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Lacrosse Helmet Facemask Removal
J Athl Train. 2013 Jan-Feb; 48(1): 47–56.
Lynchburg College, VAAddress correspondence to Debbie A. Bradney, DPE, ATC, HFS, Lynchburg College, 1501 Lakeside Drive, Lynchburg, VA 24501. Address e-mail to [email protected].Copyright the National Athletic Trainers’ Association, IncThis article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Facemask removal (FMR) is required to access the airway of a catastrophically injured football or ice hockey athlete. However, the best method of caring for the helmeted lacrosse athlete with suspected catastrophic injury remains unclear.
To evaluate the effects of sex and grip strength on the speed and ease of use of various FMR methods across different lacrosse helmet types.
Athletic training laboratory.
Patients or Other Participants
Fourteen athletic trainers (7 men, 7 women).
Removal method (cordless screwdriver [CSD], Face Mask Extractor 2 [FMX], pruner, Trainer’s Angel [TA]), helmet type (Cascade CPX, Cascade Pro7, Riddell Revolution, Brine Triumph, Warrior Venom), and sex.
Main Outcome Measure(s)
Facemask removal time and participant-reported ease of use of the removal method (6-point Likert scale).
We found a 2-way interaction for removal method and sex only for the ease-of-use scores (F3,246 = 4.67, P = .01). A main effect for removal method for time (F3,200 = 19.41, P < .001) and ease of use (F3,200 = 53.78, P < .001) was seen. The fastest times (32.32 ± 11.70 seconds) and highest ease-of-use scores (4.94 ± 0.30) were recorded for the CSD. We noted a main effect for helmet type only for time (F4,200 = 5.34, P < .001), with the fastest removal times (72.75 ± 74.67 seconds) recorded for the CPX. We discovered a main effect for sex only for time (F1,200 = 17.57, P < .001), with slower times recorded for women (115.51 ± 110.80 seconds) than men (75.71 ± 83.87 seconds). We found correlations between FMR time and grip strength only when using the FMX (r = −0.40, P = .001), pruner (r = −0.26, P = .04), and TA (r = −0.26, P = .047).
Based on our results, FMR of lacrosse helmets should be attempted with a CSD. We recommend carrying a pruner as a backup cutting tool in case the CSD fails, practicing FMR regularly, and inspecting helmets for faulty hardware to reduce the chance of CSD failure.
Key Words: emergency care, catastrophic injury, cervical spine
- • Participants removed the facemasks of 5 different types of lacrosse helmets with a cordless screwdriver (CSD), which was fastest with helmets that do not require a cutting step, and reported this method was easier to use than the Face Mask Extractor 2, pruner, and Trainer’s Angel.
- • Grip strength and FMR times were strongly associated for the 3 techniques using cutting methods but not for the CSD.
- • Facemask removal on lacrosse helmets should be attempted first with a CSD and second with a pruner if screw removal fails.
- • Athletic trainers should practice regularly, be prepared to perform FMR on various types of helmets, and perform FMR using the tool with which they are most comfortable.
The number of participants in men’s lacrosse has risen steadily at all levels of play, making it one of the fastest growing sports in North America.1 Although catastrophic injury rates are lower in lacrosse than other contact sports, these injuries can have fatal consequences.2 Eleven collegiate male lacrosse players and 13 high school male lacrosse athletes have had catastrophic injuries in the past 25 years.2 Given the possibility of these injuries, athletic trainers (ATs) for men’s lacrosse are required to know the proper procedure for gaining access to the airway of the helmeted lacrosse athlete.
When a catastrophic injury occurs during play to a helmeted football or ice hockey athlete, facemask removal (FMR) is indicated to gain access to the airway.3,4 Although some researchers support leaving the helmet and shoulder pads in place until they can be removed in a controlled environment to avoid increasing upper cervical spine flexion due to helmet removal,5 we still do not know how the helmeted lacrosse athlete with a suspected cervical spine injury should be treated immediately.6 The lacrosse helmet may need to be removed if neutral cervical alignment cannot be attained, the helmet is fitted improperly, or the facemask cannot be removed easily. Unfortunately, given that we do not know if immobilizing an athlete with a lacrosse helmet in place allows neutral cervical alignment or how quickly lacrosse helmet facemasks can be removed, coming to a consensus on the care of the catastrophically injured helmeted lacrosse athlete is difficult.6
The US Lacrosse Sports Science and Safety Committee released facemask/chin guard removal hints for specific helmet types.7 The committee did not recommend a particular method but listed a cordless screwdriver (CSD), the Face Mask Extractor (FMX; Sports Medicine Concepts, Inc, Livonia, NY), the Trainer’s Angel (TA; Trainer’s Angel, Riverside, CA), an anvil pruner, modified pruning shears, and any other tool the AT may prefer as appropriate choices. Given the importance of providing cardiopulmonary resuscitation as soon as possible8 to limit hypoxic damage, FMR must be completed within 60 seconds.9 These guidelines do not clarify the fastest way to remove the facemask of a lacrosse helmet or which removal methods are the easiest to use based on sex and grip strength.
Researchers have reported that the design of football helmets influences which removal method is most appropriate based on the time necessary for FMR and the perceived difficulty of the various removal methods.10 Several investigators10–12 also have examined the effect of grip strength and participant sex on the time necessary to remove a football facemask using different removal methods with varying results. Exploring the effects of sex and grip strength on speed and ease of using different FMR methods on lacrosse helmets is important to ensure prompt care for the catastrophically injured lacrosse athlete. With a wide variety of FMR methods from which to select, the decision about which method to use may be difficult for the AT providing athletic training services for men’s lacrosse. No researchers have evaluated the speed or ease of lacrosse helmet FMR with various removal methods. Furthermore, no researchers have examined the effects of sex or grip strength on lacrosse helmet FMR with various removal methods. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to evaluate the effects of sex and grip strength on the speed and ease of use of various FMR methods across different lacrosse helmet types.
We used a 4 × 5 × 2 cross-sectional study design to determine the effect of removal method (4 methods possible), helmet construction (5 helmets possible), and sex (female, male) on time required for FMR and the ease of performing lacrosse helmet FMR. We chose time for FMR and reported ease of use for each removal method as the dependent variables, whereas removal method, helmet type, and sex were the independent variables.
We contacted ATs within the Mid-Atlantic region by e-mail to request their participation. A convenience sample of 14 ATs (7 men, 7 women; collegiate work setting = 6, high school work setting = 8) volunteered by responding to the e-mail and scheduling a data collection time and date. Participant demographics are presented in . We determined the number of participants after completing a power analysis (1 − β = 0.80) using the means and standard deviations of FMR time of 2 previous studies.13,14 Participants had a minimum of 2 years of experience as certified athletic trainers working with either football or men’s lacrosse within the 5 years before the study and had no hand or wrist injury that would preclude them from fully participating. We set no other inclusion or exclusion criteria.
Participant Demographics (Mean ± SD)
|Participants||Lacrosse Experience, y||Football Experience, y||Grip Strength, kg||Age, y|
|Women||3.57 ± 3.21||5.57 ± 5.06||37.90 ± 3.32||32.14 ± 6.04|
|Men||4.14 ± 9.32||8.00 ± 6.86||55.52 ± 7.23||34.14 ± 8.90|
|Total||4.07 ± 6.62||7.79 ± 5.92||46.71 ± 10.84||33.14 ± 7.38|
All participants provided written informed consent, and the study was approved by the Institutional Review Board at the host institution.
