.
Rating +2511 November 2015 17:17 | Tribune | Blog WhoDat Nation
In another part of the NSAA’s college football tradition, we learn how the entry of a cow into the field was the start of the chic tradition of the Mississippi State Bulldogs; admire a duck in a Harley-Davidson; learn about black T-shirts and “skull and bones” from the University of Nebraska; visit the famous pink dressing room at the stadium in Iowa; we will hear the war cry of the “Seminole”; see the Texas A&M fans march with traditional kissing in the midnight stadium; we will get acquainted with the charismatic tiger Mike VI, as well as learn about other, no less interesting, traditions of the NSAA teams.
Rating +1114 October 2015 20:23 | Tribune | Blog WhoDat Nation
In the first three parts, we looked at 30 traditions from a wide variety of universities and teams. Next in line today: “Carmen Ohio” from the Ohio State team; Oregon’s unique designer ducks uniform; the real fleet of the command from Tennessee; the world’s largest cheerleader restaurant in Atlanta; charismatic Lee Corso and iconic ESPN’s College GameDay; Notre Dame, Our Mother; as well as many other interesting and funny traditions.
Third week of college football: Leonard Fournett destroys Auburn, All Miss destroys Alabama, Oregon heads for the championship.
Eugene, Oregon – en.wikitechpro.com
City in Oregon, USA
|City of Eugene|
Clockwise9000 : Downtown Eugene by Skinner Butte, Lane County Farmers Market, Spencer Butte Hiking, University of Oregon Otzen Stadium, Delta Pruds Footbridge.
| Aliases: |
Emerald Valley, Emerald City, Track Town
| Motto (s): |
Great City for Arts and Activities
Oregon locationShow map of Oregon
Location in USAShow map USA
Eugene (North America)Show map of North America
|• Type||Council Manager|
|• Mayor||Lucy Vinis (h)|
|• City Manager||Sara Medari|
|• City||44. 21 square miles (114.50 km 2 )|
|• Land||44.14 square miles (114.32 km 2 )|
|• Water||0, 07 sq.Miles (0.18 km 2 )|
|Altitude||430 feet (131 m)|
| Population |
| • Rate |
|• Classify||USA: 155th|
|• Density||3.910.87 / sq. Miles (1.509.98 / km 2 )|
|• Urban||247 421 (USA: 151st)|
|• Metro||374 748 (USA: 141st)|
|Time zone||UTC-08: 00 (PST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC – 07:00 (PDT)|
|Zip codes|| |
97401–97405, 97408, 97440
|City code (s)||458 and 541|
|GNIS function identifier||1120527website|
Eugene ( yooJin ) is a city in the US state of Oregon in the Pacific Northwest. It is located in the southern part of the green Willamette Valley, near the confluence of the Mackenzie and Willamette Rivers, about 50 miles (80 km) east of the Oregon coast.
According to the 2010 census, the population of Eugene was 156,185; it is the capital of Lane County and the third most populous city in the state after Portland and Salem, although the state’s latest estimates may have outnumbered Salem.The Metropolitan Statistical Area of Eugene Springfield, Oregon (MSA) is the 146th largest metropolitan area in the United States and the third largest in the state after the Portland metropolitan area and the Salem metropolitan area. The population of the city for 2019 according to the US census was estimated at 172,622 people.
Eugene is home to the University of Oregon, Bushnell University and Lane Community College. Several locations in Eugene are believed to have served as the inspiration for locations in The Simpsons .This includes Max’s Tavern and a statue of an Oregon pioneer on campus. The city is known for its natural environment, recreational opportunities (especially cycling, running / jogging, rafting and kayaking) and focus on the arts, along with its history of civil unrest, protests and green activism. Eugene’s official slogan is “Great City for Art and Outdoor Activities.” It is also called the “Emerald City” and “Track Town, USA”. Nike Corporation originated in Eugene.In 2022, the city will host the 18th World Athletics Championships.
The first people to settle in the Eugene area were known as the Kalapuis, also called Calapooia or Calapooya. They made “seasonal walks” through the countryside to gather and preserve local produce, including acorns, wapato and camas bulbs, and berries. They stored these products in their permanent winter village. When crops began to decline, they returned to their winter villages and engaged in hunting, fishing, and trade. They were known as the Chifin Kalapuis and called the Eugene area where they lived “Chifin”, sometimes written as “Chafin” or “Chiffin”.
Other Kalapuyan tribes occupied villages, which are now also within the city of Eugene. Pee-you or Mohawk Calapooians, Winefelly or Pleasant Hill Calapooians, and Lungtum or Long Tom. They were close neighbors of Chifin, were of mixed marriages and were political allies.Some authorities have suggested that the Calapooia Kalapuyans were related to Pee-you. It is likely that since Santiam had an alliance with the Brownsville Kalapuyans, Santiam’s influence also went so far in Eugene.
According to archaeological evidence, the ancestors of the Kalapuis could have lived in Eugene for as long as 10,000 years. In the 1800s, their traditional way of life underwent significant changes due to devastating epidemics and settlements, first by French fur traders and then by the overwhelming number of American settlers.
Settlement and Influence
Man Kalapuya, circa 1840
By the early 19th century, French fur traders settled in the Willamette Valley seasonally. Their settlements were concentrated in the French Prairie community in Northern Marion District, but may have extended south as far as Eugene. Having already established relationships with indigenous communities through intermarriage and trade, they negotiated land with the Kalapuis. By 1828-1830. They and their wives by the natives began to occupy the land year-round, growing crops and grazing animals.In this process, mixed-race families began to influence indigenous peoples’ access to land, food, and traditional materials for trade and worship.
In July 1830, “intermittent fever” struck lower Columbia, and a year later, the Willamette Valley. The natives traced the disease, then first appearing in the Northwest, on the American ship Owyhee, commanded by John Dominis. Researchers now believe that “intermittent fever” is malaria. According to Robert T. Boyd, an anthropologist at Portland State University, the first three years of the epidemic “are probably the most important epidemiological event in the recorded history of what will eventually become Oregon.” In his book The Coming of Spiritual Plague Boyd reports that between 1830 and 1841, the Kalapuis lost 92% of their population. This catastrophic event destroyed the social fabric of Kalapuya society and altered the demographic balance in the valley.This balance was further changed over the next several years with the arrival of Anglo-American settlers, starting in 1840 with 13 people and steadily increasing each year until over 11,000 American settlers arrived, including Eugene Skinner, over the course of 20 years.
As demographic pressure from settlers increased, the remaining Kalapuis were forcibly resettled on Indian reservations. Although some Aboriginal people escaped being swept onto the reservation, most were relocated to the Grand Rond in 1856. Strict racial segregation was imperative, and people of mixed race, known as mestizos in French, had to choose between the reservation and the English-speaking society. Native Americans could not leave the reservation without travel documents, and white people could not enter the reservation.
Replica of Skinner’s original cabin
Eugene Franklin Skinner, after whom Eugene is named, arrived in Willamette Valley in 1846, along with 1,200 other settlers that same year. The Kalapuis advised to build on a hill to avoid flooding, he built the first Anglo hut on the southern or western slope of that slope, which the Kalapuis called Ya-po-ah.The “isolated hill” is now known as Skinner’s Bute. The hut was used as a trading post and was registered as an official post office on January 8, 1850.
At this time the settlement was known to the British as Skinner’s mud. It was moved in 1853 and named Eugene City in 1853. Officially registered as a city in 1862, it was named simply Eugene in 1889. Skinner operated a ferry service across the Willamette River, where the Ferry Street Bridge now stands.
The first major educational institution in the area was Columbia College, a few years earlier than the University of Oregon. It was the victim of two major fires in four years, and after the second fire, the college decided not to rebuild the building. A portion of the south of Eugene known as College Hill was formerly the site of Columbia College. There is no college there today.
The city raised initial funding to open a state university, which later became the University of Oregon, with the hopes of transforming the small town into a learning hub.In 1872, the Legislature passed legislation establishing the University of Oregon as a government agency. Eugene defeated the neighboring town of Albany in a competition for a state university. In 1873, a member of the J.H.D. Henderson donated hilltop land for the campus overlooking the city.
The university first opened in 1876 when the regents elected the first faculty and appointed John Wesley Johnson as president. The first students enrolled on October 16, 1876. The first building was built in 1877; it was named Didi Hall after the first president of the Council of Regents and community leader, Judge Matthew P.Didi.
Eugene grew rapidly throughout much of the twentieth century, except in the early 1980s, when a downturn in the timber industry caused high unemployment. By 1985, the industry had recovered and Eugene began to attract more high-tech industries, earning him the nickname “The Emerald Shire.”
The first Nike running shoe was used in 1972 during the US Olympic trials in Eugene.
History of civil unrest
Eugene has a long history of community activism, civil unrest and protest.Eugene’s cultural status as a place of alternative thought grew with the University of Oregon during the turbulent 1960s, and his reputation as a place for outsiders grew as a result of numerous anarchist protests in the late 1990s. In 2000, the Chicago Tribune described the city as “the cradle of the last generation of anarchist protestors.” Occupy Eugene was home to one of the country’s longest-running Occupy protests in 2011, with the last protester leaving the original Occupy camp on December 27, 2011.The city attracted national attention in the summer of 2020 following Black Lives Matter backlash. to the murder of George Floyd escalated into violence.
1960s: Counterculture and Campus Protests
Already a countercultural haven, Eugene had a hard time going through the changes of the 1960s, when underground groups bombed military targets. In September 1967, the Eugene Navy and Marine Reserve Training Center was damaged by a series of explosions and fires, and in November 1967 a bomb exploded in the Air Force ROTC building.On September 30, 1968, unidentified anti-capitalists detonated incendiary bombs at the Eugene Armory, causing damage over $ 100,000 (roughly $ 741,000 in 2020), destroying several trucks and jeeps, and causing significant damage to the city’s equipment complex. The riots continued throughout 1969 with frequent dynamite attacks on local businesses, newspapers, and the Emerald Hall on the University of Oregon campus.
Student activity at the university shaped both the campus and Eugene’s life during a time of social upheaval.The protests at Oregon State University were most intense against the Oregon ROTC, which was the epitome of military action in Vietnam and Cambodia. UO Students for a Democratic Society formed in 1965 but came to the fore on campus in 1969 when they first forced students to march and demand the removal of the ROTC campus. On January 6, 1970, campus demonstrators doused tables with animal blood while recruiting the ROTC to draw attention to the barbaric Vietnam War.Students held a public “People’s Trial” of campus president Robert D. Clark, convicting him of “complicity in the actions of American imperialism,” allowing the Oregon ROTC to be present on campus.
During January and February 1970, student anti-war activists disrupted ROTC activities and demonstrated against the military presence, culminating in unidentified criminals setting fire to the University of Oregon’s ROTC building at Esslinger Hall, causing massive damage and destroying university student conscription records. In March, 150-200 students led by the campus SDS division attempted to enter McArthur Court for a concert, which sparked riots that resulted in the arrest of 5 students. On April 15, 1970, the UO faculty, by a 199-185 vote, allowed the ROTC to remain. on campus, which immediately resulted in nearly 100 students looting the ROTC building, smashing furniture, windows, and throwing stones at property for the first time police used tear gas against demonstrators on campus.
The peak of the Vietnamese protest movement in the UO occurred over three days from April 22-24, 1970. At 11:00 on the 22nd, 50 to 100 UO students took over Johnson Hall to protest the continued presence of the ROTC on campus. above the lobby of the building. By 5:00 pm, the crowd had grown to 300 students when Clarke negotiated with the group to allow the protesters to stay in the lobby overnight if they kept the peace. The protests disrupted work and the Eugene police arrived on the 24th, arresting 61 protesters, but everything remained peaceful until the National Guard arrived and escalated the situation by firing tear gas on the crowd outside the building. News of the National Guard’s involvement led a large group of nearly 2,000 students to gather in the Emerald Hall to protest the incident.
On April 26, 1970, about 40 UO students successfully closed 13th Avenue across the university, erecting barricades at both ends, calling it “People’s Street.” This protest successfully forced Eugene’s City Council to hold a hearing on the street restriction for non-car traffic, which was held and soon went into effect. On October 2, 1970, unidentified criminals detonated a bomb at Prince Lucien Hall, causing $ 75,000 in damage (roughly $ 511,000 in 2020).
