Lacrosse strategy defense: Team Strategy for the Sport
Handling Defensive Pressure in Lacrosse.
Page/Link:Page URL: HTML link: <a href=”https://www.thefreelibrary.com/Handling+Defensive+Pressure+in+Lacrosse.-a057398087</a> Citations: Lacrosse has long been known as “The Fastest Game on Two Feet,” obviously derived from the midfielders and attackmen who ran the field and applied highscoring offensive pressure.
In the mid ’80s, the role of the defensive player changed from the football-type close defender and extra long-pole midfielder looking for a crushing body check to the nubile, equally quick defenseman who, with flashing stickwork and a repertoire of stick checks, is able to contain the potent attackmen.
Defensive pressure in the offensive half field was pushed to a new level and, as the game expanded, many of the newer teams found it difficult to handle a pressure defense.
Most of these teams now employ a defensive strategy that is more zone-oriented in order to slow the game tempo against over-matched opponents.
Teams without the athletes or experience to play up-tempo against a high-pressure defense are going to be at a distinct disadvantage.
Several basic concepts and a few drills can help any program simulate a high-pressure defense.
1. Attack the attacker. Running away from pressure will not help the cause. Teams that assume a defensive offensive posture against an aggressive defenseman will be playing into the opponents’ defensive strategy.
2. Emphasize short passes. The offense should focus on 7-10 yard passes (maximum). The idea is to be active off the ball and run all the way through the ball while recovering a pass.
3. Run as fast as you can against pressure – simple advice, often forgotten.
4. Communicate. Whenever a double team is initiated, the offensive men should understand that one of them will be free. The players should communicate such information with simple, easily recognizable terms.
5. Make them pay. The most effective tool against a high-pressure defensive is to score. Any time a team overextends its defense, a score will make them pull back on their pressure.
6. Stickwork. There is no better foil against high-pressure defense than solid stickwork. Daily stickwork drills are a must for every program.
All drills should be designed to make the situation harder than it would be in a game. Situations are endless, but here are two that have proved effective:
Drill 1, 6 vs 7 Long Poles, Drill the goalies to hold the ball vs pressure for two minutes inside the restraining box.
Begin the drill with six offensive players controlling the ball inside the offensive restraining box against six defensive players, each playing his offensive man tightly, denying the adjacent pass.
After 40-45 seconds of ball movement, the coach should release an extra man to double the ball or to provide additional pressure on an off-ball player.
Emphasize all basic concepts.
Drill, Bingo Drill (see diagram):
Objective: To touch the ball into the restraining box against a double team, then locating the two-onone situation backside from the double-team.
M1 (with ball) starts at midfield against defenders DM1 and LP1. The doublers do not play head-up at the start of the drill and work to a pinching position.
M1 must run as fast as he can to the corner of the restraining box, establishing a 10-second count. This releases M2 and M3 from the midfield line, who break toward the ball-carrier (M1).
D2 goes with M2 and M3, covering them on the backside.
As M1 makes his run away from the double (DM1 and LP1), the open M2 or M3 calls “Bingo!”, indicating his opponents, and M1 hits the open man (in this instance, M3) with a short pass. D2 must fill in on the backside of the ensuing 2-on-1 (DM1 and LP1) vs M3.
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The Beauty of Wesleyan’s Backer Zone
Zone haters think it is a lesser form of defending the goal because it doesn’t teach fundamentals of individual defensive play. The problem with that reasoning is that zones don’t do the teaching — coaches do. In order to coach the zone, players must still understand defensive principles. In an active and effective zone, defenders engage the ball-carrier in a similar way to how they would in man-to-man defense.
The most sensible critique of the zone is that it hides lesser defensive players, but that logic is self-defeating. Doesn’t every coach want to protect their worst defender? Even in its most base form — let’s say a listless 3-3 that never applies pressure to ball-carriers — a zone defense can provide a foundation for a man-down unit. The universal truth of the matter is that like all things in sports, there are good and bad versions of zone defense.
The Wesleyan men’s lacrosse team has been on an incredible run.
One of the most notable aspects of Wesleyan’s teams in 2017 and ’18 was the offense, which was as free flowing and exciting as a conversation with the ghost of Socrates.
But the defense is what has helped carry Wesleyan. The defense that Wesleyan employs roughly 90% of their time is the dreaded, mysterious and woefully misunderstood backer zone.
“The thing that we like about this defense — and we have played and tried many other defenses — is that it’s a six-man rotational defense,” coach John Raba. “Everyone is involved so we can play every point of the ball. A lot of zones at the Division I level play a five-man zone and lock the crease with a hard rotation. We don’t want to rotate. Sometimes we don’t have a choice, but the thing that’s nice about it is that even if we do rotate if they hesitate or pull the ball out for even a second, we are back in our set. So all the work that they just did to get us to rotate — if they don’t take advantage of that right away we’re settled and then they’re like ‘Oh my god, we just had to throw the ball five times with a big skip pass to get them to move and now they’re set again.’ ”
The roots of the backer zone are well established. Long time NYIT and IMCLA Hall of Fame coach Jack Kaley tweaked a traditional 3-3 zone in the ’90s by recessing one of the players up top in the 3-3 and employing them as a dedicated slider — also known as a “backer” — to all things the penetrate the defensive perimeter. As the years went on different adjustments and changes were made to the backer zone to improve the viability of it. The Wesleyan coaching staff — specifically Raba and (later on) defensive coordinator Will Parker — began to employ the backer zone soon after their tenure began.
“It started almost 20 years ago when coach Parker and I used to play New York Tech, and they were great at that time, winning national championships,” says Raba. “It was so hard to score on them. So when we became coaches, we would take our team down to [Tech] and we would always hang in there on D, but we weren’t great. We struggled to score goals or generate anything whatsoever [on offense]. So we thought ‘Why don’t we try to incorporate some of the things that they’re doing?’”
There are a couple of things you need to build the base of your backer zone defense. Of course anyone can implement a backer zone defense, but it does function best if you have these elements.
1. A smart and capable goalie.
If you don’t have a keeper who can hold his pipe, hold onto rebounds and make saves from 12-15 yards out then maybe it’s best to play a man defense. If your goalie is a streaky reactionary netminder, your box score will be a mess.
2. An athletic group of longpoles.
There are no free lunches in the backer zone; you need to be able to get to your spot and play the passing lane at the same time. Most importantly you have to know where to go. That takes time and dedication from the players as well as the coaching staff. At the same time, it’s not a math equation.
3. Players who believe in the system.
What happens when your best O-mid gets stuck on defense? How often does it result in a goal? If you’re playing a zone defense that O-mid has a fighting chance because everyone else on the field knows where to go and that he will need help.
“People want to be on the ball,” says Raba. “Even our players at times want to be pressing all over, and they have a lot of pride. These guys are good players, and they want to be the takeaway guy. It’s not that glamorous to be an off-ball zone defender who sits in a gap and plays inside, more concerned about the nuances of cutting angles down. They stop things before they ever happen, so then things never happen. So, you may not notice him, but he may be the best guy we have on the field.”
You’re not convinced. You must have a PC. The zone defense is the pre-iPhone Apple to the man-to-man of Windows XP. Even if you hate the concept of putting a zone in for your own team, you still need to put in an offense that can break a zone when you eventually encounter one. So how do you beat a zone that will press out, manipulate dodgers and eat up bad shots taken out of frustration?
Ironically, the most conceptually sound way to beat a zone defense is actually the best way to beat a man-to-man defense — by causing a rotation, or an engagement of a slide package. In a man-to-man defense, that reaction is often caused by a ball-carrier getting past a defender and into a space where they can score. Against a zone, that rotation is most often caused by quick passing and minimal ball carrying.
“Teams will try and carry to get us to rotate, and we don’t want to rotate so our communication on the perimeter is crucial,” said Parker. “When to pass [the ball-carrier], when to let them carry a little longer. For all of our guys to understand that even if they’re on the carrier but they get that pass call to let them go. Just like if we played man, if someone dodges with the ball, there is always going to be someone to replace. Other teams will roll back because they’re trying to get the defense to shift with the ball and go back against the grain.”
Players in the Wesleyan zone constantly interchange their responsibilities once they’re comfortable in the system. Basic components of the Wesleyan backer zone include the backer and the longstick (who is usually deployed in the middle) being mirror images of each other. Likewise the high side midfielders and lower defensemen are similarly employed — especially when the ball is above goal line extended.
It’s hard to argue with the results, though as Wesleyan has produced several All-America defensemen and several player of the year candidates on the defensive side of the ball, particularly in the last 10 years. But how do you sell the system to those star defenders?
“The good thing is that when someone is coming at you and they’re being really combative and stubborn, know that you have guys to the right and guy to the left that are going to help you,” says Raba. “You can be as physical and aggressive as you want, and if they beat you, you’re still OK to the right and the left.”
The is the 22nd season for Raba and the 19th for Parker, the bulk of which have been dedicated to the advancement of the Wesleyan program with the help of an unorthodox defense that has consistently produced winners. The end of last season has not faded from the minds of the staff or the returning members of that team. They won’t dwell on past accomplishments.
“The goal is to make it as hard as possible for the offense to score,” says Parker. “We feel like this gives us the best opportunity to do that. We joke all the time that the biggest misconception [about our zone] is that we just sit back. We don’t do that. ”
Your Guide to Women’s Lacrosse Defense
We understand that playing in the position of defense in lacrosse is a thankless job. Rarely will you bask in the glory of scoring an amazing goal but you know what, without defensive players, a team will never be able to win. Women Lacrosse Players are the backbone of a team and therefore, it is no wonder why they get treated with respect in the field.
Feared by the opponent’s attackers, Women Lacrosse Defensive Players have to wear many hats. It may look easy on paper but the job of a defensive player is immensely difficult. They have to anticipate the moves of the opponent’s attacking team and have to do thwart that move by forming an invincible wall of defense.
A typical woman defensive lacrosse player needs to have – field awareness, presence of mind, techniques and of course skills. Here is how you can hone your defensive skills and help your team win big in the upcoming encounter –
Basics of Checking
In case, you are a beginner, allow me to explain in detail what a Checking is in lacrosse. Knocking the ball off the stick head of the opponent player is known as Checking. It is a useful tactic often employed by defenders to get the possession of the ball back from the opponent team. Now, you need to make sure that your stick is only touching the stick of the opponent player. If by chance, your stick touches the body of the opponent player, the referee might call it a foul and you will lose control of the ball. The contact should be limited to the stick; any deviation from that will invite penalty.
Now, most people tend to believe that Checking needs a lot of muscle power but nothing can be farther from the truth. You just need to move the stick up and down fast and it will do the trick. Make proper use of the wrist flick and make sure that you are not holding the stick of the opponent player down because that would invite a foul.
Checking is definitely a good tactic to thwart the attack of the opponent team but you should be in control while doing so otherwise the attacking team will get the benefit of doubts and you might have to deal with fouls.
Moreover, use this Checking technique only when the opponent player is holding the ball because touching an empty stick of an opponent player will be treated as foul.
Empty Stick Check
Checking an empty lacrosse stick is probably the worst mistake that you can commit as a defender. It will instantaneously raise red flags and the referee will call it a foul. The rule of thumb is not to ‘Check’ the stick of the opponent players if the ball is not that.
Now, if multiple players go after the same ball, you need to make sure that you have not ‘Checked’ other players unless one of them has lifted up the ball from the ground. This will be termed as – Empty Stick Check Foul. In this case, the player who commits the foul will be asked by the referee to move four meters to the side.
Defensive Stance and Positioning
Your defensive skills can’t be improved if you don’t work on your positioning and stance. These two are the building blocks of your future lacrosse defensive skills. Even if you play as an attacker, sometimes you will have to play the role of a defender when the opposition team puts too much pressure on your team’s defense. This is the reason why it makes sense that all lacrosse players should have some basic understanding of defensive positions and stance.
Keep your back straight while at the same time, try to bend your knees and this will help you maintain an athletic position. You wanna have your stick pointing up and between 10 and 2’O clock.
One more important thing that you should pay proper attention and that is – you need to keep your arms locked while trying to wretch the ball away from the opponent player. Failing to do so would trigger foul.
Defend Behind the Goal
The objective of a defensive lacrosse player is to help her goalie in every way possible so that she can make good saves in the game. Try to keep the attackers of the opponent team outside the holy 8-meter arc.
When the ball gets behind the goal, things get really complicated for a defensive player. You have got two options – you can either stay in front and try to block the shots of the attackers or you can go behind and try to snatch the ball away. Make sure that you are staying behind the goal line extended at any point in time.
You need to follow and cover the attacking player until she commits to one side fully and then launches a scathing attack on her to take control of the ball without committing foul. As a defender, it is your job to stop the attacker from entering the sacrilegious 8-meter arc and you can use 8-meter line as a guide.
Women’s Lax Strategies and Ideas
Hello, I have been getting ready for another great season as the head coach for a high school girl’s lacrosse team. I have been thinking a lot about our motion offense and how we can become even better. I have been searching the web for weeks now and I can’t seem to find anything for the upper level coach. Obviously I’m not the head coach of Maryland so I’m not all knowing, but I think I can offer a different view on motion offense for the coaches out there that are looking for a different take.
I set my girls up on our imaginary 15 meter fan. This would be roughly, three steps away from the 12 meter. I like to put two girls behind goal, one on either side and the remaining five girls spread evenly among the 15 meter. First and foremost, it’s important that our girls are constantly moving. Moving can be anything, switching, cutting, setting picks, driving, etc. Your team has to be moving. If the defense is calm, they have won. It’s important to keep the defense frantic. Side note: skip passes are another way to keep the defense moving and thinking. The skip passes make the defense slide differently and can open up brief holes to drive through.