We used a standard stopwatch (Sportline; EB Sport Group, Yonkers, NY) to time the FMR trials to the nearest hundredth of a second; a 6-point Likert scale with the anchors of 0 (extremely hard) and 5 (extremely easy) to measure the participants’ perceived ease of using each tool, and a handheld dynamometer (Jamar Hand Dynamometer; Sammons Preston, Inc, Bolingbrook, IL) to measure grip strength. We used the CPX (Cascade, Liverpool, NY), Pro7 (Cascade), Riddell Revolution (Onyx Lacrosse, East Hanover, NJ), Triumph XP (Brine, Warren, MI), and Venom (Warrior, Warren, MI) because these helmets were popular models on the market at the time of data collection (). We acquired 15 new helmets for each helmet type to use throughout this study. We used a CSD (model HP41LK; Ryobi Technologies, Inc, Anderson, SC), a pruner (model 61106966J; Fiskars Brands, Inc, Madison, WI), the Face Mask Extractor 2 (FMX; Sports Medicine Concepts, Inc, Livonia, NY), and the TA (Trainer’s Angel, Riverside, CA) to remove the facemasks because these tools have been recommended for FMR of lacrosse helmets ().7 We used 2 CSDs, 2 pruners, 2 FMXs, and 2 TAs throughout data collection. We ensured both CSDs were charged fully and adjusted to the highest torque setting at the beginning of each data collection session. Each FMX was sharpened according to the manufacturer’s directions after 15 removal trials. We repaired helmets with new hardware and new loop straps that we acquired from the respective helmet manufacturer. After each trial, we used a torque ratchet screwdriver (A-50; Apco Mossberg Co, Attleboro, MA) to tighten the screws to 48-inch-pounds (5.42 N m) of torque.15
Helmet types used in data collection. A, Triumph XP (Brine, Warren, MI). B, Riddell Revolution (Onyx Lacrosse, East Hanover, NJ). C, CPX (Cascade, Liverpool, NY). D, Venom (Warrior Warren, MI). E, Pro7 (Cascade).
The removal tools used in data collection. A, Face Mask Extractor 2 (Sports Medicine Concepts, Inc, Livonia, NY). B, Trainer’s Angel (Trainer’s Angel, Riverside, CA). C, Cordless screwdriver (Ryobi model HP41LK; Ryobi Technologies, Inc, Anderson, SC). D, Pruner (model 61106966J; Fiskars Brands, Inc, Madison, WI).
Data collection involved 2 sessions for our participants. The first session included gathering demographic information, measuring the grip strength of the participants’ dominant hands by averaging 3 maximal trials with their upper extremities at their sides while standing, and FMR for 2 helmet types with all possible removal methods. The dominant hand was defined as the hand with which the participant reported writing. The second session involved FMR for the remaining 3 helmet types with all possible removal methods. The sessions were separated by 7.42 ± 4.23 days.
We provided the participants with FMR guidelines,7 a brief description of the helmets, an overview of the FMR process, and familiarization time before data collection began. The participants were allowed to compare the helmets, compare the tools, and examine the facemask attachments of all helmets. We repeated the process of providing the FMR guidelines7 for the participants to review for each helmet and answering questions about the methods before each trial. They were not permitted to remove or make any cuts to the facemasks. The participants were allocated unlimited time before each session for this familiarization time. The session ended when the participants were comfortable with the procedure and they indicated they were certain how to proceed with data collection.
We randomly assigned participants to both a helmet type (5 helmet types possible) and an FMR method (4 methods possible). We counterbalanced the assignment of helmet type and removal method with a Latin square to decrease the possibility of a learning effect or differences due to fatigue. For the Pro7, the use of only a screwdriver was not possible because of the pop rivets attaching the chin guard to the helmet shell. Therefore, our participants only used 3 removal methods with the Pro7 (pruner, FMX, TA). In addition, the attachment of the facemask under the visor at the top of the helmet could be removed only by removing a screw for the Pro7, Revolution, Triumph, and Venom. When using one of the cutting methods on these helmets, the participants removed the top screw with the CSD before continuing with a cutting tool.
A researcher properly fitted all helmets and chinstraps to a model. The model then lay supine on the ground to simulate an injured athlete. We instructed the model not to speak and not to move. The participants knelt and positioned themselves with the helmet between their knees to stabilize the model’s head and minimize motion of the helmet and cervical spine during the FMR trial. As other investigators have,10,14,16,17 we selected this position to simulate the worst-case scenario of a single rescuer simultaneously stabilizing the head and removing the facemask.
We started timing the trial with the stopwatch when the participant picked up the removal tool and stopped when the facemask was removed completely from the helmet. We defined a trial as a failure if the participant could not completely remove the facemask in 8 minutes. We chose 8 minutes as the cutoff because researchers have reported that permanent hypoxic damage occurs in 4 to 5 minutes.8,18 Based on our pilot work, we thought an 8-minute time limit would allow for accurate representation of the time necessary for each trial without excessively fatiguing the participants or resulting in a substantial number of failed trials. Immediately after each trial, participants rated the ease of using each tool on the 6-point Likert scale by orally responding to the question, “How would you describe the ease of use for this method on this helmet?” The researchers reassembled the helmets using new loop straps and new screws acquired from the respective manufacturer or used a new helmet for each trial. After a minimum 4-minute rest, participants continued to the next helmet type, and they repeated the data collection steps until they completed all combinations of helmet types and removal methods for the particular session. We used the same procedures for the second data collection session as for the first data collection session except we did not measure grip strength during the second session.
We gathered demographic data for the participants and calculated an overall failure rate for the FMR attempts with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Excel 2007 (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA). We completed the remaining statistical tests with IBM SPSS Statistics (version 19; IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY). We used a 3-way factorial multivariate analysis of variance to analyze the effects of helmet type, removal method, and sex on the dependent variables (FMR time, ease of use). We further explored findings that were different using analyses of variance (ANOVAs) and post hoc Tukey tests when more than 2 groups existed (ie, helmet type and removal method). We used an ANOVA to determine if grip strength differed between the sexes and used the Pearson product moment correlation to examine the relationship between FMR time and grip strength overall and for each removal method. We set the α level a priori at equal to or less than .05.
We gathered data on 254 trials (3 to 4 removal methods on 5 different helmets with 14 participants) in this study. Eighteen attempts to remove facemasks were considered failures, giving us a failure rate of 7.0% (95% CI = 3.8%, 10.4%). One failed attempt occurred because a foreign object was lodged into a screw head of a new helmet that had not been used in previous data collection. The other 17 failed attempts occurred because participants exceeded the 8-minute time limit or quit the attempt. A description of the failed trials is provided in . In addition, we could not obtain replacement loop straps and screws for the Venom helmet. The company released a new helmet after we purchased our supplies but before we started data collection and stopped producing loop straps for the Venom. Therefore, 3 participants did not complete trials with the Venom, which accounted for 12 trials. We removed failed attempts from data analysis; however, failure rates should be considered in conjunction with the results for FMR time.
