Conditioning Lacrosse Players – Athletes Acceleration Sports Performance Training
Conditioning Lacrosse Players
By: Pete Koeniges, M. Ed, ATC, CSCS
When you watch a game from start to finish, you probably think to yourself, “Boy, they run a long way…we need to get our players to run that far.” And usually what happens is the players are asked to run distances of 1-3 miles “just to get in shape”. Although it may be true that certain players can run 3-5 miles during a lacrosse game, it’s how they run that distance that is important.
I suggest the next time you’re watching a game, pick one player and watch how often they run, how fast, and how far. What you’ll notice is that the distance they run during a typical game is broken down into sprints ranging from 20-50 yards at a time. Between these sprints they will either be resting in the bench area, playing defense, or running their offensive set.
While on the bench, you are obviously resting and recovering. But if you’re on the field playing either defense or offense, you’re body is accelerating, decelerating, changing direction, passing, shooting, checking, maintaining good defensive body position. All of these movements require expending a certain type of energy, and it’s NOT using the same energy system used while running long distances!
The human body has three types of energy systems that are all utilized at one time or another. The oxidative or aerobic system burns oxygen for fuel and it used mostly when running longer distances. The anaerobic/lactate system is used for higher intensity activity up to around 1 minute. The anaerobic/ATP system is used for very intense activity lasting up to 10 seconds. The latter two energy systems are the ones used by lacrosse players. When classifying the sports, the ratio for lacrosse athletes is approximately 60% Anaerobic/ATP, 20%, Anaerobic/Lactate, and 20% Aerobic. Taking this into account, your conditioning drills should focus more toward sprinting or more specifically interval training.
Some interesting studies have been published regarding the difference between interval training and endurance training. The most notable was a study published the Journal of Physiology in 2006 called, “Short term sprint interval training vs. traditional endurance training: similar initial adaptations in skeletal muscle and exercise performance”. The subjects were either in the Sprint Interval Training (SIT) group or Endurance Training (ET) group. The SIT group performed 4-6 “all out” sprints on the bike for 30 seconds with a 4-minute rest interval. The ET group did 90-120 minutes of continuous cycling. Over the course of two weeks, the SIT group exercised 2.5 hours and the ET group exercised 10.5 hours. The result showed similar improvements in muscle oxidative capacity, glycogen content and muscle buffering capacity. The SIT group got the same effects on 8 hours less work!
Interval training has also been known to increase EPOC, exercise post oxygen consumption. This means your engine continues to burn fuel long after the exercise session is complete, where with endurance training, you only burning calories during exercise. Therefore, there is a greater potential to loose excess body fat while using interval sprint training.
Noted sprint coach Charlie Francis reports the need to provide enough power related work, like intervals, for athletes from 13-17 years old. This could help them genetically shift their muscle fibers from intermediate-red fibers to white, or maintain genetically determined white, or power fibers.
Interval training is alternating periods of work to rest. Interval sprint training, for instance, requires an athlete to run say 30 seconds, sprint 10 seconds, then run 30 seconds. That gives you a sprint recovery ratio of 3:1, which is close to what you’d like for conditioning a lacrosse player.
The modes of exercise can vary depending on your circumstances. Sprinting on a track or field is the best mode of interval sprint training, but there are certain weather conditions that may require a change. For instance, I live in the northeast, where the winters can keep us inside. So the next best thing to training on the track or field is the treadmill. You’re giving up the ability to produce your own power, but at least you are still going through similar hip/knee/ankle ranges of motion to track work. Additionally, you can increase the difficulty by raising the grade of the surface. My next choice can be the Schwin Airdyne. I like that you can use both arms and legs with this device. Also the wheel can provide wind resistance to make it more challenging. Next, I’d choose a stair mill, bike, stairmaster, then elliptical, in that order. Again, the best choice would be sprinting on the track or field.
The following is an example conditioning session:
Sprint the width of the lacrosse field, touch the line and sprint back. Time: 20-26 sec.
Jog/active recovery (45sec-1min)
Sprint (18-24 sec.)
Jog/active recovery (40-50sec)
Sprint (16-22 sec)
Jog/active recovery (40-50sec)
Jog/active recovery (45-1min)
Sprint (18-24 sec)
Jog/active recovery (45-1min)
Sprint (20-26 sec)
Jog/active recovery (1min-1: 30)
This is just an example. The times can be modified based on the current fitness of your athletes. The number of intervals can also be increased or decreased as you see fit.
Another example would be to adhere to the principles above, but have your intervals utilize more stop and go, deceleration/acceleration activities. The sprints can be 6x20yards and jog/active recover accordingly. The stop and go requires greater stress to the body and provides more of a game-situation feel to the activity.
To try to work into the anaerobic/lactate zone, longer runs can be used. A good example would be the distance cone drill. Set up a cone on each corner of the lacrosse field and at both midlines. Label the cones 1 through 6. A 50-yd drill would consist of sprinting from cone 1 to 2, jogging to cone 3, sprinting to cone 4, jogging to cone 5, sprinting to cone 6, jogging to cone 1 and resting for 2 minutes. Repeat.
A longer drill could be a 100-yd drill, sprinting cone 1-3, jogging 3-4, sprinting, 4-6, jogging 6-1, rest 2 minutes. Repeat. The distance of this drill can be increased by 50 yards until you’ve sprinted 250-yds, cone 1-6 and jog 6-1. The distance used should be relative to the current fitness of your athlete. Work from 50-yd sprints at the beginning to 250-yd sprints when your athletes are capable.
One drawback to this method of training is that time is an arbitrary number. The rest interval may be too long for some athletes and too short for others. An alternative to the timed rest element of interval training is using physiological rest. Basically you’ll be using recovery heart rate to determine the rest component.
Using heart rate monitors and the appropriate heart rate formulas, have the athlete do a set of shuttle running on a 25-yard course for six sprints. The athlete can recover until their monitor reads 60% of their max heart rate, when they should start another set of sprints. This style of interval training is highly individualized and will stress each athlete appropriately.
Interval training does not have to be limited to sprinting. Utilizing various circuit drills can also improve VO2 max and strength while varying the modes of exercise. The following circuit has been used successfully indoors while dealing with inclement weather.
Using stations set up around a basketball court:
Corner – Push-ups
Half court – side shuffles between two cones 10yds apart
Corner – prisoner squats
Corner – two-foot lateral hops
Half court – Burpee’s
Corner – Planks
These stations can be timed 15-30 seconds per drill, with a rest at the end. This type of set up works best with 10-12 athletes. Anymore, and you’ll have to have two athletes per station at a time. Of course, you can also add stations, or create a second, separate course.
Interval training has largely been shown to be the optimal method for getting lacrosse players into better cardiovascular shape. It is more efficient because you can get a better training effect in less amount of time. It is also safer because you will have fewer foot contacts to get a better effect, therefore less of a chance to develop an overuse injury. The previous exercises are just ideas to get you going in the right direction. How you group the exercises or the timing of the training is entirely up to you and dependent on your athletes and their current situation.
Give them a shot and let me know what you think – [email protected]
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About The Author:
Pete Koeniges, M. Ed, ATC, CSCS is the athletic trainer and strength coach for the New Jersey Pride of Major League Lacrosse. He trains local lacrosse athletes and runs lacrosse based speed clinics. He also runs a lacrosse conditioning website at www.lacrossestrength.com. You can also keep up to date with posts and podcasts by subscribing athttp://feeds.lacrossestrength.com/Lacrossestrength
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Lacrosse Player Conditioning Drills | Cisco Athletic
Lacrosse is about speed, agility and bursts of power. This means that to get the best out of your play, you need to get your workout regime to include all of these things for your team to improve.