We have a few basic “plays” that are the building blocks of our motion offense. These are pick and rolls, draw and dumps, pass and go away, give and goes, and criss cross. Now, we do different set plays that play off of these fundamental elements but if your girls don’t have these 5 plays mastered, they will have a hard time moving on to harder motion concepts. The next few paragraphs I will explain each of these concepts. If you are already know these concepts and want to skip to more advanced concepts, please skip ahead.
Pick and rolls: If you call it a pick… stop. Don’t let you players separate the two plays. It is not ‘set a pick’ it’s ‘set a pick and roll.’ Player A sets a pick on Player B’s defender, Player B runs towards the backside of Player A. Immediately after Player B starts running, Player A rolls off the pick, towards the goal and is open for a pass inside. It is absolutely crucial that the roll comes AFTER Player B uses the pick. It does no good if she runs to set the pick and immediately rolls before a pick is ever set. It also important that all players understand the proper way to use a pick.
Draw and dumps: Player A (who has ball) drives hard to goal. The drive forces a ball help slide which will leave the adjacent player, Player B, open behind the slide. Player B cuts to goal and receives pass from Player A. It is important that your girls understand that the point of the play is to score, no matter how it happens. If there is no slide, Player A should drive to goal and go score. Always take a one on one situation. The first option in a draw and dump is for the player with the ball to drive and score but IF the defense stops her with a good slide, THEN she has the dump as an option. It is also important for your girls to have the awareness to realize when they are open because they only have about one second to start cutting before the second slide gets there and she isn’t open. If you are playing a good defense who slides really well, the second slide attacker should run the draw and dump.
Pass and go away: This concept is very simple yet it seems that most of our goals come off of this play. The idea is for Player A to pass the ball to her immediate left to Player B. Player A then runs to replace the girl at least two girls to her right. As she does this, her defender will follow her, leaving a large hole for Player B to now drive through. The idea is to create too much space for the defense to effectively slide into.
Give and goes: Another incredibly simple concept that gets frequently overlooked. Player A passes the ball to Player B. Player A then cuts towards goal, looking for the pass. The reason this can be successful, is because the defense is all watching the ball getting ready to slide. Once the ball is changed hands, the defense will all move their heads to look at the ball. Immediately after releasing the pass, Player A should cut. You want Player A cutting so fast after throwing the pass that she doesn’t even see Player B catch the pass. This has to be instantaneous or the window will close and the play won’t work.
Criss Cross: This concept can be slightly harder for the girls to pick up on and understand. It resembles a moving pick. Player A has ball, Player B runs in-between Player A and her defender. Player B then cuts hard off Player A’s defender’s, hip. Right as Player B gets to Player A’s shoulder, Player A should run towards Player B’s back and cut hard off Player B’s defender’s butt who is trailing. Perfectly timed and executed, the defenders run into each other, leaving both players open and running towards goal. Timing is everything on this play so practice makes perfect.
All of these different plays are run out of a basic motion set which helps us move the ball continuously and constantly put our players in favorable situations. Our most useful set and set that our players like the most is our default set. We don’t name the set, our team understands that once we are settled, this is what we do unless otherwise specified.
To start the set, the ball carrier drives hard to goal. One of two things happens, either a slide comes to double or not. If the slide doesn’t come, ball carrier should attempt to beat the 1 v. 1. If the slide does come, ball carrier should back/run out of the 8 meter. When the slide comes, the adjacent attacker, whose defender just slid, should cut through and be an immediate draw and dump option. If the next defender slid to pick up the cutter the next attacker in line should pop out toward the ball to be an immediate outlet pass. Once the original cutter gets across the 8, she should flash back to see if she can get another quick feed from the outlet pass. If the outlet attacker gets the ball and has an open lane, she should drive to goal. If not, she should look at the cutter flashing back. If none of those options pan out the first time, the set resets with the new ball carrier and it repeats. If at any time, a player thinks she is open, she should cut into the 8 looking for a pass. She should not cut all the way through the 8 in this set.
Our second set incorporates all of the above motion building blocks into an offense that can be difficult to contain. We start with a criss cross to the strong side of the ball carrier. Ball carrier should look to drive hard off the criss cross. The player who ran the criss cross with the ball carrier runs to the opposite side of 12 meter and sets a pick and roll. This will give us to immediate cutting options opposite of the ball carrier. The cutters have about 4 steps into the 8 meter. If they don’t receive a pass, they exit immediately. The driver understands she has three options right away, the drive, and the two opposite cuts. If on the drive, the adjacent attacker slides, a draw dump option opens up with the adjacent attacker. If none of these options open up, ball carrier moves the ball and the set plays again.
3 Steps to Winning Defensive 1v1s (Longpoles)Scott Ratliff is one of the best defensive players in the world…
Recently, I wrote about winning offensive 1v1s. That article taught attackmen the proper strategy to win 1v1s. It wasn’t fair to give attackmen ammunition without giving back to the defense. Hence this article. Here, I will go step-by-step on how to win defensive 1v1s with a long pole. I will release a separate article for SSDMs (Short Stick Defensive Midfielder).
As a long pole, 1v1s are my favorite part of playing defense. It’s you and the ball carrier. You get the honor of facing him. As a defenseman, you should take it personally when the ball carrier dodges at you. He chose you because he thinks he’ll beat you. YOU! How dare he? You need to be angry. And you must relish the opportunity to single handedly dominate your opponent. This is the mindset required to win 1v1s. Mindset is just as important as technique.
That said, fury isn’t enough. You need proper technique. Luke Skywalker had the heart to fight Darth Vader in The Empire Strikes Back; however, Luke doesn’t defeat Vader until he refines his craft.
Step 1: Defensive Stance, Stick Out
An attackman can initiate a 1v1 anywhere on the field. Experience helps, but you’ll have a gut feeling when a 1v1 scenario occurs. The attackman makes room. He caught the ball while moving. He has happy feet. He’s twirling his stick around. These are giveaways the ball carrier is about to charge you. For my example, you and the ball carrier will be at X (behind the net).
While the attackman is making space, you must, if not already, get into defensive position. Your knees are bent, your stick is out in front, and you’re taking away a side. Taking away a side is when you position yourself so the ball carrier is forced a certain direction. If you’re a lefty, angle yourself so the ball carrier goes to your right. If you’re a righty, angle yourself so the ball carrier dodges to your left.
Whatever you do, don’t stand straight at him. This makes it easier to dodge. Instead of having one option, the attackman now has two. This is why you must take away a side! Move him to the side you’re most comfortable with him being. Now you are in proper defensive position with your stick out in front. What next? Step two.
Step 2: Moving Feet, Attack When in Range
Now that step one is complete, you are ready for step two. A big reason young defensemen get beat is their feet were flat. While waiting for the dodger, your feet should be moving. Do chop steps in place. Don’t have flat feet! You will lose!
When the attackman runs at you, begin backing up. You have to give some ground. While backing up, once in range of your pole, poke check him. Do this before he initiates his dodge. By doing this, you throw him off. A plethora of young poles play passively. They let the ball carrier make the first move. This puts them at a disadvantage. They react to him instead of the attackman reacting to them.
By throwing a poke check, you are on the offensive. If he’s doing a split dodge, you may disarm him. Make sure you throw the poke check at his stick or bottom hand.
If you’re really good, you can throw the poke check between his bottom and top hand. Then, attack his bottom hand until he lets go. Finally, lift check until his top arm is completely raised. Continue doing so until the ball drops. This is the quickest way to strip a dodger during 1v1s.
Unfortunately, most attackmen won’t allow the above to happen. After giving ground and throwing a poke check, you are ready for step three.
Step 3: Don’t Let Man go Topside, Force Pass or T/O to Win
I placed our example at X because it’s easier to explain topside. Topside is the ideal angle for the ball carrier. It leads to the heart of the defense and sets up easy shots for offensive personnel. You cannot let your man get topside.
At X, topside is allowing your man to get past GLE (Goal Line Extended) and wrap around goal. You can’t let him beat you past GLE.
Assuming you followed steps one and two, your man should be heading the direction you forced him. To stop him from getting topside, pivot your back foot in front of him. Then, shove him back. Continue this until he passes the ball. Congratulations, you won the 1v1. If you make the ball carrier throw a pass, you win.
There’s more complexity than what I just wrote, but that’s step three in a nutshell. I’ll go into specifics for the more advanced player.
While forcing the attackman one way, keep your hands on him. Remember, one hand is on the butt of the stick while the other is higher. Don’t hit him with the open part of your stick. You will be called for a cross-check. To get around this, punch him with your bottom hand. You should be punching his hip. Specifically, the hip that is closer to topside.
When you shove your man, make sure you close space quickly. The attackman needs space to make something happen. You cannot oblige him. Footwork is what wins defensive 1v1s, but you should be throwing checks at opportune times. If he’s hanging his stick, hack it. Push him back, hack down on his bottom hand, and close the gap. One check you SHOULD NOT throw is the trail check. By throwing a trail check, you are surrendering your position. If you’re winning the 1v1, there’s no point in sacrificing your advantage. If you throw a trail check, any attackman worth his salt will pull his stick in and run around you for a goal.
Lots of young players throw trail checks when beaten. Don’t do this. Coach Bill Wilson, Air Force lacrosse head coach, taught me that when beat, it’s better to hustle back and get side-to-side with your man. Shove and disrupt him. By then, your teammate should slide or you’ll have regained positioning. If there’s one thing you take away from this article, it’s this: DON’T TRAIL CHECK!
By following these steps, you are extremely prepared for any 1v1 situation you face. If you continue struggling, it may be a physical issue. To be an elite defenseman, you need footwork and speed. If you’re slow and trip over yourself, no technique will save you against good attackmen. I truly hope this article helps you improve.
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Lacrosse Cage Defense | Defensive Speed
In a fast-paced lacrosse game, offensive players sometimes make run from X in order to advance on the cage and score, or pass to a scoring teammate, before defensive players can intervene. This drill is designed to help defensive players maintain an edge and move quickly behind the cage in order to protect the crease from offensive approaches on both sides.
Known as the lacrosse Cage Defense Drill, this exercise is simple in its execution, but it’s also very challenging to the defensive player’s reflexes and agility, and it targets the muscle groups that contribute to speed and core strength. Without the Kbands, the drill is still valuable, but with the bands in place, an extra tension is applied to the hip flexors and quads, and this tension causes the muscles to fire and takes overall speed and strength to the next level. Players will be able to feel the difference as soon as the bands are taken off, and the long term results of this drill can have a dramatic impact during game situations.
The lacrosse Cage Defense Drill requires very little equipment and is easy to set up and execute at any point during a regular practice session. This move can be worked into a seasonal training program a few times a week for noticeable improvements on the field.
Lacrosse Cage Defense: Setting Up the Drill
This drill requires only a goal, two speed and agility cones, and a set of lacrosse equipment for each player, including a stick and a pair of Kbands. One cone will be placed on either side of the goal just beyond the edges of the crease, and the bands can be strapped around the legs after a warm up session. Players can also simply move into this drill from a previous exercise involving the bands.
Since players will move back and forth behind the cage individually, this drill is difficult to execute with an entire team at once, so it may be beneficial to work this move into a circuit training session. (For more circuit exercises, visit the lacrosse training section of KbandsTraining.com.)
One at a time, each player will take a position at the starting cone on either side of the crease. At the starting signal, the athlete will race to the other side as if preparing to meet an offensive player who is approaching the cage from X. When the player arrives at the opposite cone on each side, the stick should be raised and prepared for defensive maneuvering, and the player should be prepared as well. The eyes should be up and the attention should be focused in the direction of the oncoming athlete.
Along the way back and forth between the cones, the athlete will jump over the end of the net, leading with the front leg instead of crossing over. The jumping motion will cause the muscles to fire in the quads and hip flexors, and if the player stays in rapid motion back and forth behind the net, this tension will also build endurance by elevating the heart rate.
Lacrosse Cage Defense: Focusing on Agility
When the offensive player moves up from X and approaches the GLE, he may engage in sudden direction changes, and the defensive player in the crease will need to shift focus quickly in order to respond. This drill helps defensive athletes stay engaged with the opponents intentions, which requires not only a strong core, but also fast footwork.
If the defensive player’s weight stays balanced and centered over the inside leg at each end of the drill, he’ll be able to shift direction quickly and anticipate the moves of the opponent. Even if the defender is one step behind the offensive player, he has room to cut through the crease and catch up. But this will require balance, coordination, and above all, agility.
The best way to execute this drill is by emphasizing time rather than reps. Each player should move back and forth from one cone to the next for about 12 to 15 seconds, working the inside leg and allowing the large muscle groups to work to their full explosive capacity. The player should stay in continuous motion, driving the knee and working the feet back and forth over the end of the net until the end of each round. The 15 second sprint should be followed by a rest period of about a minute to a minute and a half.
At the end of the rest period, the athlete will jump back in again and begin the next round at full speed. Each player will complete six resisted sets followed by two unresisted sets, making sure to complete a full rest period between each set. A full rest period can allow the athlete to start the next set with full explosivity, which will help teams gain the maximum benefit from the added resistance of the Kbands.
At the end of six resisted sets, two rounds of unresisted sets will be enough to finish the drill. These last sets will allow athletes to feel the neurological sense of lightness that takes place after the bands are removed, and this temporary sensation can add noticeable speed and agility to the execution of the drill.
Lacrosse Cage Defense Drill: Final Notes
After completing this simple but powerful agility sequence, teams can move on to the next stage in a progressive series of lacrosse drills. Visit the lacrosse training section of the Kbands Training.com website to find the GLE attack drill, or the drop step defense drill. Both of these can capitalize on the momentum of the cage defense drill and help players continue to build speed, agility and technique while conducting offensive and defensive maneuvering around the cage.
The lacrosse training section also offers a wide and growing range of video drills covering every aspect of the game, including stick handling skills, passing, scoring, and offensive and defensive strategy.