Facemask Removal Failures Based on Removal Methoda and Helmet Typeb
|Helmet Type||Removal Method|
|Face Mask Extractor 2||Trainers’ Angel||Cordless Screwdriver||Pruner||Failure Total||Successful Trials|
|Lack of equipment||0||0||0||0||0|
|Lack of equipment||0||0||0||0||0|
|Lack of equipment||0||0||0||0||0|
|Lack of equipment||3||3||3||3||12|
|Lack of equipment||0||0||NA||0||0|
The results of FMR time, reported ease-of-use scores, and post hoc tests are reported in for all participants, in for women, and in for men. We did not find interactions among helmet type, removal method, and sex (multivariate F22,398 = 0.56, P = .95, η2 = 0.06, 1 − β = 0.46). We did not find an interaction between helmet type and removal method (multivariate F22,398 = 1.10, P = .34, η2 = 0.11, 1 − β = 0.84) or between helmet type and sex (multivariate F8,398 = 1.13, P = .34, η2 = 0.04, 1 − β = 0.53). We found an interaction between removal method and sex for the combined dependent variables (multivariate F6,398 = 2.72, P = .01, η2 = 0.08, 1 − β = 0.87). Follow-up ANOVAs revealed differences for the ease-of-use scores (F3,246 = 4.67, P = .01, ω2 = 0.02, 1 − β = 0.89), with women registering lower preference scores (3.78 ± 1.36) than men (3.82 ± 1.20), but did not reveal differences for FMR time (F3,230 = 2.54, P = .06, ω2 = 0.01, 1 − β = 0.62).
Facemask Removal Times (s) and Reported Ease of Use (6-Point Likert Scale) Based on Removal Methoda and Helmet Typeb
|Helmet Type||Removal Method|
|Face Mask Extractor 2||Trainer’s Angel||Cordless Screwdriver||Pruner||Total|
|Facemask removal time||79.95 ± 31.33||132.00 ± 113.05||25.15 ± 7.88||67.33 ± 48.24||72.89 ± 70.17|
|Ease of use||3.17 ± 0.94||2.82 ± 1.17||4.86 ± 0.53||4.25 ± 0.97||3.84 ± 1.21|
|Facemask removal time||121.45 ± 106.34||115.74 ± 120.98||37.11 ± 10.58||76.25 ± 65.74||85.37 ± 88.62|
|Ease of use||3.23 ± 1.09||3.09 ± 1.45||5.00 ± 0.00||4.43 ± 0.65||4.00 ± 1.20|
|Facemask removal time||88.68 ± 61.46||130.47 ± 120.15||27.00 ± 4.18||54.24 ± 25.05||72.75 ± 74.67|
|Ease of use||2.69 ± 1.32||2.83 ± 1.27||4.93 ± 0.27||4.00 ± 1.04||3.66 ± 1.37|
|Facemask removal time||189.64 ± 144.19||118.89 ± 126.99||42.10 ± 14.64||51.86 ± 20.25||100.62 ± 111.03|
|Ease of use||2.55 ± 1.44||3.55 ± 1.37||5.00 ± 0.00||4.55 ± 0.69||3.91 ± 1.39|
|Facemask removal time||158.68 ± 103.91||243.82 ± 163.83||NA||88.24 ± 83.48||159.57 ± 132.30f,g|
|Ease of use||3.29 ± 1.14||2.92 ± 1.31||NA||4.36 ± 0.63||3.55 ± 1.20|
|Facemask removal time||126.96 ± 101.87||149.55 ± 135.41||32.32 ± 11.70c||68.32 ± 55.46e||95.28 ± 99.84|
|Ease of use||3.00 ± 1.19||3.04 ± 1.30||4.94 ± 0.30c,d||4.31 ± 0.81c||3.72 ± 1.34|
Facemask Removal Times (s) and Reported Ease of Use (6-Point Likert Scale) Based on Removal Methoda and Helmet Typeb for Female Participants
|Helmet Type||Removal Method|
|Face Mask Extractor 2||Trainer’s Angel||Cordless Screwdriver||Pruner||Total|
|Facemask removal time||75.30 ± 26.31||174.86 ± 158.69||26.69 ± 5.97||73.27 ± 65.58||81.35 ± 91.17|
|Ease of use||3.33 ± 1.21||2.40 ± 1.34||5.00 ± 0.00||4.33 ± 0.82||3.87 ± 1.33|
|Facemask removal time||154.75 ± 136.58||133.12 ± 136.26||34.77 ± 10.76||70.89 ± 20.54||91.69 ± 95.24|
|Ease of use||3.17 ± 1.33||2.75 ± 1.50||5.00 ± 0.00||4.43 ± 0.53||4.00 ± 1.25|
|Facemask removal time||100.32 ± 86.01||152.33 ± 99.93||27.63 ± 4.66||64.77 ± 28.28||83.17 ± 76.49|
|Ease of use||3.00 ± 1.55||2.33 ± 1.21||5.00 ± 0.00||4.57 ± 0.53||3.81 ± 1.44|
|Facemask removal time||264.97 ± 132.62||177.52 ± 151.60||43.40 ± 13.83||60.53 ± 20.65||136.60 ± 132.15|
|Ease of use||2.00 ± 1.10||3.00 ± 1.55||5.00 ± 0.00||4.83 ± 0.41||3.71 ± 1.57|
|Facemask removal time||218.26 ± 100.98||303.02 ± 61.80||Not applicable||125.40 ± 108.09||206.35 ± 115.51|
|Ease of use||3.28 ± 1.25||2.40 ± 0.55||Not applicable||4.29 ± 0.76||3.42 ± 1.17|
|Facemask removal time||164.51 ± 120.64||188.50 ± 130.21||32.74 ± 11.00c||79.70 ± 61.30c||115.51 ± 110.80|
|Ease of use||32.97 ± 1.30||2.58 ± 1.21||5.00 ± 0.00||4.48 ± 0.62||3.78 ± 1.36|
Facemask Removal Times (s) and Reported Ease of Use (6-Point Likert Scale) Based on Removal Methoda and Helmet Typeb for Male Participants
|Helmet Type||Removal Method|
|Face Mask Extractor 2||Trainer’s Angel||Cordless Screwdriver||Pruner||Total|
|Facemask removal time||84.60 ± 37.62||96.28 ± 45.24||23.61 ± 9.66||61.38 ± 27.10||64.76 ± 41.72|
|Ease of use||3.00 ± 0.63||3.17 ± 0.98||4.71 ± 0.76||4.17 ± 1.17||3.80 ± 1.12|
|Facemask removal time||92.90 ± 70.78||105.80 ± 121.63||39.46 ± 10.67||81.61 ± 94.21||79.94 ± 83.91|
|Ease of use||3.29 ± 0.95||3.29 ± 1.50||5.00 ± 0.00||4.43 ± 0.79||4.00 ± 1.19|
|Facemask removal time||78.70 ± 33.76||108.60 ± 143.62||26.37 ± 3.91||43.71 ± 17.36||62.71 ± 72.87|
|Ease of use||2.43 ± 1.14||3.33 ± 1.21||4.86 ± 0.38||3.43 ± 1.14||3.52 ± 1.31|
|Facemask removal time||99.24 ± 106.14||48.54 ± 15.60||40.54 ± 17.06||41.46 ± 15.64||57.44 ± 56.20|
|Ease of use||3.20 ± 1.64||4.20 ± 0.84||5.00 ± 0.00||4.20 ± 0.83||4.15 ± 1.14|
|Facemask removal time||158.68 ± 103.91||243.82 ± 163.83||Not applicable||88.24 ± 83.48||159.57 ± 132.30|
|Ease of use||3.29 ± 1.11||3.29 ± 1.60||Not applicable||4.43 ± 0.53||3.67 ± 1.24|
|Facemask removal time||90.58 ± 62.39||116.88 ± 132.96||31.88 ± 12.60c,d||56.58 ± 46.80e||75.71 ± 83.87|
|Ease of use||3.03 ± 1.09||3.42 ± 1.26||4.88 ± 0.43||4.12 ± 0.94||3.82 ± 1.20|
Facemask Removal Method
We found a main effect for method of removal (multivariate F6,398 = 24.00, P < .001, η2 = 0.46, 1 − β = 1.00). Follow-up ANOVAs revealed differences for time (F3,200 = 19.41, P < .001, ω2 = 0.20, 1 − β = 1.00) and ease-of-use scores (F3,200 = 53.78, P < .001, ω2 = 0.40, 1 − β = 1.00). Post hoc Tukey tests for FMR time between the removal methods revealed differences between CSD (32.32 ± 11.70 seconds) and FMX (126.96 ± 101.87 seconds; P < .001), CSD and TA (149.55 ± 135.41 seconds; P < .001), pruner (68.32 ± 55.46 seconds) and FMX (P = .001), and pruner and TA (P < .001). When we calculated post hoc Tukey tests for the ease-of-use scores between the removal methods, we found differences between CSD (4.94 ± 0.30) and FMX (3.00 ± 1.19; P < .001), CSD and pruner (4.31 ± 0.81; P = .004), CSD and TA (3.04 ± 1.30; P < .001), pruner and FMX (P < .001), and pruner and TA (P < .001).