Here are a few great conditioning drills you can use and each one will encourage the team to watch and react as well as refine their skills.
Set out a few cones to make boxes. The aim of each drill is to improve agility as well as marksmanship.
Corner to Corner
Each player takes it in turns to go around the box from corner to corner. You can do this as a simple sprint challenge or you can mix it up by incorporating backpedals and shuffles. This exercise is about footwork and speed so watch everyone for tips on how to improve yourself.
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Add another two cones to create two equally sized adjoining boxes. Now two players must move around the box following the same pattern but as a mirror image. You can map any movements you like but to make it harder, only tell one player what the routine is.
These exercises are about speed and power; race against each other and the clock.
Set out your start line and sprint to the finish line.
Set out cones in a T-shape. Speed to the top center cone, sprint to the left, then across to the right.
Pile up some weights with the heaviest at the bottom. Sprint to the finish line with the lightest weight, set it down and then return for each weight one at a time.
If there is one movement that is the most important for power and speed, it is the squat. There are so many different squat drills you could do and they are quite easy to design yourself, but here are a few ideas.
The simplest squat to do: just set your feet at the same width as your hips and get squatting.
Using the same motion as the air squat, speed up the process by bouncing your feet out a few inches as you sink into the squat. Explode out of the squat and bring your feet back to their original position.
Sink into your squat then put your hands down to make a plank. Jump your feet back, push up with your hands and reach for the stars. This is a fast exercise and you shouldn’t be in the plank for more than a second.
Tug of War
Divide into two teams and make the central point of the rope. The aim is to get the central point over a given line and the winning team gets there first.
The pool is ideal for sprint races and relays. Divide the team and stand either side of the pool. One group dives in and swims to the other side. The other group helps them out and does the sprint themselves.
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The Perfect Anaerobic Workout for the Preseason – Championship Productions Blog
The preseason is currently in full swing for many college lacrosse teams across the country. With several months having passed since organized team practices last occurred, it’s common for these early season workouts to revolve around general conditioning and getting players back into playing shape.
Therefore, during this training period, it’s important for coaches to implement anaerobic conditioning, which is high-intensity, short-burst exercises ranging from 30 seconds to 3 minutes to promote speed, power and strength. Here’s an ideal workout geared toward those early preseason practices that will have a positive impact from the get-go.
Equipment: Cones spread five yards apart for 30 yards.
300 Yard Shuttle
Start out at the end cone and then jog down for 30 yards before turning back the other way. That “down and back” counts as one rep. Aim to go six times.
Remember, take a good jogging pace. At the end of 30 yards, make sure to plant your foot and cut off the endline before returning in the other direction.
5-5, 10-10, 20-20, 30-30
This is more or less a suicide drill. Start at the end cone before sprinting out 5 yards and then cutting back 5 yards, then immediately going out 10 yards and then cutting back 10 yards. Continue the trend until you go down 30 yards and back 30 yards. Be sure to vary which foot you use to cut off from. For instance, start by cutting off of your right foot and then cut off of your left, and so on. Never do two of the same in a row.
Jog 10, Sprint 20 ( x 3)
Jog for 10 yards. Once you get to the 10-yard mark, sprint all the way through the 30-yard mark. Be sure to accelerate hard. As soon as you get to the other end, come back the opposite way immediately and repeat.
Sprint 10, Carioca 10, Sprint 10, Shuffle 10
This time, you will sprint for 10 yards, go into cariocas for 10 yards, go back to sprinting for 10 yards and finish by shuffling for 10 more. Here, we are keeping our anaerobic endurance drills and changing them into something that has a little more change of direction.
This workout can be seen on the Championship Productions’ DVD “100 Conditioning Drills & Exercises for Lacrosse” with Rob Rose. To see additional conditioning videos, click here.
Midfield Conditioning – Lacrosse Tips
Presented by Brian Lalley, Camp Director
Pacific Lutheran University – Boys Lacrosse Overnight & Day Camp
Change of direction drill.
Xcelerate Nike Lacrosse National Program Director, Brian Lalley, discusses midfield conditioning:
Lacrosse is often referred to the fastest sport on two feet. It is played at very high speeds for an extended period of time. Not to take anything away from other sports and the level of athleticism required to be successful, but lacrosse is very unique with the length of the field, minimal stoppages and significant transition play. Having a high level of conditioning as a midfielder not only puts you in a position to make better plays by being able to think clearly through critical game decisions, but also allows you to make more of them by being on the field more.
CONDITIONING & MINDSET
We all know the feeling of being completely gassed and where our mind can drift. Naturally, our mind wants to take short cuts to conserve energy. This is where we are more likely to see costly fundamental errors like lunging on defense, giving up topside position, reaching with one hand for a contested gb, throwing off your back foot under pressure, among many others. What a high level of conditioning will allow you to do in a close game in crunch moments is to think with more clarity and discipline.
CONDITIONING & ABILITY TO MAKE PLAYS
Having the ability to make a play in a crunch time depends on your skill and ability to execute it. Let’s imagine you’re down one with under a minute and you pick off a pass after playing some defense and take it down to the offensive end. Your coach is out of time-outs. Do you have the conditioning level to stay on the field and work for the game-tying shot, or do you have to sub off because you don’t have anything left in the tank?
CONDITIONING, COMPETITION & IMAGINATION
Improving your conditioning is definitely not the most glamorous task out there for any player of any position. There were two different tactics that helped me put in the work necessary on my own to improve my conditioning level as a former midfielder. First was to find a way to compete. Whether that be playing pickup sports or running sprints against my brother, competing was always a great motivator to give extra effort. Second, I loved setting up game scenarios for myself that allowed me to focus on what I was doing the running for in the first place. My game field for high school and middle school was right in my back yard, so I would imagine a situation like above where I would do some in and out sprints simulating defense, scoop a ground ball, sprint to the other end, simulate ball movement, off-ball cutting and dodging to a shot.
Conditioning is rarely any lacrosse player’s favorite part of putting in extra work. Wall ball and shooting tend to be much higher up the list of enjoyable activities. When a player owns the fact that conditioning is a critical part of being your very best and chip away at improving, that improvement leads to enhanced play-making opportunity and ability.
Lacrosse Goalie Workout and Drills To Do All Alone
As the lacrosse season gets underway its important to understand that formal lacrosse practice is obviously a critical part of your development as a goalie.
However, spending time practicing on your own will give you an extra edge over your competition and turn you into a standout goalie once you join your teammates.
Alternatively you might find yourself on a team with no goalie coach or assistants and in need of lacrosse goalie drills that you can do by yourself. Ideally you have a coach, a backup goalie, or a player who can help you train but not every goalie has that luxury.
Below is a full lacrosse goalie workout / drills that you can perform all alone.
Lacrosse Goalie Workout and Drills to Perform By Yourself
The key to practicing on your own is to perform drills that focus on endurance, footwork, and hand-eye coordination.
You won’t be able to simulate live shots but by focusing on those elements you will definitely improve your goalie game and be better suited to stop live shots once they come.
For all of the solo drills below make sure to perform at full speed with 100% effort. With nobody watching you, accountability is in your hands!
This workout is setup such that you alternate endurance drills with slower paced skill drills. That way you’re able to get through the entire workout without burning out.
Of course if you need to take breaks to get water go ahead. But remember you’re holding yourself accountable. Push hard.