Lacrosse Training Equipment
PENN FINDS LACROSSE SUCCESS FORMULA
At the University of Pennsylvania, patience and unorthodox strategy have led the Quakers in a steady, seasonlong climb to the upper ranks of college lacrosse.
Penn, co-winner of the Ivy League title last year with Cornell (the first for the Quakers), lost its opening game to Rutgers last month and was ranked 13th in the national weekly coaches’ poll for Division I teams in the National Collegiate Athletic Association.
Since then, the Quakers have rolled up 12 successive victories, clinched the Ivy crown outright, and are tied for third in the ranking with powerful Virginia. Only undefeated Syracuse, the defending national champion, and Johns Hopkins, last year’s runner-up, are ahead of them.
Despite scoring no more than 10 goals in 7 of their victories, the Quakers have won because they have allowed an average of only 5 a game. They shut out one opponent, C.W. Post, a rarity in lacrosse. A Traditional Game
”College lacrosse is very traditional,” said Coach Tony Seaman, who is in his second year at Penn. ”As teams get more talent, they become more traditional. They give the ball to the guys with the greatest skill and tell them to get a score. It’s not a bad philosophy, if you have the talent.” On attack, Seaman stresses that movement without the ball is essential. Attack players must create the scoring situation, find the open man, and finish the play by scoring. He says that defenders tend to relax when they are not playing the man with the ball, and that gives the attacker an advantage.
Seaman has instituted a ”matchup-zone” defense, in which one defender plays the attacker with the ball, and the others defend a zone. ”Sometimes an opponent will throw 20 or 30 passes around the perimeter of the defense before they take a shot, and that eats up time,” he says. ”Often a team will make a bad pass and we can come up with a turnover before they even get a shot away.” Transition Game
But it is Seaman’s unorthodox approach to the transition game, moving the ball between the defensive and attack zones, that has given the Quakers the greatest success. Defending against an opponent trying to bring the ball into the offensive zone is called riding. Moving the ball to the offensive end of the field is called clearing.
”A lot of the top teams will concede on the ride about 80 percent of the time,” Seaman explains. ”They will settle for a one-on-one game in the attack end. But we work on riding, all 10 men.
”In some games we ride successfully almost 50 percent of the time, and that gives us the ball more times a game than using a traditional ride.”
Even less traditional is Penn’s clearing tactic. Many teams use short passes and fleet midfielders to move the ball upfield, but Seaman does not shy from using 50- and 60-yard passes. And he never hesitates to move the goalie far from the net to work on clearing, even though that may result in an unguarded net.
”If we force the other teams out of their normal patterns, we have the advantage,” he said.
The N.C.A.A. will announce the draw for the eight-team tournament after 6 P.M tonight. The first round will be played on Wednesday at the fields of the teams with the higher seeded positions. The semifinals will be held on Saturday under the same format, and the final is on May 26 at the University of Delaware in Newark.90,000 City Development Strategy / Official Internet Portal of Local Self-Government Bodies of the City District Dubna, Moscow Region
1. ECONOMY OF THE XXI CENTURY
The main task of is to continue the successful strategic course towards the development of Dubna as a center of high-tech production.
In the coming years, Dubna will receive a significant resource for economic growth – an increase in federal funding for the two largest city-forming enterprises (JINR – within the framework of the 7-year development program of the Institute, MKB “Raduga” and DMZ – within the framework of the development of the defense industry).
Nevertheless, the main economic priority of the city government is to create conditions for the development of new high-tech industries (primarily, medium and small enterprises), which makes it possible to diversify the city budget to a greater extent.
1.1 Administrative support for the development of Special Economic Zone and the creation of new high-tech projects (for example, such as the Data Processing Center of the Federal Tax Service, NANO KASKAD LLC, Svyaz Engineering KB LLC, BioGenius PLUS LLC).Today SEZ “Dubna” resident companies are offered a number of preferences: special tax conditions, customs zone regime. Due to this, the number of SEZ participants is constantly increasing.
1.2 Creation of jobs for young specialists in the field of high-tech production.
1.3 Support for small innovative entrepreneurship , including through the allocation of subsidies through the city budget.
1.4 Adoption and implementation, together with the Council of Dubna Enterprises, of the program for staffing the city scientific and industrial complex .Today Dubna is a center of attraction for skilled labor. At the same time, as of 2013, the demand of urban enterprises for employees of engineering and blue-collar specialties was almost 9 times higher than the unemployment rate registered in Dubna.
The staffing program can include both support for the development of higher and special education in the city with a targeted focus on the needs of enterprises, and activities to attract promising personnel (job fairs, etc.)etc.)
1.5 Continuation of the practice of supporting student scientific and practical events held on the basis of JINR, the Special Economic Zone, as well as other scientific and industrial organizations of the city (summer scientific and practical school for undergraduate students “Personnel of the Future”, etc.)
1.6 Implementation of the presentation programs of Dubna both at Russian and international platforms in order to further attract investors to the SEZ and other projects. Continuation of the practice of holding scientific and practical conferences on the basis of the SEZ on the topics of innovative development of territories (in particular, the annual All-Russian conference “Principles and mechanisms for the formation of a national innovation system in the Russian Federation”).Support for the participation of representatives of the SEZ Dubna in similar events at other sites.
2. FOUNDATION FOR FUTURE GROWTH
2.1 Construction of a bridge across the Volga . This project, designed to provide a reliable transport connection between the right-bank and left-bank parts of the city, is key for the development of Dubna, including for ensuring the full development of the territories of the Special Economic Zone.
The need for the construction of the bridge matured many years ago, but its construction was repeatedly postponed.However, to date, the city has been able to enlist the support of the Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation and create all the prerequisites for construction to begin already in 2015.
2.2 Construction of a dam to protect the left-bank part of the city from floods. Construction work. The dams, which will be about 7.8 km long, began in the spring of 2014 and should be completed by 2017.
2.3 Construction of the North-West bypass road bypassing Kirov Street.
2.4 Completion of the creation of the infrastructure of the Special Economic Zone : laying of engineering networks, construction of a road network, etc.
2.5 Solving the problems of power supply for growing urban industries . In the near future, it is planned to launch a feeding center of a special economic zone of 50 MW (now work is underway to prepare its commissioning), the Canal named after I. Moscow – 17 MW.
In addition, it is necessary in the near future to successfully complete negotiations with the Government of the Moscow Region and the leadership of the Special Economic Zone on the prospects for the construction of a second SEZ substation – in the right-bank part of the city, as well as to assist in the reconstruction of the GPL-2 substation of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research.
3. URBAN SPACE: COMFORT OF LIVING ENVIRONMENT
3.1 Comprehensive improvement of the territory of city microdistricts : repair of intra-quarter roads, sidewalks, lighting, etc. Implementation of a targeted program for the construction of playgrounds for children: arrangement of new ones and re-equipment of existing ones.
3.2 Putting order in the maintenance of the housing stock . The task of the City Administration is, on the one hand, to prevent monopoly in this area, on the other, to create a system for removing unscrupulous management companies from the market (including by regularly informing residents of the city about the results of activities, status of payments, etc.).etc.)
3.3 Increasing the transport accessibility of the city’s microdistricts . Reorganization of the work of public transport in order to increase its efficiency (in particular, transferring stops, changing the timetable). Development of bicycle infrastructure: bicycle paths and bicycle parking.
3.4 Maintaining high environmental standards of living in Dubna . Continuation of the policy of banning the placement of dirty industries in Dubna, as well as enterprises with significant transport and cargo flows.Closure of solid waste landfills and reclamation of their territory. Development of Dubna landscaping programs, including the continuation of the urban tradition – annual forest harvesting and mass planting of trees.
3.5 Development of urban recreation areas and park areas . Stage-by-stage creation of a recreation area on the left-bank embankment, improvement of the right-bank embankment, a park in the area of the entertainment center “Yunost”, the Zhuravlev square, the pedestrian zone of ul. Central.
3.6 Development of the consumer market . Reconstruction of city markets and their transformation into modern shopping complexes, provided with parking spaces and other necessary infrastructure. At the same time, it will be obligatory to provide “social” shopping places where residents of the city and its suburbs will be able to sell products from their personal plots.
Development of the system of public services in the districts of Dubna.
4. HOUSING CONSTRUCTION
According to the general plan, Dubna is defined as an average city with a population of up to 100 thousand people.Such parameters, on the one hand, lay the potential for territorial development, ensuring the growth of Dubna as a research and production center, on the other hand, it contributes to the preservation of a unique “chamber” urban environment.
Unlike many cities in the Moscow region, Dubna has avoided a boom in commercial development “in reserve”. Housing construction in our city is largely subordinated to the general tasks of integrated development.
The main priorities in the field of housing construction are :
4.1 Formation of the housing stock necessary to provide housing for specialists of the developing research and production complex of the city and enterprises of the Special Economic Zone, as well as employees of the public sector. It is planned, in particular, the deployment of housing construction in the districts adjacent to the territory of the SEZ and, first of all, the Russian Programming Center.
4.2 Increasing the affordability of housing , primarily for young professionals and their families.
· Further development of cooperative construction. The task is to ensure the construction of high-quality economy-class housing in Dubna at prices 20-30% lower than the market average.
· Search for ways and investors to organize the construction of profitable housing, intended for long-term rent.
· Continuing the practice of providing service housing for rent by professionals or their employing organizations.
· Working out with interested structures the possibility of adopting special programs of preferential long-term housing loans.
· Provision of housing (apartments or rooms in a hostel) to public sector specialists from the municipal housing stock.
4.3 Provision of advanced construction of social infrastructure in the blocks of new housing development.
4.4 Implementation of the program of resettlement of the housing stock of uncomfortable living :
- In the Bolshaya Volga microdistrict on the street. School, Pervomaiskaya, Vokzalnaya – until 2017;
- In the left-bank part of the city on the street.Oktyabrskaya and Tverskaya – until 2019
4.5 Provision of land plots for housing construction to large families .
5. NEW SOCIAL STANDARDS
5.1 Preschool and school education
Commissioning of three kindergartens (one in 2014 in the Bolshaya Volga region and two in 2015 in the left-bank part of the city). The opening of new preschool institutions will solve the problem of priority for young children.
Execution in 2015 – 2016 repair of children’s educational institutions (including preschool ones) at the expense of the federal program for financing science cities.
Conducted in 2015-2016. technical re-equipment of city schools, updating the computer base, purchasing modern educational equipment at the expense of including these costs in the program for the development of a cluster of nuclear physics and nanotechnology.
Continuation of the implementation of programs to increase the staffing of schools, as well as the professional development of teachers (including within the framework of the Center for the Development of Education).
Continuation of support programs for gifted children.
5.2 University development
Among the most important tasks:
· Completion of the construction of the fifth educational building.
Within the framework of the program for the development of an innovative territorial cluster of nuclear physics and nanotechnologies:
– creation of two engineering centers with the participation of the University and a number of interested enterprises of the city: in the field of composite materials and in the field of thin-film coatings;
– additional equipping of the University with educational and research equipment;
– creation of a classroom at the University College equipped with modern numerical control machines;
– creation of a data processing center on the basis of the University, providing both university departments and city schools with access to modern electronic educational programs.
– construction of a new educational city of the University, which includes an educational building and three dormitories.
– implementation of the project to create a regional Institute of High Technologies on the basis of Dubna2 University. The group of companies “Mail.ru” is supposed to become a key partner here.
5.3 Health care
Completion of construction and equipping of a new medical building of the city hospital. Construction of a new building for a children’s clinic in the Bolshaya Volga microdistrict.
Continuation of programs for technical equipment of medical institutions, advanced training of doctors and nurses, as well as attracting young and highly qualified doctors of various specialties to the city.
Solving the problem of providing medicines to privileged categories of citizens.
Cooperation with the Federal Medical and Biological Agency on the issue of improving the level of patient care in the medical and sanitary unit No. 9.
Completion of equipment and start of full-fledged operation of the sports complex “Volna”.
Development of mass sports infrastructure, including
· Repair of the sports complex “Ruslan”
Construction of sports and playgrounds in the city’s micro districts
Reconstruction of school stadiums
Over the next few years, a phased reconstruction of other school sports facilities is planned.
6. DIALOGUE AND OPENNESS
The main task of this set of measures is to develop intra-city public dialogue and increase the influence of the city’s civil society on the socio-economic development of Dubna.
6.1 Openness of the decision-making space . Today, on the official website of the Dubna Administration, residents of the city can familiarize themselves with the full base of regulatory documents adopted by city authorities. At the next stage, it is also planned to provide open access to the base of decision projects, as well as to work out the technology of personal accounts of applicants with the ability to track in real time the stages of decisions on their application. This will increase the level of openness of actions of the city administration for all residents of Dubna.
6.2 Further development of the MFC system (multifunctional centers for the provision of state and municipal services).
6.3 Ensuring mandatory broad information of the townspeople about the upcoming public hearings . Placing information about the hearings held in places where construction is planned, ensuring the possibility of electronic participation in public hearings (Internet voting, etc.)
6.4 Introduction of the practice of preliminary public discussion of the improvement of yards and quarters.Improvement works should be determined by the orders of the residents.
6.5 Creation of a fund to support public initiatives of residents of Dubna for improvement, landscaping, security, etc. (including the possibility of funding these initiatives).
6.6 Introduction of the practice of regular reporting meetings with residents and visiting receptions Head of Administration and his deputies in the city’s microdistricts.
6.7 Development and launch of a complex social project “Feedback” with technologies of interactive dialogue with the population : collecting complaints and suggestions from city residents, solving various issues and problems.
7. OAK – THE PEARL OF THE MOSCOW REGION
Recently Dubna has begun to gain more and more popularity as a center of inbound tourism. Today our city is visited by thousands of guests, primarily those who are interested in the history and state of development of science and technology, modern technologies and scientific achievements.
At the same time, our city has significant potential for development as a center of not only scientific, but also historical, excursion, event and recreational tourism.
