501c3Lookup.org – OCEAN SPRINGS GREYHOUND LACROSSE
OSGL is a non-profit organization working to grow the game of lacrosse in the Mississippi Gulf Coast. We work with high school aged boys teaching them lacrosse and exposing them to the potentials for a collegiate career.
FORM 1023-EZ for OCEAN SPRINGS GREYHOUND LACROSSEWWW.GREYHOUNDLAX.COM
1: Contributions are deductible
NTEE COMMON CODE
N: Recreation, Sports, Leisure, Athletics
N60: Amateur Sports Clubs, Leagues, N. E.C.
16: Organization that normally receives no more than one third of its support from gross investment income and unrelated business income and at the same time more than one third of its support from contributions, fees, and gross receipts related to exempt purposes. 509(a)(2)
EXEMPT ORGANIZATION STATUS CODE
1: Unconditional Exemption
FORM 990 REVENUE AMOUNT
FILING REQUIREMENT CODE
990 – Required to file Form 990-N – Income less than $25,000 per year
PF FILING REQUIREMENT CODE
No 990-PF return
Disclaimer: While we are confident of the accuracy of the information on this page, we encourage you verify the information directly with IRS. The IRS has a toll-free number for this at 1-877-829-5500 or visit www.irs.gov.
Lower Alabama Lacrosse
A little history about our league…
The Lower Alabama Lacrosse League formed on the Eastern Shore of Mobile Bay in Alabama back in 2009 years ago with about 20 kids and two teams. Today the league run by all volunteers, has expanded to over 100 players, ages 5 to 18 with 5 boys divisions.
With very little lacrosse in the south along the Gulf of Mexico coast at the time, the league began reaching out to the nearest programs in the area looking for opportunities to play other teams. This effort initially started out with Gulf Breeze, FL and Ocean Springs, MS and quickly spread to teams in Destin, Mobile, and Louisiana.
In August of 2011, teams from Destin, Gulf Breeze, Mobile, Catholic Resurrection School, Ocean Springs and North Shore, AL met in Mississippi to form the Gulf Coast Lacrosse Conference (GCLC).
Distance was an immediate issue to address in order to continue the growth of each program. Most parents would prefer to travel to either the same field each weekend or at least stay in the same town. This is just not possible on the Gulf Coast at this time for programs to play different teams. The GCLC took a unique approach to the solution and established guidelines for regional jamborees. The jamboree concept allow for all teams to “share” in the travel burden. Each team hosts at least one jamboree at their home fields and travels to the other teams’ jamborees. The typical jamboree Saturday hosts games that either have running clocks like a tournament or standard stop clock play, the time format depends on the number of teams in attendance and the field space available.
Ocean Springs Sports Hall of Fame Class of 2020 selections
There are a total of 14 former athletes and coaches in the third installment of honorees for the Hall of Fame.
The date for the induction ceremony is still to be determined.
The former Greyhounds who made the cut this year are:
Doug Blakeney — Served as cross country coach for Ocean Springs from 1986-2007. His girls and boys teams won multiple state titles. The girls won 12 championships and the boys won four. He was selected MAC Coach of the Year four times for cross country. His girls track and field teams won 10 district titles.
DeAndre Brown — Won the 200-meter championship as a freshman. He had 88 receptions and over 4,200 total yards in his high school career. In his senior year, he amassed over 1,800 all-purpose yards. He was ranked the No. 1 player in the state in 2007 as a five-star recruit and a Parade All-American. He caught 134 passes for 2,207 yards and 24 touchdowns in three seasons at Southern Miss.
Donald Catchot — Lettered in football, baseball and basketball in 1953. At age 18, the St. Louis Cardinals signed him to play in the minor leagues with a Class C contract. He played in the minor leagues for four seasons, advancing to Double-A in Fort Worth, Texas. He had a .283 batting average over those four seasons.
Alan Curry — The inaugural winner of the Greyhoud Spirit Award. The purpose of the honor is to recognize an individual who supported sports in Ocean Springs, but not necessarily as a coach or a player. Curry was a principal and superintendent in the Ocean Springs School District during the 1960’s and 70’s.
Charles ‘WaWa’ Galloway — An All-Gulf Coast running back for football coach Hugh Pepper from 1977-1979. He made All-Bay Area running back for three years. In the 1979 Shrimp Bowl, he gained 95 yards on five carries. He was awarded 18 sports letters during his high school career. He played college football at Jackson State and was a running back on the Tigers’ SWAC title teams in 1980 and 1983.
Penny Galloway — A dual-port athlete at Ocean Springs from 1985-1990, she was the first 8th-grader to letter on the varsity softball team. In her junior and senior years, she received the MVP and Athlete of the Year awards. Also in her senior year, she led the varsity basketball team to its first Gulf Coast Conference title. She received a scholarship to play at Conner’s Community College in southeastern Louisiana.
Kenny Hudson — During his 1980 senior year, Hudson played quarterback and led the Greyhounds with more than 1,200 yards of offense and was named All-Gulf Coast. He was selected to play in the Mississippi All-Star football game. During his senior baseball season, he led Ocean Springs to a 25-6 record and a No. 5 ranking in the state. He hit .412 and was selected to play in the Mississippi All-Star baseball game. He signed a football scholarship to Mississippi College, where he played baseball as well.
Tommy Jones — A quarterback and linebacker for the Greyhounds from 1956-60, he was also a member of the Ocean Springs basketball team that reached the state finals in his senior year. He averaged 15.
Richard ‘Dick’ Mayfield — A football and basketball standout in his senior season, he was named to the 1970’s All-Decade Defensive Team after earning All-Star linebacker for West Jackson County and All-Gulf Coast Conference in football and basketball. At Grambling State, he was a four-year starter in football.
Jack Milton — An All-Gulf Coast Conference running back under coach Shannon Suarez from 1960-1962, he led the Hounds in rushing with 1,320 yards on 120 carries. He scored at least one touchdown in 9 out of 10 games and later played at Perkinston Junior College and Southeastern Louisiana.
Steve Rusk — Served as head boys’ soccer coach at Ocean Springs High from 1984 to 2003. He had undefeated teams in 1985, 1987 and 1988, with a career record of 219-68-17. Steve was selected as the MAC All-Star coach in 1985 and 1988, and was selected as Region 5 coach of the year in 1989. He had a 75 percent winning record over a 22-year career.
Ronnie Simnicht — As a senior in 1989, he was named first team football all-district, first team all-state, defensive player of the year, Bay Area defensive player of the year, Burger King All-Star and played in the Mississippi-Alabama All Star game. Ronnie earned a football scholarship to LSU, where he was a four-year letterman on the offensive line.
Rose Skelton — Instrumental in establishing the boys and girls high school soccer programs, she was the girls soccer coach for 4 years. Her record was 60-15-10. In 1990, she received the U.S. Youth Soccer Association State, Regional, and National ‘Coach of the Year’ awards. Also, she was coordinator of the first State Open Tournament held in Ocean Springs for their division.
Andre Watson — Played running back for the Greyhounds from 2003-04 under Steve Jones. His junior year, he racked up 1,523 yards rushing with 14 TDs. As a senior, he ran for 1,720 yards and 12 TDs, leading his team to the state finals against South Panola.
This story was originally published October 21, 2020 5:00 AM.
Related stories from Biloxi Sun Herald
Atmospheric river dumps rain across Northern California, flooding the Merced and Truckee rivers
A large tropical storm dumped rain over Northern California, drenching the Bay Area and causing some flooding in the Yosemite Valley and the Lake Tahoe area Saturday.
The Merced River reached its flood stage at 8 a.m., according to the National Weather Service. The storm that started Friday dropped more than 3 inches of rain in the Yosemite Valley, said Brian Ochs, a meteorologist with the weather service in Hanford.
The Merced River at the Pohono Bridge — which was running at about 4 feet ahead of the storm — hit 10 feet, which is when flooding occurs, Ochs said. The river was expected to rise to 15 feet by late Saturday, he said. The Merced River flooded last spring amid warm weather.
Yosemite Valley remained closed by the National Park Service on Saturday due to the flooding. All overnight reservations were canceled through Saturday night. Officials said they would reassess the situation on Sunday.
“There is some minor flooding in some of the campgrounds,” Ochs said. “Unfortunately it’s a loss of revenue for the park, but safety is the important thing.”
The main roads through the valley have been inundated with water, as has the Housekeeping Camp on the south bank of the Merced River, said meteorologist Kris Mattarochia with the weather service.
Video taken Saturday shows water flooding a roadway near the Yosemite Valley visitors center.
The rain was expected to taper off Saturday afternoon, but there remains a threat of mudslides in the Yosemite Valley due to recent wildfires, Ochs said.
The Truckee River also flooded early Saturday morning, according to the weather service.
The river reached its flood stage of 4.5 feet and is expected to crest at 5.7 feet Saturday afternoon, said meteorologist Courtney Obergfell. The flooding is expected to affect campgrounds, yards and basements of low-lying homes along the river, she said.
The “atmospheric river” storm — a long plume of water vapor pouring over from the Pacific Ocean — is loaded with warm tropical moisture that will accelerate snowmelt at some of the highest elevations along the northern and central Sierra Nevada.
San Francisco by early Saturday morning had recorded 2.22 inches of rain since the previous night, ranking it as the second-highest one-day total for the month of April. Parts to the north of the Bay Area got drenched by more than 6 inches of rain during the storm, according to the weather service.
Sacramento and Oroville broke daily records for rainfall Friday, and Santa Rosa saw 3.44 inches of rain from the storm. The storm forced a rare postponement of a game at San Francisco’s AT&T Park Friday, where the Giants had been set to host the Dodgers.
Officials with the California Department of Water Resources said they are closely monitoring how much water the storm sends into Lake Oroville, where a patched-up dam spillway may be used for the first time since last year.
At 2 p.m. Saturday, the lake level registered nearly 797 feet, well below the 901-foot-level at which it would spill over. If the lake rises to 830 feet, DWR officials said they will open the spillway gates, releasing water in a more controlled manner.
Current forecasts show the potential for runoff to raise the reservoir to near the 830-foot trigger elevation by the middle of next week, the department said.
The spillway is the reservoir’s primary tool for flushing out massive amounts of water in a quick, controlled way. It crumbled last year, triggering evacuations downstream, and has been only partially rebuilt, with engineers patching up the rest earlier this year. The remainder of the spillway is to be torn down and rebuilt after the current rainy season has passed.
Water resource managers have kept the lake well below its usual levels for the last year to avoid using the spillway amid repairs. But a string of late-season storms in March pushed the lake’s level higher.
The atmospheric river did not bring much rain to Ventura County or Los Angeles on Saturday, with light precipitation falling in the coastal mountains, according to the weather service.