Agility Ladder – 5-10 minutes – The agility ladder is going to get your heart pumping. It also improves your agility (surprise, surprise) and your footwork.
If you need an agility ladder workout I provide one in my original post on lacrosse goalie drills. The ickey shuffle (any Ickey Woods fans out there?) exercise is perfect for mimicking the save movement a goalie makes.
Doc Drill – 5 minutes – A drill I learned from one of our position’s greats (Brian ‘Doc’ Dougherty) and carries his name. The Doc Drill is a hand-eye coordination drill with an added benefit of improving reaction time.
Throw the ball against the ball. Make the save stepping forward at angle. Repeat and repeat until you’re so close to the wall you mess up. Back up to the starting spot and repeat.
You can do this drill with your goalie stick or with a short stick for added difficulty.
Here is one of my favorite goalie Adam Ghitelman performing the drill.
Jump Rope – 5 x 1-minute sprints – Jumping rope helps goalies shuffle around the crease with the greatest of ease. When you watch pro goalies excel at their craft, their quick-footed movements are due in part to hours of practice with a rope. With jumping rope we’re working our endurance, coordination, footwork and balance.
Walk the Line – 5 minutes or 10 x 15 yard walks – Perfecting the save movement is all about muscle memory. We want this movement to be so ingrained in our body and mind that we don’t even have to think when a 90mph shot is coming our way. We just react.
Walking the line is a drill where you just mimic saves. Be sure to visualize the shots coming at you and make the saves with perfect form.
You can also walk the line with a heavy bar to increase difficulty.
Magic Square – 5 x 1 minute rounds – To setup this drill, we’ll place our goalie stick perpendicular to a line on the field as pictured above. This creates 4 quadrants.
Different exercises you can do in the magic square:
- Two Feet Over and Back
- Save as above with 1 foot (left then right)
- Two Feet Quad 1 to Quad 2 to Quad 3 to Quad 4, back to Quad 1
- Same as above with 1 foot (left than right)
- Two Feet Side to Side
- Same as above with 1 foot
This jumping exercise will again get the heart pumping and work on a goalie’s quickness.
Eye Focus Drill – 5 x 1 minute rounds – This drill is another from Doc to enhance hand-eye coordination. Pick a spot on the ground, throw the ball down (pretty hard) and catch it with your top hand. Pretty simple but requires intense focus on the ball.
Here is Doc performing the drill:
40 Yard Dash – 5 dashes (approx. 10 min. ) – Sprinting builds muscle and increases a goalie’s explosion to the ball. Ease into it – we’re not trying to break Hussein Bolt’s record. 75%-85% intensity is enough to give you a workout while still allowing your muscles and nervous system time to recover.
Reaction Ball – 5 minutes – Grab a reaction ball off of Amazon (they’re cheap). Start with drops at knee level, then hip level, then chest level. Explode towards the ball like you’re making a save and grab it with your top hand.
You can also perform reaction ball drills against a wall.
Wall Ball – 10 minutes – Finally hit the wall. Goalies need to have the best stick skills on the team. Preferably use a shortie but the goalie stick will also suffice. Check this post if you need a wall ball routine for goalies.
Playing wall ball will improve hand-eye coordination and improve your stick skills. Both necessary elements for making saves, controlling rebounds, and dodging outside the crease.
Add or more drills and/or reps from the drills listed below depending on your skill and conditioning level.
I put a goalie through this workout recently and it took a little over an hour. Your time will vary depending on the amount of rest time you take in between sets and in between drills.
I’ve discussed each of the drills described above in previous posts. If you’re looking for even more lacrosse goalie drills be sure to checkout some of these posts:
So there you have a good lacrosse goalie workout and set of drills that you can do by yourself.
There are plenty of drills and exercises that benefit goalies that can be performed all alone. What I’ve provided above is not a full list of goalies drills that can be performed on your lonesome, just an example of a solo workout.
If you don’t have a shooter that you can work with, you still have plenty of options to improve your goalie game.
Whether through conditioning, agility, stick work, save technique – all of these elements can be enhanced in a solo workout.
Being all alone is no longer an excuse for not putting in work to improve your goalie game!
Until next time! Coach Damon
Anything I missed? What types of drills or exercises do you do to improve your goalie game when you’re all alone? Let me know about it down below in the comments.
Common Lacrosse Injuries – Treatment and Prevention
Often referred to as “America’s first sport,” lacrosse is quickly becoming one of the most popular sports in North America. The sport combines elements of basketball, soccer, and hockey, and requires coordination and agility.
Common Lacrosse Injuries
As players prepare for their season, it’s important to set both position and season goals with their coaches before they train. Because men’s and women’s rules differ significantly and because injuries and demands may differ by position, it’s important for players to participate in an individualized training program that can lessen the risk of common injuries in lacrosse and boost conditioning.
Lacrosse is one of the fastest-growing sports in the United States, and head injuries a common risk associated with the sport.
Common lacrosse injuries include:
For athletes who have experienced a sports-related injury, UPMC Sports Medicine’s orthopaedic surgeons and board-certified physical therapists will help to speed recovery and restore function.
In lacrosse, injuries and conditioning demands depend on what position you play. For example, an attacker will need to train with more quick and explosive movements, while a midfielder will need to perform more endurance activities for the increased amount of running the position requires.
Preventing Lacrosse Injuries
Every season must come to an end. In order to stay in shape and avoid injury, it is important to participate in a conditioning program even during the off-season. Some helpful conditioning exercises include:
Full-Field Interval Distance Sprints
- Starting from one end line, sprint to the closest restraining line and back.
- Sprint from the end line to the midfield line and back.
- Sprint to the opposite restraining line and back.
- Sprint to the opposite end line and back.
- This exercise should be performed with a group of people or your team.
- Start with all but one person lying on the ground, face down, about three feet apart from each other in a row, like railroad ties.
- The person standing runs and leaps over the top of each person on the ground making sure to clear each person.
- Meanwhile, as each person is cleared by the runner, that person rises and follows behind the runner, also leaping over each person in the row.
- As each runner clears the last person, that runner lies down at the end of the row.
Practicing these drills every day will help to improve your stick handling, ground balls, and passing ability.
- Find a brick or concrete wall that no one minds you using.
- Pick a spot on the wall and aim for that spot every time, and repeat each throw 100 times.
- Throws: Right hand throw and catch; left hand throw and catch; right hand throw, left hand catch; left hand throw, right hand catch; quick stick right hand; quick stick left hand.
- Line up in two equal groups around 25 yards directly across from each other.
- One line starts with the ball; they will pass or roll the ball to the other line on the run depending on the drill:
- Right hand throw to right hand catch.
- Left hand throw to left hand catch.
- Right hand throw to left hand catch.
- Left hand throw to right hand catch.
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Keys To A Lacrosse Strength and Conditioning Program | Victory Sports Performance
Contrary to popular belief, taking one thousand shots will not increase the velocity of your shot.
Of course playing lacrosse will make you better, but it won’t necessarily get you to your goals in the most efficient way possible.
So how do you work on your performance without playing lacrosse?
I’m glad you asked.
The answer is simple, workout!
Strength and conditioning for lacrosse is a perfect supplement that can greatly increase your capabilities on the field. If your goal is to boost top-end speed on a clear, swiftness on a split dodge, or prevent being bodied off a ground ball, then strength and conditioning is the answer.
Going to your local “box gym” to bench and do curls is not the best workout for lacrosse players. Don’t get me wrong, I love both of those exercises, but a big chest and arms never got anyone anywhere on the lacrosse field. A well-organized sport specific program is the best way an athlete can enhance their performance on the field through strength and conditioning.