Community activism increased in the 1970s. Local activists stopped the proposed freeway and lobbied for the construction of Washington-Jefferson Park under the Washington-Jefferson Street Bridge. Community councils soon began to form as a result of these efforts. Notably influenced by the shift towards community-driven politics was the Eugene Local Measure 51, an electoral measure of 1978 that overturned the Gay Rights Ordinance approved by Eugene City Council in 1977, which outlawed discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation.
1990s: Anarchist activity
Eugene’s continued ability to protest became apparent at the beginning of the decade. In January 1991, 1,500 people took part in a student protest against the Gulf War in the city center, resulting in the arrest of 51 people, including 15 minors. Protesters carried a 10-year-old girl in a body bag to the front door of a federal building as a symbol of innocent deaths in the war. After the demonstration, a fire broke out at the recruiting station of Yevgeny’s Marine Corps.
Attempts by the city to clean up a forest grove in downtown Broadway and Charnelton were met with protests on June 1, 1997. Forty trees in downtown Eugene were cut down to make way for a garage and met with public opposition. 22 people were arrested, and the Register Guard posted on the front page a photograph of the photographer being sprayed with pepper spray by the police. Eugene’s forces were accused of overreaction and overuse of force for their egregious use of pepper spray, which was defended by Republican Mayor Jim Torrey. In Whitaker County, citizens were further radicalized by the incident and helped stimulate an activist community that has already begun to grow due to a lack of affordable housing and growing income inequality in the area.
On June 18, 1999, a few months before the 1999 WTO protests in Seattle, a riot broke out in Eugene. After a two-day conference at the University of Oregon on the disintegration of the country’s economic system, a rally against global capitalism swept the streets of the city center.After the rally, protesters took to the streets, stopped traffic, burned flags, smashed windows and electronic equipment. After the police responded with tear gas and pepper spray, the protesters fought the police for several hours. More than 100 people were injured by the tear gas used by the Eugene police, 15 were arrested. Later that year, Eugene’s activists also played a key role along with other anarchists in organizing black bloc tactics during the 1999 World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference on the 1999 protest activity. Evgeny’s police subsequently stated that local anarchists were responsible for other attacks on local police officers. Local activists, in turn, argued that in response, the police in vain pursued people in black clothes.
Mayor Jim Torrey declared Eugene the “Anarchist Capital of the World” in response to the riots that some supported. Seattle Police Chief Norm Stamper, in his resignation speech following the 1999 WTO protests, blamed most of the riots on “Eugene’s anarchists.”Influential thinkers on the Eugene scene at the time included John Zerzan, an author known for his contributions to leftist theory and who was the editor of Green Anarchy, an anarchist magazine based in the city. Anarchists and leftists continued to protest against Torrey throughout his tenure, including meeting every year on June 1 (the anniversary of the Broadway Square clashes) to protest police brutality under his control.
One hotbed of protest activity since the 1990s has been the Whitaker area, located in the northwest of downtown Eugene. Whitaker is primarily a working-class neighborhood that has become a vibrant cultural hub, a hub of community and activity, and a home for alternative artists. In the 1990s, there was an increase in activity after many young people moved there, attracted by Eugene’s political climate. Animal rights groups are well represented in Whitaker and there are several vegan restaurants there. According to David Samuels, the Animal Liberation Front and the Earth Liberation Front were underground in the area.The area is home to a number of residential buildings, which are often organized by anarchist or environmentalist groups. Local activists have also made independent films and opened art galleries, community gardens and independent media. Copwatch, Food Not Bombs and Critical Mass also operate in the neighborhood.
21st Century Riots
The more prominent anarchist scene seemed to subside after several years of upsurge, but protest activity in Eugene was still ongoing. Groups such as the Neighborhood Anarchist Collective continued to maintain an active grassroots network, and the Eugene Share Fair was used as a resource for organizations offering market support. On June 16, 2000, environmental activists set fire to trucks at the Franklin Boulevard auto show. On the anniversary of the 1999 riots, police attacked the demonstrators again, arresting 37 and hitting a KLCC reporter in the head with a truncheon. Later, as anarchism faded into the background, Eugene’s reputation as a strong leftist increased as overall political support in the city dwindled.
Main article: Occupy Eugene
The Occupy Eugene protests grew out of the Occupy Wall Street movement, which began in New York on September 17, 2011.Protesters in Eugene were concerned about equity issues in wealth distribution, banking regulation, housing, and corporate greed. The first protest march took place on October 15, 2011, and the main camp, located in Washington Jefferson Park, lasted until December 2011. The initial Occupy Eugene demonstrations drew more than 2,000 participants and began in Wayne Morse Free Speech Square.
George Floyd Protests 2020
Eugene’s protests against George Floyd / Black Lives Matter grew out of civil unrest that began in Minneapolis and spread throughout the country in May 2020 following the assassination of Floyd, an unarmed black man, by a Minneapolis police officer.
In Eugene, on 29 May, demonstrators drew attention to nearby shops, disrupted traffic, and knocked trash and newsagents onto a downtown street. The rebels moved towards I-105 and began setting fire to a nearby road sign. Bonfires were set on that night and windows were shattered. At about 11 pm, protesters lit a bonfire in the street, consisting of traffic cones, newspapers, signs of local businesses and other items. There were no arrests that night.
Protests – including marches, rallies, and exercises – continued daily for several weeks, reigniting in response to the federal invasion of Portland.
On June 13, protesters overthrew pioneer and pioneer mother during a protest by Matthew Didi (clearly the namesake of the University of Oregon building).
More than 2,000 demonstrators took part in the June 19 Black Lives Matter protest at Alton Baker Park, which was designed to generate profits for black-owned businesses.
On October 14, 1996, to mark the anniversary of Columbus Day, Earth Liberation Front activists coordinated several attacks on local fast food chains and oil companies. Two locks at Willamette Chevron gas stations were glued and painted with the slogans “504 Years of Genocide” and “Earth Liberation Front”. Similarly, Eugene’s two public relations offices, Weyerhauser and Hyundai, were attacked. Later that month, ELF protesters destroyed a US forestry station south of Eugene, causing $ 5.3 million in damage. These were some of the earliest examples of environmental protection in the United States.
In September 2000, members of the Eugene-based ELF cell burned down the Western University Public Security Site of the Eugene Police Department.Later, in March 2001, activists attacked the same Franklin car dealership for the second time in 6 months, damaging more than 30 SUVs. Between 1997 and 2001, more than 125 different fire attacks were organized in the city.
In January 2006, the FBI conducted Operation Backfire, which brought federal charges against eleven people, all members of the ELF. Operation Backfire was the largest investigation into the activities of radical underground environmental groups in US history. Ongoing trials of accused environmental terrorists have kept Eugene in the spotlight for several years.
Spencer Butte can be seen from most of the city.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 43.74 square miles (113.29 km2). 2 ), of which 43.72 square miles (113.23 km 2 ) is land and 0.02 square miles (0.05 km 2 ) is water. Eugene is at 426 feet (130 m).
Just north of downtown is Skinner Butte. To the northeast of the city are the Coburg Hills. Spencer Butte is a famous landmark south of town. Mount Pisgah is southeast of Eugene and includes the Mount Pisgah Arboretum and Howard Buford Recreation Area, Lane County Park. Eugene is surrounded by foothills and forests to the south, east, and west, while in the north, the land merges into the Willamette Valley and consists mainly of agricultural land.
The Willamette and Mackenzie Rivers flow through Eugene and the neighboring town of Springfield. Another important stream is Amazon Creek, which has its source near Spencer Butte. The brook empties west of the city into Fern Ridge Reservoir, supported by the Army Corps of Engineers for winter flood protection. During the summer months, Eugene Yacht Club hosts sailing school and sailing regattas on Fern Ridge.
Eugene has 23 neighborhood partnerships:
- Active Citizens of Bethel
- Amazon Neighborhood Association
- Cal Young Neighborhood Association
- Churchill Neighborhood Neighbors
- Far East Neighborhood Association
- Far East Neighborhood Association
- Friendly Neighborhood Neighbors
- Goodpastour Island Neighbors
- Industrial Corridor Community Organization
- Jefferson Westside Neighbors
- Citizens of the Laurel Hill Valley
- Northeastern Santa 488 Community Irving)
- Southern University Neighborhood Association
- Southeast Neighborhood
- Southwest Hills Neighborhood Association
- Trainsong Neighborhood
- West Eugene Community
- Neighbors For West University
- Whitaker Community Council
|Climate Map (explanation)|
Like the rest of the Willamette Valley, Eugene is located in the Mediterranean coastal climate zone of the West Coast. According to the Köppen climate classification scheme, Eugene has a warm summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen CSB ). Temperatures can range from cool to warm, with warm, dry summers and cool, wet winters.Spring and autumn are also wet seasons with long rains. Average rainfall is 46.1 inches or 1,170.9 millimeters, with the wettest “rainy year” being from July 1973 to June 1974 with 75.59 inches (1,920.0 mm) and the driest since July 2000 through June 2001 with 20.40 inches (518.2 mm). Winter snowfall does happen, but it is sporadic and rarely accumulates in large quantities: the normal seasonal amount is 4.9 inches or 0.12 meters, but the median is zero.Record snowfall was 41.7 inches or 1.06 meters accumulated due to the pineapple express on January 25-29, 1969. Ice storms, like snowfall, are rare but occur sporadically.
The hottest months are July and August with normal average monthly temperatures of 66.8 to 66.9 ° F (19.3 to 19.4 ° C), with temperatures reaching 90 ° F on average over 16 days a year or 32.2 ° C. The coldest month is December, with an average temperature of 39.7 ° F (4.3 ° C), and there are 53 mornings of the year with lows at or below zero and 2. 7 days with no highs. exceeding the freezing mark.
Result of a rare heavy snowfall in January 2008.
The average annual temperature of Eugene is 52.5 ° F (11.4 ° C) and the annual rainfall is 46.1 inches (1170 mm). Eugene is on average wetter and slightly cooler than Portland. Although Eugene is about 100 miles (160 km) south and only slightly higher above sea level, the climate is more continental, less affected by the sea air that blows inland from the Pacific Ocean across the Columbia River.The average annual low for Eugene is 41.6 ° F (5.3 ° C), compared to 45.7 ° F (7.6 ° C) in Portland; in August, the gap between the normal average low widens to 51.1 ° F (10.6 ° C) and 58.0 ° F (14.4 ° C) for Eugene and Portland, respectively. Average winter temperatures (and high summer temperatures) are the same for the two cities. This discrepancy could be further caused by Portland’s urban heat island, where the combination of black pavement and urban energy use raises nighttime temperatures. [ citation needed ]
Temperature extremes range from -12 ° F (-24 ° C) recorded on December 8, 1972, to 108 ° F (42 ° C) on August 9, 1981; the record cold daily high is 19 ° F (-7 ° C) recorded on December 13, 1919, while, conversely, the record warm daily low is 71 ° F (22 ° C) on July 22, 2006.