Southern California appears poised to record one of the driest years on record, climatologist Bill Patzert said. Downtown Los Angeles since July 1 has received about 4.68 inches of rain, about 34% of what is seen on average by this time of year.
Follow @bposton on Twitter.
Times staff writers Joseph Serna and Rong-Gong Lin II contributed to this report.
2:30 p.m.: This article was updated with information on flooding in the Yosemite Valley, rainfall amounts in Northern California and the status of Lake Oroville.
This article was originally posted at 10:45 a.m.
Commuters who drive alone in zero-emission cars will no longer get free trips in L.A.’s toll lanes
In a bid to reduce congestion in toll lanes on the 110 and 10 freeways, Los Angeles County transportation officials on Thursday opted to end a program granting solo drivers of zero-emission vehicles free access to the lanes.
Drivers with state-issued clean-air stickers will be charged a toll starting in November or December of this year, Metropolitan Transportation Authority officials said. They will receive a 15% discount on the per-mile toll lane price.
Clean-air stickers will still grant solo drivers access to California’s carpool lanes. Drivers who carpool in zero-emission vehicles will remain exempt from the toll.
“You can still save that money,” said Los Angeles Mayor Eric Garcetti, who supported the policy change, in an interview with reporters. “Just carpool.”
Metro’s change to the toll policy has drawn some criticism from environmental advocates, who say saving time and money is a major reason that Los Angeles County residents buy zero-emission cars. Reducing emissions from transportation is critical to meeting the state’s air quality and climate goals.
Metro officials said the policy is necessary to keep speeds in the lanes above the federally mandated minimum of 45 mph during rush hour. When it comes to taming congestion, they say, a zero-emission car with one occupant is no different from any other vehicle.
Tolls on the Harbor Freeway and the San Bernardino Freeway fluctuate between 35 cents to $2 per mile during rush hour, based on how many drivers are in the paid lanes. Higher tolls are intended to deter some drivers, freeing up space and shortening drive times for those willing to pay. Under the previous policy, such incentives held no sway over drivers of zero-emission vehicles
“They contribute to the congestion, which increases the toll price for the toll-paying customers,” Executive Officer Shahrzad Amiri told directors at Metro’s downtown meeting Thursday.
The share of zero-emission vehicles in the lanes has doubled to 6% in the last two years, Metro said. The number of clean-air decals issued statewide by the Department of Motor Vehicles grew 44% between the end of 2016 and March 1, to more than 320,000.
Traffic in the northbound 110 toll lane would flow 13 mph faster during rush hour if the volume of drivers fell by 5%, Metro staff said.
“When you’re at or near capacity, the smallest changes can have a profound impact on performance,” said Robert Campbell, a Metro manager of transportation planning.
Currently, a zero-emission driver receives a toll waiver by indicating on the transponder device that three or more people are in the car.
Under the new policy, the driver would indicate single occupancy. The freeway’s computer and camera system will scan the license plate number, and apply a 15% discount if the car is registered in the state’s clean air system.
Officials said drivers should expect that California’s policies on clean-air vehicles and carpool access will continue to evolve. Previous policy shifts have barred solo drivers of certain early-model hybrids such as the Toyota Prius from the lanes.
Los Angeles County Supervisor Sheila Kuehl, the only official to vote against the plan, said the decision shows Metro isn’t prioritizing the environment.
“We ought to simply admit that we really want to convert this to a toll lane, and we don’t really care about clean air … that all of the things that we adopted HOV lanes for in the first place, we’d like to abandon,” Kuehl said.
She also cited a recent UCLA study that found the ability to drive alone in a carpool lane or a toll lane is the “single biggest incentive” for Californians to buy a zero-emission vehicle if they live within 10 miles of such a lane.
Other board members questioned whether Metro and Caltrans could alleviate congestion by changing other policies. Currently, any vehicle with two occupants counts as a carpool on the 110. During peak hours, the 10 has a three-person carpool requirement.
Duarte councilman and Metro director John Fasana requested a study on how to begin tolling all passenger vehicles in the El Monte Freeway toll lane and busway aside from vanpools and buses.
Los Angeles City Councilman Paul Krekorian said in many cases, two people in the same vehicle would not have driven separately otherwise, meaning they do not meet the traditional definition of a carpool.
“It feels good for us to say, ‘Yes, let’s encourage carpooling,’” Krekorian said. “But I believe that carpooling is largely mythical in Los Angeles.”
For more transportation news, follow @laura_nelson on Twitter.
6:40 p.m.: This article was updated to include comment from Los Angeles County supervisor Sheila Kuehl and Los Angeles City Councilman Paul Krekorian.
This article was originally published at 2:15 p.m.
On the role of the Russian Navy in the prevention of nuclear war
In the article “On the oddities in setting tasks for the Russian Navy and a little bit about aircraft carriers” I reviewed the tasks set by the leadership of our country for the Russian Navy. There were three such tasks in total:
1) defense of the national interests of the Russian Federation and its allies in the World Ocean by military methods;
2) maintaining military-political stability at the global and regional levels;
3) repulsing aggression from sea and ocean directions.
Unfortunately, the publicly available regulatory legal acts, although they affirm the need to build a powerful ocean-going fleet, do not explain exactly what our national interests in the world’s oceans are and from whom they need to be protected. Of course, it is very important to understand that the expression “do not explain” is not at all synonymous with the concept of “absent”. If the documents do not clearly spell out the tasks for the ocean-going Russian Navy, this does not mean at all that there are no such tasks. But in the previous article I did not begin to formulate them myself and limited myself to presenting my personal views on some of the tasks of the Russian ocean-going fleet and aircraft carriers in its composition.
Now I suggest you, dear reader, to move on to the tasks of the Russian Navy in terms of ensuring stability at the global level.
Forms of future conflicts
They are actually a wagon and a small cart. But here it makes sense to “go over” how our main geopolitical adversary, the United States, saw the wars of the future.
In the early post-war years, the Americans relied on a strategy of massive retaliation and considered only one form of war against the USSR – a general nuclear war.But, as soon as the Soviet Union began to produce atomic weapons in “commercial” quantities, and even created more or less reliable means of delivering them to the United States (the first intercontinental ballistic missiles), the situation changed radically. Since 1961, the United States switched to a “flexible response” or “metered use of force” strategy, allowing not only a full-scale nuclear, but also a limited war with the USSR, both with and without the use of nuclear weapons.
Since that moment, the United States has repeatedly changed its strategies, but they all had one thing in common: never again did the Americans focus exclusively on total Armageddon.So, for example, the strategy of “direct confrontation”, which operated in the last decade of the existence of the USSR, assumed the possibility of waging the following types of wars:
1) general nuclear;
2) general common;
3) nuclear in the theater of war;
4) usual in the theater of war;
Thus, the Americans assumed that an armed clash with the USSR (in the past) and the Russian Federation in the present and in the future could occur with conventional weapons. They do not rule out a limited nuclear war either.I must say that in this I fully agree with them. For example, some kind of conflict with a NATO member (yes, at least with Turkey), which has arisen for reasons for which the Europeans do not want to die, may well turn out to be local and non-nuclear. If the Europeans or Americans try to intervene, then perhaps they will be able to convince them of the seriousness of our intentions by using tactical nuclear weapons, without leading to a total atomic catastrophe.
It is my deep conviction that a global nuclear missile war can start in two scenarios.
I would call the first scenario “Big Error”. It will look like this.
First, there will be some serious political crisis, like the Caribbean crisis, through which the USSR and the USA went through in 1962. In this case, to confirm the seriousness of the intentions of the Russian Federation and NATO, the deployment of armed forces will begin (without announcing a general mobilization). These forces, of course, will be brought out “into the fields” under the most plausible pretext. Well, here’s how we, for example, conducted exercises near the Russian-Ukrainian border this year.The real meaning of such deployment will be to convince the “opponent” of the seriousness of his intentions and readiness to go to the end. Such actions fit well into the strategy of the Russian Federation (we, in general, love to conduct all kinds of exercises when someone starts to behave strangely) and the United States, with their “flexible response”, that is, the willingness to wage conflicts of various levels.
And then, during the period of such an aggravation of relations and the accompanying serious tension of nerves, someone will be very much mistaken in something.And the demonstration of force will end with large-scale nuclear missile strikes against the enemy. For example, during the deployment of forces, there will be a “border incident” followed by an exchange of conventional weapons strikes. Or someone will risk attacking us in the expectation that we will not dare to use nuclear weapons. But, if a war starts, and everything goes very badly for one of the parties, tactical nuclear weapons may well be used. Such an escalation may well not be contained within a limited conflict.And everything will end with Armageddon.
The main features of this scenario are as follows:
1) in it, no one initially wants a general nuclear war, but it nevertheless becomes inevitable during the escalation of the conflict and / or as a result of a banal human error;
2) by the time the strategic nuclear forces are used, the armed forces of the conflicting countries are deployed and ready for war to the extent possible without general mobilization, or are in the process of such preparation.
Can such an outbreak of a general nuclear war be prevented?
Yes, but only in a political way. The world should not be brought to such serious crises. And if you have already brought it, then you need to be able to quickly find mutually acceptable ways out of them. But in times of crisis, when the parties, holding their hands on the triggers, look at each other through the sights – alas, anything is possible here.
Unfortunately, armed forces, however powerful, are unable to prevent nuclear conflicts of this kind. Nevertheless, it must be understood that the more powerful our general-purpose forces and the better protected our strategic nuclear forces (SNF), the more chances that the outbreak of conflict will be stopped without bringing the matter to the use of the “last argument of the kings.” However, here we move on to the conduct of hostilities, while the topic of this article is the prevention of war.
The second scenario I would call “Very Big Error”. It consists in the fact that the US leadership at some point will decide that it is capable of annulling the strategic nuclear potential of the Russian Federation by means of a disarming counterforce strike.And he will deliver such a blow.
The main features of this option will be that:
1) a global nuclear missile war will be unleashed by the United States quite deliberately;
2) both ours and a significant part of the American armed forces will be in places of permanent deployment in peacetime.
Someone may have a question – why am I excluding the scenario in which Russia is delivering a counterforce strike? The answer is very simple. The core of the United States’ strategic nuclear forces is its naval component, that is, nuclear submarines that carry intercontinental ballistic missiles.Russia does not have today and will not have in the foreseeable future the possibility of destroying them in a counterforce strike. This means that the Americans, in any case, will retain at least 5-6 SSBNs (nuclear submarine with ballistic missiles) of the Ohio type, having 100-120 ICBMs Trident II (usually Americans go on combat duty with 20 such missiles) , on each of which there can be no less than 4 warheads, and at maximum load – up to 14. This is more than enough to inflict unacceptable damage to the Russian Federation.