Movement take priority. This means if you are not confident in performing a squat, deadlift, push-up, or any other movement, seeking the help of a professional is the right choice. Many times athletes attempt to workout on their own, but do not have the requisite movement patterns to perform the exercises they are performing.
Four keys to a lacrosse specific strength program are detailed below.
Three Planes of Motion
Lacrosse is played in all three planes of motion: sagittal (forward and backward), frontal (side-to-side), and transverse plane (rotation). The sagittal plane accounts for movements like sprinting and backpedaling. The frontal plane accounts for movements like shuffling and cutting side-to-side. Lastly, the transverse plane accounts for movements like shooting and roll dodging.
Due to a lot of strength exercises being done in the sagittal plane, like squats and deadlifts, it is important to make sure you are training the other two planes to satisfy all of the sport’s needs.
Here are examples of frontal and transverse plane strength exercises.
Frontal Plane Exercises
- Lateral Lunge
- Lateral Step-Up
- Lateral Sled Drags
Transverse Plane Exercises
- Rotational Lunge
- Rotational Landmine Press
- Rotational Med Ball Throws
Other than focusing on top-end speed (sagittal plane), we also need to make sure the agility aspect of the game is covered in our training. Changing direction quickly and under control is what separates athletes. Again, we need to train this in all three planes of motion.
Here are examples of frontal and transverse plane agility exercises.
Frontal Plane Drills
- Lateral Shuffle
- Lateral Hops/Bounds
- Partner Mirror
Transverse Plane Drills
- Rotational Hops/Bounds
- Pro Agility (5-10-5)
For more information on training all three planes of motion, click this link to my post from June 16, 2018.
Let’s not forget about speed!
Training acceleration and top-end speed are two aspects of the game every athlete loves to work on.
Besides working on strength, which is important for improving speed, an athlete needs to work on speed drills that will get them fast.
Wall Work: Simply, put your hands on the wall and walk your feet back so your body is at 45 degree angle. Then, staying up on your toes on one foot, raise the opposite leg until the knee is lined up with the hip. From here you can perform isometric holds, pistons, rapid switches (running), or many other drills.
Sled: Forward sled push is a great exercise that puts you in a forward lean position – similar to accelerating in a sprint. I love the sled because you can increase how far you push it or increase the amount of weight you are using. The sled is easy to manipulate and fun for the athletes.
Sprint!: There are endless drills to work on accelerating and top-end speed. You can do push-up sprints, mountain climber sprints, 10 yard flys, and many others. Make it fun and transferable to the field.
Energy system Training
Being able to play the whole game without sucking wind for four quarters is important. In lacrosse, athletes need to have the endurance to run up and down the field, sprint as fast as possible to get back on a fast break, and the explosiveness to make a hard cut to the net.
Working on all three parts of your energy system is crucial as a lacrosse player. We have the aerobic, anaerobic lactic, and anaerobic alactic systems. Commonly, aerobic is used for an activity lasting 2 or more minutes, anaerobic lactic is used for activity lasting 15-120 seconds, and anaerobic alactic is used for activity lasting less than 15 seconds. All of which play a role in the game. Obviously each position needs to focus on certain aspects of their game more than others, but generally speaking, all lacrosse players need to work on all three.
Examples of each in lacrosse…
Aerobic: Constantly moving on the field
Anaerobic Lactic: Sprinting back and forth on transition
Anaerobic Alactic: Dodging hard and shooting
Mobility exercises should be something an athlete does every single day. Keeping your muscles and joints feeling good is just as important as strength training.
Mobility training is different for each athlete. If you are on the more flexible side, you will need more stability exercises. For example, if you can put your leg behind your head, you probably don’t need to be yanking on your leg with a stretching band.
On the flip side, if you are an athlete that is “stiff as a board”, you probably would benefit from passive stretching to increase the range of motion of your tissues.
If you want to learn more about which exercises would be best for your needs, check out my post on 5/16/18.
Just to recap: The biggest takeaways from this article are:
- Get a Strength Coach
- Work in all three planes of motion with your strength and agility work
- Train acceleration and top-end speed
- Mobilize every day
Feel free to let me know what you think about strength and conditioning for lacrosse players. Kindly, leave your comments below and we can chat about it!
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|& Acy; & vcy; & tcy; & ocy; & mcy; & ocy; & bcy; & icy; & lcy; & softcy; & scy; & dcy; & iecy; & lcy; & acy; & tcy; & softcy;||& Scy; & pcy; & ucy; & tcy; & ncy; & icy; & kcy; “& Lcy; & acy; & kcy; & rcy; & ocy; & scy; & scy;” BUICK & Mcy; & Acy; & Lcy; & Icy; & Bcy; & Ucy;|
|& Rcy; & ucy; & chcy; & softcy; & icy; & shcy; & kcy; & icy; & vcy; & acy; & kcy; & ocy; & lcy; & iecy; & ncy; & chcy; & acy; & tcy; & ocy; & gcy; & ocy; [vcy; [acy] [lcy] [acy;||6PK|
ESIA & Kcy; & Ocy; & Ncy; & Dcy; & Icy; & TScy; & Icy; & Ocy; & Ncy; & IEcy; & Rcy; & lpar; & Kcy; & icy; & tcy; & acy; & jcy; & rpar; LIMITED & yacy; & vcy; & lcy; & yacy; & iecy; & tcy; & scy; & yacy; & pcy; & rcy; & ocy; & fcy; & iecy; & scy; & scy; & icy; & ocy; & ncy; & lcy; & softcy; & ncy; & ycy; & mcy; & pcy; & rcy; & ocy; & icy; & zcy; & vcy; & ocy; & dcy; & icy; & tcy; & iecy; & lcy; & iecy; & mcy; & icy; & kcy; & ocy; & rcy; & pcy; & ocy; & rcy; & acy; & tcy; & icy; & vcy; & ncy; & ycy; & khcy; & pcy; & rcy; & ocy; & dcy; & acy; & zhcy; & acy; & vcy; & tcy; & ocy; & mcy; & ocy; & bcy; & icy; & lcy; & softcy; & ncy; & ycy; & khcy; & chcy; & acy; & scy; & tcy; & iecy; & jcy; & scy; & icy; & scy; & tcy; & iecy; & mcy; & ycy; & kcy; & ocy; & ncy; & dcy; & icy; & tscy; & icy; & ocy; & ncy; & icy; & rcy; & ocy; & vcy; & acy; & ncy; & icy; & yacy; & vcy; & ocy; & zcy; & dcy; & ucy; & khcy; & acy; & period;