|Climate data for Eugene Airport, Oregon (1981-2010 norm., Extreme values from 1892 to the present)|
|Record high ° F (° C)|| 69 |
| 78 |
| 80 |
| 89 |
| 95 |
| 102 |
| 106 |
| 108 |
| 103 |
| 94 |
| 76 |
| 68 |
| 108 |
|Average Maximum ° F (° C)|| 59. 4 |
| 62.8 |
| 68.7 |
| 76.3 |
| 84.0 |
| 89.7 |
| 97.0 |
| 91.9 |
| 78.9 |
| 64.4 |
| 58.8 |
| 100.1 |
|Medium High ° F (° C )|| 47.2 |
| 51.1 |
| 56.2 |
| 60.8 |
| 67.0 |
| 73.2 |
| 82.3 |
| 82.8 |
| 64.2 |
| 52.2 |
| 45.6 |
| 63.4 |
|Average daily ° F (° C)|| 40.7 |
| 42.9 |
| 46.7 |
| 50.2 |
| 55.3 |
| 60. 4 |
| 66.8 |
| 66.9 |
| 61.9 |
| 52 |
| 44.9 |
| 39.7 |
| 52.4 |
|Medium Low ° F (° C)|| 34.2 |
| 34.8 |
| 37.1 |
| 39.5 |
| 43.5 |
| 47.6 |
| 51.4 |
| 51.1 |
| 47.0 |
| 41.2 |
| 37.6 |
| 33.8 |
| 41.6 |
|Average minimum ° F (° C)|| 22.7 |
| 23.3 |
| 28.7 |
| 31.3 |
| 34.2 |
| 38.6 |
| 43.6 |
| 43.0 |
| 37.5 |
| 29.3 |
| 25.7 |
| 21.5 |
| 16.7 |
|Record low ° F (° C)|| −4 |
| −3 |
| 18 |
| 25 |
| 28 |
| 32 |
| 39 |
| 35 |
| 30 |
| 17 |
| 12 |
| −10 |
| −10 |
|Average precipitation in inches (mm)|| 6.87 |
| 5.43 |
| 4.99 |
| 3.33 |
| 2.74 |
| 1.50 |
| 0.54 |
| 0.61 |
| 1.29 |
| 3.25 |
| 7.72 |
| 7.83 |
| 46.10 |
|Average snowfall in inches (cm)|| 0.8 |
| 2.4 |
|track|| 0 |
| 0 |
| 0 |
| 0 |
| 0 |
| 0 |
| 0 |
| 0. 2 |
| 1.5 |
| 4.9 |
|Average number of days with precipitation (≥ 0.01 in)||17.9||14.9||17.7||14.5||11.7||7.9||3.1||3.2||5.4||11.4||17.9||17.9||143.5|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||0.7||1.2||0.1||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.1||0.9||3.0|
Air quality and allergies
Eugene is on the leeward side for growing herbs in the Willamette Valley.The combination of summer grass pollen and the confining shape of the hills around Eugene makes it “the area with the highest grass pollen levels in the United States (> 1,500 pollen grains per m²). 3 From air). “This high pollen count has made it difficult for some of the athletes who compete in Eugene. At the 1972 Olympic Trials “Jim Ryun won 1,500 after flying a helicopter because he was allergic to Eugene’s grass seed pollen. “In addition, six-time Olympic champion Maria Mutola turned down Eugene as a training ground“ in part to avoid allergies. ”
At the 2010 census, the population of Eugene was 156,185. The population density was 3,572.2 people per square mile. There were 69,951 housing units with an average density of 1,600 per square mile. Persons aged 18 and over accounted for 81.8% of the total population.
The racial makeup of the city was 85.8% White, 4.0% Asian, 1.4% Black or African American, 1.0% Native American, 0.2% Pacific Islander, and 4 , 7% are representatives of other races.
Hispanics and Hispanics of any race made up 7.8% of the total population. 82% of non-Hispanic speakers were White, 1.3% Black or African American, 0.8% Native American, 4% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 0.2% of other races, and 3.4% of two or more races.
Women constituted 51.1% of the total population and men 48.9%. The average age of the city’s residents was 33.8 years.
2000 Census showed that there were 137,893 people, 58,110 households and 31,321 families residing in Eugene City.The population density was 3,404.8 people per square mile (1,314.5 / km2). 2 ). There were 61,444 housing units at an average density of 1,516.4 per square mile (585.5 / km). 2 ). The racial makeup of the city was 88.15% White, up from 99.5% in 1950, 3.57% Asian, 1.25% Black or African American, 0.93% Native American, Pacific Islander by 0.21%, 2.18% by a representative of other races and 3.72% by a representative of two races. or more races. 4.96% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 58 110 families out of which 25.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.6% were married couples living together, 9.7% of families were women without a husband, and 46.1 % did not have a family. 31.7% of all households are made up of individuals and 9.4% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.27 and the average family size is 2.87. In the city, the population was 20.3% under the age of 18, 17.3% from 18 to 24, 28.5% from 25 to 44, 21.8% from 45 to 64, and 12.1% by the age of 65 and older.The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.0 males. The median household income in the city was $ 35,850 and the median family income was $ 48,527. The median income for males was US $ 35,549 compared to US $ 26,721 for females. The per capita income for the city was $ 21,315. About 8.7% of families and 17.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.8% of those under age 18 and 7.1% of those age 65 or over.
Eugene’s largest employers are PeaceHealth Medical Group, the University of Oregon and the Eugene School District. Eugene’s largest industries are wood products and recreational vehicles.
Luckey’s Club Cigar Store is one of the oldest bars in Oregon. Ted Lucky Sr. bought it in 1911, making it one of the oldest businesses in Eugene. “Club Cigar”, as it was called at the end of the 19th century, for many years was a salon for men only.It survived the Great Depression and Prohibition, in part because Eugene was an arid city before Prohibition ended.
The headquarters of the employee-owned Bi-Mart Corporation and the family supermarket Market of Choice remain in Eugene.
Sarvery Winery Courtesy of Eugene, Cascades & Coast
There are over 25 breweries in the city and a variety of restaurants focused on local cuisine; the city is surrounded by wineries. The most notable mushroom here is the truffle; In January, Eugene hosts the annual Oregon Truffle Festival.
Organically Grown, the largest distributor of organic fruits and vegetables in the Northwest, began operations in Eugene in 1978 as a non-profit cooperative for organic farmers. Notable local food manufacturers, many of which produce certified organic products, include Golden Temple (Yoga tea), Merry Hempsters and Springfield Creamery (Nancy’s yogurt, owned by the Kesey family), and Mountain Rose Herbs.
Until July 2008, Hynix Semiconductor America operated a large semiconductor factory in the west of Eugene. In late September 2009, the South Korean company Uni-Chem announced its intention to acquire the Hynix site for the production of solar panels. However, the deal fell through and as of the end of 2012 no more plans are planned. In 2015, semiconductor manufacturer Broadcom acquired the plant with plans to modernize and reopen it. The company scrapped those plans and put it up for sale in November 2016.
Shoe Goo Shoe Repair Tool is manufactured by Eclectic Products in Eugene.
Run Gum, an energy chewing gum made for runners, also began life in Eugene. Run Gum was created by track and field athlete Nick Simmonds and track and field coach Sam Laprey in 2014.
Burley Design LLC, a bicycle trailer manufacturer, was founded in Eugene by Alan Scholz of Saturday Market in 1978. Eugene is also home to bike manufacturer Bike Friday Green Gear Cycling.
Many multinational enterprises have been launched in Eugene. Some of the best known include Nike, Taco Time, and Brøderbund Software.
In 2012, the Eugene metro area was named the Silicon Shire due to its burgeoning technology industry.
According to Eugene’s 2017 Annual Financial Report, the city’s largest employers are:
|#||Employer||Number of Employees|
|1||PeaceHealth Medical Group||584.8082||University of Oregon||5.549|
|3||Eugene School District 4J||2.553|
|5||Lane College||Lane 1.650||Lane College||6||Springfield School District||1.610|
|10||Mackenzie-Willamette Medical Center||898|
Arts and Culture
Eugene Saturday Market Vendor’s Craft Kiosk
Eugene has a significant number of people pursuing alternatives a large number of original hippies.Beginning in the 1960s, countercultural ideas and viewpoints promoted by Ken Kesey have become the main elements of the vibrant social tapestry that continue to define Eugene. The gay joker Kesey was known to have left perhaps the most indelible imprint of any cultural icon in his hometown. He is best known as the author of One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest and as the male protagonist in Tom Wolf Cooling Acid Electric Test .
In 2005, the city council unanimously approved the city’s new slogan: “The world’s largest city for art and outdoor activities.”Despite the fact that Eugene has a vibrant art community for a city of this size, and is well located next to many outdoor areas, the slogan was often criticized by locals as embarrassing and laughable. In early 2010, the slogan was changed to “The Great City of Art and Outdoor Activities”.
The Eugene Saturday Market, open every Saturday from April to November, was founded in 1970 as the first “Saturday Market” in the United States. It is adjacent to the Lane County Farmers Market in downtown Eugene.All suppliers must create or develop all of their own products. Between Thanksgiving and New Years, the market reappears as a “Holiday Market” at the Lane County Event Center in the fairgrounds.
Eugene is known for his “social ingenuity”. Many American community development trends originated in Eugene. The University of Oregon’s collaborative planning process, known as the Oregon Experiment, was the product of student protests in the early 1970s.The book of the same name is the most important document of modern educational thinking in planning and architectural circles. The process, which is still used by the university in a modified form, was developed by Christopher Alexander, whose work also directly inspired the creation of the Wiki. Some research for the book The Pattern Language, which inspired the Design Patterns movement and Extreme Programming, was done by Alexander in Eugene. It is no coincidence that these engineering movements originated here.Decades after its publication, The Pattern Language is still one of the best-selling books on urban design.
In the 1970s, Eugene was full of collaborative and community projects. Many neighborhoods still have small organic food stores, some of the oldest student cooperatives in the country, and alternative schools have been part of the school district since 1971. The old farmers’ market in the city center, near the Amtrak depot, is the only food cooperative.in the United States without employees. Eugene’s nonprofit trends can be seen in much newer projects such as the Tango Center and the Appropriate Transportation Center. In 2006, an initiative was launched to create a tenant-managed development process for downtown Eugene.
In the fall of 2003, neighbors noticed that its owner, a New Yorker, had put up for sale “a modest two-acre orchard in the Friendly Area.” After learning that a potential buyer had plans to build several homes on the site, they formed a non-profit organization called Madison Meadow in June 2004 to buy the property and “preserve it as an undeveloped space forever.”In 2007, their work was named the third best community by the community. Evgeniy Weekly , and by the end of 2008 they had raised enough money to buy real estate.
The City of Eugene has an active Neighborhood Program. Several areas are known for their green activity. Friendly Neighborhood has a very popular neighborhood garden set along a right-of-way of a street that has never been built. The public property has several public gardens.In the Amazon region, the former church has become a community center. Whitaker has a housing cooperative built in the early 1970s that has converted its parking lots to food production and playgrounds. An unusual eco-village with natural building techniques and a large communal garden located in the Jefferson Westside area. The River Road multi-block neighborhood is known as a permaculture hotspot with a growing number of grass-for-garden country houses, rainwater catchment systems, food landscapes and solar panels.Several plots have laid out gardens, removing driveways. Civilian volunteers are working with Eugene Municipality to restore a grove of 65 hazelnut trees on state territory. Social and economic networks are deepening in the neighborhood.
Annual Cultural Events
- The Eugene and Springfield Asian Council Asia Celebration takes place in February at the Lane County Fairgrounds.
- KLCC Microbrew Festival is held in February at the Lane County Fairgrounds.It introduces attendees to the wide range of microbreweries and craft beers that play an important role in the culture and economy of the Pacific Northwest.
- Mount Pisgah Arboretum, located at the foot of Mount Pisgah, hosts a wildflower festival in May and a mushroom festival and plant sale in October.
- The Oregon Festival of American Music, or OFAM, is held annually in early summer.
- The Art and the Vineyard, which takes place around July 4th at Alton Baker Park, is the main fundraiser for the Mod Cairns Center for the Arts.
- The Oregon Bach Festival is a major international festival held in July at the University of Oregon.
- The Oregon Country Fair takes place in July in neighboring Veneta.
- The Lane County Fair takes place in July at the Lane County Fairgrounds.
- The Eugene / Springfield Pride Festival is held annually on the second Saturday in August from noon to 7:00 pm. in Alton Baker Park. Part of Eugene’s LGBT culture since 1993, it provides a carefree and supportive social space for the LGBT community, families and friends.
- Eugene Celebration is a 3-day party that usually takes place in the city center in August or September. The coronation of the SLUG Queen in August, a pageant with a campy twist, crowns the new SLUG Queen, who “rains” at the Eugene Celebration Parade and is Eugene’s unofficial ambassador.
Eugene Museums include the Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art and the University of Oregon Museum of Natural and Cultural History, Oregon Air and Space Museum, Lane County Historical Museum, Maude Kearns Arts Center, Shelton McMurphy Johnson House and Eugene Science Center.