Accordingly, a counterforce strike for Russia loses its meaning by definition – by starting a nuclear war, we will certainly not be able to achieve a peace for ourselves that would be better than the pre-war one. There is no point in starting.
But the Americans can try. And even with some chance of success.
About counterforce strike
The main feature of such a strike will be its surprise. Consequently, preparations for it will be carried out secretly, so that only those forces that can be deployed secretly from the Russian Federation will be involved in its application.Well, and the main means of waging a “secret” war in our country are, of course, submarines.
The Americans currently have 14 Ohio-class SSBNs. With the operational stress factor (KO) equal to 0.5, it will not be difficult for the United States to launch 7-8 such boats at the same time, even taking into account the fact that some of them may undergo major repairs. Again, this number of ships is unlikely to make us flustered if we fix their exit. And nothing will prevent these SSBNs from taking positions near our territory – in the Norwegian and Mediterranean seas, as well as in areas closer to the Far East.This will be necessary in order to reduce the flight time to the maximum, on the one hand, and in order to “stuff” the missiles with the maximum number of warheads, on the other.
Each SSBN can carry 24 Trident II SLBMs. Total for 8 SSBNs – 192 missiles. Each missile can carry up to 8 “heavy” W88 warheads with a capacity of 455-475 kt or up to 14 “light” W76 warheads with a capacity of 100 kt. It is clear that with such a load, the Trident II cannot be thrown at the maximum range.But, given the deployment in relative proximity to our borders, they do not need to fly far. Taking into account the fact that the Americans have 400 W88 units, having loaded to the maximum, the Ohio is quite capable of “dragging” 2,388 warheads to our shores. And even if the ammunition load is reduced to 6-10 warheads per missile, then even then we will get more than an impressive figure of 1650 warheads.
It is clear that all this will bypass the START III agreements, but, firstly, if the Americans decide to strike at us, no treaty will stop them.And they will be able to secretly equip the required number of missiles with warheads.
And if you take into account the American NATO allies? The same England is quite capable, if necessary, to put a pair of SSBNs into the sea, if this is agreed in advance with the United States.
But not everything is so simple.
Underwater missile launch is a daunting task. In order to complete it, the submarine must occupy the so-called “launch corridor” – move at a certain speed at a certain depth. During the launch of missiles, a lot of factors affect the submarine – these are physical effects during the launch of the rocket, and changes in the mass of SSBNs after the launch of the missiles, which, of course, is extinguished due to the intake of sea water, but not instantly, etc.Therefore, both our SSBNs and American SSBNs, and in general, almost any submarines using underwater launch missile weapons, use them not in a salvo, but in “bursts”: they fire several missiles, then interrupt, returning the ship to the launch corridor, and also carrying out other necessary measures to organize further shooting. And all this takes a lot of time. Moreover, “Ohio” never fired more than 4 missiles in one salvo.
We conducted tests of firing with full volleys – Operation Begemot-2, when the K-407 Novomoskovsk launched all of its 16 missiles in one salvo. But this achievement should be viewed as a record figure that can hardly be repeated by an SSBN with a conventional crew on normal combat duty. Suffice it to recall that the preparation for the “Begemot-2” took our sailors as much as 2 years.
Based on the above, it can be assumed that the Americans can confidently shoot 4 missiles in one salvo, after which they will need time to prepare for the second and subsequent volleys it, as essential).But in this case, there will be no question of any surprise – our missile attack warning system, in any case, will detect and report, “where necessary”, about the first launches.
Thus, it will not be a big mistake to assume that the actual number of missiles and warheads that the Americans can use in a counterforce strike is significantly less than that calculated from a full load of SSBNs with warheads. If you count 4 missiles in a salvo, then 8 Ohio are capable of striking 32 missiles. And even if you load them with a maximum of 14 warheads, you get only 448 warheads. A pair of British SSBNs will bring this figure to 560. But French ballistic missiles from submarines with their circular probable deviation of 350 m are not suitable for counterforce strike. And it is doubtful that France, in general, will participate in all this.
Is this enough to destroy the Russian strategic nuclear forces?
No, not enough.
Our Strategic Missile Forces have approximately 122 silo and 198 mobile ICBM launchers.To destroy the mine plant with a probability of 0.95, you will need 2 warheads.
But with mobile complexes, everything is more complicated. On the one hand, at normal times, most of them stand in places of permanent deployment, where it is very easy to destroy them. On the other hand, identifying and destroying the complexes deployed “in the fields” will be a very, very difficult task. It is necessary to constantly track their movements, which is very difficult, even taking into account the capabilities of the American satellite constellation. Therefore, in order to more or less reliably defeat such complexes, the Americans will have to “look out” in advance for the positions to which our mobile complexes are usually deployed, and spend the warheads of their missiles to destroy all spare (and specially equipped false) positions.
If the American preemptive strike had been preceded by a certain period of tension, during which our mobile Topoli and Yars were withdrawn from their bases and dispersed or were in immediate readiness for such dispersal, then the destruction of at least half of them would become would be practically an unsolvable task, even with the use of hundreds of missiles and thousands of warheads.But, if we are attacked suddenly, and a blow is delivered to all identified positions, then it is probably still possible to destroy most of our mobile complexes.
Of course, the required outfit of forces should be considered by professionals, but even if, having simplified everything as much as possible (for the Americans), it is assumed that to destroy one of our complex will need 2 warheads (with a probability of 0. 95), then even then by 320 Russian complexes will need 640 warheads. But it should be borne in mind that the strategic missile forces are not the only component of the Russian strategic nuclear forces.
However, in order to eliminate our SSBNs in bases and strategic aviation, even less will be needed: for this, it is necessary to destroy the airbases in Engels, Ryazan and Ukrainka (Amur Region) and the naval bases in Gadzhievo and Vilyuchinsk with a sudden nuclear strike. Having spent 4–5 warheads for each, we get a consumption of only 20–25 nuclear warheads. Another 20-30 pieces will be required for our over-the-horizon radars in order to “blind” our warning systems for a nuclear missile attack.
Thus, according to the most modest estimates, it turns out that for the success of a counterforce strike against the Russian Federation, the Americans will need no less than 700 combat units.But in reality, this figure, of course, will be higher. Indeed, in addition to ensuring the probability of at least one warhead falling at a distance necessary to hit the target, there is a nonzero probability that some combat units will be able to be shot down by air defense systems on alert. To reduce this probability to a minimum, it is necessary to subject the positions of these air defense systems to a blow. And, in addition to the air defense system, there are a sufficient number of targets that need to be destroyed – command posts, the alleged storage sites for non-deployed strategic and tactical nuclear weapons, etc.
Can the Americans put into the sea not 7–8 SSBNs, but a larger number of them, say, 10–12 units? This is possible if you prepare for such an exit in advance. But this will already be quite difficult to hide – satellite reconnaissance is still not only in the United States. And if we suddenly discover that the overwhelming majority of American SSBNs have left bases, this is a reason to be on the alert, announcing an increased level of readiness and starting to disperse the same mobile systems. In this case, an attempt to deprive us of our strategic nuclear forces will no longer have a chance of success.
No need to be ashamed of your complexes! Source: mil. ru
The conclusion from the above is simple: the SSBNs at the disposal of the United States and its NATO allies are not enough to deliver a sudden disarming strike.
What else can the Americans use to defeat our strategic nuclear forces?
What else can the Americans hit?
Medium-range ballistic missiles deployed on the territory of Europe will create an extremely serious threat – they do not need to maintain the “launch corridor”, the salvo is limited only by the number of launchers.But there are two important nuances here. First, the Americans simply do not have such missiles today. Secondly, I strongly doubt that the Europeans in the foreseeable future would agree to host analogues of the Pershing-2, since this automatically makes them a priority target for our nuclear strike.
Aviation? Of course not. She will be discovered in advance. And there will be no surprise.
US land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles? Also no. Both our and the American early warning systems are designed to detect the beginning of such a nuclear missile attack. And give a full-scale answer during the flight time.
Nuclear submarines remain. But not strategic, but multipurpose (MAPL).
In my opinion, a counterforce strike is completely impossible without the concentration of the US MAPL in the adjacent waters.
Their first mission is to search for and destroy Russian strategic missile submarine cruisers (SSBNs). In the near future, the number of such ships in the Russian Navy will fluctuate between 10-12.Taking into account the realistic for us KOH within 0.25 (and it was even lower), this will give 2-3 SSBNs on duty at sea (or on the transition to the area of combat duty). In principle, the Americans are already constantly tracking our SSBNs. But, if the Americans decide to start a nuclear war, then, of course, an increased concentration of MAPLs should be expected.
Is it obligatory for the Americans to destroy our SSBNs at sea? Undoubtedly. If the counterforce strike on our naval and air bases achieves complete success, and all SSBNs and strategic missile carriers are destroyed, and only 5% of the strategic missile forces will remain (such results can be considered a deafening success of the Americans), then even then we will have 6 heavy intercontinental ballistic missiles and up to 10 surviving Topol or Yars.
Counting 10 warheads for the first and 4 for the second, we get up to a hundred warheads in a retaliation salvo. Such a retaliation will certainly not overwhelm the United States. In theory, these combat units can kill up to 10 million people, striking at densely populated cities. But in practice, our missiles are launched with those flight missions that they will have at the time an attack is detected. So some of the warheads may be aimed at any military facilities and not cause much damage to the economy and the population of America.
But even one surviving SSBN will add 16 missiles to this number. And even if each of them has 4 warheads agreed upon by the treaty, then even then it will already amount to 64 warheads. But what if the crafty Russians played dishonestly? And equipped their missiles with not 4, but 6 or 10 warheads? And they can. Ask Joe Biden if in doubt.
The second mission of the US and NATO IAPLs is to strike with precision weapons. That is, direct participation in the counterforce strike. Do not forget that the Americans currently have about 1,400 W80-1 warheads with a yield of up to 150 kt, which may well be deployed on Tomahawk cruise missiles of the corresponding modifications.
It seems that the “atomic” “Tomahawks” are decommissioned today, But it is far from the fact that the existing modifications cannot be equipped with nuclear warheads. And you need to understand that many targets of a counterforce strike can be hit by non-nuclear precision weapons. The latest versions of non-nuclear Tomahawks, equipped with high-power penetrating charges, are close to tactical nuclear weapons in terms of their ability to defeat protected targets.