& Mcy; & ycy; & pcy; & ocy; & scy; & tcy; & acy; vcy; & lcy; yacy; & iecy; & mcy; & acy; & vcy; & tcy; & ocy; & mcy; & ocy; & bcy; & icy; & lcy; & softcy; & ncy; & ycy; & khcy; & chcy; & acy; & scy; & tcy; & iecy; & jcy; & scy; & icy; & scy; & tcy; & iecy; & mcy; & ycy; & kcy; & ocy; & ncy; & dcy; & icy; & tscy; & icy; & ocy; & ncy; & icy; & rcy; & ocy; & vcy; & acy; & ncy; & icy; & yacy; & vcy; & ocy; & zcy; & dcy; & ucy; & khcy; & acy; & scy; & khcy; & ocy; & rcy; & ocy; & shcy; & icy; & mcy; & kcy; & acy; & chcy; & iecy; & scy; & tcy; vcy; & ocy; & mcy; & icy; & kcy; & ocy; & ncy; & kcy; & ucy; & rcy; & iecy; & ncy; & tcy; & ocy; & scy; & pcy; & ocy; & scy; & ocy; & bcy; & ncy; & ocy; & jcy; & tscy; & iecy; & ncy; & iecy; & comma; & tcy; & acy; & kcy; & icy; & khcy; & kcy; & acy; & kcy; & Kcy; & ocy; & mcy; & pcy; & rcy; & iecy; & scy; & scy; & ocy; & rcy; & vcy; & scy; & bcy; & ocy; & rcy; & iecy; & comma; & kcy; & ocy; & ncy; & dcy; & iecy; & ncy; & scy; & acy; & tcy; & ocy; & rcy; & vcy; & scy; & bcy; & ocy; & rcy; & iecy; & comma; & icy; & scy; & pcy; & acy; & rcy; & icy; & tcy; & iecy; & lcy; & softcy; & vcy; & scy; & bcy; & ocy; & rcy; & iecy; & comma; & shcy; & lcy; & ncy; & gcy; & icy; & comma; A & sol; C & scy; & rcy; & iecy; & dcy; & scy; & tcy; vcy; & acy; & icy; & dcy; & rcy; & ucy; & gcy; & icy; & iecy; & acy; & vcy; & tcy; & ocy; & mcy; & ocy; & bcy; & icy; & lcy; & softcy; & ncy; & ycy; & khcy; & chcy; & acy; & scy; & tcy; & iecy; & jcy; & scy; & icy; & scy; & tcy; & iecy; & mcy; & ycy; & kcy; & ocy; & ncy; & dcy; & icy; & tscy; & icy; & ocy; & ncy; & icy; & rcy; & ocy; & vcy; & acy; & ncy; & icy; & yacy; & vcy; & ocy; & zcy; & dcy; & ucy; & khcy; & acy; & period;
& Mcy; & ycy; & tcy; & acy; & kcy; & zhcy; & iecy; & mcy; & ocy; & zhcy; & iecy; & mcy; & pcy; & rcy; & ocy; & icy; & zcy; & vcy; & ocy; & dcy; & icy; & tcy; & softcy; & tcy; & ocy; & vcy; & acy; & rcy; & ycy; & vcy; & kcy; & acy; & chcy; & iecy; & scy; & tcy; vcy; & iecy; & vcy; & acy; & shcy; & iecy; & gcy; & ocy; & pcy; & rcy; & ocy; & iecy; & kcy; & tcy; & acy; & period; & Kcy; & rcy; & ocy; & mcy; & iecy; & tcy; & ocy; & gcy; & ocy; & mcy; & ycy; & lcy; & yucy; & bcy; & iecy; & zcy; & ncy; & ocy; & scy; & ocy; & tcy; & rcy; & ucy; & dcy; & ncy; & icy; & chcy; & iecy; & scy; & tcy; & vcy; & acy; & pcy; & rcy; & icy; & rcy; & acy; & scy; & scy; & mcy; & ocy; & tcy; & rcy; & iecy; & ncy; & icy; & icy; & dcy; & rcy; & ucy; & gcy; & ocy; & gcy; & ocy; & scy; & pcy; & ocy; & rcy; & ncy; & ocy; & gcy; & ocy; & fcy; & acy; & bcy; & rcy; & icy; & kcy; & icy; & pcy; & rcy; & iecy; & dcy; & pcy; & rcy; & icy; & yacy; & tcy; & icy; & jcy; [zcy] [acy; & gcy; & rcy; & ncy; & icy; & tscy; & iecy; & jcy; & icy; & icy; & mcy; & iecy; & yucy; & tcy; & rcy; & acy; & zcy; & lcy; & icy; & chcy; & ncy; & ycy; & iecy; & pcy; & iecy; & rcy; & iecy; & dcy; & ocy; vcy; & ycy; & iecy; & tcy; & iecy; & khcy; & ncy; & ocy; & lcy; & ocy; & gcy; & icy; & icy; & pcy; & rcy; & ocy; & icy; & zcy; & vcy; & ocy; & dcy; & scy; & tcy; & vcy; & acy; & period;
& Kcy; & rcy; & ocy; & mcy; & iecy; & tcy; & ocy; & gcy; & ocy; & comma; & ucy; & ncy; & acy; & scy; & iecy; & scy; & tcy; & softcy; & gcy; & rcy; & ucy; & pcy; & pcy; & acy; & ocy; & pcy; & ycy; & tcy; & ncy; & ycy; & jcy; & scy; & pcy; & iecy; & tscy; & icy; & acy; & lcy; & icy; & scy; & tcy; & pcy; & ocy; & ocy; & bcy; & scy; & lcy; & ucy; & zhcy; & icy; vcy; & acy; & ncy; & icy; & yucy; & vcy; & acy; & mcy; & comma; & kcy; & acy; & kcy; & mcy; & ycy; & bcy; & ycy; & lcy; & icy; & ecy; & kcy; & scy; & pcy; & ocy; & rcy; & tcy; & acy; & vcy; & tcy; & ocy; & mcy; & ocy; & bcy; & icy; & lcy; & softcy; & ncy; & ycy; & khcy; & chcy; & acy; & scy; & tcy; & iecy; & jcy; & scy; & icy; & scy; & tcy; & iecy; & mcy; & ycy; & kcy; & ocy; & ncy; & dcy; & icy; & tscy; & icy; & ocy; & ncy; & icy; & rcy; & ocy; & vcy; & acy; & ncy; & icy; & yacy; & vcy; & ocy; & zcy; & dcy; & ucy; & khcy; & acy; ? cy;? & rcy; & ucy; & bcy; & iecy; & zhcy; & ocy; & mcy; & ncy; & acy; & pcy; & rcy; & ocy; & tcy; & yacy; & zhcy; & iecy; & ncy; & icy; & icy; & dcy; & iecy; & scy; & yacy; & tcy; & icy; & lcy; & iecy; & tcy; & period; & Tcy; & acy; & kcy; & chcy; & tcy; & ocy; & vcy; & ycy; & bcy; & ucy; & dcy; & ucy; & tcy; & ucy; & dcy; & ocy; & vcy; & lcy; & iecy; & tcy; & vcy; & ocy; & rcy; & iecy; & ncy; & ycy; & ncy; & acy; & shcy; & iecy; & jcy; & pcy; & rcy; & ocy; & fcy; & iecy; & scy; & scy; & icy; & ocy; & ncy; & lcy; & softcy; & ncy; & ocy; & iecy; & ocy; & bcy; & scy; & lcy; & ucy; & zhcy; & icy; vcy; & acy; & ncy; & icy; & iecy; & period; & Vcy; & tcy; & ocy; & zhcy; & iecy; & vcy; & rcy; & iecy; & mcy; & yacy; & vcy; & ycy; & ncy; & acy; & jcy; & dcy; & iecy; & tcy; & iecy; & comma; & chcy; & tcy; & ocy; & tscy; & iecy; & ncy; & acy; & kcy; & acy; & chcy; & iecy; & scy; & tcy; vcy; & ocy; & ncy; & acy; & shcy; & iecy; & jcy; & pcy; & rcy; & ocy; & dcy; & ucy; & kcy; & tscy; & icy; & icy; & yacy; & vcy; & lcy; & yacy; & iecy; & tcy; & scy; & yacy; vcy; & iecy; & scy; & softcy; & mcy; & acy; & rcy; & acy; & zcy; & ucy; & mcy; & ncy; & ocy; & jcy; & period;
& IEcy; & scy; & lcy; & icy; & vcy; & ycy; & ncy; & iecy; & mcy; & ocy; & zhcy; & iecy; & tcy; & iecy; & ncy; & acy; & jcy; & tcy; & icy; & vcy; & acy; & shcy; & khcy; & ocy; & tcy; & iecy; & lcy; & icy; & mcy; & ocy; & dcy; & iecy; & lcy; & icy; & kcy; & ocy; & mcy; & pcy; & rcy; & iecy; & scy; & scy; & ocy; & rcy; & acy; & vcy; & ocy; & zcy; & dcy; & ucy; & shcy; & ncy; & ocy; & gcy; & ocy; & kcy; & ocy; & ncy; & dcy; & icy; & tscy; & icy; & ocy; & ncy; & iecy; & rcy; & acy; & comma; & pcy; & rcy; & icy; & shcy; & lcy; & icy; & tcy; & iecy; & mcy; & ncy; & iecy; OE & comma; & icy; & scy; & khcy; & ocy; & dcy; & ncy; & ycy; & jcy; & ncy; & ocy; & mcy; & iecy; & rcy; & comma; & icy; & scy; & ncy; & icy; & mcy; & kcy; & icy; & comma; & chcy; & tcy; & ocy; & bcy; & ycy; & yacy; & mcy; & ocy; & gcy; & pcy; & rcy; & ocy; & vcy; & iecy; & rcy; & icy; & tcy; & softcy; & mcy; & ocy; & dcy; & iecy; & lcy; & softcy; & dcy; & lcy; & yacy; & vcy; & acy; & scy; & kcy; & acy; & kcy; & mcy; & ocy; & zhcy; & ncy; & ocy; & bcy; & ycy; & scy; & tcy; & rcy; & iecy; & iecy; & period;
90,000 Physical culture and sports center “Extreme” will be renovated during the overhaul
The Moscow City Committee for Pricing Policy in Construction and State Expertise of Projects (Moskomexpertiza) informs about the approval of the project documentation for the object “Overhaul of GBU” FSC “” Extreme “of Moskomsport” at the address: st. Gospitalny Val, 1a, bldg. 1, Basmanny District, Central Administrative District of Moscow. Comprehensive renovation includes facade work, renovation of premises, as well as replacement of a number of utilities.