Halt Performing Arts Center
Eugene is home to numerous cultural organizations including Eugene Symphony, Eugene Ballet, Eugene Opera, Eugene Concert Choir, Northwestern Christian University Community Choir, Oregon Mozart Musicians, Oregon Oregon Children’s Choir, Eugene – Springfield Youth Orchestras, Fantastic Ballet and the Oregon American Music Festival. Major performing arts venues include the Hult Center for the Performing Arts, John G.Shedd (“The Shedd”), Matthew Knight Arena, Bill’s Concert Hall and Erb Memorial Union Ballroom on the University of Oregon campus, MacDonald Theater and WOW Hall.
A number of theater groups are based in Eugene, including Free Shakespeare in the Park, Oregon Contemporary Theater, Very Small Theater, Actors Cabaret, LCC Theater, Rose Children’s Theater and University Theater “. Each has its own performance area.
Main article: Music of Oregon § Eugene
Due to his campus status, Eugene has been home to many genres of music, musicians, and bands, from electronic dance music such as dubstep and drum and bass to garage rock , hip-hop, folk and heavy metal.Eugene also has a growing number of reggae and street bluegrass and jug band performers. The multi-genre group Cherry Poppin ‘Daddies became a prominent figure in Eugene’s music scene and evolved into a house group in W.O.W. Hall. In the late 1990s, their contributions to the swing revival movement propelled them to national fame. The rock band Floater originated in Eugene, as did Robert Cray’s blues band. Doom metal band YOB is one of the leaders of Evgeny’s heavy music.
Eugene is home to Classic Gas composer and two-time Grammy winner Mason Williams, who spent his youth living between his parents in Oak Ridge, Oregon and Oklahoma.Mason Williams hosts an annual Christmas show at the Hult Performing Arts Center with a full orchestra conducted by author, sound engineer, and University of Oregon professor Don Latarski.
Dick Hyman, renowned jazz pianist and musical director of many Woody Allen films, designs and hosts the annual Now Hear This! jazz festival at the Oregon Festival of American Music (OFAM). OFAM and the Hult Center usually attract major jazz talent to their concerts.
Eugene is also home to a large Zimbabwean music community. The Kutsinhira Cultural Arts Center, which is “dedicated to the music and people of Zimbabwe,” is located in Eugene.
The Eugene Community of Visual Arts is supported by over 20 private art galleries and several organizations, including the Mod Kearns Art Center, Lane Arts Council, DIVA (Downtown Visual Arts Initiative) and the Eugene Glass School.
In 2015, installations by a group of artists from Eugene known as Light At Play were featured at several International Year of Light events around the world, including at the Smithsonian Institution and the National Academy of Sciences.
The Eugene District has been used as a filming location for several Hollywood films, the most famous being the 1978s. Animal House of the National Pasquart , which was also filmed in the nearby Cottage Grove.The idea for the film came to John Belushi. Blues Brothers during filming Animal House when he accidentally met Curtis Salgado in what was then the Eugene Hotel.
Getting Direct starring Elliott Gould and Candice Bergen was filmed at Lane Community College in 1969. Since the campus was still under construction at the time, the “occupation scenes” were easier to film.
“Chicken Salad on Toast” scene from Jack Nicholson’s 1970 film Five Easy Pieces was filmed at Denny’s Restaurant on the I-5 South Interchange near Glenwood.Nicholson directed the 1971 film Drive, he said to in Eugene.
How to Overcome the High Cost of Living starring Jane Curtin, Jessica Lange and Susan St. James was filmed in Eugene in the fall of 1979. The film features locations such as the River Valley Center (which is the driving force behind the plot), Skinner Butte and I-Po-Ah Terrace, the Willamette River, and river road equipment.
Eugene has been used as a set and / or filming location in several athletics films. Personal best starring Mariel Hemingway, was filmed in the 1982 film Eugene. The film focused on a group of women trying to make it to the Olympic athletics team. Two athletics films about the life of Steve Prefontaine, Prefontaine and Unlimited , were released one year apart in 1997-1998. Kenny Moore, an Olympic runner trained by Eugene, and co-scriptwriter Prefontaine Unlimited . Prefontaine was filmed in Washington because Unlimited was bought out by production for the summer at Hayward Field to prevent competitors from filming there. Kenny Moore also wrote a biography of Bill Bowerman, played in Unlimited by Donald Sutherland back in Eugene 20 years after he appeared in Animal House . Moore also played a role in Personal Best .
Stealing Time 2003 independent film partially filmed in Eugene.When the film premiered at the June 2001 Seattle International Film Festival, it was called Rennie’s Landing after a popular bar near the University of Oregon campus. The title was changed due to the release of the DVD. Zerophilia filmed in Eugene in 2006.
Religious higher education institutions in Eugene include Bushnell University and New Hope Christian College. Bushnell University (formerly Northwestern Christian University), founded in 1895, has ties to the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ).New Hope Christian College (formerly Eugene Bible College) came into being in 1915 as a result of the Bible Standardization Conference, which merged with the Open Bible Evangelistic Association to create open standard Bible churches in 1932. Eugene Bible College was founded by Fred Hornschuch in 1925.
Eugene has two Eastern Orthodox parishes: St. John the Miracle Worker Orthodox Church in the Whitaker Historic District and St. George Greek Orthodox Church.
Eugene also has six Roman Catholic parishes: St. Mary’s Catholic Church, St. Jude’s Catholic Church, St. Mark’s Catholic Church, St. Peter’s Catholic Church, St. Paul’s Catholic Church and St. Thomas More’s Catholic Church.
Evgeniy also has the Ukrainian Catholic Church of the Nativity of the Virgin.
The city also has a major Protestant coincidence – for example, the largest of the Lutheran churches, the central Lutheran church near the U of O campus, and the Episcopal Church of the Resurrection.
In the Eugene area, there is a significant presence of a LDS church with three stakes, consisting of 23 congregations (wards and branches). The Portland Oregon Temple is the closest temple.
The greater Eugene Springfield area also has Jehovah’s Witnesses with five Kingdom Halls, several of which have multiple congregations in one Kingdom Hall.
The Beth Israel Reconstructive Temple is the largest Jewish community in Eugene. In addition, it was Eugene’s only synagogue for decades, until in 1992 the Orthodox seceded and formed the Ahavas Torah Congregation.
Eugene is home to about 140 Sikhs who founded a Sikh temple.
The 340-member Unitarian Universalist Church Eugene (UUCE) Congregation acquired the former Scottish Rite Temple of Eugene in May 2010, renovated it and began services there in September 2012.
The Saraha Nyingma Buddhist Temple in Eugene opened in 2012 on the site of a former Unitarian Universalist Church.
Welcome to Track Town USA sign Eugene
Eugene’s Oregon Ducks are part of the Pac-12 (Pac-12) conference.American football is especially popular due to the fierce rivalry between the Ducks and the University of Oregon Beavers and the University of Washington Husky. Otzen Stadium is home to the Duck Football Club and has a capacity of 54,000, but more than 60,000 people have standing space only.
McArthur Court basketball arena was built in 1926. At the end of 2010, the arena was replaced by Matthew Knight’s arena.
For nearly 40 years, Eugene has been the “World Capital of Athletics”.Oregon’s most famous track icon is the late world-class long-distance runner Steve Prefontein, who died in a car accident in 1975.
Eugene’s running trails include the Pre’s Trail at Alton Baker Park, the Rexius Trail, the Adidas Oregon Trail, and the Ridgeline Trail. Jogging was introduced to the United States by Eugene, who was brought from New Zealand by Bill Bowerman, who wrote the bestselling book Jogging and coached the University of Oregon championship teams in track and field athletics and cross-country running.During Bowerman’s tenure, his People of Oregon won 24 individual NCAA titles, including titles in 15 of the 19 events. In Bowerman’s 24 years in Oregon, his athletics teams have ranked in the top 10 in the NCAA championships 16 times, including four team titles (1962, ’64, ’65, ’70) and two runners-up trophies. His teams also posted a double competition record of 114–20.
Bowerman also invented the Waffle sneaker sole in Eugene, and with Oregon alumnus Phil Knight founded the shoe giant Nike.Eugene’s miles of jogging trails, with its unusually large park system, are the most extensive in the United States. There are dozens of running clubs in the city. The climate here is cool and temperate, suitable for both jogging and record breaking. Eugene is home to the University of Oregon’s Hayward Field, which hosts numerous student and amateur track and field events throughout the year, most notably the Prefontaine Classic. Hayward Field hosted the 2004 Youth Olympics, the 1989 World Veterans Athletics Championships, 1998 World Veterans Games Athletics, 2006 Pacific 10 Athletics Championships, 1971, 1975, 1986, 1993, 1999, 2001, 2009, and 2011 U.S. Athletics Championships and U.S. Olympic Qualifiers 1972, 1976, 1980, 2008, 2012, and 2016.
On April 16, 2015, the IAAF announced that Eugene had won the right to host the 2021 World Athletics Championships. The city claimed to participate in the 2019 event, but lost only to Doha, Qatar.
Eugene is also home to the Eugene Emeralds, a short-season minor league A-class baseball team. The Ems play their home games at PC Park, which is also home to the University of Oregon baseball team.
The Oregon Classic Nationwide Tour golf event takes place at Shadow Hills Country Club, north of Eugene.The event has been held annually since 1998, with the exception of 2001, when it was scheduled to start the day after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. The top 20 Nationwide Tour players will be promoted to the PGA Tour for next year.
Eugene Jr. Generals, a Tier III junior A category hockey team belonging to the Northern Pacific Hockey League (NPHL), consisting of 8 teams from Oregon and Washington, plays at the Lane County Ice Center.
Lane United FC, a football club that participates in the Northwest Division of the USL League Two, was founded in 2013 and plays its home games at Civic Park.
The following table lists some of the sports clubs in Eugene and their usual home venues:
|University of Oregon Duck||Football, Basketball, Athletics, Softball, Volleyball, Golf, Tennis, Baseball, Lacrosse, Hockey, Football, Ultimate||1876||National Student Sports Association: Pac-12 Conference||Otzen Stadium, Matthew Knight Arena, PC Park, Hayward Field|
|Bushnell University Lighthouses||Basketball, Cross Country Races, Distances, Golf, Football, Volleyball||1895||National Athletics Association , Cascade uni version conference||Morse Event Center|
|Deacons Christian College of New Hope||Basketball, Football, Volleyball||1925||Rexius Event Center|
|Eugene Izumruds||BaseballWest League||PC Park|
|Lane Community College Titans||Basketball, Running, Athletics, Football, Baseball||1965||Northwest Community College Sports Association||Lane Community College|
|Eugene Gentlemen||Rugby||1973||Rugby Pacific Northwest Football Union|
|Eugene Chargers||Basketball||2006||International Basketball League||Morse Event Center|
|Eugene Generals||Ice Hockey||2005||Junior A League III Level: Northern Pacific League Hockey League||Lane County Ice Center|
|Lane United 9094||20132013 USL||Civic Park|
Parks and Recreation
Spencer Butte Park on the southern outskirts of the city provides access to Spencer Butte, which dominates Eugene’s skyline.Hendrix Park, located on a hill east of downtown, is known for its rhododendron garden and the nearby Steve Prefontein monument known as Pre’s Rock, where the legendary University of Oregon runner died in a car accident. In Alton Baker Park, next to the Willamette River, is the Pre Trail. Also adjacent to the Willamette is Skinner Butte Park and the Owen Memorial Rose Garden, which contains over 4,500 roses in over 400 varieties, and the 150-year-old Black Tatar Cherry, an Oregon heritage tree.
There is an urban forest in the city of Eugene. The University of Oregon campus is an arboretum with over 500 tree species. The city operates and maintains scenic hiking trails that run through the ridges of a group of hills in the southern part of the city, on the outskirts of residential areas. Some routes are bicycling, while others are for hikers and joggers only.
The nearest ski resort, Willamette Pass, is an hour’s drive from Eugene.Along the way, along Oregon Highway 58, you will see several reservoirs and lakes, Oak Ridge mountain bike trails, hot springs and waterfalls in the Willamette National Forest. Eugene residents also frequent the Hoodoo and Mount Bachelor ski resorts. The Three Sisters Conservation Area, Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area and Smith Rock are a short drive away.
In 1944, Eugene adopted a council-manager form of government, replacing the day-to-day management of city affairs with a part-time mayor and volunteer city council with a full-time professional city manager.The subsequent history of Eugene’s rule was largely one of the driving forces – often controversial – between the city manager, mayor, and city council.