Of course, the use of Tomahawks in counterforce strikes is limited.This is due to the low speed of the cruise missile. Priority targets, such as carriers of nuclear weapons, must be struck no more than 15 minutes from the start of the attack. And “Tomahawk” during this time will fly only 200 km. But nevertheless, the Tomahawks can be assigned the task of destroying objects located near the coastline: the same naval bases, for example. In addition, these cruise missiles may well be used to destroy a number of important stationary targets, so to speak, of the “second stage” – parts of command posts, communication centers, etc., which may well “wait” 25-30 minutes or more from the start of the attack.
It is more than likely that MPSS carrying Tomahawks will also have some restrictions on the number of missiles in the first salvo – by analogy with SSBNs. That is, it is unlikely that a nuclear-powered ship of the Ohio type, converted into a carrier of 154 Tomahawks, will be able to fire them in one salvo. But it can be assumed that the number of missiles that a submarine is capable of launching without leaving the “launch corridor” nevertheless depends on the mass and dimensions of these missiles.The Tomahawk is much more modest than a ballistic missile. And it can be expected that in one salvo the US MPS will be able to fire significantly more than four cruise missiles.
1. No armed forces will insure us against Armageddon, which began as a result of the uncontrolled escalation of the local conflict. Therefore, our armed forces must be ready for an all-out nuclear war. I will consider the goals and objectives of the fleet in this development of events in the next article.
2. The preparation of the United States for a counterforce strike will be accompanied by a concentration of MPSS (Americans and their allies) in our near sea zone, as well as in the areas of SSBN deployment: some – in order to search for SSBNs, others – for direct participation in the first strike.
3. A prerequisite for a counterforce strike will be the preliminary escorting of all Russian SSBNs in the sea by the US and its allies. If this condition is not met, the Americans are most likely to abandon the strike.
Accordingly, the main task of our fleet to prevent an unprovoked nuclear attack, that is, a counterforce strike, will be to identify the increased activity of enemy submarines at least in the coastal and near sea zone, as well as in the areas of the combat services of our SSBNs and on the approaches to them.
The solution of this problem will allow us:
1. Timely bring the strategic nuclear forces of the Russian Federation into increased or even full combat readiness, which automatically removes the counterforce strike from the agenda. Since in this case it will not be possible to reduce our nuclear potential to acceptable values for the United States at least simply due to dispersal (readiness for immediate dispersal) of the Yars and Topol mobile complexes.
2. Control the movement of foreign submarines in the seas adjacent to our territory and thereby guarantee the disruption of their main combat mission – the search and escort of our SSBNs on alert.
Thus, solving the tasks of monitoring the underwater situation, we “kill” two birds with one stone: we not only identify preparations for a counterforce strike, but also ensure the combat stability of the naval component of our strategic nuclear forces.
Do we need aircraft carriers to detect US and NATO submarines in the seas adjacent to our coastline?
No, they are not needed.
Other forces are needed here – a satellite constellation of appropriate capabilities, an underwater environment illumination system, including both stationary hydrophones and specialized reconnaissance ships, modern and highly efficient patrol aircraft, minesweepers and corvettes, and, of course, nuclear submarines – hunters.
Those dear readers who follow my publications probably remember my calls for:
1) The Russian Navy should stop trying to create universal corvettes in favor of specialized PLO corvettes;
2) in the construction of non-strategic nuclear submarines, priority was given to torpedo submarines of the most moderate sizes.
Without a doubt, we also need a modern patrol aircraft. Conceptually, the IL-38N Novella turned out to be an excellent vehicle, capable of not only anti-submarine warfare, but also to control the surface and air situation, including through electronic reconnaissance, and also provide target designation.He has only one problem – he is outdated, not having time to really be born, and today is seriously inferior to his foreign counterparts.
Creation of a modern aircraft capable of solving a similar range of tasks is a matter of paramount importance, as is the case for a new PLO helicopter.
In order to prevent an unprovoked nuclear attack, in addition to the SSBN itself, we urgently need anti-submarine and anti-mine forces of sufficient strength. And I urge everyone who is used to measuring the strength of warships in the number of “Caliber” or “Zircon” that can be piled on them, to understand one simple thing.To prevent an unprovoked nuclear attack on our country, a pair of torpedo submarines of, say, 5,000 tonnes of displacement, equipped with high-quality HAC, effective torpedo and anti-torpedo weapons, and also with a high low-noise speed, will be many times more useful than one giant Ash M “with its bunch of cruise missiles. And the deployment of stationary and mobile means of monitoring the underwater situation, capable of detecting the latest NATO nuclear-powered ships, will deter the United States much more effectively than the massive construction of Poseidons and their carriers.
Minesweepers, PLO corvettes, patrol aircraft, PLO helicopters, surface and underwater situation lighting system (EGSONPO), multipurpose nuclear torpedo submarines and, of course, strategic missile submarines – this is where, in my opinion, the revival of the national the military fleet.
Does all of the above mean that the ships of the ocean fleet and aircraft carriers are of no use to us? Of course not.
It is absolutely impossible to limit the Russian Navy only to the above-mentioned means of waging war at sea for one simple reason.Although all of the above will help prevent a counterforce strike and ensure the secrecy of our SSBNs, but only in peacetime.
Alas, a surprise nuclear attack is by no means the only possible form of conflict in which the Russian Federation may be drawn.
To be continued …
History of Canada | Immigration to Canada
History of the development of Canada as a modern country
The history of Canada began long before the first written sources appeared. When the first Europeans arrived in Canada, it was already inhabited by numerous Indian tribes.
Canada: A People’s History – When the World Began
Ironically, we call the aborigines of Canada Indians because when Columbus sailed to America in 1492, he thought he had found a new route to India and naturally called the local population Indians. They call themselves in their own language “the people”. Linguistically, they can be divided into two groups – Algonquin and Iroquoi.The tribes of one group settled the territory of modern Canada, others went further south and occupied the territory of modern Argentina and Chile.
Canadian Indian tribes evolved rapidly, as evidenced by archaeological finds at Bluefish Bay in the Yukon. When the European pioneers arrived in Canada in 1500, the Indian tribes were well adapted to local conditions and possessed quite advanced technologies.
Canada: A People’s History – Jacques Cartier
Many tribes have formed on the territory of Canada with their own laws and government. The Indians had their own system of religious beliefs, trade, customs, crafts, arts and culture, the external expression of which was songs, narratives and ritual dramatic performances.
Québec History 1 – 1534 Jacques Cartier
Québec History – 1608 Samuel de Champlain
Unfortunately, European conquerors and American pioneers put an end to the development of Indian civilization. As a result of land loss, war and disease, the population of Canadian Indians has declined by almost 2/3.
Only the Eskimos (Inuit), who came here 30 thousand years ago along the isthmus that existed at that time, connecting Alaska and Siberia, preserved their traditional way of life. Eskimo settlements are clusters of family groups that lead a nomadic lifestyle in the harsh conditions of the Arctic. The life of the Eskimos has not changed much over the past 1500 years and their main occupation is still hunting. Today, analyzing such historical events as wars, the fur trade, the construction of railways, the formation of the Hudson’s Bay company, to which the Indians were involved; we can say that they had difficulty adapting to the European way of life and value system, which was the main reason for the decline of their civilization. The modern inhabitants of Canada are little familiar with the culture of the Indian tribes, but new trends in music and art are emerging, which contain elements of the culture of the aborigines of Canada – the Indians.
On July 1, 1867, the autonomous regions, which are part of the British Empire, were united into a single state called Canada and became the dominion of Great Britain. The Dominion was created by Britain to prevent the United States from seizing Canadian lands. Therefore, July 1 – the day the new country emerged – is Canada’s National Day, its biggest public holiday.Provinces that entered the Confederation this year: Quebec, Ontario, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. Manitoba joined in 1870, British Columbia in 1871, Prince Edward Island in 1873, Saskatchewan and Albert in 1905, and New Foundland in 1949. The Yukon Territory was formed in 1898, the Northern Territories in 1905, and the Nunavut Territory in 1999.
Canada participated in two world wars. In World War I, Canada fought on the side of Great Britain. In 1915, Canadian troops took part in the Battle of Ypres (Belgium).Ypres secured its place in world history as a key point in World War I. Major John McCray of Guelph, Ontario was a surgeon in the Canadian Artillery Brigade and an eyewitness to the events. On the 16th day of the battle, 6,000 Canadians were killed, and the next day, his friend Lieutenant Alex Helmer of Ottawa was killed. Shocked by the death of a friend, McCrae wrote a poem that became an epitaph for all the dead soldiers. Of the 250,000 soldiers killed at Ypres, one in five remained unburied. In memory of all soldiers killed in wars, Canadians celebrate Remembrance Day.The red poppybecame the emblem of this day.
World War 1 History – Canada
During the interwar period, Canada gradually grew into an independent state within the British Commonwealth. During World War II, the country fought against Germany.
In December 1964, the Canadian Parliament adopted the country’s official flag and the red and white maple leaf was first raised on February 5, 1965 at Parliament Hill in Ottawa. The red stripes symbolize the ocean borders, the maple leaf is the symbol of Canada; they decided not to use the blue color to emphasize the independence of Canada from Great Britain and France.
National Anthems of Canada
Sir John Alexander MacDonald is credited as the Founding Father of Canada. He was Canada’s first prime minister from 1867 to 1873. MacDonald wanted to strengthen the new Dominion both inside the colonies and abroad. He foresaw the transformation of the British Empire into something like the Commonwealth of Nations, in which Canada and Britain would be equal partners. During his seven years as prime minister, his government bought the western territories from Hudson’s Bay, annexed Manitoba and British Columbia to the Confederation, and completed the transcontinental railroad that connected Canada from the Atlantic to the Pacific.
Aerostat long-range missile and anti-space defense system. Part 2
a prominent analyst in the field of Soviet and Russian space programs
on the creation in Russia of a promising long-range anti-missile and anti-space defense missile system Aerostat with the leading role of JSC Concern East Kazakhstan Almaz-Antey and JSC Corporation Moscow Institute heat engineering “(MIT). Translation of the second part of this material.
Launch vehicle “Start-1” converted from ICBM “Topol” (c) JSC “Corporation” Moscow Institute of Heat Engineering “(MIT)
theater missile defense system such as the Aegis.Presumably, Solomonov was referring to Aegis as a well-known example of the US missile defense system, rather than referring to the MIT missile defense system being in the same category.
Protection against pre-strategic missiles is currently provided by the S-300 and S-400 air defense systems. The only missile defense system capable of intercepting ICBMs is the A-135, deployed around Moscow to intercept warheads aimed at the city and its environs. It was declared operational in 1995 and is the successor to the original A-35 system, deployed in the 1970s in accordance with the 1972 ABM Treaty (which limited both the US and the Soviet Union to only one missile defense site, but was abandoned by the US in 2002.) At present, the main elements of the A-135 are the Don-2N phased array fire control radar and several dozen atmospheric missiles with short-range 53T6 nuclear warheads (NATO Gazelle classification) developed by the Novator Design Bureau. Also, the A-135 included long-range transatmospheric missiles with a 51T6 nuclear warhead (according to NATO’s Gorgon classification), which have now been removed from service.