The sports center “Extreme” is awaiting a comprehensive overhaul, the chairman of Moskomexpertiza Valery Leonov announced the approval of the project. The building of the center was built in 1956 according to an individual project, it is located on Hospital Val street in the Basmanny district of the capital.The design solutions for the overhaul include both interior finishing and exterior work.
“The basement of the building will be treated with an antifungal agent at the soaking points, the plaster will be replaced and then painted. On the facade, the plaster layer of the walls will also be replaced in places of damage: they will be treated with protective and antiseptic compounds, and painted. It also provides for the repair of window slopes, replacement of window and interfloor ebbs, renovation of decorative elements: cornices and friezes. To complete the work, flag holders and elements of the drainage system will be replaced, the porch will be repaired, “ – the head of the department said.
Within the framework of the project, repair work on staircases is planned: replacement of entrance doors, floor coverings of landings, repair and painting of ceilings and walls and the lower surface of staircases, replacement of handrails, minor repairs and painting of metal fences. New double-glazed windows will be installed. Doors will be installed in all premises, complete interior decoration will be performed in accordance with their functional purpose.
As part of the work, the engineering systems of the building will be updated: power supply, water supply, sewerage, heating, ventilation and air conditioning, as well as communication networks.
As noted by the Mayor of Moscow Sergei Sobyanin , the number of people involved in sports and physical education has significantly increased in Moscow. Such dynamics is largely due to the fact that more and more infrastructure appears in the capital for comfortable and safe training, including in the open air.The capital’s government pays great attention not only to the construction of new facilities, but also to the renovation of existing ones.
Physical culture and sports classes are held at the State Budgetary Institution “FSC” Extreme “of Moskomsport, including the following disciplines: bowling, workout, karate, sambo, lacrosse, rhythmic gymnastics, modern sports dances, roller sports and skateboarding.
Carrier air conditioners – in Krasnoyarsk
| | | | | | Carrier | | | | |
Carrier air conditioners in Krasnoyarsk
Budget split QCR / QCL | Inverter NQV X-Power Gold | Economy class inverter LUVHK
Not too well-known brand of air conditioners in Krasnoyarsk Carrier belongs to the company thanks to which our world generally learned what air conditioners are. Its founder, Willis Carrier, is the inventor of the air conditioning system.
Willis Carrier – Inventor of the world’s first air conditioning
In 1902, Willis Carrier was identified by Willis Carrier, a member of the Sackett-Wilhelms Lithographing & Publishing Company of Brooklyn , with a problem of high humidity that was affecting print quality. The company was looking for ways to control air humidity.Soon a humidity control unit was created, which was later recognized as the world’s first air conditioning system. The 1902 Willis Carrier installation, which marked the birth of air conditioning systems, performed the following functions:
1. Temperature control
2. Humidity control
3. Air circulation and ventilation control
4. Air purification
Already in 1904 the first buyer – The LaCrosse National Bank.
In 1906, Carrier received patent number 808897 for his invention, the Apparatus for Treating Air.
By 1907, Carrier’s air conditioning units were installed in the largest textile, footwear and pharmaceutical companies. industry.
In early 1908, the Carrier Air Conditioning Company of America was founded, the world’s first domestic and industrial air conditioner corporation.
Subsequently, the palm tree of primacy in the world of air conditioning passed to Japanese manufacturers, which, thanks to numerous new developments and active marketing policies, have become the main suppliers of air conditioners to the whole world.
That is why the American company Carrier in 1999 merged with one of the most successful in the air conditioning industry – the Japanese corporation TOSHIBA , and now the equipment offered under the brands Carrier and Toshiba is produced at the same factories, by one manufacturer – Toshiba -Carrier Corp., which exactly explains such a high technological level of performance of these modern split systems.
Most of the equipment is manufactured in Thailand, at a plant located in an industrial area near Bangkok ( 144/9 Moo 5, Bangkadi Industrial Park Tivanon Road, Muang District Pathumthani 12000, Thailand ). The plant, owned by Toshiba-Carrier (Thailand) Co., Ltd , was built by Toshiba in 1990 and since then, after merging with Carrier, has tripled its production by 2008.
Air conditioning systems manufactured by Toshiba Carrier Thailand Co., Ltd are exported to more than 50 countries worldwide
What’s more, the new energy efficient Carrier and Toshiba inverter air conditioners produced for sale in North America, since May 2012 they have been sold in Krasnoyarsk under the Toshiba-Carrier brand.
Presentation of the Toshiba-Carrier brand in the North American region during the Annual Meeting of the Air Conditioning Equipment of America ( Annual Meeting of the Air Conditioning Contractors of America )
air conditioners makes these models extremely attractive to the end consumer.
In our opinion, air conditioners Carrier are the best offer in terms of price-quality ratio in the price-quality segment of Hitachi-Panasonic-Carrier, especially considering how well these split systems have proven themselves when operating in the difficult climatic conditions of Krasnoyarsk . ..
Carrier air conditioner – a worthy choice in Krasnoyarsk!
University of Exeter (UK)
City and University
The University of Exeter is a classic British university, whose history dates back to 1855.The city of Exeter is located in the south of the country, in a prestigious, ecologically clean region in close proximity to the ocean, which explains the mild climate of these places. The city has the status of a botanical garden and is famous for the friendliness of the locals.