We noted a main effect for helmet type (multivariate F8,398 = 4.47, P < .001, η2 = 0.16, 1 − β = 0.99). The follow-up ANOVAs disclosed differences for FMR time (F4,200 = 5.34, P < .001, ω2 = 0.08, 1 − β = 0.97) but not for ease-of-use scores (F4,200 = 0.87, P = .48, ω2 = 0.008, 1 − β = 0.28). We discovered differences between CPX (72.75 ± 74.67 seconds) and Pro7 (159.57 ± 132.30 seconds; P < .001), Revolution (85.37 ± 88.62 seconds) and Pro7 (P = .001), Venom (100.62 ± 111.03 seconds) and Pro7 (P = .02), and Triumph (72.89 ± 70.17 seconds) and Pro7 (P < .001) when we calculated post hoc Tukey tests for the effects of helmet type on FMR time.
We observed a main effect for sex (multivariate F2,199 = 9.32, P < .001, η2 = 0.09, 1 − β = 0.98). Follow-up ANOVAs showed differences for time (F1,200 = 17.57, P < .001, ω2 = 0.04, 1 − β = 0.99), with slower FMR times for women (115.51 ± 110.80 seconds) than men (75.71 ± 83.87 seconds). When we compared FMR time for the removal methods between sexes, we only found differences when using the FMX (F1,61 = 9.42, P = .003, ω2 = 0.12, 1 − β = 0.86) and the TA (F1,55 = 4.18, P = .05, ω2 = 0.05, 1 − β = 0.52), with slower FMR times for women (164.51 ± 120.64 and 188.50 ± 130.21 seconds, respectively) than men (90.58 ± 62.39 and 116.88 ± 132.96 seconds, respectively). No differences were found when comparing FMR times for women and men with the CSD (F1,51 = 0.07, P = .80, ω2 = 0.02, 1 − β = 0.06) or the pruner (F1,63 = 2.91, P = .09, ω2 = 0.03, 1 − β = 0.39). Within each sex, we found differences in FMR times between removal methods for women (F3,113 = 16.85, P < .001, ω2 = 0.29, 1 − β = 1.00) and men (F3,117 = 6.54, P < .001, ω2 = 0.12, 1 − β = 0.97). Post hoc Tukey tests revealed faster FMR times for women when using the CSD than when using the FMX (P < .001) or the TA (P < .001) and when using the pruner than when using the FMX (P = .001) or TA (P < .001). For men, post hoc Tukey tests revealed faster FMR times when using the CSD than when using the FMX (P = .03) or TA (P < .001) and when using the pruner than when using the TA (P = .02). We did not find a difference between sexes for the ease-of-use scores (F1,200 = 1.06, P = .31, ω2 = 0.001, 1 − β = 0.18) when we calculated a follow-up ANOVA.
Grip Strength Correlations
When we analyzed grip strength, we saw a difference between the sexes (F1,265 = 652.55, P < .001, ω2 = 0.71, 1 − β = 1.00), with women (37.90 ± 3.32 kg) having lower strength scores than men (55.52 ± 7.23 kg). We noted a correlation between FMR time and grip strength (r = −0.218, P = .001). On further exploration, we found correlations between FMR time and grip strength when using the FMX (r = −0.40, P = .001), pruner (r = −0.26, P = .04), and TA (r = −0.26, P = .047) but not when using the CSD (r = −0.07, P = .61).
Our results are similar to the results reported by investigators10–12,19,20 researching football helmets. We discovered differences for FMR time depending on the removal methods and lacrosse helmet style used. We also saw differences for the participant self-reported ease-of-use scores depending on removal method. Finally, we found that sex altered FMR time for lacrosse helmets across different removal methods and found a strong correlation between grip strength and FMR time for cutting methods but not removal methods.
Facemask Removal Method
The CSD has been found to be the fastest10,19,20 and easiest10 method for football helmet FMR. Contrary to these findings, some researchers have reported no differences in removal time13,15 between manual or cordless screwdrivers and other methods. Although the FMR times for the CSD and the pruner were not different in our study, our participants reported that the CSD was easier to use. Although removal time between the CSD and the pruner was not different, it may be clinically important. Facemask removal using the CSD took approximately 32 seconds to complete, whereas FMR using the pruners took approximately 68 seconds. The CSD FMR times were less than the 60 seconds suggested for FMR of the helmeted athlete.9 The FMR times when participants used the pruner exceeded the 60-second recommendation, indicating that the CSD would be a more appropriate tool based solely on time.
We believe the CSD registered the fastest times and was rated the easiest to use because this method simplified the FMR process. For 60% of the helmets (CPX, Revolution, and Triumph), the use of the CSD decreased the number of steps from a minimum of 5 to a minimum of 3 by allowing removal of the chin guard with the facemask. Using a cutting method does not allow for removal of the chin guard, requiring 2 additional loop straps attaching the facemask to the chin guard to be cut.