In 2014, Pavel Sozinov, a representative of the Almaz-Antey VKO Concern, said that the Russian missile defense system was being significantly modernized and would include equivalents of the American THAAD and GMD systems.The THAAD (Terminal High Altitude Area Defense) system is designed to intercept short and medium-range missiles at the end of the main leg and at the end of the flight path. The GMD (Ground-Based Midcourse Defense) system is designed to counter ICBMs on the main trajectory. Sozinov said the THAAD-type system will target medium-range ballistic missiles and will also have limited capabilities against intercontinental ballistic missiles.The other system will be “somewhat similar to the GMD”, but will be mobile and have “higher interception efficiency.” In 2017, the chief designer of the Russian missile attack warning system, Sergei Boev, said that by 2025 a “multi-tiered national missile defense system” would be deployed, calling it a response to the “direct threat” posed by US Aegis Ashore missiles deployed in Eastern Europe. …
There can hardly be any doubt that Russia considers anti-space weapons to be an integral part of the defense system, usually characterized as directed against “air and space-based weapons of attack.”From a Russian perspective, one such potential space-based attack weapon is the US Air Force X-37B spacecraft, which Sozinov said can carry up to three warheads into space and then deliver them to their targets after evading early warning systems. Even Russian President Vladimir Putin himself referred to the X-37B’s offensive capabilities, stating that “reusable shuttle-like spacecraft could give the United States an edge in militarizing space and that the deployment of what he called“ warheads ”in orbit poses a major global threat. safety than medium-range missiles in Europe.In 2017, Sozinov acknowledged the participation of Almaz-Antey in the development of anti-space weapons, in particular electronic warfare systems that will be used against radar reconnaissance, optical reconnaissance and communications satellites, as well as systems for “direct functional destruction of elements placed in orbit” – an obvious reference to kinetic anti-satellite weapons.
What Sozinov called “Russian THAAD” appears to be the S-500 system (also known as “Prometheus” and “Triumfator-M”).As the commander of the Russian Aerospace Forces Sergey Surovikin explained, the S-500 system is aimed at both “aerodynamic targets” (including drones and hypersonic vehicles) and “ballistic targets.” According to him, its main task is to destroy medium-range ballistic missiles, but, if necessary, it can also intercept ICBM warheads at the end of the trajectory. He added that in the future, the system will also be able to destroy LEO satellites and “space attack systems.”Little is known about the S-500, but available information suggests that it includes the 40N6M missile (with a declared range of 400 km) for use against aircraft and cruise missiles, as well as the more powerful 77N6-N and 77N6-N1 missiles (with an estimated range of 500-600 km) to counter ballistic missiles and satellites. All these missiles were developed by the Fakel Design Bureau.
The Russian GMD is most likely an upgraded Moscow missile defense system known as the A-235. Work on this project began back in 1991 under the strange code name “Airplane-M”, but progress was very slow.The short-range component of the A-235 system appears to be an improved version of the 53T6 rocket developed by the Novator design bureau, called the 53T6M, whose flight tests have been conducted at the Sary-Shagan test site in Kazakhstan since the beginning of the last decade. The long-range component, replacing the decommissioned 51T6 missiles, has long been rumored as Nudol, and numerous sources (including Wikipedia) go so far as to claim that Nudol is actually a different name for the entire A-235 system. (which is clearly not the case).In fact, there is no convincing documentary evidence that “Nudol” will become part of the A-235.
The index used for the Aerostat missile (106T6 or possibly 103T6 – the same nomenclature as 53T6 and 51T6) does indicate that it will be a future element of the A-235. It would have several advantages over the 51T6 missile. Probably, having a long range, it will be able to intercept ICBMs earlier in the middle section of the trajectory than has been possible until now.Instead of being installed in mines, it must be mobile (MIT’s ICBMs can be launched from mobile launchers), and its advanced homing system must be capable of kinetically destroying its targets, rather than incapacitating them by detonating a nuclear warhead in close proximity. proximity to them.
The location of the Nudol in all of this remains uncertain (its exact range is unknown). Perhaps the A-235 will be a three-tier system with short-range missiles (53T6M), medium-range missiles (Nudol / 14A042) and long-range missiles (Aerostat / 106T6).The original plans developed for the A-235 in the 1990s did call for such a three-tiered system. It is also possible that Nudol is a specialized anti-satellite system that has no anti-missile missions at all (index 14A042 of the Nudol missile does not indicate that it is part of the A-235).
Potential anti-space missions
Is the Aerostat designed to attack satellites as well? If what Sozinov wrote about Aerostat in his 2017 article is true, then it looks like it is.The fact that Aerostat and Nudol seem to use the same guidance systems may also point in that direction. When used as an anti-satellite complex, “Aerostat” should have a range significantly higher than “Nudol”, and, therefore, be capable of hitting satellites in higher orbits. In the absence of more specific design information, it is difficult to accurately estimate how much higher this range will be.
As practice shows, the apogee that a ballistic missile can reach with a vertical launch is approximately half of its maximum horizontal range.Consequently, a missile such as the Topol, with a horizontal range of about 11,000 kilometers, could reach a maximum altitude of about 5,500 kilometers. By replacing nuclear warheads with a much lighter kinetic interceptor and adding one or more stages (as is done on the Start missiles), this ceiling can be significantly increased. Recall that China conducted a high-altitude rocket test in May 2013, which was officially announced as the launch of a scientific sensing rocket, but which the Pentagon later assessed as a possible “test of technology for anti-space missions in geostationary orbit.”
However, it is highly doubtful that the “Aerostat” will be able to reach such heights or even those used by the American GPS / NAVSTAR navigation satellites (about 20,000 kilometers). Moreover, to achieve such goals, direct intercept anti-satellite weapons will take hours, giving targets enough time to perform evasive maneuvers. A more effective way to disable satellites in such orbits is to use electronic warfare systems, some of which are known to have been deployed by Russia.Any other US military satellites that may be useful targets for anti-satellite systems orbit the Earth at an altitude of no more than 1000 kilometers, in particular, KH-11 optical reconnaissance satellites, X-37B space aircraft, Onyx (Lacrosse) and Topaz radar reconnaissance satellites and NOSS-3 / Intruder oceanic reconnaissance satellites. A series of European military surveillance satellites may also be added to the list. All of this is likely to fall within the range of the Aerostat.
In short, within a few years Russia can get three anti-missile systems at once, which can be used as anti-satellite means of direct interception (S-500, Nudol and Aerostat), regardless of what is behind it.In fact, this task is officially recognized for the S-500 and Nudol, and the latter may even be a specialized anti-satellite defense system. In addition, Russia probably already has operational ground-based electronic warfare and laser systems to counter space, and is also working on orbital anti-satellite systems, which, apparently, have already made test flights as part of the Burevestnik and Nivelir projects. “.
Some insight into the initial test schedule for Aerostat is provided by a previously mentioned court document published in July this year.The July 2013 contract between the Russian Ministry of Defense and the Almaz-Antey East Kazakhstan Concern and the subsequent additions to the contract provided for the completion of the draft design by November 2014 and the “field experiment” in October 2017. The so-called preliminary tests were to be completed by November 2020, followed by state tests, after which the system was to be declared ready for serial production in November 2021.
“Preliminary tests” and “state tests” are terms inherited from Soviet times and denote the stages of testing that military products must pass before they are declared operational.”Preliminary testing” is defined as the tests required to determine whether experimental versions of military products meet the specifications. “Government testing” is necessary to determine whether a product meets specifications “under conditions as close as possible to those with experience in the field” and to decide whether it can be approved for use in service and batch production.
According to the document, the “field experiment” was ultimately carried out on December 26, 2017.No further details are provided, but on that day, Russia’s Strategic Rocket Forces launched a Soviet Topol ICBM during a test launch from the Kapustin Yar test site in the Volgograd region (most likely towards the Sary-Shagan test site in Kazakhstan). In a statement released the same day, the Russian Defense Ministry announced that the launch was being carried out to test new ballistic missile countermeasures. The same goal was announced for other test launches of the Topol from Kapustin Yar and was not unique to this launch.In this particular case, the test could be aimed at checking the methods of bypassing countermeasures taken by the enemy to prevent the interception of its missiles by missile defense missiles. The fact that the Aerostat tests were carried out with the Topol rocket does not at all mean that the Aerostat itself will also be based on the Topol. Obsolete Topol missiles are being used to demonstrate technology for new ICBMs.
The court document sheds no light on the further technical progress made in the Aerostat project after testing in December 2017.The subject of the lawsuit was the claim of the Russian Ministry of Defense against Almaz-Antey for delaying the “full-scale experiment” and the delivery of project documentation and software for the project (MIT was only referred to as a third party). The court also granted the Defense Ministry’s motion to terminate the July 2013 contract, but this does not necessarily mean that the project has been canceled. The contract covered works on the “Aerostat” theme in the period 2013-2018, and its official termination could be nothing more than a bureaucratic move.In fact, it can be seen from the procurement documents that on April 26, the Ministry of Defense signed a new contract with Almaz-Antey on the topic of Aerostat. A similar picture was observed in the Nudol project, where the state contract with Almaz-Antey was extended after six years.
The work that is known to have been carried out under the new contract is indeed marked as R&D (research and development work), which means the research phase of the project prior to the actual development of the system (called R&D).This could indicate that at least some of the systems ran into technical problems that forced designers to return to drawing boards.
Further tests of the Aerostat may be complicated by the fact that the main Russian test site for anti-missile systems (Sary-Shagan) is located in neighboring Kazakhstan. One anonymous “senior source” in the Russian defense industry told a Russian news agency last June that this poses challenges for testing long-range air and missile defense systems, especially the S-500.To some extent, according to the source, this also applies to Nudol, although the main stumbling block for Nudol was “some unresolved technical issues” that were expected to prevent it from taking up combat duty “at the earliest” until 2021 … If Nudol and Aerostat have kinetic kill capabilities, then this will probably need to be demonstrated before they are declared operational. Russia may prefer to do this using ballistic targets rather than orbiting satellites.given the enormous amount of space debris that can result from such tests. Since it uses the same type of tracking sensors, the Nudol can also serve as a target designator for the Aerostat.