The university has three campuses with about 14,000 full-time students, 2,500 of whom are international students from 120 countries.
According to The Times Good University Guide, the university ranks 9th out of 113 universities in the country that participated in the study.This is the third consecutive year that the School of Business has been named the best in the UK. The university is one of the most demanded in the country: the competition for bachelor’s programs is eight people per place.
The University of Exeter has completed an ambitious renovation program, in which £ 140 million was invested in the refurbishment of educational and research buildings and the construction of a new student center. This includes the construction of the Conwall campus with state-of-the-art laboratories and a new student village, one of the best gyms in the country, an innovative university library, etc.In general, the development budget for the next decade exceeds 450 million pounds.
In addition to improving the conditions for learning and leisure, the university is actively investing in scientific work: over the next three years, more than 80 million pounds will be spent on research, the development of engineering infrastructure and the attraction of specialists. The University of Exeter has received three prestigious Royal Awards for its activities, the most recent being for diabetes research.Also, work is underway in the field of malaria diagnostics, cancer therapy, recording technologies of a new generation, innovative methods of teaching driving, illogical materials, as well as the ergonomics of office space.
A wide range of learning and recreation opportunities have been created for students, including round-the-clock computer labs, relaxation rooms, and a cafe. The library funds number 1 200 000 books, there is access to 20 000 electronic journals, reference books and databases. The library is open 24 hours a day; it offers training programs in information retrieval techniques, familiarization with information resources, as well as open classes and consultations.
Without leaving the campus, you can watch a theatrical performance, a film, a musical, and attend music concerts. If you sing or play an instrument, you have the opportunity to show your talent in student societies. The weekly newspaper, student TV and radio stations have received several prizes in inter-university competitions.
A variety of sports can be practiced on the Streetham campus, including football, hockey, rugby.The sports park has an air-conditioned fitness room (for 90 people), where students can practice aerobics, taiji, yoga, Pilates and various martial arts throughout the year. Students at the University of Exeter have at their disposal an indoor warm pool on campus St Luke, an indoor tennis court according to LTA standards, a new cricket field, any of 50 sports clubs, including sailing, kayaking and canoeing clubs (the place is just perfect), archery, caving, rock climbing, lacrosse and even extreme frisbee!
The Cornwall campus is suitable for those who enjoy spending a lot of time outdoors.The best surf beaches in the UK are twenty minutes away.
The university offers more than 4,000 living rooms with a variety of accommodation options: from hostels with meals, apartments without meals, houses where several people live, to apartments for families.
University of Exeter has been named the University of the Year by The Sunday Times
for the second consecutive year!
Faculties and specialties
School of Business and Economics
- business and entrepreneurship
- accounting *
- tourism management
- finance and investment
- economy *
Faculty of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences
- renewable energy sources
- geology and geotechnics
- civil engineering
- information technology for business
- mathematics * (combinations with physics, engineering, computer, economics and philological disciplines are possible)
- mechanical engineering
- medical introscopy
- medical physics
- nature management
- material technology
- physics *
- Electronics and Computing
- electronic engineering
Faculty of Geography
- geography *
- climate change
- use of natural resources
- Global Warming Risk Management
- sustainable development
- Energy Policy
Faculty of Biosciences
- biological diversity
- environmental protection
- clinical trials
- medical informatics
- medicinal chemistry
- molecular biology
- human sciences
- sports medicine *
Faculty of Arts, Foreign Languages and Literature
- English Philology *
- gender studies
- European languages and culture
- Celtic culture and language
- Film Studies
- classical languages *
- Writing fiction
- translation studies
- Modern Linguistics (German *, French, Spanish, Italian, Russian *)
- theater direction
School of Humanities and Social Sciences
- archeology *
- public administration
- European Studies
- Arab countries studies *
- Islamic Studies *
- history *
- international relations
- Political Science *
- Middle East Regional Studies
- sociology *
- theology *
- philosophy *
- jurisprudence *
Higher Pedagogical School
- preschool education *
- studies of childhood and adulthood;
- training for people with disabilities *
- primary school pedagogy *
- secondary school pedagogy *
- teaching art subjects *
- educational psychology
- Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TESOL) *
College of Medicine and Dentistry
Higher education in areas
- general medicine
- clinical trials
- clinical trials
- public health
- remote healthcare and emergency care
Faculty of Psychology
- psychology *
- animal behavior
- social and organizational psychology
- sports psychology
It is possible to combine a bachelor’s degree with the following areas of training: biochemistry, history of medicine, psychology, emergency medical care, human biosciences.
* world-class educational programs and research as measured by the 2008 Research Quality Assessment.
Preparation programs at the University of Exeter:
- Preparation for admission to the first year for high school graduates (INTO Foundation)
- Preparation for admission to the 2nd year when transferring from Russian universities (INTO Diploma)
- Preparation for admission to the magistracy with a bachelor’s degree from a Russian university (INTO Graduate Diploma)
- Language training for undergraduate studies (INTO English for Undergraduate Study)
- Language training for master’s degree studies (INTO English for Undergraduate Study)
- Summer English courses
You can get detailed information about all programs at the office of the Ai Class company by writing to us at iclass @ iclass.ru or by calling 320-99-71.
Kenneth Spence – Kenneth Spence
Kenneth Wartinby Spence (May 6, 1907 – January 12, 1967) was an eminent American psychologist renowned for his theoretical and experimental contributions to learning theory and motivation. As one of the leading theorists of his time, Spence was the most cited psychologist in 14 of the most influential psychological journals in the last six years of his life (1962-1967). The General Psychology Survey of the survey, published in 2002, ranks Spence as the 62nd most cited psychologist of the 20th century.
Spence was born in Chicago on May 6, 1907. In 1911, Spence’s father, an electrical engineer, moved the family to Montreal, Quebec, Canada when his employer was Western Electric. Spence spent his youth and adolescence there, attending West Hill High School in Notre Dame de Grasse. In high school, Spence was fond of basketball, tennis and athletics.
Spence sustained a back injury while attending an athletics competition at McGill University.As part of physical therapy, Spence moved to live with his grandmother in Lacrosse, Wisconsin. There Spence attended the Lacrosse Teachers’ College with a degree in Physical Education and met his future wife, Isabelle Temte. He and Isabelle had two children, Shirley Ann Spence Pumroy and William James Spence. Spence and Isabelle later divorced, and in 1960 Spence remarried to Janet A. Taylor, his graduate student.
Spence eventually returned to McGill University and changed his major to psychology.He received his BA in 1929 and his MA in 1930. After McGill, Spence entered Yale University as a research assistant for Robert M. Yerkes. Yerkes sponsored his dissertation on the study of visual acuity in chimpanzees. Spence received his doctorate from Yale University in 1933.
While at Yale University, Spence collaborated with Walter Shipley to test Clark L. Hull’s training in dead-end rat mazes, leading to further publications while working on his doctorate.Spence applied for postdoctoral studies to study mathematics after completing his graduate studies, but his application was rejected by a biologist on the grounds that psychology would never reach the level of precision that required complex mathematical knowledge.