Several reasons exist for potential CSD failure when attempting FMR. The use of a CSD requires regular charging to ensure proper function. In addition, foreign substances lodged in the screw head, stripped screw heads,16 and T-nut spinning have been reported in several studies,15,19 especially on used helmets,16,21,22 as reasons for failure of screw removal. In our study, 1 removal trial failed because a foreign object was lodged in 1 screw head. Given that the helmets were new and had never been worn, we recommend thoroughly inspecting all new helmets for defects when they are received. We also believe comprehensively examining helmets throughout the season for faulty hardware is important to improve the chances of successfully removing facemasks with a CSD. Failure rates for FMR using a CSD have been reported to be as high as 17.6%21 and 16%22 on used football helmets. Therefore, helmets used in competition may pose problems for ATs using only CSDs to remove the facemasks. We do not know if a similar failure rate would be found for used lacrosse helmets. We believe studying FMR of used lacrosse helmets is important especially because a CSD is required to remove the top visor screw on most types of helmets used in our study (Pro7, Revolution, Triumph, and Venom). If the screwdriver has been rendered useless in controlled studies with new13 and used21,22 helmets, it is realistic to think that also will happen in clinical practice. With this in mind, we agree with previous statements that ATs always should be prepared with a cutting tool in addition to a screwdriver.13,21,22 Gale et al16 concluded that using a combination of a CSD and cutting tool (98.6% successful) was more reliable than using only a screwdriver (92.1% successful) for used football helmets.
The pruner was the least expensive tool that we purchased. The cost paired with the shorter time for FMR and high ease-of-use scores compared with the other cutting tools make the pruner an ideal backup tool to the CSD for many ATs. The blade is thin enough to fit into most spaces available for cutting loop straps on lacrosse helmets without compromising durability. The pruner blade is also shorter than the blade on the FMX. This is important when examining the chance of the blade making contact with an athlete’s face. On 2 occasions, a participant accidently made contact with the model’s face while attempting to remove the facemask with the FMX. In both situations, the participant refused to continue with the trial.
Researchers have found that helmet construction alters football helmet FMR time and perceived difficulty.10 In our study, FMR took the most time for the Pro7. This could be attributed to the design of the helmet and the number of steps necessary for proper FMR. The chin guards of the Pro7 helmets in our study were pop riveted to the helmet shell. This construction did not allow for removal of the facemask and chin guard as 1 unit by removing 3 screws with a CSD, which was possible with several other helmets. All of the removal methods for the Pro7 required altering 5 connection points between the facemask and the remainder of the helmet, similar to the cutting methods for the other 4 types of helmets. We believe the facemask of the Pro7 helmet could be removed faster if a CSD could be used to detach the facemask and chin guard from the helmet’s shell. Such a design would decrease the need for cutting the 2 loop straps securing the facemask to the chin guard. However, when we examined the Pro7 helmets that our team wears, we noted that the chin guards were attached with screws instead of pop rivets. This construction allows FMR with only a CSD by removing 5 screws. We are unsure why this difference occurred but speculate this construction would produce faster FMR times by allowing only a CSD to be used. When practicing FMR techniques, ATs need to examine whether the chin guard is attached with a screw or pop rivet on the Pro7 to ensure they can promptly remove it when clinically necessary.
Another helmet design factor we believe led to slower FMR times for the Pro7 is the side loop straps and facemask construction. These side loop straps wrap around the facemask and hug the inside and outside of the helmet’s shell. When the screw holding the side loop strap is removed, the AT must remove the T-nut that held the screw in place to allow removal of the side loop strap easily without substantial head and neck movement. The side loop straps of the other helmets hugged the facemask but not the helmet shell, improving cutting access and ease of removal. Another recommendation is for the manufacturer to remove the metal ball on each side of the facemask of the Pro7. This ball is designed to keep the side loop straps in place; however, it makes the use of a cutting tool more difficult.
Our results for sex are similar to the results of researchers11,12 studying football helmets. These other authors found different FMR times between the sexes for the TA but not for a pruner. We also noted differences between the sexes for the FMX and no differences between sexes for the CSD. The other investigators did not use the FMX or the CSD during data collection.
We observed sex differences between the FMX and TA but not for the CSD or pruner. Several possibilities exist for these differences. We believe the CSD produced similar results for both sexes because most ATs regardless of sex are familiar with using this method. The CSD we used is similar to a drill, making it easy to operate, and investigators have found a CSD is the most preferred method for football helmet FMR.10 The pruner is also a tool with which many ATs may be familiar because it commonly is used for gardening. However, although it is similar in design to the pruner, the FMX produced differences in FMR times between the sexes. The blade on the FMX is much thinner than the blade of the pruner. We believe the difference in blade thickness between the 2 tools may have contributed to the difference in difficulty of cutting the loop straps, especially for women. For it to cut properly, the thin blade of the FMX must not be twisted, potentially making it more difficult to use. The manufacturer’s recommendations for the FMX state that the blade should be sharpened after each practice session or after the removal of 15 facemasks. We did not sharpen the pruner throughout data collection, and the participants did not voice concerns when using it to cut loop straps. The TA works differently from the pruner and FMX and is not similar to common household tools, potentially leading to slower times for both sexes.
Grip Strength Correlations
Researchers have reported correlations between grip strength and FMR time when using the TA or a pruner (r = −0.38)11 and when using only a pruner (r = −0.16)12 that are similar to our findings. However, we found a smaller correlation between FMR time and grip strength for the TA (r = −0.26) than was found in previous work (r = −0.66).12 The construction of lacrosse helmets appears to reduce the dependency on grip strength for the TA. We speculate this finding is due to the smaller size of the plastic loop straps in lacrosse helmets compared with football helmets.
The sex differences we found are interesting when considering the differences in grip strength between our female and male participants. We found correlations between grip strength and FMR time for the pruner, FMX, and TA. We were not surprised that grip strength was not a factor in the use of the CSD because pulling the trigger to activate the tool takes little effort. We believe the negative correlation between FMR time and grip strength accounted for the variation in time required for FMR between the sexes for the FMX and TA. However, we were surprised that no differences in FMR time existed between the sexes for the pruner although we found a correlation between the pruner and grip strength. In the future, researchers should continue to investigate this finding.
RECOMMENDATIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Based on our results, we recommend attempting FMR using a CSD first and having a backup cutting tool in case screw removal fails13,21,22 regardless of sex or grip strength. Our results support using a pruner as the backup cutting tool. Although the FMR times when using the pruner for both women and men were not different from the times when using the CSD, these times may be clinically important. On average, the pruner took approximately 46.96 seconds longer for women and 24.70 seconds longer for men than FMR with the CSD. We believe the increase in time to cut loop straps could be crucial during a catastrophic injury, further strengthening our recommendation for attempting FMR with the CSD before considering a cutting method.
Ideally, the facemask should be removed in 60 seconds.9 This requirement and the severity of such circumstances necessitate regular, thorough practice of FMR because repetition has been shown to improve FMR times.23 We recommend including athletic training students in these practice sessions because they may be required to assist when a catastrophic injury has occurred. In addition, many athletic training students probably learn FMR techniques on football helmets and may not be familiar with lacrosse helmets. Athletic training educators should consider including lacrosse helmets when teaching FMR techniques to athletic training students because lacrosse helmet designs are distinct from football helmet designs. Exposing students to FMR of lacrosse helmets may better prepare them for a career in athletic training after graduation because of the increase in popularity of lacrosse. A CSD and at least one cutting method should be included in all practice and teaching sessions because of the possibility of CSD failure, which has been shown in both new13 and used21,22 football helmets for various reasons. We also recommend that ATs carry many types of tools because of the variety of helmets on the market. The opposing team may have a different helmet, and the AT should be prepared to address a catastrophic injury for an athlete on either team.