It appears that a new anti-missile test site (Object 2142) is being built near the town of Severo-Yeniseisky in the Krasnoyarsk Territory in Siberia. This is part of a project called Pointer-KV, which in one document was associated with a “test range and internal flight path for testing anti-missile systems and missile defense assets” (“internal flight path” probably means a flight path that does not cross borders Russia).It is planned to install radar and optical tracking systems at the new test site, similar to those used in Sary-Shagan. One polygon map shows (simulated) warheads arriving from the northwest, indicating that the new “internal flight path” will be from Plesetsk to Severo-Yeniseisky and will complement or replace the current flight path from Kapustin Yar to Sary-Shagan. At the end of last year, Russian Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu said that the site near the Severo-Yenisei is necessary for testing the new Sarmat liquid-fuel intercontinental ballistic missile, but it will obviously be used for other purposes as well.
The contract on the Pointer-KV theme was issued to the Almaz-Antey VKO Concern on the same day as the contract on the Aerostat theme (July 12, 2013), as well as another missile defense project called “Selektsiya”, which, apparently, is aimed at creating a single command structure for the air and missile defense of Russia. systems. However, it is not entirely clear if there is any connection between these three projects, which were initiated under three different government contracts.But even if Aerostat does not need a new test site, it appears to be well behind the originally set schedule and perhaps far from reaching operational status.
Schematic representation of the transatmospheric “finishing stage” of the Start-1 launch vehicle (c) G.N. Rumyantsev, S.L. Puzyrev / JSC “Corporation” Moscow Institute of Heat Engineering “(MIT)
Map of the new missile range” Object 2142 “(” Pointer-KV “), created near the village of Severo-Yeniseisky (Krasnoyarsk Territory).The arrow in the upper left corner indicates the direction of movement of arriving warheads (c) documentation from the public procurement website zakupki.gov.ru (via www.thespacereview.com)
Colonel V. Doronin
If the CIA, thanks to constant media attention, has acquired wide scandalous popularity, the main component of the American “Intelligence community” – military intelligence – traditionally continues to remain in the shadows.However, as is clear from reports of the Western press, the Ministry of Defense concentrates the most a significant portion of the forces and assets of all United States intelligence. Military intelligence owns the largest information array, is able to solve the main the scope of tasks to provide the military-political leadership of the United States with operational and analytical intelligence information. Suffice it to say that it is estimated American experts, the intelligence budget of the Department of Defense is up to 85 percentof all expenses of the “intelligence community” of the United States, and the scope of its activities extends from conducting undercover work on the territory of other countries and use of outer space and air space to unceremonious control over the privacy of American citizens (in 1982, by directive of the Secretary of Defense No. 5240 I-R was confirmed the right of the special operations units of the army intelligence to control the correspondence of Americans abroad for their own purposes). No wonder Henry Sutton in his book “Thunder from a Clear Sky” gave the following characterization to military intelligence officers: “The guys from the CIA versus the military scouts were just kids, a harmless high school football team next to a gang of professional thugs. “
V Operationally, military intelligence has almost complete independence. V within the “intelligence community” control of the director of central intelligence over it is actually reduced to ensuring the coordination of its work with others departments, approval and submission to Congress of the budget military intelligence services. In 1989 to coordinate the activities of all components military intelligence within the Department of Defense, planning control and the implementation of intelligence programs introduced the position of assistant minister defense intelligence.
The basis of military intelligence is the intelligence department of the ministry Defense (RUMO), Department of National Security (NSA), national Aerospace Intelligence Directorate (NUVKR), intelligence services of ministries army, navy and air force, as well as numerous intelligence agencies of special and combined commands of the US armed forces (see diagram).
The leading intelligence and information agency is intelligence Department of Defense Directorate , which is both the highest leading and coordinating body of military strategic intelligence.His director manages all mining and processing intelligence agencies Ministry of Defense, responsible for the collection, operational and analytical processing military information and submits it to the Minister of Defense and the KNSH. Besides, information from the RUMO is sent to the central intelligence apparatus to prepare national intelligence assessments. According to American experts, in this body has about 6 thousand military and civilian specialists, from more than 1,000 of them work abroad in the system of military attaché offices (BAT).V within the Ministry of Defense, DIA occupies a special position. In particular, according to the decision of the Congress, they are not subject to any staff reductions in the course of any possible reorganization of the armed forces. In the “interests of security” the Minister of Defense has the right not to provide specific information about the DIA (organization of work, names and titles of employees and even exact salaries) to anyone in including the committees of Congress, with the exception of the President of the United States.
The director of the RUMO organizes the work of his department with the help of directly subordinate to him several separate divisions (secretariat, department development of intelligence programs, security and counterintelligence department, departments of scientific advisers, inspector general, legal adviser and financial inspector).Intelligence Development Department, as reported the American press, develops the appropriate programs according to the instructions President, Minister of Defense and KNSH, determines the priority of tasks and controls their implementation by military intelligence agencies, plans the budget. The Security and Counterintelligence Directorate ensures the activities of the apparatuses of the RUMO itself, the Minister of Defense, YONSH and the joint commands (in the Pentagon, all counterintelligence is subordinate directly to the Minister of Defense, and in operational terms – the director of the FBI, who is the head of the entire US counterintelligence service).
The so-called group occupies a special place in the apparatus of the director of the RUMO responsible officers of military intelligence – highly qualified specialists in the field of intelligence analysis. These analysts coordinate directions of work of DIA divisions on a particular subject, individual problems, organize the preparation of important information documents for the military and political leadership of the United States.
By According to the American press, there are three main and two separate management.
General Directorate of Operations, Planning and Training is the main extractive body of the RUMO. It manages all types of strategic intelligence, including agent intelligence, radio and radio engineering (RRTR) and species, coordinates aerospace reconnaissance programs, organizes work military attaché apparatuses. The General Directorate is also responsible for ensuring commands of the US armed forces with the necessary information, implements programs special training.It includes the following departments: directing intelligence gathering, operations and commanding military personnel attaché, planning and intelligence support of commands, as well as training.
The General Directorate of Foreign Intelligence is in charge of all information work of the intelligence services of the Ministry of Defense, carries out information support of the top military-political leadership of the United States, in particular of the Ministry of Defense and its main operational elements.It includes departments of intelligence assessments, scientific and technical information, analysis of species intelligence data. Up to 2 thousand people are employed in information work. specialists who actively use a powerful information base with a high degree of computerization. Moreover, by processing data only for the Soviet Union and the countries of Eastern Europe are engaged in more than 600 highly qualified analysts. To carry out analytical work, RUMO also attracts up to 150 various research centers, laboratories and other organizations branches of the armed forces.In terms of information, the main department carries out extensive interaction not only with other members of the “intelligence community “of the United States, but also with intelligence services of over 45 allied or friendly United States countries. According to American journalists, the information the RUMO service monitors the state and development prospects of the main weapon systems foreign states, the direction of the construction of their armed forces, the organization and level of combat training of troops, the state of the military economy.At the same time, the main efforts are aimed at analyzing the processes taking place in the USSR. changes of a socio-economic and military nature, measures to conversion in Soviet industry and their impact on the military potential of the country. The RUMO information array contains descriptions for 500 thousand items. target objects, including Soviet ones. Experts assess their physical vulnerability and the effectiveness of the possible use of nuclear weapons.
The RUMO information services also pay considerable attention to the accumulation and registration of data on the personalities of representatives of the military-political leadership of the USSR and maintaining personal records of Soviet officer cadres.
Main Department of Administrative and Technical Support not only provides material and technical support for the RUMO, but also organizes a global closed communications system for the transmission of intelligence information. It includes the following departments: technical services and support, personnel, information systems, communications, procurement, management of the information system of the ministry defense, its engineering support. The specialists of these departments carry out purchases in in the interests of RUMO of electronic computing technology, communication facilities, provide the activities of the central information service, which, according to published data, has more than 50 specialized divisions and has engineering software and mathematical systems
Intelligence support department KNSH prepares reconnaissance information directly for the KNSH, organizes the work of the national center military intelligence (EP RUMO), manages the activities of the RUMO alarm center **, carries out analytical support of the national management system armed forces.All elements of the global system are closed on it. indications and warnings. This office organizes the preparation of reports on current situation for the Minister of Defense and KNSH, allocates specialists to the air command post and reserve command center KNSH, supports interaction center of alarms RUMO with similar bodies of other federal departments, in in particular the CIA, and the situation room of the White House.
Department of External Relations of the DIA is responsible for the coordination of activities US military intelligence with specialists from other federal agencies and allied countries, performs extremely important in the conditions of the United States working to maintain effective communication with House committees and Senate of the US Congress, organizes intelligence support for the activities of various foreign affairs agencies in the field of negotiations on military issues.
The structure of the DIA, like other components of military intelligence, is constantly is improved at various levels in accordance with changes in the military-strategic situation and the adjustment of the priority of tasks. By according to the US media, the main contingent of specialists for military intelligence prepares at the school (college) of military strategic intelligence, subordinate RUMO. In this educational institution, not only military and civilian specialists of the Ministry of Defense, but also representatives of other federal departments of the United States.Upon graduation, graduates are awarded higher education diploma in the field strategic intelligence. In addition, this school has numerous short-term intelligence training courses in various disciplines. In order to improve the effectiveness of intelligence agents, as reported by press, RUMO got the opportunity to widely use the “roof” of the official institutions and create their own commercial forms of cover.
V In 1952, by decree of the President of the United States, the specially classified department was created National Security (NSA) – America’s Giant Ear.This organization became widely known not only for the enormous scale of her secret work – interception and reading of other people’s secrets. NSA became a direct successor of affairs notorious “black offices” and quickly grew into a powerful one that stretched out its electronic tentacles around the globe organization. Being subdued Minister of Defense, it also has a special national status. Several years ago, according to newspapers, an employee of this top-secret department only for a careless mention of his involvement in it, he could receive a prison term.
NSA conducts interception and decryption of codes of almost all foreign countries, including the number of their allies. The Office manages the entire system of radio and radio technical intelligence (RTRR) of the United States, provides security US government communications systems, develops codes. About the size of this organizations are evidenced by the data provided by the American press: in the NSA headquarters in Fort Meade has up to 24,000 personnel; the number of specialists working for the numerous scattered abroad and in the territory of the USA at the posts of the RRTR is many tens of thousands of people.Annual the UNB budget reaches 15 billion dollars.
The activities of the department cover all aspects of obtaining information, cryptanalysis of closed interceptions, decoding of telemetric information, tracking missile launches, development of systems for closing communication lines. Besides, it organizes R&D on a large scale in the field of creating technical means RRTP. Management firmly occupies a leading position in the West in the field of application electronic computers for decrypting intercepted information, is armed with the most modern computer systems.It includes are the departments of RRTR, communications security, R&D, telecommunications and electronic computers, as well as auxiliary – administrative, MTO, planning and policy making, programs and resources.