By statute, all elections in Eugene and Lane County are officially non-partisan, with all candidates primaries in May. If a candidate gains more than 50% of the votes in the primary, he wins the election immediately, otherwise the two best candidates meet in the second round in November. This allows candidates to win seats in the primary with low turnout.
Mayor of Eugene is Lucy Vinis, who has held office since winning the popular vote in May 2016 and was re-elected in May 2020. Recent mayors included Edwin Cone (1958–69), Les Anderson (1969–77). Gus Keller (1977–84), Brian Obie (1985–88), Jeff Miller (1989–92), Ruth Bascom (1993–96), Jim Torrey (1997–2004) and Kitty Pearcy (2005–2017).
Evgeniya City Council
Mayor: Lucy Vinis
- Branch 1 – Emily Semple
- Ward 2 – Matt Keating
- Ward 3 – Alan Zelenka
- Ward 4 – Jennifer Yeh
- Ward 5 – Greg Evans
- Ward 7 – Claire Cyrett
- Ward 8 – Randy Groves
The Eugene Police Department is the city’s law enforcement and public safety agency.The Lane County Sheriff’s Office is also headquartered in Eugene.
The University of Oregon is served by the University of Oregon Police Department, and the Eugene Police Department also has a police station in the Western University District near campus. Lane Community College is served by the Lane Community College Department of Public Safety. Oregon State Police are present in the countryside and on highways in the Eugene metro area. The LTD station in the city center and the EmX lines are patrolled by LTD transit officers.Since 1989, the mental health crisis nongovernmental agency CAHOOTS has been answering Eugene’s emergency calls for mental health issues.
Eugene had a regulation forbidding the use of a car horn for other than driving. After several residents were prosecuted for the crime during demonstrations against the Gulf War in January 1991, the city was brought to trial, and in 1992 the Oregon Court of Appeals overturned the ruling, finding it unconstitutional.Eugene City Hall was abandoned in 2012 due to structural integrity, energy efficiency and outdated size. In eight other buildings, various offices of the city administration have become tenants.
Because it is the largest city in Lane County, Eugene’s voters are almost always single-handedly deciding what constitutes a commitment. While Eugene has always been an anti-cultural and liberal college town, the past two decades have seen it set in stone as a credible Democratic electoral bloc due to the polarization of Oregon’s voters through the rift between urban, democratic, rural, and republican.
Lane County voted for Bernie Sanders over 2016 candidate Hillary Clinton with a total margin of 60.6-38.1% with an even higher Sanders margin within the city of Eugene.
Johnson Hall, University of Oregon
Eugene is home to the University of Oregon. Other institutions of higher education include Northwestern Christian University, Lane Community College, New Hope Christian College, Gutenberg College, and the University of the Pacific Eugene campus.
The Eugene School District includes four full service schools (Churchill, North Eugene, Sheldon, and South Eugene) and many alternative educational programs such as international schools and charter schools. Immersion programs in the local area are available in Spanish, French, Chinese and Japanese.
The Bethel School District serves children in the Bethel area of northwest Eugene. Willamette Traditional High School and Kalapuya Alternative High School are located in the area.There are 11 schools in the area.
Eugene also has several private schools, including Eugene Waldorf School, Outdoor High School, Eugene Montessori School, Far Horizon Montessori, Eugene Sudbury School, Wellsprings Friends School, Oak Hill School and Little French School.
Parish schools in Eugene include Marist Catholic High School, O’Hare Catholic Elementary School, Eugene Christian School, and St. Paul’s Parish School.
Eugene Public Library
The largest library in Oregon is the University of Oregon Knights Library, with over 3 million volumes and over 100,000 audio and video materials.Eugene’s Public Library moved to a new, larger building in the city center in 2002. The area of the four-story library has increased from 38,000 to 130,000 square feet (from 3,500 to 12,100 m²). 2 ). There are also two branches of the Eugene Public Library: the Sheldon Branch Library in the Cal Young / Sheldon area and the Bethel Library in the Bethel area. Eugene also has a Lane County Law Library.
Registration Guard Building
The largest newspaper serving the area is Register-Guardian , a daily newspaper with a circulation of about 70,000, published independently by the Baker Eugene family until 2018 and then was acquired by GateHouse Media.Other newspapers serving the area include Eugene Weekly , the Emerald an independent newspaper run by University of Oregon students, now published on Mondays and Thursdays; Torch , Lane Community College student newspaper, Ignite , New Hope Christian College newspaper and Lighthouse Bolt, Bushnell University student newspaper. Evgeniy Magazine , Lifestyle Quarterly , Evgeniy Living , and Eco-friendly Home and Garden magazines also serve the area. Adelante Latino is a Spanish-language newspaper in Eugene serving all Lane counties.
Local TV channels include KMTR (NBC), KVAL (CBS), KLSR-TV (Fox), KEVU-CD, KEZI (ABC), KEPB (PBS) and KTVC (independent).
- KEZI (channel 9) (ABC)
- KVAL (channel 13) (CBS)
- KMTR (channel 16) (NBC)
- KEVU-TsD (channel 23)
- KEPB (channel 28) (PBS)
- KLSR (34 channel) (Fox)
- KTVC (channel 36) (independent)
- KHWB-LD (channel 38) (TBN)
Local NPR branches – KOPB and KLCC.KRVM-AM is a subsidiary of Jefferson Public Radio located at the University of Southern Oregon. Affiliate Pacifica Radio is a student radio station for the University of Oregon, KWVA. In addition, the community maintains two other radio stations: KWAX (classic) and KRVM-FM (alternative).
- KOAC 550 Corvallis – News / Discussion NPR (Oregon Public Broadcasting)
- KUGN 590 Evgeniy – NEWS / TALK (Cumulus)
- KXOR 660 Junction City – Spanish Religious ( Zion Media7) – Classic Hits (Mielke Broadcasting)
- KORE 1050 Springfield – FOX Sports Radio
- KPNW 1120 Eugene – NEWS / TALK (Bicostal Media)
- KRVM 1280 Eugene – News / Discussion NPR (Eugene School District) (JPR branch ) KSCR 1320 Eugene – Soft AC (Cumulus)
- KNND 1400 Cottage Grove – Classic Country (Reiten Communications Inc)
- KEED 1450 Eugene – Classic Country (Mielke Broadcasting)
- KOPB 1600 Eugene – NPR News / Talk (Oregon Public Broadcasting) )
- KWVA 88.1 Eugene – Freeform (University of Oregon)
- KPIJ 88.5 Junction City – Christian (Calvary Satellite Network) (Calvary Chapel)
- KQFE 88.9 Springfield – Christian (Family Radio)
- KLCC 89.7 Eugene – NPR News / Talk / Jazz (Lane Community College)
- KWAX 91.1 Eugene – Classical (University of Oregon)
- KRVM 91.9 Eugene – Adult Alternative Album (AAA) (Eugene School District)
- KKNU 93.3 Springfield – Country (Mackenzie River Broadcast)
- , 5 Eugene – Contemporary Adult Music (McKenzie River Broadcasting)
- KUJZ 95.3 Creswell – Sports (cumulus)
- KZEL 96.1 Eugene – Classic rock (Cumulus)
- KEPW-LP 97.3 Eugene – PeaceWorks community radio (Eugene PeaceWorks)
- KEQB 97.7 Coburg – Regional Mexican (McKenzie Broadcast) 908 River48 KODZ 99.1 Eugene – Classic hits (Bicoastal Media)
- KRKT 99.9 Albany – Country (Bicoastal Media)
- KMME 100.5 Cottage Grove – Catholic program (Catholic Radio Northwest)
- KFLY 101.5 Corvallis – Country (Bicoastal Media)
- KEHK 102.3 Brownsville – Contemporary Adult Music (Cumulus)
- KNRQ 103.7 Harrisburg – Alternative Rock (cumulus)
- KDUK 104.7 Florence – Top 40 (CHR) (Bico 90astal Media) KEUG 105.5 Veneta – Adult Hits (McKenzie River Broadcasting)
- KLOO 106.3 Corvallis – Classic Rock (Bicoastal Media)
- KLVU 107.1 Sweet Home – Contemporary Christian Music (K-LOVE) Educational Media Foundation
- KHPE 107.9 Albany – Contemporary Christian Music (Extra Mile Media)
Eugene Station at
Lane Transit District (LTD), a public transportation agency founded in 1970, covers an area of 240 square miles (620 km). 2 ) Lane County, including Creswell, Cottage Grove, Junction City, Veneta, and Blue River. Operating over 90 buses during peak hours, LTD makes 3.7 million trips annually.LTD also operates an Emerald Express (EmX) express bus line that runs between Eugene and Springfield, much of which runs on its own lane, with off-plane toll stations. LTD’s main termination point in Eugene is at Eugene Station. LTD also offers paratransit.
Greyhound Lines provides service between Los Angeles and Portland along Corridor I-5.
Cycling is popular in Eugene and many people get to it by bike.Summer events and festivals often have “paddocks” for bike parking, which are often filled with up to three hundred or more bicycles. Many people ride their bicycles to work every month of the year. Cycle paths run along the Willamette River, past a picturesque rose garden, along the Amazon River, downtown and the University of Oregon campus. Eugene is close to many popular mountain biking trails, and the Disciples of Dirt is a local mountain bike club that organizes group rides and promotes trail management.
The North Shore Cycle Path is a popular route for cyclists.
In 2009, the League of American Cyclists named Eugene one of the 10 “Gold Tier” cities in the United States for his “outstanding commitment to cycling.” In 2010, Cycling Magazine named Eugene the 5th most cycling city in America. The U.S. Census Bureau’s Annual Survey of American Communities found that Eugene had a 7.3% bicycle commute in 2011, the fifth-highest percentage nationwide among U.S. cities with 65,000 or more and 13 times higher than the national average (0.56%).
Depot of 1908 in the city center was restored in 2004; it is the southern terminus of two daily Amtrak flights. Cascades , and stop along the route in each direction at the daily Starlight Coast .
Air travel is operated by Eugene Airport, also known as Mahlon Sweet Field, which is the fifth largest airport in the Northwest and the second largest airport in Oregon.There are also many private airports in the Eugene metro area. There are several helipads in the Eugene metro area, such as the Sacred Heart Medical Center helipad and the Mahlon Sweet Field helipad, as well as many individual helipads.
Highways running in and through Eugene include:
- Interstate 5: Interstate 5 forms most of the eastern border of the city, acting as an efficient, albeit informal, border between Eugene and Springfield.To the north, I-5 leads to Willamette Valley and Portland. In the south, I-5 leads to Roseburg, Medford, and the southwestern part of the state. In full, Interstate 5 continues north to the Canada-US border at Blaine, Washington and Vancouver, British Columbia, and extends south to the Mexico-US border at Tijuana and San Diego.
- Officer Chris Kilcullen Memorial Highway: Oregon Route 126 runs along the Eugene-Springfield Highway, a restricted access freeway. The Eugene section of this freeway begins at the junction with Interstate 5 and ends two miles (3 km) west of the terminus of the freeway.This portion of Oregon Route 126 is also designated by Interstate 105, an offshoot of Interstate 5. Oregon Route 126 continues west, and the portion shared with Oregon Route 99 continues west to Florence. To the east, Oregon Route 126 crosses the Cascades into central and eastern Oregon.
- Randy Papé Beltline: The Beltline is a restricted access freeway that runs along the northern and western edges of the combined Eugene.
- Delta Highway: Delta Highway forms a junction less than 2 miles (3.2 km) between Interstate 105 and Beltline.
- Oregon Route 99: Oregon Route 99 forks from Interstate 5 south of Eugene and forms the main land artery in Eugene. It continues north into Willamette Valley, parallel to I-5. Sometimes referred to as the Scenic Trail, it offers beautiful views of the Coastal Ridge and also passes through many of the scenic Willamette Valley farmlands.
Eugene is home to Oregon’s largest public water and electricity business, the Eugene Water and Electricity Board (EWEB). EWEB originated in the first decade of the 20th century after a typhoid epidemic discovered in the groundwater system. The city of Eugene denounced Eugene’s private water supply and began purifying river water (first Willamette and then McKenzie) for domestic use. EWEB took over the electricity industry when it needed electricity for water pumps.Surplus electricity generated by EWEB hydroelectric power plants was used for street lighting.