Further development of the tourism sector in Dubna is necessary, taking into account the following priorities :
7.1 Development of the Dubna museum base . In particular, support for projects to expand the Museum of the History of Science and Technology at JINR and the creation of the Museum of the History of Cruise Missiles, development of the exposition of the Museum of Archeology.
7.2 Expansion of the program of cooperation with the Moscow river shipping company , increase in the number of guests to Dubna at the expense of participants in river excursion cruises.
7.3 Organization or support of events promoting the development of event tourism.
Sports competitions, primarily in water sports
Major cultural events of interregional status
Historical and cultural festivals
7.4 Inclusion of Dubna as a tourist center in targeted federal and regional programs.
7.5 Ensuring systemic interaction of all organizations of the tourism sector in Dubna within the Coordination Council for Tourism Development.
7.6 Strengthening the city’s positive image in the eyes of the Russian tourism business , organizing systematic promotion of Dubna on the Russian and international tourism market: participation in industry exhibitions, publication of publications in the media, etc.
7.7 Creation of the Internet portal “Visit to Dubna “, which brings together all the information about the city that is interesting for tourists. Development of advertising and informational tourist navigation in the city.
Strategic aircraft missiles of the USSR and the USA during the Cold War
Experienced long-range cruise missile Boeing XAGM-86A ALCM.Six of them were suspended under each wing of the B-52, eight more were placed in the fuselage.
The Vietnam War showed the vulnerability of strategic bombers to anti-aircraft missile systems and interceptors. There was still no protection against ballistic missiles – it seemed that this was it, confirmation of the correctness of those who declared that bombers were no longer needed!
But here’s the paradox: one nuclear warhead, hitting the launch silo, will destroy 6-10 enemy warheads, and in order to deprive him of the opportunity to retaliate, it is enough to use up only 10-15% of its missiles.What can be done in this case to ensure strategic parity?
It is possible to save nuclear forces for a retaliatory strike only by making it impossible to constantly track the movements of all their combat units: self-propelled launchers, submarines and aircraft. From this point of view, it is the latter that best meet the cost-effectiveness criterion – if they can break through the air defense. And by the beginning of the 70s. in such large countries as the USSR and the USA, the advanced air defense lines were extended from the most important targets by 2,000 km or more, so the question arose of increasing not only the range, but also the accuracy of cruise missiles.
The inertial guidance error was too large, even with correction using a Doppler velocity and drift meter. Then the idea appeared to rely on natural landmarks, creating a digital map of “physical fields”. But where to get such an accurate and truthful map of enemy territory and what should it be?
It can only be obtained legally from orbit, and for this purpose the artificial satellites “Lacrosse” (“Onyx”) were launched in the USA, and the manned and automatic orbital stations “Salyut” and “Almaz” in the USSR.Their flights in the 70s became the main part of our space program, they were unprecedentedly expensive, complex and dramatic, but only in this way it was possible to obtain the necessary digital maps.
For mapping, photographs were usually taken, but the appearance of the terrain changes depending on the season and weather, and clouds interfere with it. The Americans made a thermal imager, Soviet specialists, together with the East German “People’s Enterprise Karl Zeiss – Jena”, went further and created a multi-channel high-resolution camera MKF-6, which worked simultaneously in 6 ranges, incl.hours and in infrared. By combining them, you can get a picture that is almost independent of the weather. However, its quality was unstable, and it was necessary to use a side-looking radar, which gave a three-dimensional image of the relief.
On the basis of such a map, a guidance method was developed, which in the United States was called TerCoM (Terrain Control Matching) – control with correlation on the relief, and in the USSR – “extreme navigation”. We proposed her idea in the late 60s. Professor of the Air Force Engineering Academy.Zhukovsky A.A. Krasovsky.
In the book “Half a Century in Aviation”, one of the creators of autocorrelation control systems, academician E.A. Fedosov described its essence as follows: “ Having memorized the“ picture ”of the relief over which the rocket would have to pass, we measured the height of the real relief during the flight with the help of a radio altimeter and compared it with the map of the terrain stored in the rocket’s memory, that is, carried out their correlation processing … It turned out to be a functional extreme, it was used to optimize the process of searching and determining coordinates – this was an extreme navigation correction, with the help of which it was possible to bring the missile to the target with an error of 200-300 m, regardless of the flight range ”.
AMERICAN STRATEGIC AIRMISSIONS
So, with guidance it is clear, what should be the strategic aircraft missile itself? The Americans initially tried to modernize the old supersonic AGM-28 Hound Dog, but they soon abandoned them in favor of an unprepossessing-looking subsonic projectile, which was a by-product of a completely different work.
In the late 60s. In the United States, a sluggish attempt was made to replace the failed Green Quayle decoy target to protect the B-52.In order to reliably imitate a bomber, the trap rocket had to go along with it for a long time in the same formation, and when a threat appeared, it had to roll aside, leading away enemy missiles. In the automatic mode, it was possible to implement this only with the TegSoM system, but now the navigation accuracy was such that it was proposed to put a nuclear warhead on the “trap”.
But with such a “subsonic armed false target” SCAD (Subsonic Cruise Armed Decoy), the carrier no longer needed to break through the enemy’s air defense itself, and in 1970 g.it was decided instead to make a homing projectile ALCM (Air Launched Cruise Missile, which we usually translate as “air launch cruise missile”).
The XAGM-86A project, presented by Boeing in 1970, was distinguished by its compactness. The wing and tail of the rocket were pressed against a thin fuselage with a length of only 4.26 m, and 8 such missiles were placed on the revolving launcher in the bomb bay, and 12 more on two pylons under the wing.
The B-52G-115-BW aircraft launches the XAGM-109A Tomahawk rocket on May 14, 1979.within the framework of competitive tests.
The design was extremely simple and light, the high aspect ratio wing had a moderate sweep, and the William Research XF107-WR-101 small bypass engine developed a bench thrust of only 306 kgf. This excluded access to supersonic sound, but the efficiency of the power plant and high aerodynamic quality made it possible to deliver the W80-I warhead with a power of 200 kT to a distance of 2500 km. Least of all fuel was spent near the ground, where the rocket, in which solutions were widely used that reduce its radar and thermal signature, became an extremely difficult target for air defense.The B-52 squadron fired a volley of 360 ALCM missiles, which would have been impossible to defend against.
In 1972, General Daynemics began developing a unified cruise missile for launching from submarines, wheeled units and bombers. It was made primarily for the Navy and therefore resembled a torpedo with a circular hull, into which the wing and air intake were removed, and the plumage was folded around the tail cone. The Tomahawk missile went into service in both land and sea versions, but the XAGM-109A aviation XAGM-109A lost comparative tests to the Boeing.
Meanwhile, the launches of the XAGM-86A began in 1976 unsuccessfully: the range was 1000 km less than the declared one, and the accuracy was 6 times worse. To accommodate additional fuel, the hull had to be lengthened by 2.06 m, and the rocket was 178 kg heavier. This did not affect the number of points of their suspension on the B-52G and H carriers, but also had to suffer a lot with the construction of the pylons. After many alterations, a heavy (2270 kg without missiles!) Unit turned out to be almost as long as an F-16 fighter.
Although the launch blocks for the old AGM-28 missiles were removed, two inserts into the fuselage with a total length of 1.315 m had to be made for the new systems.The short-range AGM-69 projectiles in the arsenal of these aircraft remained, like the bombs, and the B-52H nuclear arsenal was strengthened by increasing the number of B.43 suspended bombs (power up to 1 megaton) from 4 to 8. There were even such “unnatural” combinations as 11025 kg of single bundles of M55 high-explosive fragmentation bombs in the bomb bay and 8 Mk.36 sea mines weighing 11967 kg under the wing.
Popular literature cites the B-52G’s range of 6,575 km with twenty AGM-86B missiles, the range is 12,836 km, and the reference materials of the V.I.Zhukovsky – even 14100 km. However, in the official characteristics of the B-52G, published by the US Air Force in 1990, and now declassified, we see much more modest numbers.
Takeoff with a mass of 221406 kg is carried out in normal operation of the engines with a takeoff along a wet strip of 3453 m. The B-52 goes to the launch zone “along the ceilings”, and after firing 12 AGM-86B cruise missiles it is reduced to an altitude of 200 m. switches to intercepting them. Taking advantage of this, the B-52G in the combat mode of the engines travels another 1110 km at low level at a speed of 650 km / h “another target and drops 4 nuclear bombs 8.28FI. When detecting the operation of the locators of enemy air defense systems, the crew fires them with 8 short-range AGM-69 missiles from a revolving launcher in the weapons compartment, uses active and passive interference (the plane had 327 kg of dipole reflectors and 152 kg of heat traps) or performs an evasion maneuver lasting up to 2 minutes. Further, the engines are switched to normal mode, and the crew gains the altitude of the minimum fuel consumption, returning to the base. In this case, with a combat load of 29872 kg, the range without refueling turned out to be only 1876 km (range less than 4000 km), and with one refueling – 3697 km (range – about 5500 km) with an emergency navigation stock (ANZ) of fuel 3993 kg – this is minutes for 15 flights.
It is possible that the same story with open data on the range of the upgraded B-52H – the replicated range indicator of 15468 km may refer to an aircraft without external suspension or not at all correspond to reality. The author has not yet been able to find official information on this aircraft with a full charge of cruise missiles.
Along with the weapons on the B-52, other equipment was also updated. For piloting and bombing at dusk and at night, an electronic video system EVS (Electronic Vision System) was mounted under the bow.Its left “nostril” housed an AN / AVQ-22 (LLTV) television camera capable of operating in low light levels, and its right – an AN / AAQ-6 (FUR) infrared system. “Pictures” from them were displayed on the monitor of the AN / ASQ-151 combined sighting system. EVS trials on the B-52H began on July 24, 1973, but such a refinement of the B-52G / H park was completed only in the early 80s.
All this was combined into the “II phase” of the modernization of the B-52, during which measures were also taken to extend the service life.On all machines, the wing consoles, nose and tail parts of the fuselage were replaced (in the old ones, they found multiple cracks and corrosion). They also tried to improve the conservative aerodynamics of the aircraft by installing root beads on the joint between the wing and the fuselage, but only part of the B-52G was modified this way.
It was all very expensive, and neither President Jimmy Carter nor the next one, Ronald Reagan, were supporters of strategic aviation. They constantly delayed the start of serial production of the new B-1 intercontinental bomber, but the B-52s of modifications D, E and F were written off, and they had to spend money on upgrading the B-52G / H.But only some of them were rearmed with strategic cruise missiles, for example, out of one and a half hundred cash B-52Gs, only 98 were altered.
In the USSR, to create a small subsonic low-altitude cruise missile with autocorrelation guidance was proposed by the Chief Designer of the Raduga Design Bureau (Dubna, Moscow Region) I.S. Seleznev back in 1971. But then he was not supported by either the Customer or the specialists of the Research Institute of Aviation Systems, who were engaged in calculations of the effectiveness and combat stability of the strategic grouping.According to the memoirs of Academician Fedosov, director of the Scientific Research Institute of AS, such a rocket seemed a step backward compared to the supersonic Kh-45 being created for new bombers.
In this form, the Kh-55 cruise missile went into mass production under the designation “product 120”
However, the research work of NII AS under the code “Echo”, devoted to a comparative assessment of the effectiveness of subsonic and supersonic cruise missiles, as well as ballistic missiles, showed that a decrease in the size and the possibility of hanging a larger number of missiles on one carrier, a decrease in radar signature and the difficulty of intercepting a target on extremely low altitude give an advantage to subsonic missiles.
But the Americans developed the F-15 interceptor against low-altitude targets, and then the idea of ”counter detonation” of a cruise missile warhead when it hits it appeared. Of course, the effect in this case will decrease, but with a massive attack (and we were talking about an air defense breakthrough already over the territory of the United States), even such an impact on the ecology of the enemy continent would become catastrophic. As E.A. Fedosov, it was the “touchy missile factor” that opened the way for the development of such weapons systems in the USSR, but things did not move until the Americans went to the flight test stage with their ALCM subsonic missile.
Only after that, on December 9, 1976, the Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers on the creation of the Kh-55 cruise missile, unified by the basing method, was issued.
A four-year lag at the beginning of work made it possible to reduce the backlog accumulated on its own initiative, but the layout of the rocket had to be changed. Since the Kh-55 was supposed to be launched from aircraft, and from ground installations, and from submarine torpedo tubes, they abandoned the gargrot and influx hull protruding beyond the circular section.The wing was now retracted not under the fuselage, but into a narrow niche along the axis of its symmetry so that one console lay on top of the other. This asymmetry was compensated for by the installation angles of the consoles.
Almost the entire welded fuselage made of aluminum alloy AMG-6 was occupied by tanks, in the tail there was an engine and systems for ensuring the functioning of the rocket, and in the nose there was a thermonuclear warhead of 200 kilotons and guidance units under a fairing made of a composite based on silicon-organic fabric made of hollow fiber on a binder K-9-70.Gradually, its pointed shape twisted, and the body began to resemble a torpedo, which the factory wits called “sausage”.
To exclude flutter, the wing span and elongation were reduced, and so that the aerodynamic quality did not fall, it was made straight.
The compact and lightweight single-shaft by-pass turbojet engine P95-300 worked on any jet fuel, but the maximum range was obtained on the “combat” synthetic fuel deciline (T-10), which was called “melange” for its strange color.Initially, it was located at the very end of the hull and had a retractable air intake, but in order to improve its working conditions, they began to release the entire engine nacelle into the stream. This also made it possible to move the hydraulics closer to the empennage, “sealing” all its units, including control drives, into one unit.
The UKU-9K-502 fire launcher with two GSh-23 cannons, as well as the antennas of the onboard defense complex of the Tu-95MS aircraft of the latest series.