V 1961, another top-secret agency appeared in the United States – national Aerospace Reconnaissance Directorate (NUVKR), which deployed its practical activity with the fact that it continued the espionage flights begun by the CIA aircraft U-2.Then it took up the use of the first American satellites in intelligence purposes.
Officially, the NUVKR is part of the Ministry of the Air Force. However, having a special national status, it is largely autonomous. Management deals with exploitation of reconnaissance satellites in the interests of all “reconnaissance community ”, coordinates the work on the creation of new space technology. V in particular, according to the reports of the American magazine “Science”, NUWKR is actively works on the problems of filtering huge amounts of information obtained when assistance of the latest reconnaissance satellites.System currently being deployed “Lacrosse” with radar on board will allow in any weather conditions around the clock to obtain images of the earth’s surface with high resolution. It is planned to put into operation a satellite system of the KN-12 type with a powerful telescope on board, working in both visible and infrared ranges. This, according to American specialists, will provide effective tracking of mobile and stationary targets to be destroyed with the outbreak of war, the implementation strict and reliable control over the observance of future agreements on strategic offensive weapons.The speedy handling of huge the amount of information coming from reconnaissance satellites.
The annual budget of the NUVKR, numbering 25 thousand people, is estimated at 4-7 billion.
dollars. This is not surprising, since the cost of one satellite “Lacrosse”
reaches $ 500 million, and KN-12 exceeds $ 1.5 billion.
American press, operational commanders within a few hours
after launching the satellite, they can receive specific information on the required area
The leadership of all reconnaissance of the ground forces is carried out by its chief under the help of a well-functioning apparatus, which includes the following departments: external relations, foreign intelligence, counterintelligence, intelligence systems. The main workers army intelligence agencies performing both operational and strategic tasks are the command of intelligence and security, as well as the reconnaissance control.
Judging by the data published in the Western press, the intelligence and security employs more than 15 thousand specialists who perform intelligence and counterintelligence tasks, conduct strategic radio and electronic intelligence, are engaged in the processing of the information received. The command directs the activities of intelligence agencies in the areas of responsibility Joint Commands of the US Armed Forces. Only at his headquarters more than 2 thousand specialists work, and at the headquarters of the NSA, to which it subordinated in the operational plan – about 3 thousand.The command also includes called a group of intelligence support staffed by specialists on sabotage work in the amount of about 300 people. Journalists more than once wrote about this unit, formed in due time to liberate American Hostages in Iran (1979). By virtue of the specifics of its tasks, the group had and unofficial name – “mini-CIA”.
The Ground Forces Intelligence Directorate manages the work of three large information centers and provides command and control of the RRTR data.
Center for Threat Analysis and Assessment prepares operational information, materials for long-term forecasting, assessment of the state of the armed forces and military economies of potential enemy countries, analyzes the development of military science, simulates possible operations of the armed forces of the USSR and the countries of Eastern Europe, conducts a comparative analysis of the military potentials of states, evaluates the situation in the areas of possible use of American troops, prepares a specific information on objects and systems of weapons of foreign states.According to the data Western press, the main body of intelligence information of the center belongs to The USSR, therefore most of the employees (about 300 in total) are specialists on “Soviet problems”.
Army Center for Foreign Scientific and Technical Information prepares intelligence information on a variety of issues (from medicine to missile technology), predicts a scientific and technical threat to the US Army, examines samples of foreign weapons. It employs about 600 analysts.
Missile and Space Weapons Information Center deals with extraction, processing and dissemination of scientific and technical information on missile and space weapons systems, air defense systems, research technological capabilities of the creation of missile defense systems of foreign states. Here there are almost 400 highly qualified specialists.
The Air Force Intelligence Service has a specific organizational structure and possesses significant forces and means.It is based on the apparatus Air Force Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Air Force Intelligence Directorate, Security and Electronic Warfare Command, Foreign Equipment Directorate, Center technical intelligence and control of the Air Force.
The office of the Air Force Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence performs tasks planning and directing body of the entire intelligence of the Air Force. It includes controls intelligence purposes, personnel, policy making, planning and programs, and security and communication. In addition, there is a liaison department with the KNSH and the council national security.
Air Force Intelligence Directorate is the main operational intelligence agency of the US Air Force. It extracts and processes information, prepares materials to ensure current and long-term planning and construction of the US Air Force, preparation and conduct of combat operations. The department organizes the development of analytical materials in the areas of development of the USSR Air Force and their combat use, according to Soviet military doctrine, strategy and R&D, is responsible for training crews for survival programs in behind enemy lines.The number of personnel of this body is 2.3 thousand people. V it includes the following departments: security and communications, leadership use of intelligence data, in matters of BAT, the reserve of intelligence forces, research and problems of the USSR Air Force, threat assessment and technology, prevention and regional assessments, provision of integrated services. Besides, The Intelligence Directorate has an Air Force Special Operations Center, who directs all the air force intelligence. In him, according to the American press, there are up to 350 specialists, his operational units conduct intelligence work in various areas the world.
Security and Electronic Warfare Command is, according to the American experts, NSA in miniature and operates in an operational plan under his leadership, since it is responsible for the organization and. maintenance of RRTP, cryptanalytic work, protection of communications and electronic warfare directly in the interests of the air force. The command staff includes 14 thousand. specialists, of which RRTR posts and crews are staffed reconnaissance aircraft.
Department of Foreign Technology is organizationally included not in intelligence, but in the composition of the command for the development of weapons systems of the Air Force.However, it does reconnaissance and information tasks on the problems of aviation and cosmonautics of countries probable enemy. The department obtains and studies samples of military equipment foreign states, analyzes the vulnerability of their rocket and space weapons, leads some information gathering programs and the development of new technical systems, carries out reconnaissance support of the command, especially in the field of advanced aerospace weapons systems. It includes the following departments: planning and operations, technical systems, data processing, technological and threat assessment.
One of the most important places in the Air Force intelligence system is occupied by the Technical intelligence and control of the Air Force , which is responsible for organizing the work of the global an integrated system for detecting nuclear tests and assessing their characteristics. Approximately 1.4 thousand highly qualified specialists control the network seismic and hydroacoustic stations, information collection systems for air and space-based. The center evaluates the potentials of foreign countries in the field of nuclear energy.
The main task of naval intelligence, which, in comparison with intelligence agencies other branches of the armed forces has much more experience and traditions, consists in providing the Navy with data for effective action in advanced areas against of the Soviet fleet. Its main efforts are aimed at establishing control over oceanic and naval theaters, collection of information about the USSR Navy and navies other likely opponents. Marine reconnaissance monitors daily the activities of foreign fleets, reveals the directions of their construction, the state and prospects of the development of weapons systems, reveals the basing systems.
General management of all intelligence and counterintelligence activities in US Navy operates Intelligence Directorate of Naval Headquarters , the main operational work on the collection of intelligence information is performed by his subordinates Navy Intelligence Command and Navy Security Command.
Naval Intelligence Command takes the lead in collecting and processing intelligence data and therefore has effective forces and means.In particular, according to a number of American publications, it is conducting an undercover intelligence, uses a variety of sources of information to tracking the composition and determining the combat capabilities of foreign fleets. V the so-called The 168th operational unit, the groups of which operate under the command of the Navy USA in various zones. The command has significant capabilities for conducting information and analytical work in order to ensure the necessary data of the national military-political leadership, the command of the Navy and operational components of the naval forces.It includes several specialized information centers collecting, processing and the distribution of multidimensional intelligence information in various forms, ranging from short messages to fundamental developments. Command center scientific and technical intelligence of the Navy is engaged in the analysis of combat capabilities of the fleets of foreign states, forms an information array of the entire naval reconnaissance, analyzes the concepts of the combat use of components foreign fleets, processes data from RRTR and species reconnaissance, studies performance characteristics warships of a potential enemy, especially Soviet ones, carefully monitors new technologies created abroad in the interests of the fleet.Centre processing and distribution of operational and intelligence information, in turn, focuses on issues of ensuring the combat use of the US Navy, monitors the operational situation in maritime theaters, monitors naval exercises The USSR, paying special attention to the problems of submarine warfare, is studying operational the capabilities of merchant fleets. In addition, the command has a center automated processing of intelligence information.
Naval Security Command is responsible for organizing and maintaining RRTR in the Navy, is under the operational control of the NSA.Task forces and security detachments (their number reaches, according to the American press, 27 and 11 respectively) dispersed in different parts of the world at the disposal of of the US Navy Commands in the Zones.
Special and Joint Commands of the US Armed Forces in their own interests use their own numerous well-equipped technical means reconnaissance units and subunits with a varied structure.
According to American experts, the leadership of the “intelligence community ”of the United States despite positive trends in development Soviet-American dialogue continues to take measures aimed at further build-up of forces and means of national intelligence, taking into account the dynamic processes occurring in the world, especially in the Soviet Union and the countries of Eastern Europe, and the potential for new arms control agreements.For more effective intelligence support of foreign and military policy Washington expects to improve the quality parameters of intelligence and significantly strengthen its material base. The process of deploying new space reconnaissance systems, improving the collection and automated information processing, training of qualified intelligence specialists of the required profile. So, according to the newspaper “New York time ”, the Institute of Foreign Languages of the Ministry of Defense out of 4.5 thousand.annually of accepted listeners 1 thousand prepares purposefully for work on the Soviet Union. Its graduates are planned to be actively used as part of inspection groups on the territory of the USSR to monitor the implementation of agreements to reduce weapons after mastering the method of obtaining intelligence information in the course of contacts with Soviet military personnel. CIA and military intelligence, joining very actively in the fight against drug trafficking and terrorism, carried out their operations for the borders of the United States, “mastering” the territory not only of Latin America, but also many other parts of the world.George W. Bush administration, according to the newspaper The Philadelphia Incuirer has already made several legal decisions giving intelligence agency has broad powers for overseas operations. At the same time the process of saturation of the highest US authorities involved in the formation the military-political course of the country, highly qualified experts in the field intelligence, which implies the further intensification of the activities of American special services directed against the Soviet Union. In this regard, according to the estimates of foreign experts, announced by the administration of possible reductions the number of intelligence agencies of the Ministry of Defense are more degree of ostentatious nature and can only touch duplicate links management staff, as well as numerous RRTR facilities, which lose their importance with the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Eastern Europe.
* See the beginning of the article; Foreign military review, – 1990.- No. 7, – Ed.
** The center works around the clock in the composition of five shifts, prepares operational intelligence information in real time for The Pentagon.