Recent work may challenge traditional care for a lacrosse athlete with a cervical spine injury. Researchers have found that spine boarding an athlete who is not wearing a helmet alters the alignment of the cervical spine5 but not the space available for the spinal cord in healthy participants24 because space did not differ by more than the 1-mm cutoff25 at any cervical level. Nevertheless, how injury may affect spinal cord space remains unclear. Waninger4 found that head movement inside a lacrosse helmet is similar to but slightly greater than head movement inside a football helmet. Although these results were not different, the increase in movement may be clinically important. This finding remains controversial because researchers26 more recently have found that cervical spine motion was limited the most when lacrosse athletes wore no helmet rather than when they wore properly fitted or improperly fitted helmets. The authors concluded that the head can move inside the lacrosse helmet, making cervical spine immobilization of the helmeted lacrosse athlete difficult. Proper fit of the lacrosse helmet is essential for injury prevention27 and has been identified as a potential area of concern in the sport of men’s lacrosse.28 We are unsure why improperly fitted helmets are tolerated in the sport of men’s lacrosse. The prevalence of helmets fitting poorly is unknown, but based on our experience, it appears to be widespread. Given that lacrosse helmets may not fit athletes properly, these recent researchers have supported removing the entire helmet and shoulder pads to immobilize a lacrosse athlete, especially if timely FMR does not occur. However, we agree with Sherbondy et al,5 who recommended leaving the shoulder pads and helmet in place until they can be removed in a controlled environment. Facemask removal of lacrosse helmets should continue to be an area of research until a consensus can be reached for appropriate care of the helmeted lacrosse athlete with a catastrophic injury.27
Our study had some limitations. We used a convenience sample to recruit participants. The abilities of our participants may not represent the abilities of ATs overall, limiting generalizability of our results. Although we gave them time to become familiar with each type of helmet and each removal method along with FMR instructions, many participants performed steps that were unnecessary and repetitive. We believe this may have led to the high variances in the results for FMR time. Perhaps extending the familiarity time or allowing participants 1 full practice trial with feedback would change the results. We believe this gives further credibility to our recommendation of regularly practicing FMR of lacrosse helmets with multiple tools because our participants did not start until they were certain they understood how to complete the trial after being given written and oral directions. We did not attempt to measure cervical motion associated with the different FMR techniques in any way. A decrease in motion when using one method compared with another may outweigh a slight increase in the time required to remove the facemask. Another limitation is the frequency of new types of helmets produced by manufacturers. New helmet types are released approximately every 2 years, decreasing the generalizability of the results. In the future, researchers should evaluate FMR of new helmet types. Our results also can be generalized only to the 4 removal methods we included. Perhaps a different method, such as polyvinylchloride pipe cutters or a device that can cut through the chin guard, would produce faster and easier lacrosse helmet FMR. We also collected data with helmets that had never been used in lacrosse activity. Used helmets may produce different results, especially with the CSD, because screw removal failure has been reported in used football helmets.16,21,22
The use of a CSD was fastest with helmets that do not require a cutting step (32.32 ± 11.70 seconds) but this time was not statistically different from the removal time recorded with the pruner (68.32 ± 55.46 seconds). Participants reported the CSD was easier to use for FMR than the FMX, a pruner, and the TA. The facemask of the Pro7 was the most time consuming and difficult to remove for our participants. We found FMR of lacrosse helmets differed between sexes and within sex based on the method used. We also found a strong association between grip strength and FMR times for the 3 techniques using cutting methods but not for the screw removal method. Based on these results, we recommend attempting FMR on lacrosse helmets first with a CSD and second with a pruner to compromise the loop straps if screw removal fails. Athletic trainers should practice regularly, be prepared to perform FMR on various types of helmets, and perform FMR using the tool with which they are most comfortable. Finally, we recommend teaching athletic training students FMR techniques for lacrosse helmets during entry-level education programs.
We thank the National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) for funding this research (grant no. 05–09). The opinions expressed in this article are not necessarily those of the NOCSAE. We also thank Professor Timothy R. Konold (University of Virginia) for his statistical consultation and editorial assistance.
REFERENCES1. Hinton RY, Lincoln AE, Almquist JL, Douoguih WA, Sharma KM. Epidemiology of lacrosse injuries in high school-aged girls and boys: a 3-year prospective study. Am J Sports Med. 2005;33(9):1305–1314. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]2. Mueller FO, Cantu RC. Survey of Football Injury Research Annual Report 2009. National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research. http://www.unc.edu/depts/nccsi/. Accessed September 12, 2008.3. Banerjee R, Palumbo MA, Fadale PD. Catastrophic cervical spine injuries in the collision sport athlete, part 2: principles of emergency care. Am J Sports Med. 2004;32(7):1760–1764. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]4. Waninger KN. Management of the helmeted athlete with suspected cervical spine injury. Am J Sports Med. 2004;32(5):1331–1350. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]5. Sherbondy PS, Hertel JN, Sebastianelli WJ. The effect of protective equipment on cervical spine alignment in collegiate lacrosse players. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34(10):1675–1679. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]6. Swartz EE, Boden BP, Courson RW, et al. National Athletic Trainers’ Association position statement: acute management of the cervical spine-injured athlete. J Athl Train. 2009;44(3):306–331. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
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Brine Triumph X Unstrung Lacrosse Head
Brine Triumph X Unstrung Lacrosse Head – Various Colors
Model: Triumph X
Model Number: TRIXUN
Colors: Black, Red, Royal, Silver
Unstrung Lacrosse Head
Wider face for more picks
Flat Scoop for ground balls
Midfield and Defensive Midfield preferred
The Brine Triumph X Unstrung Lacrosse Head is a lacrosse players dream. What sets this head apart is the fact that because of its wall design the ball is securely fastened in the head but still loose enough to make long passes or quick shots. Midfielders will find this head perfect for weaving through traffic and holding off other players. Overall this head has what you need and more and will be a great addition to your lacrosse build.