There were no ailerons, and the roll and pitch were controlled by the differential stabilizer, and the keel was on the heading. They were all-turning, and folded on the suspension, pressing against the body.
To test the X-55, the Tu-95M-5 aircraft was reequipped, installing on it the “Dub” launch preparation equipment, the MIS-45 small-size inertial system, and the DISS-7 Doppler velocity and drift meter. In the bomb bay, they were going to install a simple single-shot launching ejection device, but the standard multi-position MKU6-5 was already ready, and they put it.
Re-equipment began at the Zhukovskaya flight test and development base of the Moscow machine-building plant “Experience” (OKB A. Tupolev) in July 1977, July 31, 1978, the aircraft was renamed Tu-95M-55 (ed.VM-021 ), was flown around, at the end of the year, dropping of X-55 mock-ups and shells without guidance began.
Finally, on February 23, 1982, the first launch of the complete X-55 took place. Its tests were very energetic, out of 10 practical launches of the factory stage, 7 were successful.The range of 2500 km was confirmed, and in most cases the deviation of the aiming point was not 100 m, but less than 30. But the plane, which made 107 flights under this program with a total duration of 565 hours, crashed on February 28, 1982 due to a violation by the crew of N.E. … Kulchitsky instructions for piloting during takeoff in icy conditions.
It was considered inexpedient to convert the remaining old Tu-95M into missile carriers – they were already suitable only for the role of training machines, and the production of the aircraft was discontinued.However, at the Taganrog Machine-Building Plant. Dimitrov (TMZD) anti-submarine Tu-142MK was produced. Created on the basis of the Tu-95, it gradually received many important improvements, such as more reliable NK-12MP engines and a supercritical wing with reduced aerodynamic drag. Its toe became fuller, which, with the same rigidity, made it possible to lighten the strength elements and increase the volume of the tanks in the consoles.
On the Tu-142, the upper and lower gun mounts and the gunner’s cockpit with its blisters were removed, making the tail section lighter and stronger.For a carrier of cruise missiles launched outside the farthest air defense zone, one DT-K-12 stern turret with two AM-23 cannons was also enough, and the gunner was left alone in the tail. The radio operator was “transplanted” into the nose and renamed the operator of onboard communications. A satellite radio station and a special system for receiving commands to use weapons while patrolling in a remote area appeared in his “household”. The nose also housed the crew commander, his assistant (right pilot), two navigators (2nd – weapons operator) and a flight engineer.
A new navigation radar “Obzor” has appeared in the new bow section. The alignment of the reconfigured aircraft has improved in comparison with the Tu-95KM, which made the aircraft easier and more pleasant to fly, especially during takeoff and landing (the landing gear was also changed).
In the fuselage, it was planned to install two MKU6-5 “revolvers” one after another on twelve X-55s, but on an experimental machine converted to TMZD from the Tu-142MK # 42105 under construction, only one installation was mounted – alterations for the second would be too complicated.
The lead aircraft, named Tu-95MS, flew in September 1979, and less than two years later, the complex completed stage “A” of the Joint State Tests, confirming the declared characteristics.
In 1981, TMZD, using parts and whole units of the Tu-142MK, built the first serial missile carrier. In addition to the “revolver” MKU6-5U, he carried four underwing beam ejection devices. Between the fuselage and the internal engines on the right and left, the AKU-2 was suspended on two X-55s each, and between the engines – the AKU-3 for three missiles.Now the plane, named Tu-95MS-16, carried 16 Kh-55 missiles, the use of which was provided by the new Osina training system.
The first launch from this aircraft was carried out on September 3, 1981. The second Tu-95MS-16 was handed over to the military on March 26, 1982 and was sent to stage “B” of the State Test. It took place on a gigantic Route-Measuring Complex (TIK) with a rocket flight route Groshevo – Turgai – Terekhta – Makat – Sagiz – Emba, stretching from the Volga to Balkhash.
Although the TIK was equipped with radars and optical observation posts, and aircraft control and measuring points (SKIP-IL-76 with special radars in mushrooms above the fuselage) were used to track missiles, their sensitivity was higher than that of military aircraft of the A- 50), it was almost impossible to keep track of the flying Kh-55s, and strips of foil had to be glued onto the plastic wings of the missiles.This was the best confirmation of the choice of the missile concept – after all, it was extremely difficult to shoot down.
The release of X-55 missiles was entrusted to the Kharkiv Order of the Red Banner Aviation Production Association. Lenin Komsomol, This work was headed by A, K. Myalitsa, for whom the position of Deputy Chief Engineer was introduced (in the future he will become the General Director of KhAPO). To launch the CD into production in the OGK of the plant, sector No. 5 was formed under the leadership of the SM. Alimov, which was further transformed into an independent department No. 136.The leading rocket engineer was G.S. Holik. For the production of the rocket, a closed area was allocated in a remote workshop, which was then transformed into a separate workshop. The level of equipment, culture of production and even the requirements for the overalls of the staff are surprising even today.
The troops were looking forward to deliveries of Tu-95MS and X-55, but the Taganrog plant was overloaded with an order for the anti-submarine Tu-142, which is no less necessary for the country, and Kharkov, in addition to the civilian Tu-134 and An-72, was also building the Strizh unmanned reconnaissance aircraft. …Therefore, it was decided to transfer the production of missiles to the city of Kirov, and the carriers – to the Kuibyshev aircraft plant, where the Tu-95 was previously built.
There they gradually received a set of important improvements. The first of these was the replacement of the stern turret with a new UKU-9K-502 with two double-barreled GSh-23 cannons – the total rate of fire increased from 2,400 to 4,600 rounds per minute.
Further, the disparate means of electronic protection were brought together into the onboard defense complex “Meteor-NM” and updated.The new SPO-10 “Bereza” station more accurately determined the nature of the aircraft irradiation by the enemy radar and the direction of the threat, and the Mak-UT equipment recorded a flash when the rocket was launched. In addition to traditional automatic jamming devices
APP-50, which emitted dipole reflectors and heat traps, a new active system SPS-160 “Geran” appeared, replacing the outdated equipment. The operator controlled all this simultaneously through a computer.
Finally, an auxiliary power unit appeared on the plane, supplying electricity and warm air to the aircraft without being connected to airfield sources and greatly simplifying engine starting both on the ground and in the air.She was highly appreciated by the crews, being especially useful in winter.
But all this had to pay with some reduction in the fuel supply.
In August 1984, successful launches of the Kh-55 were carried out at a maximum range of 2500 km, but work was already underway on the Kh-55SM missile – overhead tanks on the sides of the hull increased its range to 3500 km. But the weight of the new “product 125” also grew from 1200 to 1700 kg, and the number of them on the suspension under the Tu-95MS-16 was reduced to 14 pieces, which was 23800 kg.
The frontal missile suspension system under the wing gave an even greater “plus” of resistance than the American one, in which two triplets of missiles were hanging on each pylon one after the other. Military testers determined that the range of the Tu-95MS with external sling decreased from 10,500 to 8,500 km on aircraft of the first series, and on some of the latest MC16s – to 6,000 km (from ANZ for 40 minutes of flight). However, Long-Range Aviation veterans recalled that they had not noticed such a strong fall. In their opinion, these parameters were written down for the notorious “average pilot”, so that “they could be guaranteed to be issued by any starley.”
Heavy air-launched cruise missile ZM25A “Meteorite-A” intended for the Tu-95MA aircraft in the NPYu mechanical engineering workshop.
It is interesting that it was MC16 that became the only of all Tu-95s to hold an official world record: on September 26, 1990, it passed a closed 1000-km route at an altitude of 1000 m with an average speed of 807.37 km / h with a load of 30 tons. an achievement in the C-1-R class, that is, for aircraft weighing 100-150 tons.
In the mid 80s. KuAZ began production of lightweight Tu-96MS6, without wing reinforcement under the AKU and equipped with a simplified Pikhta launch preparation system. By the end of the decade, they had completely displaced the MC16 from the assembly line in Kuibyshev, and the equipment for the external suspension of the X-55 was withdrawn from the combat units.
Officially, the reduction in ammunition and the transformation of the Tu-95MS-16 into the MC6 was explained by the USSR’s concessions to America when concluding a strategic arms limitation treaty. Indeed, Gorbachev and his foreign minister, Shevardnadze, have taken on many disadvantages to our country.But the treaty made it possible to keep 20 AGM-86 missiles in the arsenal of each B-52, and our Tu-95 – “6 or 16 RKV-500 missiles” (as the X-55 was designated in its text). On the other hand, even six missiles (each with 10 Hiroshims!) Is a terrible force, but at the same time, the lightweight Tu-95MS-6 has become more pleasant to fly, in range it significantly surpassed the Tu-95KM, approaching the old Tu -95M, which was the best in this indicator.
The 79th Heavy Bomber Aviation Division was in the lead in mastering new equipment.The first Tu-95MS arrived at the airfield of the 1226th TBAP Chagan in Kazakhstan on December 31, 1982, just a week later it began rearming the 69th squadron of the 42nd wing of the US Air Force SAC with modernized B-52s.
The mastery of digital equipment caused great difficulties for the specialists of the old school, and many officers who could still serve, chose to retire due to age. But personnel problems in the engineering and technical staff of Long-Range Aviation were successfully resolved, incl. thanks to the influx of graduates from civil aviation universities.Many, having served as lieutenants after the military departments of the Moscow Aviation Institute, KhAI and other institutes, remained in the army and reached command heights in the service. The rejuvenation of our strategic aviation was good for it.
Crew training was very intensive, and the average annual flight time even increased. Tu-95MS aircraft began to appear off the coast of the United States, and now patrolling with missiles has begun, incl. equipped with nuclear warheads, which has never happened before. This clearly contradicted not only Gorbachev’s official policy of “reconciliation” with America, but also the organizational and staffing measures that took place back in 1980.But we will talk about this later, touching upon the tactical aspects of the use of strategic aviation and the decisions made to please this on reorganizing its composition and transferring it from the Supreme High Command to the subordination of the Air Force headquarters. Nevertheless, no matter how it looked from the documents, Soviet Long-Range Aviation not only continued to exist de facto, but also became a truly means of solving strategic problems.
In 1983, the second regiment of the 79th TBAD – “Semipalatinsky” 1023rd TBAP, was re-equipped with Tu-95MS aircraft.In the European part of the USSR, the 106th TBAD stationed there was re-equipped with this technique. In 1985, retraining for new equipment of the 1006th regiment in Uzin near Kiev began, and in 1987 – the 182nd Guards TBAD in Mozdok (North Ossetia, RSFSR). By the end of 1991, they received 56 new Tu-95MS-16s and 27 lightweight MC6s, one finished MC16 remained at the factory airfield, and four MC6s were in final assembly. Almost 2,000 Kh-55 cruise missiles arrived. This allowed our country to complete the formation of a full-fledged nuclear triad, which ensured the combat stability of our strategic forces.
With the replacement of new equipment, the old Tu-95M bombers were transferred to training, which improved the training of flight personnel. At the same time, the American aviation was decommissioning the old B-52s, there were still no new B-1s, and the only carriers of AGM-86B cruise missiles were the B-52G / H, the “youngest” of which was in 1984 more than 20 years old !
In 1984, when the full-scale operation of the AGM-86B and B-52G / H missiles, which had passed the II phase of modernization, began in the United States, 19 squadrons of “stratospheric fortresses” remained in the Strategic Aviation Command, in 1987 there were 17 of them, then one was restored, but in 1990 they “lost” again.
These were the 62nd and 596th Squadrons of the 2nd Wing from Burksdale AFB in Louisiana, the 23rd, 31st and 72nd Squadrons of the 5th Wing (Minot, North Dakota), the 9th and 20th 7th Wing Squadron (Carswell, TX), 69th Squadron 42nd Wing (Loring, Maine), 60th Squadron, 43rd Wing (Andersen, Oh, Guam), 325th Squadron 92nd Wing ( Fairchild, WA), 328th, 329th, and 330th Squadrons of 93rd Wing (Castle, CA), 524th Squadron of 379th Wing (Wurtsmith, Michigan), 644th Squadron of 410th Wing (Sawyer, Michigan) and finally 668 Squadron, 416 Wing, based at Griffis Airfield in New York State.
None of these squadrons had a complete set of aircraft, and some of the available ones were suitable only for training flights. As we remember, a total of 295 B-52 aircraft of modifications G and H were built, but by the end of 1990 at least 38 of them had been lost in accidents and in the Vietnam War (modifications of several more shot down and crashed aircraft were not announced). Several vehicles were withdrawn for various tests. Consequently, by the end of 1990, America had about two hundred and forty B-52s, but not all of them were carrying cruise missiles.We had eighty-three Tu-95MS and forty-six Tu-95K22 with Kh-22N short-range missiles in service.
Although the American Air Force retained a twofold superiority in strategic missile carriers, their age was approaching the “Balzac” one, and production had ceased long ago, our Tu-95MS were new, and their production continued. This gave a chance to restore strategic parity in the near future. In addition, the Soviet Union retained a noticeable advantage in medium-range bombers, and now it was mainly the supersonic Tu-22KD and the newest Tu-22M2, which outnumbered the FB-111A both in numbers and in tactical and technical data.
The ZM25A Meteorite-A cruise missile was designed to achieve a speed of 3000 km / h and an altitude of 21-24 km.
The aforementioned Decree of the Central Committee and the Council of Ministers of December 9, 1976, the Scientific and Production Association of Mechanical Engineering, headed by V.N. Chelomey, the creation of another strategic strike complex based on the Tu-95 and a heavy supersonic cruise missile was set.She was supposed to break through the deeply echeloned air defense in flight at an altitude of 22000-24000 m at a speed of 3000 km / h. To overcome the zones covered by the Patriot air defense missile system capable of hitting high-altitude high-speed targets, the missile could perform anti-aircraft maneuvers, and a special system “enveloped” it with a plume of ionized air (plasma), preventing the operation of radar guidance systems.