Natural gas services are provided by NW Natural.
Wastewater treatment services are provided by the Metropolitan Wastewater Management Commission, a partnership between the cities of Eugene, Springfield and Lane County.
Three hospitals serve the Eugene Springfield area. Sacred Heart Medical Center The University District is the only one within the city of Eugene.Mackenzie-Willamette Medical Center and Sacred Heart Medical Center at RiverBend are located in Springfield. The Oregon Medical Group, a multidisciplinary primary health care group, operates several clinics in Eugene, as does PeaceHealth Medical Group. White Bird Clinic provides a wide range of medical and social services, including low-cost clinics. Volunteers in Medicine and Occupy Medical provide free medical and mental health care for low-income adults without health insurance.
Eugene is one of the few municipalities in the United States that does not fluoride its water supply.
Main article: List of people from Eugene, Oregon
Eugene has four twin cities:
- Stan Bettis, Market Days; Informal history of the public market of producers Eugene. Eugene, Oregon: Lane Pomona Grange Fraternal Society, 1969.
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Meet the participants of the 16th season of the TV series ‘Bachelorette’ Taishia AdamsCraig SyodinGetty Images
After a quick change, it’s time to focus on American next Bachelorette Party , Taishia Adams! The new leading lady of Monday Night Television, uh, now airing on Tuesdays, knows how Bachelor Mansion: She was on Colton Underwood’s season. Bachelor and was a real bright light. She was also very popular at Bachelor in Paradise Beach in 2019.
Now it’s time to talk about who called Taishia gentlemen. She is armed with rose boutonnieres and is ready to find true love with new suitors selected (and then re-selected) for her by ABC. Claire Crowley left mid-season with fiancé Dale Moss … and also left Taishia with more than half of her eligible bachelors.(Thank you, I guess?)
New Harvest Bachelorette Party Age of participants is from 26 to 40 years old, most of them are over 30. Chris Harrison introduced the official group of guys with new photos taken by themselves and there are some really handsome guys. which Claire avoided. (The test portrait mode outperforms portrait studio any day.) Potential suitors also present more variety than is usually seen on Bachelor or Hen party, 11 out of 31 guys – BIPOC.’Eh. Better?’ Bachelor spoilers Reality blogger Steve tweeted.
So who will Taishiya date and give out roses to? Meet the 20 remaining Palm Springs contestants looking for love in Palm Springs. Bachelorette Party , according to ABC and Reality Steve.View gallery twenty Photos Spencer Robertson / Instagram 1 of 20 Spencer Robertson
Spencer is an engineer, founder and CEO of Robertson Water Treatment.While attending the University of Oregon, where he played lacrosse as a midfielder, he studied chemistry. He is an avid sports fan and actively follows the Oregon Ducks, which he regularly writes about in his gram.
Hometown: La Jolla, California
Montel Hill Montel Montel Hill owner of Hill Sports Performance in Massachusetts.According to his Instagram bio, he is also a Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist (CSCS), Corrective Exercise Specialist (CES), and Registered Dietitian (RD). An interview with Montel’s adoptive family in their local newspaper revealed that he was tracked down by Bachelorette Party Instagram producers. He is close to his sisters, one of whom said: “Everyone in Montel’s life knows what a great and special person he is! It’s time to tell [the bachelorette party] and the rest of the world about it. ”
Starring Gilmore Girl Then and Now
Hometown: Hingham, MA
Instagram: @montel_hillNoah Erb / Instagram 3 of 20 Jesus, loves people, loves to live and refuses to leave this world unchanged. ” He also has a blog where he writes religious poetry.
Hometown: Tulsa, well
Instagram: @babyerbPETER GIANNIKOPOULOS / Instagram 4 of 20 Peter Yannikopoulos
Peter is a real estate consultant based in Elliott Dougillian of the year 2019, according to his Instagram bio.He also invests in real estate and travels, is into fitness, and sold $ 22 million in real estate in 2019. Bachelorette Party, His reality TV career included an appearance on Househunters where he helped a first-time buyer find a home in Boston.
Hometown: Everett, Massachusetts
Instagram: @petergiannikopoulosABC 5 of 20 Zak Clark
Nick Viall – is that what you are disguised as 933 Devich?
Zach maintains a sober house and recovers as a drug addict and alcohol addict many years ago.Reality Steve. He’s also divorced.
Hometown: Haddonfield, NJ
i n stagram: @sweet_sweetABC 6 out of 20 ‘Nwachoma’s gray’ Ewu and a pink pocket square. Uzoma, aka Eazy, played football for Texas A&M and moved to the NFL. He is a wide receiver and has played for the Houston Texans, Seattle Seahawks and Dallas Cowboys.He is now a sports marketing agent based in Newport Beach, California.
Eazy also posted this photo on the gram and captioned it: “I just want to be for life plus one for the wedding.” Unlimited access. Nothing more. Not less than 🤞🏾.
Hometown: Dallas, TX
Instagram: @eazyknowsbestABC 7 of 20 Riley Christian
This Motor City man is ready for love and flew to Palm Springs to find her with Taishia.Riley is already earning many roses from fans on Facebook.
He holds a journalism degree from Findlay University and a law degree from Syracuse University College of Law. He is a lawyer with Aaronson Rappaport Feinstein & Deutsch, LLP and resides in Long Island City, New York.
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Hometown: Detroit, Michigan
Instagram: @_drchrist_ABC 8 of 20 Kenny
Bachelorette Party Fans can spot Kenny from a mile away thanks to his characteristic tattoos.He doesn’t have much screen time yet, but maybe that will change now that Taishiya is in town?
He helps run the club as well as the model, according to a Facebook acquaintance. And he’s a boy band manager in the Windy City.
Hometown: Oaklon, Illinois
Instagram: @ kennybraasch20ABC 9 of 20 Jordan K.
This high Connecticut resident’s current status is a big mystery.Everything Steve knows about him in reality is from his past: he is a Fordham University graduate and a former football player.
But Chris H. filled in some of the gaps. He works as a Software Accounts Engineer.
Hometown: Southington, Connecticut
Instagram: @ ayo_chapo10ABC 10 of 20 Joe Park
Joe is an anesthesiologist who has been recognized as one of the top 20 doctors in New York.He attended Georgetown University and Stony Brook School of Medicine. My only question is, how did he get so much free time for the show?
Hometown: North Woodmere, NY
Instagram: @crazy_crazyABC eleven of 20J’s
Little is known about Jay. His bio on Insta offers several clues: it includes a verse from 2 Corinthians 5:17: “So if anyone is in Christ, a new creation has come: the old is gone, the new is here!” He also moved from Florida to Pennsylvania.
Jay is a Fitness Director and is originally from Fort Lauderdale, Florida, according to Chris H.
Age: 92 220 29
Hometown: Langhorn, PA
Instagram: @smithjay_ABC Foston
According to his Instagram bio, Jason is a regular at the Wegmans and Wawa buffets. It also has an alum URI. He describes himself as “the ex-fat guy for an NFL / CFL player.” He is now a runner and completed the Charlotte Half Marathon in 2018.
Hometown: Rutland, VT
Instagram: @ jasonfoster74ABC 13 out of 20 Ivan Hall
If these Bachelorette party Competitors are any sign, there are a few very hefty dudes wandering around Dallas alone … Ivan, of course, is one of them, but, perhaps, he will not be single for a long time.
Ivan is a Senior Software Quality Engineer at Lockheed Martin and a Texas Tech graduate.LinkedIn profile.
Hometown: Dallas, Texas
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Instagram: @ivanbhallABC 14 of 20 Ed Weisbroth
Ed is Account Manager at CVS Health. He also opted for a simple t-shirt and jeans combo. Judging by the fit of the sleeves, he had no problem switching to workouts at home.
He works as a health care salesman.
Location: Pittsburgh, PAABC fifteen of 20Demar
DeMar has definitely found his light for his portrait, but can he light up Taishia’s room? (Yes, I prefer to ignore the shirt-pulling position.)
Besides, DeMar remains a mystery. He was a spinning instructor at the Madison Improvement Club in Scottsdale. Only time will tell if he has a real chance to become Taishia’s new boo.
Hometown: San Diego, California
Instagram: @djfromsocalABC 16 of 20 Chasen
John B, is that you? Tbh, Chasen gives me Major Outer Banks Stellar Vibes. But it’s actually based on the West Coast. Chasen didn’t have to travel far to join Bachelorette this season from the San Francisco area. He and Taishia already have a common bond with Kali. He also works as an IT account manager.
Age: 31 years
Hometown: Walnut Creek, California
Instagram: @chasennickABC 17 out of 20 Brendan Morais
Brendan is an actor recognized in Get Rich for Free and the odds are … He also simulates with NEMG. Brendan has starred in several wedding shoots, so he definitely looks good in a tuxedo. He works as a roofer when not posing for the camera.
Hometown: Milford, Massachusetts
Instagram: @brendanmoraisABC 18 of 20Blake Moines
Doppelganger watch out! John Travolta from his Grease days (plus beard) is definitely back.There are not many details about Blake. He is one of only two international competitors this season. Clarifies what hides his pale green short sleeve T.
Hometown: Hamilton, Ontario, CanadaABC 19 of 20 Bennett
Bennett is already a fan favorite, but will be decided if it gives he has a competitive edge when it comes to winning Taishia. A starched button closure and a sincere smile definitely increase his chances.
Hometown: Atlanta, GA
Instagram: @bennettandrewjordanABC twenty of 20 Ben Smith
Ben is the coach and trainer at Deuce Gym and Army Ranger according to Chris H. workout and included the following accounts: @deucebacklot @yourbodybuildingclub and @absfromspace in his Insta bio. Tbd how much protein he cooked up for his stay to find love with Taishia.
Hometown: Indianapolis, IN
Instagram: @benveesmithNext 25 Best Artificial Plants to Fool the Eye Jennifer Nid is a writer for us with over 10 years of writing and editing experience specializing in wellness, adventure travel and fitness, with jobs appearing in Budget Travel, American Spa, ours and others.
Chir Geographical Expedition | Shakhty city
At four in the morning I was awakened by a continuous headache, which can only be caused by the branded gin from the Karginsky stall.He fed the dying fire, shook off the leaves that crawled into bed during the night. It is not long before sunrise, but there is still time for morning sleep.
Now the movement should go more fun. The banks of the Chir have become noticeably steeper, the current is faster, which means that the reed will hardly create many obstacles. Only blockages of trees can interfere. Rafting on the river is possible when its width is 2B + D, where B is the maximum height of trees growing along the banks, and D is the length of the boat. But we have clearly left the upper reaches of the river, besides, the full water has not yet completely subsided.Yesterday, while sailing one of the bridges, I had to lie down at the very bottom of the kayak, and anyway, I hooked my head on the bridge beam. Maybe that’s why it’s so painful?
Behind the pasture meadow, the roosters of yesterday’s guest woke up. The man came almost to the onset of darkness, alarmed by the appearance of strangers near the house. Even here, on the outskirts of a settlement large by local standards, the wild life unfamiliar to the inhabitants of the capital, with its dashing people, determines the rules of behavior. Not finding any danger in us, the peasant grew kinder, exchanged a couple of standard phrases and grabbed the ax down with his hatchet – a sure sign of complacency.
Daniel with a bear noise turned over in the tent on the other side. A log in the fire clicked, throwing a sheaf of sparks into the darkness. The cold mug with the remnants of the gin flashed with brown flashes. I straightened my backpack at the head of the bed, drank the leftovers from the mug and lay down closer to the fire. In the morning, another test is to be made here.
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Prbnaya Square No. 8 8-1-22-Acer tataricum 8-2-14-Acer tataricum 8-3-13-Acer tataricum 8-4-11-Acer tataricum 8-5-30-Acer tataricum
Prbnaya square # 8 8-1-22-Acer tataricum 8-2-14-Acer tataricum 8-3-13-Acer tataricum 8-4-11-Acer tataricum 8-5-30-Acer tataricum
Dawn came quickly.Having finished my morning procedures, I packed the equipment with a new batch of samples.