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*NEW* Brine Triumph Lacrosse Helmet for Sale/Trade – (chattanooga) for Sale in Chattanooga, Tennessee Classified
TRADES i will trade for a compound bow
CALL OR TEXT ME WHENEVER WITH OFFERS/TRADES AT
|1||UPOF7761043587||SPORTING GOODS (PLASTIC LACROSSE HELMET, HARD SHELL CHIN STRAP, PLASTIC LACROSSE HELMET JAW PROTECTOR TRIUMPH)||BRINE HELMET CORP.||N/A||2007-02-26||Hong Kong||2698 Kgs||481 CTN|
|2||UPOF7760958073||SPORTING GOODS (PLASTIC LACROSSE HELMET)||N/A||2007-02-19||Hong Kong||403 Kgs||84 CTN|
|3||UPOF776090314T||SPORTING GOODS – LARCROSSE HELMET CHIN PAD||BRINE HELMET CORP.||HOPFUN INDUSTRIAL LTD||2007-02-15||Hong Kong||24 Kgs||4 CTN|
|4||UPOF7760870568||SPORTING GOODS (STEEL WIRE LACROSSE HELMET FACE MASK, PLASTIC LACROSSE HELMET)||BRINE HELMET CORP.||N/A||2007-02-11||Hong Kong||3117 Kgs||549 CTN|
|5||UPOF7760782436||SPORTING GOODS (LACROSSE CONCEPT METAL WIRE, FIELD HOCKEY CONCEPT EYE PROTECTOR, PLASTIC CLIP FOR LACROSSE HELMET)||BRINE HELMET CORP.||N/A||2007-02-05||Hong Kong||870 Kgs||104 CTN|
|6||UPOF7760700486||SPORTING GOODS (RUBBER WASHER FOR LACROSSE, HELMET TRIUPH RETAIL BOX FOR LAX EYE PROTECTOR, METAL WIRE EYE PROTECTOR/FRAME, LACROSSE VANTAGE GOGGLE EYE PROTECTOR SPORTING GOODS (RUBBER WASHER FOR LACROSSE, HELMET TRIUPH, RETAIL BOX FOR LAX EYE PROTECTOR, METAL WIRE EYE PROTECTOR/FRAME, LACROSSE VANTAGE GOGGLE EYE PROTECTOR)||BRINE HELMET CORP.||N/A||2007-02-02||Hong Kong||729 Kgs||120 CTN|
|7||UPOF776055488T||SPORTING GOODS (PLASTIC LACROSSE HELMET SHELL, EYE PROTECTOR)||BRINE HELMET CORP.||N/A||2007-01-17||Hong Kong||1783 Kgs||373 CTN|
|8||UPOF776048481T||SPORTING GOODS (PLASTIC LACROSSE HELMET JAW PROTECTOR, STEEL WIRE LACROSSE HELMET FACE MASK, PLASTIC LACROSSE HELMET VISOR, STEEL SCREW FOR LACROSSE HELMET)||BRINE HELMET CORP.||N/A||2007-01-08||Hong Kong||871 Kgs||128 CTN|
|9||UPOF7760408128||SPORTING GOODS(PLASTIC LACROSSE HELMET JAW PROTECTOR, PLASTIC LACROSSE HELMET SHELL, STEEL WIRE LACROSSE HELMET FACE MASK) SPORTING GOODS(PLASTIC LACROSSE HELMET JAW PROTECTOR, PLASTIC LACROSSE HELMET SHELL, STEEL WIRE LACORSSE HELMET FACE MASK)||BRINE HELMET CORP.||N/A||2007-01-02||Hong Kong||6439 Kgs||1077 CTN|
|10||UPOF510000577195||WLAX A6065 SHAFT W/COMPOSIT NA WLAX DOT MATRIX A 6065 W/COMPOS M POWELL 7055 SHAFT||BRINE HELMET CORP.||SAMFERSON INDUSTRIAL LTD.||2006-12-16||Taiwan||1289 Kgs||199 CTNS|
Brine Triumph Lacrosse Head Review
Brine Triumph Lacrosse Head Review – While playing the game the Lacrosse heads become the most important part of the Lacrosse Stick.
A lot needs to be considered while choosing the right Lacrosse head for a specific game.
It is necessary for you to understand how much stiffness spit or weight is needed for you to play a better game.
Brine Triumph Lacrosse Head would be your right choice if you are defending against experienced teams.
While playing with this Lacrosse head, it will provide you with the best possible defense for your team.
Let us have a detailed look at what this Lacrosse Head has on offer.Brine Triumph Lacrosse Head – A Complete Overview:
The Brine Triumph Lacrosse Head offers you a wide area on the top to lift up the ball from the opponent’s grip very easily.
This wide head becomes one of the most important and essential features of this Lacrosse Head.
The narrower portion holds the ball well when you are facing a hassle retaining the ball with you.
Its reinforced core design delivers a good amount of protection to the head.
While playing you might face a good amount of vibration when you are getting hold of a fast-moving ball.
The reinforced core construction ensures that your Lacrosse Head can withstand these vibrations.
It also protects it from the impacts of opponent’s sticks.
Even when the ball is moving at a high pace at tricky heights, the innovative design of the Brine Triumph Lacrosse Head helps you to catch it with ease without harming the stick at all.
The protective design ensures that you can hold on to the ball without losing it.
This quality also works for the midfielders since they can easily grab the ball from the opponent’s strikes and divert its direction to their own players.
The Brine Triumph Lacrosse Head is built with Injection molding technology.
Due to this reason, the head has a super tensile strength which doesn’t allow the head to bend or deform against high force or pressure.
This advanced stiffening technology keeps the side rails, the bottom and the head in shape, in spite of the continuous wear and tear of the field.Brine Triumph Lacrosse Head Pros on offer:
- It supports easy adjustability of ball retention with String holes.
- Its Broader face can easily scoop balls from opponents hands
- The narrow back is well designed to hold and retain the balls for longer durations.
- High tensile strength materials have been used for better absorption of shocks and vibrations.
According to the manufacturers, the Brine Triumph Lacrosse Head is built for the toughest defensive players for their toughest games.
You cannot simply ignore this statement after considering the features of this Lacrosse’s head.
With a tough tensile strength and great scooping capabilities, this can be a game-changer in any Lacrosse game.
Its High pocket with a maximum number of string holes is designed to give the player with easy adjustments on the run.
Getting a hold of the balls even when they are high up in the air, would seem to be pretty easy with its wider front.
With absolutely zero negative sides, this becomes a perfect choice for a Lacrosse Head. And That’s it for Brine Triumph Lacrosse Head!
Sweeter Days Bake Shop | Cupcakes | CookiesSweeter Days Bake Shop | Cupcakes | Cookies | Cakes |
Cakes for ALL of your SPECIAL EVENTS!!!
Whether you are celebrating a Baby Shower or reveal, a special birthday, an anniversary or any other occasion, let us create a cake for you. Just call or e-mail us and we will be happy to help you!!
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Whether you are having a large ballroom wedding or a small one on the beach, we can create a special cake for your celebration!!! Contact us and set up an appointment and let us design a cake as unique as you!
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“Making Life a Little Sweeter One Treat at a Time”™
Banana Cream & Vanilla Wafer
Signature Chocolate and Aqua“Our mission is to produce delicious and innovative cupcakes, cakes,cookies and sweet treats in a creative and exciting environment that inspires celebration and memories”.
Please call 954.396.3979, order online, or visit our bake shop to place your order.
error: Content is protected !!90,000 Trekking to the heart of the Pamirs. Details of the trip with the “Mountain club” Kant “
Our planet is many-sided and diverse. Steppes and plains, rivers and oceans, deepest depressions and high mountains. On the continent of Eurasia, there is a significant area, where the surface of the earth’s crust rises many thousands of meters above sea level. Like intricately folded folds of fabric, these formations create a unique pattern expressed in large mountain systems such as the Pamir-Alai, Himalayas, Tien Shan and others …
We will go to the heart of this stone concentration.
We invite you to a trip to the Pamirs organized by the “Kant Mountain Club”.
Pamir-Alai is located on the territory of a number of states: Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, as well as China and Afghanistan. Let’s take a closer look at the geographic features of Kyrgyzstan. Most of the country’s territory is covered with mountains. Huge glaciers feed hundreds of rivers, providing fresh water supplies to almost all of Central Asia.
But there are also more arid areas in this region: semi-deserts, as well as a temperate zone.In general, the nature here is extremely diverse. We invite you to get acquainted with some of the delightful corners of the Pamirs, which the participants of the program will see in more detail!