Like the Kh-55, the Meteorite rocket was designed for launch from land and sea launchers, from the Tu-95MA aircraft, and the first was the naval modification.The aircraft ZM25A, according to the calculation, with a weight of 6300 kg with a megaton warhead weighing 1 ton, could have a range of 5000 km. These were very high rates, and due to the size and weight of the Tu-95MA, it took only two such missiles. “Meteorite-A” interested the military, and the Ministry of Defense did not rule out the adoption of this missile at the same time as the Kh-55.
For testing, the 4th serial Tu-95MS-16 was re-equipped, but for the Meteorite flight, even the huge TEC turned out to be cramped, and for a maximum range flight it had to turn 180 ° at a speed of 3000 km / h.
The first launch took place on January 11, 1984. After separation, the missile control system failed, and it was blown up in the 61st second. The second launch on May 24, 1984 was also unsuccessful. The reliability of the control system was somewhat improved, but in none of the 20 launches it was possible to confirm the maximum range of 5000 km, and the too expensive project was closed, and this was to some extent correct – the subsonic Tu-95MS with half a dozen subsonic missiles was a weapon both relatively inexpensive and quite effective.
The events described took place against the backdrop of the now forgotten acute crisis caused by the deployment in Europe of Tomahawk and Granat land-based cruise missiles, as well as Pershing 2 and RSD-10 Pioneer medium-range ballistic missiles. They had a minimum flight time and were intended to destroy the enemy’s strategic forces with a preemptive strike in order to deprive him of the opportunity to respond to a massive attack of intercontinental ballistic missiles.
Only the Old World fell under their blow, and America remained out of range. But the appearance of the Kh-55 cruise missiles and intercontinental missile carriers deprived her of impunity and, despite numerous bureaucratic changes in the 1980s, marked the return of the Soviet Long-Range Aviation to strategic functions. Now the retaliatory strike was becoming inevitable, and this cooled those American politicians who were used to talking to the whole world only from the standpoint of their absolute military superiority.
The Soviet Union had practically reached strategic parity with America, but in order to consolidate it, the firm will of its leaders, their determination to defend the interests of their country was needed …
The content of this page was prepared for the portal “Modern Army” based on the article by S. Moroz “Strategic Parity”, “NIT”. When copying content, please do not forget to link to the original page.
Tolstoy without protection
Of course there is: the preservation of national identity.In the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of July 2, 2021 No. 400 “On the National Security Strategy of the Russian Federation” this is clearly read. However, it is naive to believe that in the blessed Fatherland everything is in order with its preservation. Let’s look at the theatrical world. So …
The production of S. Prokofiev’s opera “War and Peace” in St. Petersburg by the English director Graham Wick presented the heroes of Leo Tolstoy’s great novel as not quite normal people and revealed Russia’s “readiness to activate dusty warehouse patriotism at any moment.”What is Vic’s interpretation of the bright image of Natasha Rostova: a prostitute.
Many have heard about the staging of the opera “Tannhäuser” by R. Wagner in Novosibirsk by director Timofei Kulyabin, which was accompanied by a grandiose scandal (not from scratch) and accusations of “deliberate desecration of religious values”. Today, against the backdrop of an act of curses against the Moscow Art Theater, which is tangible as a diversionary maneuver. Gorky for the sparkling, controversial, because experimental, performance “The Wonderful Georgian” suddenly there are recommendations to appoint Kulyabin no more, no less, but the artistic director of this theater.
Let us turn to the Bolshoi Theater, where the famous “guest worker” John Neumeier staged the ballet “Anna Karenina”. There is not even a speck of dust left of Tolstoy. The action is modernized, Karenin is a presidential candidate, Vronsky is a lacrosse coach (a type of field hockey). In the middle of the stage there is a huge bed as a symbol of the performance. The director confesses that “he produces on stage, first of all, those feelings that arouse in him what he has read.” In other words, the alien gaze of a representative of a different culture, who cares little for Russia, and its literary god (sic!) Can be subjected to vivisection.What was the management of the Bolshoi Theater guided by? I suppose, clearly not in order to defend our cultural values. Moreover, Tolstoy himself will no longer object. Of course, it would be more piquant if Karenin were the president of Russia – an even greater explosion of emotions. However, it is still not safe.
Let us recall the episode with history textbooks: the freedom of interpretations in the spirit of the ubiquitous Soros ended only after one of them began to attack the Russian president.
It’s not better with foreign authors.Staged by Konstantin Bogomolov at the Moscow Art Theater. Chekhov’s “Musketeers. Saga. Part One ”(after Alexandre Dumas) presents such a story. Musketeers live in modern Russia (and where else?) And simply bathe in the all-conquering vulgarity. Here is an excerpt from the review: “The games of the sexes continue in Milady, it is about her that they will say:” A woman is a man wounded in the groin “(…) Milady is a former musketeer Vadim Roger, who was considered dead, because after the battle he was left only a member (“fuy” – that’s what the heroes simply call him).”Fuy” by Vadim Roger was buried with honors, and the body, devoid of the main male part, became the beautiful chiseled flexible body of the new woman, to whom Athos was so inexplicably drawn. ”
But why wait? Russian classics are almost an orphan in their own home. Pushkin, Gogol, Dostoevsky, “The Lay of Igor’s Campaign” undergo a cruel transformation on the stage. Classics are disfigured with impunity. It is time to defend it decisively and irrevocably, as they did in relation to the history of the Victory. Otherwise, why did the president sign his decree?
Svyatoslav Rybas, writer, playwright, historian
American Football – 3D Model 4 Sport
American Football , known in the USA as Football is a contact team sport.Two teams take part in it, eleven players on each side, play an oval ball on a rectangular field, 120 yards long (109.728 meters, of which 100 yards (~ 91.45 meters) is the playing area and 10 extreme yards are the points zones teams ( end zone )) and a width of 53.3 yards (48.738 meters) with slingshot gates at both ends. A team must have possession of the ball to move it into the goal area by carrying or passing the ball. First, one of the teams must advance the ball 10 yards (4 attempts are given).If they succeed, they get four more attempts. Otherwise, the ball goes to the opponents. Points can be gained by moving the ball to the end of the zone (touchdown) or by scoring it into the goal (field goal), and the defense can also score points by making a safety. The team with more points at the end of the match wins.
American football evolved from the early forms of rugby and soccer commonly referred to as soccer in the United States. It is believed that the first game was played on November 6, 1869, according to one of the soccer rules.In 1880, Walter Camp (English) Russian. (eng. Walter Camp ), known as the “Father of American Football” (he was a player, referee and sports commentator) was the first to change the undefined rules of the game to specific ones: he introduced a snap, reduced the number of players to eleven. The new rules legalized the forward pass, the creation of a neutral zone, and the width of the pitch.
American football is the most popular sport in the United States at the moment, and the National Football League (NFL) is the most popular league in North America.
The history of American football is inextricably linked with the development of football (soccer) and rugby. Legend has it that in 1823 at Rugby School, during a football match, sixteen-year-old William Webb Ellis ( William Webb Ellis ) grabbed the ball and ran towards his rivals. It should be understood that here football does not mean soccer, but one of the many options for the game, the rules of which were determined by each school at its discretion and were not something well-established.Despite the fact that the fact was not reliably established, after many years a monument was erected to Ellis, and a plaque  was hung on the walls of his college:
| Let this board remind you of the glorious deed of William Webb Ellis, the first to dare to break the rules by grabbing the ball with his hands and running with it. This is how the game of rugby came into being in 1823.
Original text (English)
This stone commemorates the exploit of William Webb Ellis who with a fine disregard for the rules of football, as played in his time, first took the ball in his arms and ran with it, thus originating the distinctive feature of the Rugby game A.D. 1823
The game was called “rugby football” (football according to the rules of the Rugby school), today in most countries it is usually simple – rugby.
On November 6, 1869, in the American city of New Brunswick (New Jersey), the teams of Rutgers and Princeton universities met on the football field and played football according to the rules, which were based on the rules of the Football Association in the version of Rutgers University, i.e. … the ball was round and it was forbidden to take it into your hands, they were only allowed to hit the ball, from close to the rules of rugby there was only the number of players on the field – 25 on each side.Accordingly, there were no touchdowns then. According to the regulations, the game lasted until 6 goals, and the match ended with the victory of Rutgers University 6-4   . Nevertheless, the date is considered the official birthday of American football. It wasn’t until 1874 that a series of games between Princeton University and Montreal McGill University, which used a variant of the rules of rugby to play football, began to play something more like modern American football and give one point for bringing the ball into the enemy’s end zone   .There were no uniform rules, which led to an increase in the number of points awarded per touchdown, as well as to allow a forward pass and capture an opponent in the knee area. Due to the latter, the injury rate of players increased significantly [ source not specified 2306 days ] .
In 1905, the Chicago Tribune featured a front page headline: “18 Football Players Killed and 159 Seriously Wounded.” US President Theodore Roosevelt stated [ source unspecified 2306 days ] :
|Either the players change the rules, or we ban football altogether.Cruelty and foul play must be punished. Change the game or abandon it.|
Changes have been made to the rules regarding the penalty for foul play. Football players also had to come up with a special protective uniform – breeches with shields appeared. Athletes were advised to wear a leather helmet on their heads while playing (since 1939, the use of a helmet has become mandatory) [ source unspecified 2306 days ] .
At the beginning of the 20th century, the rules became similar to modern ones.In 1912, 6 points were awarded for touchdowns, the playing field became 100 yards long, and the playing time was reduced from seventy to sixty minutes. The first private teams and professional players appeared. Eight years later, the first football union appeared – four teams – Akron Pros ( Acron Pros ), Canton Bulldogs ( Canton Bulldogs ), Cleveland Indians ( Cleveland Indians ) and Dayton Triangles “(eng. Dayton Triangles ) created the American Professional Football Conference (eng. APFC ), from which later emerged the National Football Conference (eng. National Football Conference (NFC) ) [ source not specified 2306 days ] .
In 1904, the first black footballer appeared. He came out as part of a team from Ohio. Since then, the number of black footballers has only increased. Regardless, it wasn’t until 1988 that the first black judge appeared in the NFL. In 1932, American football was an iconic sport at the Los Angeles Summer Olympics.In 1939, the first telecast of the match took place. The game between the Brooklyn Dodgers Brooklyn Dodgers and the Philadelphia Eagles Philadelphia Eagles was watched by about a thousand New Yorkers [ source unspecified 2306 days ] .
In 1960, the American Football League (AFL) was created to counterbalance the existing NFL. Teams rivalry over players and fans, as well as over television rights, led to a series of negotiations between the two leagues to unite in 1966.One of the conditions for the merger of the AFL and the NFL was the game between the champions of the leagues for the right to be called the world champion. The first game was played on January 15, 1967 under the name “NFL-AFL World Championship”. 1970 saw the merger of the two conferences. The composition of the conferences remained the same, but the leadership was general. This organization is called the National Football League (NFL). The final game between the champions of the conferences of the united league was called the Super Bowl, and the very first game, which took place in 1967, was called Super Bowl I.Now it is one of the most spectacular, prestigious and expensive sporting events in the world [ source not specified 2306 days ] .
The goal of the game is to score more points than the opposing team in the allotted time.
Field and Players
The game is played on a rectangular field 120 yards (110 meters) long and 53 1/3 yards (49 meters) wide. Goal lines are drawn at each end of the field, 100 yards apart. The 10-yard end zone is between the goal line and the edge of the field.
Lines are drawn across the field every 5 yards. Every 10 yards are numbered from 10 to 50, from the edge of the scoring zones to the middle, thus indicating the number of yards left for the attacking team to travel in order to earn a touchdown. At each end of the field, on the border of the field, there are gates in the form of two high rods with a crossbar between them. Goals are scored over the crossbar between the bars.
Each team can send 11 players onto the field at the same time. Teams may substitute all or some of the players between game moments.Usually players specialize in playing only in attack, defense or special teams (in moments when the ball is kicked). Each game, nearly all 53 players on an NFL team can play in one role or another [ source unspecified 2306 days ] .
American football goal sizes are almost identical to rugby goals. The crossbar is 10 feet (3 meters) high and the uprights are spaced 18.6 feet (5.7 meters). In stadiums used exclusively for American football, the goal is often mounted on a single central post.
The game lasts 4 periods of 15 minutes each with a break after the second period. Each such period is called a “quarter”. The game stops when the ball (or the player with the ball) has left the field, the forward pass was not caught, the ball passed to the other team, points were scored, there was a violation of the rules, one of the teams took a time-out and in some other cases. Therefore the match usually lasts about three hours [ source unspecified 2306 days ] .
According to the rules of the NFL, in the event of a tie based on the results of four quarters, 15 minutes of extra time (overtime) is assigned. The team that scores a touchdown or safety on the first overtime possession is declared the winner. In the event of a field goal after first possession or passing the ball to the other team, the second team on its first possession gets one chance to score points. The second team touchdown will then end the game. If the first team on their possession did not score points, then the second team only needs to score a field goal to win.If, after each team has had one possession of the ball, the score remains equal and there was no touchdown or safety, then the game continues until the first points scored. In the regular season games, in the event of a tie after 15 minutes of overtime, a draw is declared, in the playoffs additional overtimes are assigned until the winner is determined  .
Ball advanceAmerican football ball.
The game consists of game moments. At the beginning of each moment, the ball is placed there (on the same line) where the previous game moment ended.
The team in possession has 4 attempts to propel the ball 10 yards forward towards the opponents’ scoring area. Each such attempt is called down (English down ). If the attacking team advances 10 yards, it again gets 4 attempts for the next 10 yards. If the attacker cannot go 10 yards in 4 attempts, the ball is passed to the opposing team, and on the same line on which the 4th attempt ended. During the broadcast of the match, the game formulas are shown – 1st & 10, which means that the first attempt will now occur and you must go 10 yards before the next attempts.The distance to move the ball is measured with two markers connected by a 10-yard chain. The officials place markers on the sideline of the field. Whenever the attacking team sweeps the ball past the end marker, the start marker is moved to the line on which the ball is located and the rally begins on the first attempt [ source unspecified 2306 days ] .