Foreign military review No. 8 1990 P.3-10see also
Definition and synonyms of steamboat in the English dictionarySTEAMBOAT – Definition and synonyms of steamboat in the English dictionary
PRONUNCIATION OF STEAMBOAT
GRAMMATICAL CATEGORY OF STEAMBOAT
WHAT IS STEAMBOATMEANING Click to see the original definition of of “steamboat” in the English dictionary.Click to see the automatic translation of the definitions in Russian.
SteamboatA steamer or steamer is a vessel or boat in which the primary method of propulsion is steam power, usually propellers or paddlewheels. Steamships sometimes use the prefix designation SS, S.S. or S / S, however these designations are most often used for steamships. The term “steamer” is commonly used to refer to small steam boats operating on lakes and rivers, especially riverboats; a steamer usually refers to a larger steam vessel, usually ocean-going, capable of carrying a boat. S. S. Humboldt’s mechanical room, right, is a conceptual drawing during the construction of the ship. The term “steam rudder” is archaic and rarely used. In England “steam pack”, after its predecessor, was a common term; even a “steam barge” can be used.The French transatlantic steamer SS La Touraine was probably the last of her types to be equipped with sails, although she never used them. In turn, steamboats were overtaken by diesel ships in the second half of the 20th century. Most warships used steam engines from the 1860s until the advent of the gas turbine in the early 20th century. A steamship, or steamboat ,, is a ship or boat in which the primary method of propulsion is steam power, typically driving propellers or paddlewheels.Steamboats sometimes use the prefix designation SS , S.S. or S / S , however these designations are most often used for Steamships. The term steamboat is usually used to refer to smaller steam-powered boats working on lakes and rivers, particularly riverboats; steamship generally refers to larger steam-powered ships, usually ocean-going, capable of carrying a boat. The S.S. Humboldt engine room, to the right, is a concept drawing during the construction of the ship.The term steam wheeler is archaic and rarely used. In England, “steam packet”, after its sailing predecessor, was the usual term; even “steam barge” could be used. The French transatlantic steamer SS La Touraine was probably the last of her type to be equipped with sails, although she never used them. Steamships in turn were overtaken by diesel-driven ships in the second half of the 20th century. Most warships used steam propulsion from the 1860s until the advent of the gas turbine in the early 20th century.
Definition of steamboat in the English dictionaryThe definition of a steamer in the dictionary is a boat with a steam engine.
The definition of steamboat in the dictionary is a boat powered by a steam engine.Click to see the original definition of of “steamboat” in the English dictionary.Click to see the automatic translation of the definitions in Russian.
WORDS THAT RHYME WITH STEAMBOAT
Synonyms and antonyms of steamboat in the English dictionary
Translation of “steamboat” into 25 languages
TRANSLATION OF STEAMBOATFind out the translation of steamboat to 25 languages with our English multilingual translator. The translations of the word steamboat from English into other languages presented in this section were performed using automatic translation, in which the main element of the translation is the word “steamboat” in English.
Translator from English toChinese 轮船
1,325 million speakers
Translator from English toSpanish barco de vapor
570 million speakers
510 million speakers
Translator from english tohindi language स्टीमर
380 million speakers
Translator from English toArabic باخرة
280 million speakers
Translator from English toRussian steamer
278 million speakers
Translator from English toPortuguese barco a vapor
270 million speakers
Translator from English toBengali স্টিমবোট
260 million speakers
Translator from English toFrench navire a vapeur
220 million speakers
Translator from English toMalay Steamboat
190 million speakers
Translator from English toGerman Dampfer
180 million speakers
Translator from English toJapanese 蒸 気 船
130 million speakers
Translator from English toKorean 증기선
85 million speakers
Translator from English toJavanese Steamboat
85 million speakers
Translator from English toVietnamese tàu chạy bằng hơi
80 million speakers
Translator from English toTamil நீராவிப்படகு
75 million speakers
Translator from English toMarathi language स्टीमबोट
75 million speakers
Translator from English toTurkish vapur
70 million speakers
Translator from English toItalian battello a vapore
65 million speakers
Translator from English toPolish parostatek
50 million speakers
Translator from English toUkrainian steam melter
40 million speakers
Translator from English toRomanian Steamboat
30 million speakers
Translator from English toGreek ατμόπλοιο
15 million speakers
Translator from English toAfrikaans Language stoomboot
14 million speakers
Translator from English toSwedish ångbåt
10 million speakers
Translator from English toNorwegian dampbåt
5 million speakers
Trends of use of steamboat
TRENDS IN USE OF THE TERM “STEAMBOAT”
The word is used quite oftenThe map above shows the frequency of use of the term “steamboat” in different countries.Major search trends and examples of use of steamboat A list of the main searches that users have entered to access our online English dictionary and the most commonly used expressions with the word “steamboat”.
FREQUENCY OF USING THE TERM “STEAMBOAT” OVER TIMEThe graph shows the annual change in the frequency of use of the word “steamboat” over the past 500 years.The plotting is based on an analysis of how often the term “steamboat” appears in digitized print sources in English from 1500 to the present.
Examples of use in the English literature, quotes and news about steamboat
QUOTES WITH “STEAMBOAT”Famous quotes and sentences with the word steamboat .
I’ve been enjoying ‘Life on the Mississippi’ by Mark Twain that I picked up at the airport randomly. It’s very witty and interesting to read about his time as a steamboat pilot.
You look at the steamboat , the railroad, the car, the airplane – not all of these were invented in the Anglo-American world, but they were popularized and extended by it. They were made possible by the financial architecture, the capital intensive operations invented and developed by the Anglo-Americans.
In the United States three new methods of transportation made their appearance at almost the same time – the steamboat , the canal boat, and the rail car.
My mother would thump me sharply on the head with a thimble or a spoon if I became too noisy with the whistle when I was playing I was a steamboat captain. She had no sense of the dignity of command.
BOOKS IN ENGLISH RELATED TOSTEAMBOAT Discover the use of steamboat in the following bibliographical selection. Books related to the word steamboat and short excerpts from these books to provide an understanding of the context of use of this word in the English literature.
1The Steamboat Era: A History of Fulton’s Folly on American…
A glossary of steamboat terms and a collection of contemporary accounts of accidents round out this history of the riverboat era “- Provided by publisher.
S.L. Kotar, J.E. Gessler, 2009
2The Great American Steamboat Race: The Natchez and the …
This book tells the story of the dramatic contest. Providing details on the boats themselves, the book gives an intimate look at the majestic vessels “- Provided by publisher.
Benton Rain Patterson, 2009
3Steamboat Connections: Montreal to Upper Canada, 1816 – 1843
In Steamboat Connections Frank Mackey gives us a narrative account of the first twenty-five years of steam navigation along the St Lawrence and Ottawa Rivers.
4The Western River Steamboat
Given in honor of Royce Hickman by the Aggieland Rotary Club of Bryan-College Station.
5It Started with a Steamboat : An American Saga
The book, “When Substance Abuse Attacks Your Home,” is written with great pain and many regrets. It shares more than facts and realities about drug addiction. The book also conveys the hard realities that accompany chemical dependency.
6Walt Disney’s Steamboat Willie
Recreating the 1928 Disney animated short film – the very first of its kind – a charming story, in a lively landscape format, follows Mickey the steamboat pilot as he goes out of his way to impress Minnie Mouse.
712 Short Hikes Steamboat Springs
Written for families, newcomers, and anybody looking for easy access to an outdoor experience. Each book describes in clear graphic scenic hikes of less than two hours.
8The Life And Times of the Steamboat Red Cloud: Or How …
Readers interested in western history, maritime history, and nautical archeology will find this book an invaluable addition to their libraries.
9Robert Fulton’s Steamboat
Covers the life and career of Robert Fulton, the American inventor whose version of the steamship provided travelers with a relatively fast and inexpensive means of transportation.
10Lloyd’s Steamboat Directory: And Disasters of the Western …
The steamboat America exploded fifteen miles below Madison, Ind., on the Ohio river, December 19, 1848. Four persons were mortally wounded, and ten others were much injured. Charter Oak. – The steamboat Charter Oak was destroyed …
James T. Lloyd, John Fitch, Robert Fulton, 1856
NEWS WITH THE TERM “STEAMBOAT”This shows how the national and international press uses the term steamboat in the context of the news articles below.
Steamboat could return to rivers if OK’d by Congress
CINCINNATI – The historic Delta Queen steamboat could once again carry passengers on overnight river trips if Congress approves legislation recently … “Tribune-Review, Jul 15”
Sheriff’s Office investigating homicide in North Routt County
The Wests are longtime residents, and West said his son graduated from Steamboat Springs High School.#The name of the victim was not being released … “Steamboat Pilot & Today, Jun 15”
Once-dormant Mississippi River steamboat in middle of extensive…
LA CROSSE, Wis. – A 44-year-old steamboat that once roamed the Mississippi River is in the midst of a painstaking restoration to save the historic vessel. Minneapolis Star Tribune May 15
USA Pro Challenge announces route for 2015 race from Steamboat …
DENVER – This year’s USA Pro Challenge will begin in Steamboat Springs and be capped at its traditional ending in downtown Denver as the detailed route… “FOX31 Denver, Apr 15”
At Civil War’s end, a steamboat disaster that history forgot
A century-and-a-half later, residents of the nearest town and descendants of passengers aboard the steamboat Sultana are gathering to commemorate a … “WLWT Cincinnati, Apr 15”
Steamboat Springs airport closes for $ 16.6M project
The Steamboat Pilot & Today reports Yampa Valley Regional Airport shut down Tuesday night so work could begin on resurfacing the runway and installing … “9NEWS.com, Apr 15”
Natchez steamboat , historic ride through old-time New Orleans …
In a Sunday, March 15, 2015 photo, Captain Donald Houghton, left, and former captain Doc Hawley chat on the Natchez steamboat on the Mississippi River in… “Fox News, Apr 15”
Steamboat police chief, deputy chief put on paid administrative leave
# Steamboat Springs – Steamboat Springs City Manager Deb Hinsvark announced Friday that Steamboat Springs Police Chief Joel Rae and Deputy Chief Bob … “Steamboat Pilot & Today, Mar 15”
DeSoto National Wildlife Refuge to commemorate sinking of …
MISSOURI VALLEY, Iowa —A steamboat departed Omaha for the Montana territory… into that journey the steamboat Bertrand hit a snag and sank minutes later. “KETV Omaha, Mar 15”
2015 USA Pro Challenge route winds through Steamboat , Summit …
The seven-stage race starts in Steamboat Springs for the first time and will visit two new hosts – Summit County ski resorts Arapahoe Basin and Copper … “The Denver Post, Dec 14”
“EDUCALINGO. Steamboat [online]. Available
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