After completing his doctorate, Spence served as the National Research Council at the Yale Primate Biology Laboratory in Orange Park, Florida from 1933 to 1937.There Spence studied discrimination in chimpanzees. Based on this and further research, Spence developed a lifelong learning method based on learning discrimination with two choices in rats. As reported by Lashley (1929), the rats on a test to discriminate between the two options exhibited a long period of random execution followed by a sudden jump to a high percentage of accurate responses. Lashley explained this phenomenon by suggesting that the rat’s significant learning arose from testing and validating the correct hypothesis “during a rapidly changing part of a function in which prior practice and subsequent errors are irrelevant to the final decision.”In contrast, Spence suggested that significant learning was produced by increasing the excitatory tendencies of task-relevant display characteristics and decreasing the inhibitory tendencies of irrelevant display characteristics — an account of continuous learning not directly detectable by measure selection.
Spence transferred to the University of Iowa in 1938 and was appointed head of the Department of Psychology in 1942. There Spence established the Eyelid Conditioning Laboratory to study the effects of motivation on classical conditioning, and contributed to the seminal work of Clark Hull.Code of Conduct Book . Like Hull, Spence believed that learning is the result of the interaction between attraction and incentive motivation. Unlike Hull, Spence’s formulation summed up attraction (D) and incentive (K) instead of multiplying them. This allowed Spence to show that increasing the level of motivation will facilitate the performance of tasks in which the correct, to be learned response is stronger than in other tendencies to respond, caused by the stimulus, but will inhibit the performance of tasks in which this habit – the power of the correct response is initially weaker. than competing propensities for answers.He also showed that the mathematical shape of the curves obtained when the probability of a conditioned response is plotted against successive presentations of a paired stimulus changes systematically with the level of motivation. Spence believed that the differences in motivation were due to internal emotional responses created by the intraorganic mechanism of the brain.
Spence’s contribution to Principles of Conduct Hull is noted in the foreword to the book, where Hull stated: “To Kenneth L. Spence, I have a debt of gratitude that cannot be adequately expressed at this point; since the time when the ideas put forward here became popular.the incubation process in my graduate seminar, and later, when the actual work was planned, Dr. Spence made a generous and effective contribution, providing suggestions and criticisms, many of which were used without indication of their origin. “The variable for incentive motivation (K) was chosen in honor of Kenneth Spence.
Spence defended a total of 75 doctoral dissertations, training faculty in all major US psychology departments.Spence’s students in Iowa called their Ph.Ds in “theoretical experimental psychology” because of Spence’s emphasis on methodological rigor.
- The Nature of Learning Discrimination in Animals, 1936.
- Differential response of animals to stimuli changing in one dimension, 1937.
- Continuous and Intermittent Interpretation of Discrimination Learning, 1940.
- The nature of theory construction in modern psychology, 1944.
- Postulates and Methods of Behaviorism, 1948.
- Theoretical Interpretations of Learning, 1951.
- Mathematical formulations of learning phenomena, 1952.
- Behavior Theory and Conditioning, 1956.
- Anxiety and PSK Strength as Determinants of Eyelid Conditioning, 1951.
- Cognitive and motor factors in the disappearance of conditioned blinking in humans, 1966.
Buick Lacrosse air conditioner repair.Replacing, checking, removing the starter Buick Lacrosse diagnostics, disassembly
Timely maintenance and / or professional car repair work is a guarantee of its stable operation, as well as overall durability and much-needed safety. That is why any owner should find a service station whose specialists are guaranteed to help with various malfunctions, and ideally, have experience working with both a specific make and model of a car, and a failed unit.So, if you need a Buick Lacrosse air conditioner repair, be sure to contact our company.
Taking into account the peculiarities of a specific car
The list of the most important mechanisms of modern cars is usually almost identical. The root causes of failure also do not differ at all:
- inadequate condition of the road surface;
- low fuel quality at filling stations;
- Individual driving habits, including a preference for driving at high engine speeds;
- non-observance of the correct schedule of vehicle maintenance;
- simple physical wear and tear of components over time or coiled mileage;
- traffic accidents, etc.
But all the same, in reality, the repair of the Buick Lacrosse air conditioner has many differences from the elimination of identical defects of units both in cars from other manufacturers and in other models of the same brand. Sometimes a different approach to maintenance is even assumed to apply to the same one that differs in the year of release.
What is the difference?
First of all, the price of the repair kit, spare parts, as well as the units themselves differs. In addition, the availability of auto parts is noticeably different.The next point is the actual layout of the nodes, their location in the car of a particular manufacturer and model. That is why it is best to entrust Buick Lacrosse air conditioner repairs to both craftsmen with relevant practical experience and a workshop that specializes in servicing specific makes and models of vehicles.
Car service has been providing quality repairs to Buick Lacrosse air conditioners for many years. Our specialists take on work of varying complexity.The main reasons for choosing our services include:
- A wide range of spare parts. Some of them are located in our own warehouses or directly in a car workshop, the rest are promptly delivered from reliable partners, including end manufacturers and / or their partners.
- High-quality equipment and tools for reliable diagnostics, service and repair work. They make it possible to abandon routine processes, add speed, and raise the overall efficiency of eliminating breakdowns of the customer’s car.
- Favorable prices for the required parts and assemblies requiring replacement. Our car service cooperates with manufacturers and dealers, makes purchases on wholesale terms, which guarantees real savings to drivers who choose our services.
- Clear specialization. If our company indicates that it is repairing a Buick Lacrosse air conditioner, it means that our employees have experience:
- diagnostic testing and troubleshooting of the corresponding vehicle units;
- diagnostic check and troubleshooting of this car brand;
- diagnostic check and troubleshooting of this car model;
- Solid accumulated experience, high professionalism and a desire to learn from our masters.They do the rebuilding of various important automotive components, including generators, turbines, air conditioning compressors, engine starting systems, etc.
- Keeping in mind the basic needs of the owner and meeting the key requirements of the automaker when repairing a Buick Lacrosse air conditioner. This approach makes it possible to reduce the time to carry out the necessary work without minimal compromising on quality.
The above set of advantages of our car service has already been fully appreciated by thousands of customers.They just bring a faulty car, and then pick it up at a predetermined time without disruptions to the deadlines and problems that worried earlier. The quality of the repair is confirmed by the warranty provided. It acts both on parts or assemblies that have been replaced and on work performed.
Buick Lacrosse Air Conditioner Repair Sequence:
- The first customer call by phone or through the website. Our representatives advise, suggest the date and time of the visit, guide the car owner on prices.
- Comprehensive diagnostics performed on high quality equipment. Such a check of the condition of the machine makes it possible to accurately determine the wear of components, the degree of defects, and their localization.
- Dismantling the defective unit. This repair step for your Buick Lacrosse air conditioner helps you pinpoint the breakdown even more accurately.
- Direct repair work of varying complexity. Washing, troubleshooting, calibration of parts, replacement, etc. can be performed.
- Reassembly procedure and final functional check.
- Acceptance of a car by its owner.
Use the services of our car service technicians!
The cost of repairing the air conditioning system
| Refueling of the air conditioning system with R1234yf
refrigerant (depending on the amount of refrigerant used)
|from UAH 3000.|
|Checking of the air conditioning system||from UAH 100|
|Refueling of the car air conditioning system up to 800g. (the addition of oil, freon is included)||750 UAH.|
|Refueling of the car air conditioning system over 800g. (addition of oil, freon is included)||950 UAH.|
|Addition of fluorescent paint (includes checking for Freon leakage after three days)||100 UAH|
|Checking compressor at the stand||from 250 UAH|
|Complete repair of the air conditioner compressor (with solenoid valve)||from 800 * UAH.|
|Replacement of the bearing of the compressor pulley||from 300 * UAH.|
|Complete repair of the air conditioner compressor (with electric coupling)||from 700 UAH|
|Replacement of the air conditioning compressor clutch||from 250 UAH|