With the exception of the start of the game and the second half, and rallies after points earned, the ball is served with a back throw between the legs, called a snap.At the beginning of the playing moment, both teams line up opposite each other along the line on which the ball lies. The center player kicks the ball back between the legs of his teammate – the quarterback (usually the main player of the team, the leader of the attack).
Players can advance the ball in two ways [ source not specified 2306 days ] :
- Run with the ball in hand, while you can give the ball to the players of your team (However, after the player running with the ball crosses the scrimmage line, a forward pass is prohibited).
- Throwing the ball (passing). An unlimited number of passes is allowed during a game moment, but there can be only one forward pass from behind the scrum line.
The game moment ends when one of the following events occurs [ source not specified 2306 days ] :
- The ball carrier is knocked to the ground; (The game starts from the line where he was piled)
- A player with the ball goes out of bounds, or the ball touches the ground out of bounds; (The game starts on the line on which the player went out of bounds, but if he kicked the ball out of bounds during the scrum, then the game starts from the same line, the attacking team just loses one try)
- An uncaught pass, the ball thrown forward touches the ground; (The game starts on the same line, the attacking team loses one attempt.In cases where the ball is intercepted by a player of the other team, the other team becomes the attacker, and during the same scrum, without any stops, the player who caught the ball tries to run as close as possible to the opponent’s point zone)
- One of the teams scores points;
The team earns points in the following ways [ source not specified 2306 days ] :
- Touchdown – 6 points. A touchdown is earned when a player with the ball runs into the opponent’s point area or receives a pass while in the opponent’s point area or the ball in the player’s hands completely enters the point area, and the player himself does not have to be in the area.
- The team that scores a touchdown may earn an extra point (extra point) by scoring a goal, or 2 points by making another touchdown. The ball is placed 3 yards from the points zone (according to college football rules) and 2 or 15 yards from the points zone (according to NFL rules).
- Field goal – 3 points. A kicked ball during play, usually on the fourth try (not after a touchdown), into the opponent’s goal (between the posts and over the crossbar).
- Safety – 2 points. Earned by a defense when an offensive player is stopped with the ball in his own scoring area or an offensive player leaves the field with the ball while in his own scoring area. Also, the defense is awarded a safety if the attacking team committed a violation in its own point area, or the ball after its loss by the attacking team – fumble ( fumble ) left the field in the attacking team’s point area.
After a team scores points, it must kick the ball into the field from the 35-yard mark.The exception is a safety, in which the team that made the safety returns the ball to the two-point team by knocking it off its 20-yard line. Moreover, the ball is knocked out of the hands, and not from the ground, which is called a free kick.
Each half of the game begins with the moment when one of the teams kicks the ball towards the opponent’s point zone from the 35-yard mark – “kick off”. A kick-off is also awarded when one of the teams scores points.In the case of a kicker, the ball is placed in a special stand that holds the ball in an upright position, kicker runs up and hits the ball [ source unspecified 2306 days ] .
The attacking team, which failed to pass 10 yards in 3 attempts, usually makes punt (English punt ) – knocks the ball out of the hand towards the opponent during the fourth attempt, trying to force the opposing team to start the attack as far as possible from spectacle zone.In the case of pant long snapper , the kicker kicks the ball back. He must be caught by panthers (English punter ) and knock the ball into the field [ source not specified 2306 days ] .
In both cases, the players kicking the ball have two goals: to knock the ball as far as possible and to do so so that the ball is in flight for as long as possible. Since the goal of this game episode is to determine the position from which the team receiving the ball will begin its advance to the opponent’s point zone, the team receiving the ball, having caught it, tries to return it as close as possible to the point zone of the kicking team.At the same time, the knockout team tries to stop the opponent as far away from their scoring zone as possible. Therefore, the long flight time of the ball allows the players of the kicking team to run as close to the opponent as possible [ source unspecified 2306 days ] .
If a knocked out ball flies out of the point line and remains there, then this is called touchback (eng. touchback ). In this case, the receiving team begins to move towards the opponent’s scoring zone from the 25-yard line in its zone.
An attempt to score field goal is the third episode when the ball is kicked. In this case, the long snapper throws the ball back and is caught by holder ( holder ). The task of the holder is to place the ball vertically on the ground, holding it from above with his hand, so that it is convenient for the kicker to strike at the goal. If the kicker hits the target, his team gets either 3 points or 1 point (if the field goal was scored as an extra point after a touchdown).In the event of a miss, the team against which the kick was taken starts advancing towards the opponents’ points zone from the place of the failed kick. It is this fact that determines the choice of the offensive team between the pant and the field goal attempt. Kickers rarely risk hitting field goals beyond 45-50 yards [ source unspecified 2306 days ] .
Various offenses are penalized by moving the ball to one side or the other by a specified number of yards; the rally is usually replayed on the same try.In this case, the attacking team can receive a new streak of 4 attempts, either automatically or because the penalty moved the ball 10 yards or more. If the penalty would move the ball into the scoring area, that penalty is replaced by a penalty equal to half the distance to the scoring area.
The referee signals the violation by throwing a yellow flag on the field. The injured team can accept or reject the penalty. Usually, the penalty is rejected if the injured team gains an advantage as a result of the penalty (for example, the attacking team earned a touchdown, but an offside position was recorded during the rally) [ source unspecified 2306 days ] .
Most common violations [ source not specified 2306 days ] :
- False start (eng. False start ) – the attacking player begins to move (except for the agreed dashes) before snaps after the team has lined up for the rally. The attack is punished by five yards.
- Offsides ( Offsides ) – the player was not on his side (in relation to the scatter line) during the start of the rally (snap).If a defender crosses the scrimmage line without contacting an offensive player (see Encroachment violation) and comes back before snap, then no violation will be awarded. Punished by five yards.
- “Invasion” (eng. Encroachment ) – before the snap, the defending player crossed the scrimmage line and made contact with the offensive line player or there are no players between him and the quarterback (so-called “clear path to the quarterback”). Defense is penalized by five yards.
- Illegal change (eng. Illegal shift ) – during setting before the scrum, as you know, only one player can move if more than one player runs over – this violation is awarded.
- Hold ( Holding ) – a player held or pulled a player of the opposing team who did not have the ball. The offending team is penalized with ten yards. If the violation is committed by the attacking team in its scoring zone, a safety is awarded.
- Pass interference (interference with a player not in possession of the ball or interference with a player receiving the ball – similar to hockey) (Pass interference) – an attacking or defending player prevented a player of the opposite team from catching a forward pass without trying to catch it himself.In the event of an offense violation, the penalty is 10 yards. If the defense is guilty, then the ball is transferred to the place of violation. If the violation was in the scoring area, the ball is placed at the 1-yard mark.
- Delay of Game – the attacking team did not start the next rally within the allotted time. The defense is punished for delaying the game very rarely, in cases where the defenders prevent the attacking team from taking their positions before the next rally. The penalty is 5 yards.
- Intentional grounding – The quarterback deliberately throws the ball away to avoid losing yards. In this violation, a number of conditions must be met: The quarterback must be under pressure, there must be no receivers in the ball drop zone, the quarterback must be in the so-called. “Envelope”. If all of these conditions are met, a violation is awarded. The attack takes a 10 yard penalty. If the quarterback comes out of the “envelope” and, being under pressure, throws the ball over the scrimmage line, a violation will not be awarded.If the quarterback commits a violation in his scoring area, a safety is awarded.
- Personal Fouls: Penalty 15 yards.
- Capture for the mask ( Face mask ) – the player pulled another by the mask of the helmet.
- Roughing the passer / kicker ) – the defending player attacked the passer or kicker when he did not have the ball. Under NFL rules, the defender is allowed to take another step towards the passer / kicker after the latter is out of the ball.
- Unreasonable roughness – a player attacked an opponent with a legal forceful technique in the absence of such a need, for example, when he was out of bounds or after the whistle.
- Unsportsmanlike conduct – a player has committed actions that fall under the definition of unsportsmanlike conduct: spitting at an opponent, insulting a gesture, etc. This violation can be applied to coaches, sometimes to spectators.
The attacking team is the team in possession of the ball and starting the rally.
The offensive team consists of a quarterback ( quarterback ), offensive linemen ( offensive linemen ), tight ends ( tight end ), backs ( backs ) and receivers (English . receivers ).
- The main function of offensive linemen is to block defensive players, preventing them from breaking through to the quarterback.Linemen line up at line of attack eng. offensive line . The attack line includes the following players:
- Center (C) – main lineman: throws the ball back to the quarterback at the beginning of the rally.
- Offensive guard (OG) – two players located to the left and right of the center (left / right guard).
- Offensive tackle (OT) – two players on the outside of the guards (left / right tackle).
- Tight end (TE) (eng. tight end ) – tight end plays on the side of the tackles. The tight end, unlike other linemen, can also receive the ball, so it plays a blocking or accepting role depending on the type of rally chosen. Unlike the center, two guards and two tackles, which are present on the field all the time, in a particular rally there can be from 0 to 3 tight ends on the field.
- Becks and receivers generally propel the ball forward.The backs usually receive the ball directly from the quarterback. Receivers usually accept forward passes through the air.
- Runningback (RB) ( runningback ) is a player who is behind all offensive players, whose task is to carry the ball forward during extension rallies (when the set of yards is carried out by running with the ball). Runningback must be able to hold the ball tightly, find holes in the defense and try to run through them, tricking the opponent’s players with feints.
- Fullback (FB) – a type of running back, also located behind the line of attack and behind the quarterback. He can block, run with the ball, catch short passes. During off-shoot rallies, his main task is often to clear the way for the running back with the ball.
- Receiver (WR) (eng. wide receiver ) – the main task of the receiver is to receive a pass through the air from the quarterback. To do this, the receiver must have good speed and the ability to catch the ball in difficult situations.Receivers are usually located at the far ends of the line of attack. In a particular rally, there can be from 0 to 5 receivers on the field.
- Quarterback (QB) quarterback – the “passer”, the main player of the attacking team, is located directly behind the center and receives the ball from him at the beginning of the rally. The quarterback is the brains behind the team. He decides what type of rally the team will play (or is instructed to do so by a coach known as the Offensive Coordinator), passes passes, passes the ball to the players for extension rallies, and sometimes propels the ball forward himself.
The attacking team tries to use their strengths to propel the ball forward. A team with strong running backs may prefer to move the ball along the ground. A team with strong receivers and a quarterback will have a lot of air passes. Usually, the attacking team tries to change the types of rallies in order to prevent the opposing team from predicting the type of rally and preparing for it. The attacking team uses different starting lineups depending on the situation. Some of the starting lineups are more suited to a passing game, some are more suitable for passing.A team can deploy more receivers on the field if it needs to propel the ball a long distance at any cost, or more running players if it needs to propel the ball a short distance, for example, to earn a touchdown near the scoring area.
Basic rules for playing offensively:
- You must have 7 players on the scrimmage line ( line of scrimmage ).
- Before the start of the rally, no offensive player is allowed to move.The only exception is that one player can move along the offensive line at the start of the rally.
- Only two players trailing the offensive line and all players behind can receive the ball. If the ball is lost (the so-called “fumble” ( fumble )), this restriction is lifted, and all players can compete for the ball.
The defending team is the team that does not have possession of the ball at the beginning of the rally.
Unlike the attacking team, the defending team is not limited by the rules in the placement of players on the field.The only restriction is that all players must be on their side of the line on which the ball stands before the start of the rally (the scrum line). Most teams include defensive linemen in their lineup, consisting of defensive tackles and ends, linebackers, and secondaries – cornerbacks and safety lines.
- Defensive ends (DE) – two players standing at the edges of the defensive line. Their task is to try to get to the quarterback and also to stop the running backs trying to get the ball around the edges.The faster end is usually placed to the right to be in the blind spot of a right-handed quarterback.
- Defensive tackles (DT) (eng. defensive tackles ) – players between the ends. Their task is to attack the quarterback and prevent breakouts with the ball in the middle.
- Linebackers (LB) are the players behind the line of defense. Linebackers are “universal protectors”, they perform many functions depending on the situation.The linebacker’s task may include attacking the quarterback, covering the receivers, attacking the player running with the ball. The center linebacker is sometimes referred to as the “defense quarterback”. His task is to unravel the enemy’s intentions and choose the correct placement of the defense players. Linebackers are divided into internal (MLB) and external (facing the edges, OLB). In addition, depending on the draw, linebackers are divided into the following types:
- Sam (eng. Sam ) – external linebacker of the strong side.Stands on the side where the attacking team’s tight end is located.
- Will (English Will ) – external linebacker of the weak side. Located on the side where there is no tight end.
- Mike (eng. Mike ) – internal linebacker of the strong side.
- Jack (English Jack ) – internal linebacker of the weak side.
- Sekondari (eng. secondary ):
- Cornerbacks (CB) cornerbacks ) – players covering the receivers, trying to hit or intercept the ball. If the attacking team chooses a runaway, the cornerback attacks the player with the ball.
- Open Safety (FS) ( free safety ) and Strong Safety (SS) ( strong safety )) are the players behind the rest of the defense players. They help the cornerbacks cover the receivers, especially during long-range pass attempts. Often, safes are the last defense against stopping the ball carrier (for this reason, safes are some of the fastest defensive players).
The defending team, trying to predict the development of the attack, chooses the most suitable defense scheme. Schemes usually contain the following elements [ source unspecified 2306 days ] :
- Blitz – Linebackers or defensive backs try to attack the passer.
- Zone Defense – The defending player covers a certain area of the field.
- Individual Defense – The defending player is covering a specific attacking player.