– Well, let’s have some tea and go out? We will encircle the blockage behind the bridge and there, I hope, we will be able to swim.
– Yes, I’ll just fold my tent.
The headache is gone. The pasta that had been dinner hours earlier had stuck to the bottom of the pot. Not wanting to finally slide into the water along the steep bank, I scooped up water, rolled a washcloth from loam with celandine and sat on the cold steel of a bridge thrown across the river:
At the bottom, the Chir Unionids were filtering the water.For a long time, only five species of these mollusks were found in the Rostov region: three pearl barley and two toothless. In January 2017, live representatives of Corbicula fluminea were unexpectedly found on the Don at the mouth of a warm canal of the Novocherkassk power plant. This species is included in the list of the 100 most dangerous invasive species in Europe and, presumably, in the coming years it will reach Chira.
It was completely unexpected to find bivalves here. Unionids lead a sedentary lifestyle, their travels end in adolescence, when young mollusks – glochidia parasitize on fish.As soon as the glochidia grows up, it falls off, buries itself in the silt and begins its difficult job of cleaning the river. If they already settled here – in an area with a relatively fast current, then they must surely dwell in the dams of the upper reaches, however, they could not be found there at any of the sites. The only exception is shell fragments on the beach in Karginskaya, but crows, children, or other natural enemies of the Unionids could easily bring them there.
It turned out to be absolutely impossible to reach the shells.Lying down on the iron edge, I pulled my hand into the water with all my might. The genus Unionid is determined by the teeth and the thickness of the shell. But no matter how much I stretched, about a quarter of a meter remained to the cherished teeth. Suddenly, the edge of the bridge tilted sharply, the pot and pot overturned, I barely managed to avoid the destruction of the only local crossing. He swore, took the dishes and returned to the fire in complete disappointment.
– What were you doing there?
– Yes, the pasta stuck, you can wash it off.
The last time I looked at them was when I was dragging the kayak.Animals stuck calmly from the bottom, demonstrating their inaccessibility for human hands and photographic equipment:
The sun had risen high enough and had already managed to heat everything around. Outside the floodplain, the heat became completely unbearable. The only thing worse than the scorching sun is the need to drag kayaks. Sweat is constantly dripping from the face, which there is nothing to shake off, since both hands are busy. My back was wet from my backpack. Instead of relief, the gentle breeze carries only the hot smell of earth and young grass.Here, outside the forest, on a pasture meadow on a high bank, this aroma is especially strong.
The first blockage on the river was followed by the second, the second by the third. After passing the power line, Daniel was rightly indignant.
– This is some bullshit. Like idiots, we walk along the river and drag boats. Here’s a normal descent, let’s go from here. If there is another blockage further, we will enclose it. It will be easier anyway. Otherwise, we will reach the mouth like this.
It will hardly be easier any longer, but it was truly unbearable to carry the load in the same way.Sinking up to our knees in the shore mixed by cows, we went down to the Chir bend. The cattle reservoir is not the best place for the slipway, but there is no other choice – our shore rises above the water with a sharp ledge, is overgrown and is completely inconvenient for a safe descent. At the risk of undergoing an unplanned course of hirudotherapy, we went into the mud, lowered the boats and, having distributed our things, stood on the oars.
It is really easier in a kayak, especially if you put your oars aside and lie in it without any movement.Around the bend, the river became a narrow stream with asymmetrical banks. The shallow water on the left is overgrown with dense reeds, the right bank has become less steep, but still remains steep, dipping overgrown poplars. The first blockage had to be removed after fifty meters. The second was not so scary: by carefully squeezing between the branches, it was possible to overcome it without getting out of the boat. But almost immediately after him, a branchy tree blocked the way. Its top was hidden behind the reeds of the left bank, and the crooked roots made it impossible to carry the boats over the base of the fallen trunk.Inconvenient shore, danger of piercing the boat, difficulty in unloading – because of these little things, the speed of our movement fell below the walking speed.
– Let’s take a break. We left earlier than usual today.
– Yes, it’s not yet eleven, but we are already exhausted. Now, in general, the heat will begin.
– Let’s go, over there, under the tree, in the shade
The boats were at a new start. The narrow river was visible only for a few tens of meters, cutting off the gaze with another heap of branches.
We climbed a few meters above the water’s edge, lounging between a bushy elm tree and a white poplar.Once upon a time another tree grew here, but it rotted long ago, leaving behind only a stump that was swollen with earth, occupied by black ants ( Lasius niger ). If the stories of the locals about the past high flow of the Chir are true, in previous years the water could well rise to the level of these trees. But locals cannot be trusted in matters of long-term dynamics. The first recorded measurements on rivers by the Don water system date back to 1876 (see, for example, the reference book “Long-term data on the regime and resources of surface water on land, i.1, issue 3, L .: Gidrometeoizdat, 1986). From that moment on, the number of observation points grew continuously until the very collapse of the empire. While some were preparing, with varying degrees of success, an assassination attempt on the tsars, smashing the Jews, fighting in the Middle East, reducing their gymnasium education and begging to stop “all talk about freedom of the press, the arbitrariness of gatherings and a representative assembly,” others laid new posts. some of which are still valid.
First sightings were interrupted by revolution and civil war.While Denikin and Budyonny were measuring sabers, all the materials collected at the first posts disappeared (except for the post in Kalach-na-Donu). However, already in the twenties, research was resumed with much greater intensity. From 1925 to 1935, another 57 gauging stations were opened, including a post on the Chir in the village of Oblivskaya. The second gap in observations was provided by the Wehrmacht. The gap was more than two years, after which some of the posts were declared invalid.
Hydrological measurements on the Don were most developed in the fifties.At this time, new measuring points were opened on the Chira: in 1949, Sviridovsky, in 1951 by the side, in 1954 by Proninsky (on the tributary of the Chira – the Tsutskan River), in 1955 by Chernyshevsky (in 1957, the post together with the village was renamed Soviet) and post in the farm Bolshenapolovsky, data on which, however, are not published in the hydrological yearbook. This surge in activity is of a short-term nature – after a few years, new gauging stations will be liquidated: in Sviridov in 1955, in Sovetskaya in 1964, a year later (in 1965.) in the Pronin farm. The gauging station in the village of Bokovskaya has been operating for the longest time, however, after 1970, observations have stopped there. From 1971 to the present, all information about the river has been collected only at the Oblivsky gauging station.
The mismanagement of the nineties in terms of collecting hydrological information is more harmful than the German occupation. According to the verbal assurances of hydrologists, the measurements are not stopped, but the data themselves are not transferred to the archives. There is no information for 1991 and 1992.Moreover, in the confusion of the hydrological institute, part of the materials published in the Soviet years (measurements from 1975, 1984 and 1989) are lost. Such omissions deprive us of the possibility of conducting an R / S analysis of annual data, which is extremely depressing for me.
The last gap dates back to 2006-2007 and no one can explain it at all. However, since 2008, the data has become available electronically on the website of the Federal Agency for Water Resources.
Availability of information on discharges at gauging stations of the Chir River.Green – data are present, orange – no data, or measurements were not carried out
Even more sad, discontinuities in observations appear after getting acquainted with the distribution of Chir water discharge. The main feeding of the Chir, as well as of the Don itself with its tributaries, comes from the waters formed by the melting of winter snow reserves (“Perennial …, 1986”) and, to a much lesser extent, from groundwater and rainwater. Warm winters with frequent thaws lead to the fact that the maximum discharge can be observed from the beginning of the year to mid-spring:
Annual changes in the discharge on the Chir River (st.Oblivskaya) from 1936 to 2016 (with gaps), m3 / s
During the observation period (in the available data), the minimum flow rate was 0.56 m3 / s, the maximum – 349 m3 / s (in 623 times more). The arithmetic mean value of the flow rate is 11.028 cubic meters / sec. But from the graphs of the distribution of expenses by months it is clear that the data is characterized by an abnormal distribution and therefore the use of parametric criteria in the analysis is incorrect. Anderson-Darling tests for sample years confirm this – the observation results with a high probability do not agree with the normal distribution:
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1937: A = 3.0837, p-value = 2.559e-08; 1945: A = 1.9988, p-value = 1.805e-05 1955: A = 2.0307, p-value = 1.487e-05; 1960: A = 1.2071, p-value = 0.0022320 1965: A = 2.5399, p-value = 6.807e-07; 1970: A = 1.8362, p-value = 4.844e-05 1974: A = 2.8444, p-value = 1.083e-07; 1980: A = 3.3849, p-value = 4.18e-090 1985: A = 3.3703, p-value = 4.564e-09; 1990: A = 1.4891, p-value = 0.0004001 1995: A = 1.8991, p-value = 3.306e-05; 2000: A = 2.3516, p-value = 2.126e-06 2005: A = 1.3101, p-value = 0.0011910; 2010: A = 2.3808, p-value = 1.782e-06 2014: A = 1.5369, p-value = 0.0002990; 2015: A = 0.61783, p-value = 0.082020 2016: A = 1.8425, p-value = 4.663e-05
1937: A = 3.0837, p-value = 2.559e-08; 1945: A = 1.9988, p-value = 1.805e-05 1955: A = 2.0307, p-value = 1.487e-05; 1960: A = 1.2071, p-value = 0.0022320 1965: A = 2.5399, p-value = 6.807e-07; 1970: A = 1.8362, p-value = 4.844e-05 1974: A = 2.8444, p-value = 1.083e-07; 1980: A = 3.3849, p-value = 4.18e-090 1985: A = 3.3703, p-value = 4.564e-09; 1990: A = 1.4891, p-value = 0.0004001 1995: A = 1.8991, p-value = 3.306e-05; 2000: A = 2.3516, p-value = 2.126e-06 2005: A = 1.3101, p-value = 0.0011910; 2010: A = 2.3808, p-value = 1.782e-06 2014: A = 1.5369, p-value = 0.0002990; 2015: A = 0.61783, p-value = 0.082020 2016: A = 1.8425, p-value = 4.663e-05
Long-term monthly-to-month samples also demonstrate the predominance of abnormal distributions:
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Jan: A = 10.417, p-value <2.2e-16 Feb: A = 8.7362, p-value <2.2e-16 mar: A = 3.7789, p-value = 1.6e-09 Apr: A = 8.2062, p-value <2.2e-16 May: A = 2.0221, p-value = 3.351e-05 Jun: A = 1.8242, p-value = 0.0001036 Jul: A = 1.4341, p-value = 0.0009612 Aug: A = 1.0635, p-value = 0.008024 sen: A = 1.2764, p-value = 0.00237 nov: A = 0.8802, p-value = 0.02297 oct: A = 0.6194, p-value = 0.1028 dec: A = 2.5886, p-value = 1.337e-06 Wed arithm .: A = 1.9966, p-value = 3.875e-05 amounts. stock: A = 1.9662, p-value = 4.609e-05 Wed median: A = 0.5180, p-value = 0.1822
Jan: A = 10.417, p-value <2.2e-16 Feb: A = 8.7362, p-value <2.2e-16 mar: A = 3.7789, p-value = 1.6e-09 Apr: A = 8.2062, p-value <2.2e-16 May: A = 2.0221, p-value = 3.351e-05 Jun: A = 1.8242, p-value = 0.0001036 Jul: A = 1.4341, p-value = 0.0009612 Aug: A = 1.0635, p-value = 0.008024 sen: A = 1.2764, p-value = 0.00237 nov: A = 0.8802, p-value = 0.02297 oct: A = 0.6194, p-value = 0.1028 dec: A = 2.5886, p-value = 1.337e-06 Wed arithm .: A = 1.9966, p-value = 3.875e-05 amounts. stock: A = 1.9662, p-value = 4.609e-05 Wed medians: A = 0.5180, p-value = 0.1822
There is a clear trend towards data normalization after the spring flood. Taking P-value as 0.01, we can refer to the normally distributed data as the values of expenditures in August, October and November. It is curious that a normal distribution is much more likely for March flow rates than for April and February:
Probability of normal distribution of flow rates by months
Such distributions of values are confusing when trying to solve the problem of filling in the gaps.It is a sin to use not only the past, edge, average, median values, but also more complex procedures such as Monte Carlo methods. The data have a complex structure (pseudo-stationary), and their total number is insignificant. This will inevitably lead to a strong influence of the error of the padded values on the analysis result. Generalized ways of filling in missing values (such as the Gibbs method) require additional data sets that themselves need to be verified. This deprives us of the possibility of analyzing the time series of "raw" data with all the pleasures that come from this (such as building arma-arima models).