Basic rules for playing defense [ source unspecified 2306 days ] :
- Defensive players cannot prevent an offensive player from receiving the ball during a pass if he is more than five yards from the attack line, if the defensive players are unable to receive the ball themselves. For example, it is a violation when the cornerback stops the receiver without looking at the flying ball.
- It is forbidden to grab players by the helmet mask and turn them.Just pushing is allowed.
- It is forbidden to attack a passer or a panther after he has got rid of the ball.
- It is forbidden to cross the offensive line during the start of the rally.
Special teams are called players who enter the field when the ball is kicked – during the opening rally, during the fourth attempt, when the attacking team kicks the ball, during attempts to score a goal or to earn an extra point after a touchdown.Most Special Team players are substitutes for other offensive or defensive positions [ source unspecified 2306 days ] .
Special players playing in special teams [ source not specified 2306 days ] :
- Kicker ( placekicker ) – a player who kicks the ball during the initial rallies and when trying to score a goal.
- Holder (eng. holder ) – a player who must take the ball, put it on the ground and hold it for the kicker.Usually the holder is placed 7-8 yards from the line the ball is on. Often a spare quarterback or panther acts as the holder.
- Panther ( punter ) – a player who knocks the ball out of his hands in a situation when the ball must be given to the opposing team, but as far as possible from his point zone (usually during the 4th attempt).
- Long snapper ( long snapper ) is a player who plays the role of center in a special team.
- Returners ( kick returner and punt returner ) are the players of the receiving team who catch the ball and try to carry it as far as possible.
In the case of special rallies, the kickers (kicker with holder or panthers) are positioned at a considerable distance from the attack line to prevent the defending players from blocking the blow. At the same time, the distant snapper throws the ball with a strong throw between the legs.
Basic rules for the initial draw [ source not specified 2306 days ] :
- No one can cross the line of attack before the ball is kicked out.
- The ball must fly at least 10 yards before the kicking team can touch it.
- If a defensive player catches the ball in the scoring area and remains in it, or the ball leaves the field in the scoring area, the receiving team starts the game at the 25-yard mark (so-called touchback)
- If the ball goes over the touchline before someone has touched it, it is a violation and the receiving team starts at the 40-yard mark.
Basic types of initial draw [ source unspecified 2306 days ] :
- Distant Impact is the most common type.The kicking team kicks the ball as far as possible to force the returning team to go as far as possible to the scoring area.
- Squib kick ( squib kick ) – a kick in which the ball flies low, bouncing off the ground. It is used in situations where the fast players of the returning team are able to return the ball across the entire field and earn a touchdown. The kicking team sacrifices position on the field, but the ball ends up in the hands of the slower players.
- Kick to the side ( on-side kick ) – a kick in which the kicker hits the ball into the ground so that it, having flown the minimum distance (10 yards), falls into the hands of the kicking team. This type is usually used in critical situations, when the knocking team loses the score at the end of the game and needs to get the ball in order to level the game or win. In the event that the returning team receives the ball, they are in an excellent position to attack – usually in the opponent’s half.
Basic rules for hitting the ball from the hands – panthe [ source not specified 2306 days ] :
- Defending players cannot attack the panther, their target must be the ball, not the player who knocks it out.
- A player of the receiving team may
- take the ball and try to get it back. In this case, they try to stop him, as if he is an offensive player.
- Signals that he will not try to get the ball back by swinging his arm over his head.In this case, the rally ends at the moment the ball is received, and the kicking team has no right to touch the receiver.
- do not receive the ball. In this case, the ball is positioned where it left the field or was touched by the kicking team.
- If the ball hits in the scoring area (or crosses the line in college or high school football), the returning team will start the attack at the 25-yard mark, the so-called. touchback (eng. touchback ).
At first glance, it might seem that American football is a game entirely dependent on the physical parameters of the players.In fact, strategy is paramount in football. Team coaches should be aware of the strengths and weaknesses of their team and be able to assess the influence of external factors, for example, weather, location of play, conditions of the field. On the basis of this data, the coaches plan the strategy of the game, and the task of the players becomes the rigorous and purposeful implementation of the strategy. Each player, regardless of his position on the field, must know the strategy of his team and be able to respond to the strategy of the opposing team [ source unspecified 2306 days ] .
When planning an offensive strategy, coaches try to maximize the strengths of their attacking team and exploit the weaknesses of the opposing team, while taking many other factors into account. In general, rallies in which the ball is carried by the hands are considered more reliable, and rallies in which the ball is passed are considered more risky, as the chances of interception of the ball by the defending players is increased. On the other hand, a successful pass tends to propel the ball further than running with the ball [ source unspecified 2306 days ] .
The attacking team tries to find a balance between the two types of attack in order to prevent the defending team from suppressing the attack by successfully defending against one of the schemes. Often, the attacking team imitates a running rally, while passing, or, on the contrary, imitates a pass and tries to carry the ball along the ground.
As the game progresses, the attacking team tries to change the type of rallies in order to gain an advantage. The traditional strategy is to try to run more with the ball on the first try (down), and after the first try to choose the type of attack depending on the remaining yards.A more modern and aggressive strategy is the West Coast offense (so named because the West Coast teams were one of the first to use it), medium or short pass on the first try, and after the first try, choose the type of attack in depending on the remaining yards [ source unspecified 2306 days ] .
Some teams traditionally rely on strong ball running with one or more tailbacks capable of significant breakthroughs.Some rely on strong quarterbacks and receivers, relying primarily on passing play.
Weather conditions such as rain, wind, cold weather can significantly weaken the passing game and force the offensive team to prioritize running with the ball.
In order to perform rallies exactly as the team coach intended, all rallies are recorded in a special team “Book of rallies”. Players memorize all draws and only use their code names or numbers.
When playing on defense, the team tries to determine the enemy’s strategy and build the most successful defense. The defense can play more conservatively, rolling back, attacking the quarterback only with the players on the line and trying to intercept or hit the pass, or more aggressively, attacking the quarterback with a large number of players and “exposing” the rear [ source unspecified 2306 days ] .
Like offensive players, defending players can mimic one formation, forcing the quarterback to change attack and play another.
The defense tries to choose a defense scheme (zone, individual, or blitz) in order to most effectively resist the attack. Also, the defense actively varies the type of players on the field, depending on the situation in the game, releasing, for example, more defensive backs when the attack releases more receivers [ source unspecified 2306 days ] .
PopularityThe game with the participation of the team of the University of Southern California was attended by more than 90 thousand spectators.
American football is the most popular sport in the United States, attracting millions of viewers on TV screens. One poll showed that American football has been the favorite sport of US residents since 1972, when it first surpassed baseball.
TV ratings for NFL matches are higher than those of other North American sports leagues. On Super Bowl day – the decisive match of the season in the NFL – a total of nearly 100 million people in the United States watch the game.
Non-professional college football is also very popular in the United States. Four university stadiums in the United States hold more than 100,000 spectators and are often full. Even games between high school students often attract more than 10 thousand spectators.
American football is very modestly developed outside North America. Despite the existence of 64 national federations, American football is developed at a fairly high level only in 7-8 countries. In addition to the United States, these are Canada, Mexico, Japan, Germany, France, Austria and Sweden.But even these countries are significantly inferior to the United States in terms of the development of American football, the number of athletes, stadiums, etc.
Canadian Football Rules Differences
Canadian football, as played in, for example, the Canadian Football League follows rules and tactics similar to those of American football, but some subtle differences significantly alter the strategy of the game. For example:
- The Canadian game is played on a rectangular field 150 yards (135 meters) long and 65 yards (60 meters) wide.Target lines are drawn at each end of the field, 110 yards apart, and a 20-yard point zone is between the target line and the edge of the field. The goal, unlike American football, is not on the edge of the field, but on the goal line.
- There are 12 players of each team on the field at the same time, instead of 11. The attacking team plays either an additional tight end, or a receiver called slotback , in the defending team – an additional defensive back as a counterweight [ source not specified 2306 days ] .
- The team in possession has 3 attempts to propel the ball 10 yards forward towards the opponents’ scoring area, instead of 4.
- When the ball enters the goal area as a result of a pant or kick, and is not cleared by a player of the defending team, the attacking team scores one point ( single , French and obsolete rouge [ source unspecified 2306 days ] ).
- When the returnees try to get possession of the ball after a pant or kicked off the net, only the kicker of the opposing player can come closer than five yards to the returnee.A player coming within five yards is penalized with a fifteen yards penalty. This situation is called in English no yards , in French infraction à l’immunité [ source unspecified 2306 days ] .
- Receivers – the receiving players of the attacking team can move forward without freezing before putting the ball into play, without freezing for 1 second. In classic American football, such actions are considered illegal motion.
American football is a highly traumatic sport. Multiple minor head injuries are especially dangerous. They arise from the frequent head bumping of players, can have a cumulative effect and lead to chronic traumatic encephalopathy and ultimately to premature death  .
Orphanhood of Leo Tolstoy in RussiaToday at the site of the Moscow Art Theater. Gorky, chaired by M.Yu. Lermontov held a meeting of the Control Group of the Public Council, discussed theatrical policy.The discussion was prompted by a letter from acting. theater director O.S. Mikhailov with a request to assess the situation around the theater.
However, the conversation went to a higher level.
In my speech, I said about the presence in society of a “national idea”, which is expressed in the preservation of our identity. The state, which is a symbiosis of power and business, prefers not to talk about it. However, the National Security Strategy (not state, but national!) Signed by Putin speaks of this in one way or another.
I took on the role of an evil critic and reviewed several theatrical productions that in my opinion work against the national idea.
For example, the production of Prokofiev’s opera “War and Peace” in St. Petersburg by the English director Graham Wieck portrayed Tolstoy’s heroes as not quite normal people and demonstrated Russia’s “readiness to activate dusty warehouse patriotism at any moment.” What is Vic’s interpretation of the light image of Natasha Rostova (“the prostitute”). In the review of the play we read: “young professional student, hysterical” (“Kommersant”).
Many have heard about the staging of “Tannhäuser” in Novosibirsk by director Timofey Kulyabin, which ended in a grandiose scandal and accusations of the directors of “deliberate desecration of religious values”. Today, the recommendation of the opponents of the Moscow Art Theater to appoint Kulyabin as the artistic head of the Moscow Art Theater gives particular piquancy.
Next. Now at the Bolshoi Theater John Neumeier has staged the ballet Anna Karenina, in which nothing remains of Tolstoy. The action takes place today, Karenin is a presidential candidate in Russia, Vronsky is a coach in the game of lacrosse (a type of field hockey), etc.e. The director himself admits that “he produces on stage, first of all, those feelings that arouse in him what he has read.” That is, the performance is a kind of product of the life of a representative of a different culture who does not care about Russia.
What do you want? There is no legal mechanism for the protection of Russian culture. She is an orphan in her parents’ home.
Therefore, we are witnesses of transcendental interpretations, and sometimes it comes to the Pillars of Hercules. So, staged by Konstantin Bogomolov at the Moscow Art Theater.Chekhov’s “The Musketeers. Saga. Part One” (after Alexandre Dumas) shows such a story. Musketeers live in modern Russia and bathe in vulgarity.
Here is an excerpt from one of the reviews: “The games of the sexes continue in Milady, it is about her that they will say:” A woman is a man wounded in the groin. “(…) Milady is a former musketeer Vadim Roger, who was after the battle, only a member remained (“fuy” – that’s how the heroes simply call him). “Fuy” Vadim Roger was buried with honors, and the body, devoid of the main male part, became the beautiful chiseled flexible body of a new woman, to whom Athos was so inexplicably drawn. ” …In general, a poem about the games of the sexes in the state theater.
And I also recalled several such delights.
Proposed to legislate to protect the inviolability of the classics, as well as to the history of the Victory.
He also proposed to conduct a public monitoring of the repertoire of Russian theaters for its compliance.
The National Security Strategy.
I recall an episode with school history textbooks: complete freedom of interpretation ended only when open attacks towards the Russian president appeared in one textbook.
In general, I would like to note the support of the Moscow Art Theater against the unfolded campaign to discredit it. As noted, the opponents of the new theater performances did not even watch.
Well, “f … th” with them. 90,000 Catapult wins a four-year contract with the French National Rugby League
Catapult is pleased to announce that the French National Rugby League (LNR) has designated the company as the preferred technology provider for all teams competing in the French Top 14 and Pro D2 professional rugby competitions for the next four years.
After a thorough review and competitive tender, the award was awarded in collaboration between the LNR and the French Rugby Federation, the sport’s governing body, and the national teams of the country.
As part of the award, Catapult will support the exchange of data between contracted club teams and the French national rugby team (Le XV de France) through a continuous two-way data exchange process. Catapult’s expertise in large-scale aggregation and distribution of highly secured data excelled during the tender process, in addition to experienced local support staff, rugby-specific performance metrics (scrum analytics, hit analysis, contact engagement, etc.)), And a rich history of the company with scientific evidence.
An LNR spokesperson said: “The National Rugby League (LNR) and the French Rugby Federation (FFR) are delighted with Catapult’s choice to optimize monitoring of rugby players ahead of the 2023 World Cup. This choice was made following a tender process that began in October 2019. ”
Following nationwide rugby deals in Australia, Scotland and Wales, Catapult Chief Commercial Officer Matt Byros continues to expand Catapult’s ability to forge complex and highly professional partnerships that deliver long-term value to the company and its customers.
“After a lengthy tender process in which our technology and staff have been extensively tested, it is great to know that our level of customer obsession was a decisive factor in receiving this award from such a world-class association. We look forward to continually innovating in French rugby and helping them with their long-term strategy to improve player health and further global success. ”The
Catapult continues to lead the market to support rugby athletes to achieve the best performance with wearable technology.Earlier this year, Catapult introduced new rugby-specific performance metrics that are now available to over 20 French rugby teams in professional and developmental rugby competition.