To avoid the need to recover missing data and the associated risks, years containing gaps in monthly observations were excluded from the sample. After that, the data are divided into fourteen groups of similar size (4-5 years, one group six and one seven years):
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1937-1941 (5 years old) 1945-1949 (5 years old) 1950-1954 (5 years old) 1955-1959 (5 years old) 1960-1964 (5 years old) 1965-1969 (5 years old) 1970-1974 (5 years old) 1976-1979 (4 years old) 1980-1983 (4 years old) 1985-1988 (4 years old) 1993-1999 (age 7) 2000-2005 (6 years old) 2008-2012 (5 years old) 2013-2016 (4 years)
1937-1941 (5 years) 1945-1949 (5 years old) 1950-1954 (5 years old) 1955-1959 (5 years old) 1960-1964 (5 years old) 1965-1969 (5 years old) 1970-1974 (5 years old) 1976-1979 (4 years old) 1980-1983 (4 years old) 1985-1988 (4 years old) 1993-1999 (age 7) 2000-2005 (6 years old) 2008-2012 (5 years old) 2013-2016 (4 years)
There are no missing years in each of these groups, and there are no missing months in years.Each month is represented by the arithmetic mean of expenses. It is extremely important to understand: the distribution of daily expenses sometimes differs from normal, but many monthly observation periods contain days with missing values, so the arithmetic mean becomes the only possible criterion for the difference in expenses of different months.
Measuring flow rates is a laborious procedure, so most of the information published in the Hydrological Yearbooks is calculated on the basis of the Glushkov curve (dependence of flow rate on water level) with Stout's correction (deviation from the curve that has a regularity).Thus, the initial information on the river discharge is understood as the monthly arithmetic mean values of the discharge calculated from the data of the water levels.
Dividing the sample into groups with gaps helps in part to get rid of the interdependence of data from each other, but it is much more important to assess the appropriateness of using groups of such size for analysis. Having no grounds to assert the independence of the observation results, we cannot even speak of a reliable change in water discharge.All the more so for the data, which are clearly inherent in periodicity:
Dynamics of monthly flow rates on the Chir River (station Oblivskaya), cubic meters. m per sec. 70% of all observations are enclosed between the blue lines, 99% of all observations are between the red lines. Missing data is indicated by a break in the graph.
Due to the discontinuity of observations, autocorrelation analysis is not entirely correct, however, there is no better alternative in our case. The ACF and PACF graphs for monthly discharges clearly show the annual annual frequency of discharges with peaks during floods:
Graphs of the total (left) and partial (right) autocorrelation functions of monthly discharges on the Chir River (st.Oblivskaya). The lag value is 1 month. The 95% confidence interval is shown in blue italics
For annual values, the frequency is much less noticeable. For reasonable reasons, we cannot see the secular fluctuations, but we can assume (without strong evidence!) The presence of a secular cycle. For the reasons indicated above (distribution abnormality), it makes no sense to consider the average annual values instead of the median ones. The autocorrelation plots additionally confirm this:
Plots of the total (left) and partial (right) autocorrelation functions of median (main plots) and average (inset plots) annual flow rates on the Chir River (st.Oblivskaya) 95% confidence intervals are in blue italics. The lag value is 1 year.
The formal Durbin-Watson test reveals moderate autocorrelation of median flow rates (0.3449 at p-value = 0.002) and no autocorrelation of mean values ( p-value = 0.872). The Brousch - Godfrey test gives similar results: for median values, autocorrelation of the first ( p-value = 0.0037) and second orders ( p-value = 0.008556), higher order correlations are unreliable. For mean values, correlations of different orders are not found ( p-value = 0.8-0.9).
Autocorrelation in groups is not detected by any of the tests ( p-value = 0.06-0.83 depending on the use of mean or median values, the type of test and the order of autocorrelation), with the exception of third-order autocorrelation according to the Breusch-Godfrey test ( p-value = 0.004914). But given the size of the samples, this value is of little value.Taking this into account, we can admit the independence of the cost values - the third important assumption after the recognition that the average monthly expenses fully correspond to reality, and the arbitrary division of data into groups does not fundamentally affect the research result. The latter assumption can be made relying on the central limit theorem and the normality of the distribution of median values 0.55 with p-value = 0.1494 according to the Andreson-Darling test. Of course, do not forget about the "zero assumption" that the data was collected according to a single method, was not distorted during storage and was not influenced by monkeys with crooked arms.Considering the reverent attitude of the authors to the compilation of "Hydrological Yearbooks", there is no reason to consider the extreme values of the recorded values as emissions.
For the rivers of the Don water system, in addition to seasonal fluctuations, alternation of pronounced periods with different water availability is characteristic. In the work (Perennial ..., 1986), the periods of water content (high-water, low-water and medium water-cut) of the Don and Khopra are given in the cities of Liski (until 1991 it was called Georgieu-Dezh), Kalach-on-Don and the village of Povorotino, from which it can be seen that periods of different water content can last for tens of years.Whether such periods are typical for smaller rivers (in particular the Chira) remains unclear.
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Liski (Don): | Kalach-na-Donu (Don): | Art. Povorino (Khoper): 1895-1902 (08 years old) - many. | 1876-1881 (06 years old) - many. | 1883-1889 (07 years old) - many. 1903-1914 (12 years old) - small. | 1882-1902 (21 years old) - Wednesday. | 1890-1894 (05 years old) - small. 1915-1932 (18 years old) - many. | 1903-1914 (12 years old) - small. | 1895-1904 (10 years old) - many. 1933-1968 (36 years old) - Wednesday.| 1915-1932 (18 years old) - many. | 1905-1914 (10 years old) - small. | 1933-1968 (36 years old) - small. | 1915-1932 (18 years old) - many.
Liski (Don): | Kalach-na-Donu (Don): | Art. Povorino (Khoper): 1895-1902 (08 years old) - many. | 1876-1881 (06 years old) - many. | 1883-1889 (07 years old) - many. 1903-1914 (12 years old) - small. | 1882-1902 (21 years old) - Wednesday. | 1890-1894 (05 years old) - small. 1915-1932 (18 years old) - many. | 1903-1914 (12 years old) - small. | 1895-1904 (10 years old) - many.1933-1968 (36 years old) - Wednesday. | 1915-1932 (18 years old) - many. | 1905-1914 (10 years old) - small. | 1933-1968 (36 years old) - small. | 1915-1932 (18 years old) - many.
It is interesting that the authors (Mnogoletnie ..., 2006) point to the asynchrony of the curves of the annual runoff for different rivers, i.e. the ratio of their water content is not constant. Unfortunately, the data from other gauging stations are extremely scarce and I cannot fully verify the tightness of the relationship between the discharges in different sections of the river. The existing measurements are mostly consistent with each other, but there are also obvious inconsistencies, for example, a strong decline in expenditures in 1959 in the village of Sovetskaya and on the Tsutskan River, which is hardly noticed at the Obliv post.
Dynamics of the Chir River discharge at different gauging stations, cubic meters m per sec. The inset graph on the left shows the relationship between the costs in the villages of Sovetskaya and Oblivskaya from 1953 to 1970 (cubic meters per second)
Pearson's correlation (data distributed normally) turned out to be lower than expected (0.4261629) and, moreover, unreliable ( p-value = 0.07782). The most likely reason for this is the lack of observations, but this does not allow extrapolating the discharge of the lower section to the rest of the river.
During most of the second half of the twentieth century, expenditures in the village of Oblivskaya tended to increase until the 1990s, with pre-war expenditures being extremely low (1.35-2.04 cubic meters per second). After the 1990s, the situation changes fundamentally: with the exception of three years (2003-2005, including 2003 with the maximum flow rate in the entire history of observations: 8.71 cubic meters per second), in the last quarter of a century there has been a decrease in median costs to almost the pre-war level ( up to 1.96 cubic metersm / sec in 2015):
Dynamics of annual median flow rates on the Chir river (Oblivskaya station), cubic meters m per sec. Half of all observations are enclosed between the blue lines, and 70% of all observations are between the red lines. The inset graph shows the trends in flow rates by observation periods without gaps.
A decisive factor in this change is the cost savings in the spring months. The graph of monthly expenditures shows a clear decrease in the values of peak (falling beyond the 99% quantile) floods. Unfortunately, there is no data on the current flood (2018).) of the year, which was clearly significant against the background of recent years, however, given the subsequent drought, I would venture to assume that by now the general trend towards a decrease in expenditures has not changed.
Expenses by months, median annual expenses (cubic meters per second) and total annual flow (cubic kilometers per year). The interquartile range (filled areas) and median (black bar in the filled area) are indicated. The length of the "mustache" corresponds to one and a half intraquartile ranges. Individual points are extreme values.
Since 2008, reduced costs are typical for all months except February, but the decline is especially strong from September to December. Interestingly, against the background of growing costs until 2005, the annual runoff is outwardly stationary, and since 1985 it has been continuously decreasing (but this decrease is not statistically significant!). This can only be explained by the imperfection of the median as a measure of typicality: a sharply asymmetric distribution retains the median even with a decrease in kurtosis. The physical meaning of this is that the number of days with flow rates above and below the median value remains unchanged, but the maximum values (peaks) decrease.It is curious that asymmetry is linearly and very closely related to kurtosis (Spearman's correlation coefficient 0.9959 p-value <2.2e-16) - the least probable water discharge, the values of which are equal to the arithmetic mean of the discharge.
Correlation of mean (left), median (middle) values with kurtosis and kurtosis with asymmetry (right) for the distribution of water consumption values
The distribution of values in all groups corresponds to the normal according to Shapiro-Wilk tests, except for the 1965-1969 group:
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1937-1941: W = 0.85608, p-value = 0.2145 1945-1949: W = 0.
1937-1941: W = 0.85608, p-value = 0.2145 1945-1949: W = 0.
, p-value = 0.6133 1950-1954: W = 0.73257, p-value = 0.02036 1955-1959: W = 0.97162, p-value = 0.8855 1960-1964: W = 0.94661, p-value = 0.7129 1965-1969: W = 0.63275, p-value = 0.001649 <-! 1970-1974: W = 0.96643, p-value = 0.8519 1976-1979: W = 0.87628, p-value = 0.323 1980-1983: W = 0.94181, p-value = 0.6654 1985-1988: W = 0.87834, p-value = 0.3316 1993-1999: W = 0.88048, p-value = 0.2286 2000-2005: W = 0.77908, p-value = 0.03779 2008-2012: W = 0.86663, p-value = 0.253 2013-2016: W = 0.
Checking for homoscedasticity indicates homoscedasticity in the observation groups according to the Bartlett test ( p-value = 0.3361) and according to the Levene test ( p-value = 0.9068) ... Together with the normal distribution of expenses and the independence of their values (taking into account the result of autocorrelation analysis), this gives the right to quantify the reliability of differences in expenses by periods.One-way ANOVA indicates that such differences cannot be the result of random samples from the general population. The probability of the opposite is 0.0001951 (with the value of Fisher's criterion f-value = 3.875).
Since the distribution of expenditures in 1965-1969 is different from normal, and the probability of several other time groups is close to 0.01, it is obviously necessary to confirm the reliability of the differences by a nonparametric method. Analysis of variance according to Kruskal-Wallis indicates a higher probability of randomness of differences between groups ( p-palue = 0.001538), however, as in the case of the analysis, option (aov), the value of this probability convincingly indicates the reliability of the differences between the data.
Tukey's test was used as a posterior test. It is not enough to know that there is a significant difference between the groups - it is important to understand which groups it applies to. With the significance criterion of p-palue = 0.01 for the entire observation period, the differences are significant only in two periods: the pairs 2000-2005 - 1937-1941 and 2000-2005 - 1950-1954.In seven more pairs, the probability of randomness of differences lies between the values 0.01p-paluep-value = 0.0514650), one can also note the difference in the pair 1985-1988 - 1945-1949.
Tukey test results