A unique, mysterious valley is lost among the Pamir-Alai mountain ranges. It is called Kojo-Kilen. This marvelous, secret corner is nestled at the spurs of the Alai ridge. Hidden from prying eyes, it resembles a fabulous city, which by some unknown means found itself in these wild, harsh places. The Dzhiptuk River spreads along a green hollow with a flexible transparent tape, feeding lush grasses, trees and bushes with its waters.Unusual, orange-red stone structures rise along the coast.
Various buildings – castles, towers and palaces interspersed with ringing streams and flower beds. Balconies, bay windows, columns and pilasters complement the seething waterfalls and lush green fir trees. No, this is not a man-made architectural ensemble at all! Not the pretentious Versailles and not prim Venice, not the Babylonian gardens of Babylon and not even the magical Emerald City! This fantastic work of art was created by nature.She also worked hard to preserve her masterpiece. It is almost impossible to get to the upper tiers. All this wealth is protected by impregnable walls. And only birds can freely roam the streets and grounds of the enchanting and exciting complex. People can only launch quadcopters, or climb the ridges located a little to the south and peer through binoculars.
Jacket and pants with wind and moisture protection and raincoats to keep you out of the rain while moving along the route are one of the must-have pieces of equipment for participating in this adventure.
We advise you to pay special attention to clothing made of fleece. You will definitely need it when traveling in the Pamirs.
All other travel clothing for your adventures can be viewed here.
By the way, if you have absolutely no time to visit offline stores, then we can deliver the purchased equipment directly to your hands: by courier or transport company. We also arrange delivery to legal entities.
All the details about the delivery of the purchased goods.
We also have a pick-up from your nearest store, if that’s more convenient for you.
The wonderful city is great. Its area is about three hundred square kilometers. At the foot of the red rocks, in a secluded grotto, there is an underground temple. In the depths of it there is a blue lake. Among the locals, it is considered sacred. Transparent streams flow down from the ceiling, constantly replenishing the water supply. There is a ritual hearth nearby. The cave entrance has a characteristic moon shape.Symbolic rock paintings add entourage and mystery.
There is also a fifty-meter waterfall in the vicinity. It bears the same name as the valley and the settlement below.
The village of Kojo-Kelen was built by people, but it is also very picturesque. It is a large village consisting of cozy houses built using red and black clay. Local inhabitants, descendants of nomads, respect traditions and are very hospitable. In general, a cordial attitude towards guests is a national trait of the Kyrgyz.Be sure to agree to the invitation of hospitable hosts to share a meal with them. Refusal can be perceived as an insult. According to local customs, grace enters the house together with new people. And for you, an invitation to the table will be an opportunity to enjoy a warm welcome and delicious national cuisine.
For a long time, the Kyrgyz led a nomadic lifestyle, which influenced their food. The constant companion of man was the horse. And horse meat dishes are considered a special delicacy. All kinds of sausages, beshbarmak (noodles, meat, onions and herbs – all in a rich broth), the famous Kyrgyz kumis (a drink obtained from mare’s milk has high healing properties, perfectly quenches thirst).Meat is one of the main ingredients. Lamb and beef are also consumed. And dairy products and dough are also often used. The meals are usually fatty and nutritious. The calorie content of food is explained by the need to move a lot: constantly moving from place to place, spending time in the saddle, setting up and assembling a camp, grazing livestock. For better digestion and saturation with vitamins, many dishes are abundantly supplemented with herbs.
One of the favorite dishes of the Kyrgyz is pilaf. An interesting point: there is no one single recipe for its preparation.Almost every village has its own preferences and peculiarities in terms of the choice of a certain type of rice, meat and other elements. Lagman can be in the form of both the first (in this case, strong meat broth will be an important ingredient), and the second course. Homemade noodles, meat and vegetables are a must, which can also vary depending on the season and region.
Shorpo – a soup based on lamb or beef, with the addition of coarsely chopped potatoes, carrots and peppers. It is also cooked in different ways in the north and south of the country.Manty – minced meat, sometimes with onions, wrapped in dough. Steamed.
Borsoks – bread cakes fried in oil. They are sweet and salty, they can be stored for a long time and do not deteriorate. Therefore, it is good to take them with you on the road.
Kuimak – small cakes that look like pancakes. It is cooked in sour milk, sometimes with ghee.
In general, gourmets have a place to roam! Do not deny yourself the pleasure, enjoy the variety of food. And don’t worry about being overweight! Calories will be burned during the many hours of crossings.
Well, let’s hit the road ?!
A long winding serpentine leads to the Dzhiptyk pass. The slope is quite steep and free-flowing. Sturdy trekking boots will come in handy here and when climbing Yukhin Peak. To prevent small fragments of rocks from getting into your shoes, you can use gaiters. And of course, trekking poles will add stability to you. On such a shifting surface, additional support points, as well as the ability to relieve the legs a little, will be very useful.
When traveling, you will definitely need comfortable and durable trekking shoes.
You can choose from almost a hundred models exactly the one that suits you best. We have models for adults – men and women, as well as special adventure shoes for children.
Pay special attention to the Asolo collection of Italian shoes. This brand is, in fact, a classic of comfortable and durable trekking shoes. Or check out our in-depth article on Salewa Shoes, which also has tons of helpful tips on choosing the right footwear for your adventure.
When trekking, it is important to protect your knees from undue stress. One of the best ways is to use trekking poles. In the assortment of “Kant” there are more than 50 models of trekking poles – for the most varied tastes and for the most varied uses.
A reward for daring travelers – a gorgeous view from the pass. The impressive height, 4185 m., Allows you to look over a significant area: the majestic Alai Valley, the passes of the Osypnaya, Krasny and 50 years of the Soviet Army, the five-thousander Khoturtau (5050 m) and the ice bulk of Lenin Peak (7134 m).
Seeing this scene in the beams of the pre-dawn sun is a powerful, resource-filling experience. Watching the sunrise in the mountains is just that memorable, bright moment in life that will accompany you for many years after. The change of day and night is an exciting sight, especially if you have risen several thousand meters above sea level and you have a beautiful view in front of you! Yellow, orange, pinkish shades gradually fill the sky, play with highlights on the clouds and icy slopes. The ancient Chinese believed that it is the morning Qi – the energy that permeates space at sunrise – the most healing.It especially affects a person near natural objects – be it lakes, rivers or mountains. Listen to your feelings, perhaps you will really feel an unprecedented surge of strength.
Lenin Peak proudly rises above the rest of the peaks – its neighbors. Tajikistan is already behind this giant.
At present, it is called the peak of the name of Abu Ali ibn Sina, but in colloquial speech the old name is usually used.
The snowy seven-kilometer handsome man is one of the highest mountains in Central Asia, belongs to the Chon-Alai ridge.On the territory of the former USSR, there are only five peaks exceeding the mark of 7000 m. Lenin Peak is a favorite place for climbers who come here from all over the world. In terms of the complexity of the ascent and the convenience of its location, it is considered the most comfortable. You can get to the Base Camp by road. We will go there with you.
Traveling by car in Kyrgyzstan is a separate kind of pleasure. In a short time you manage to cover impressive distances. Visit different climatic zones: from semi-desert to eternal glaciers.I would like to absorb, like a sponge, all these incredible, exclusive impressions, greedily creep to the windows and look, look, fading with admiration.
What is the worth of the road with the sonorous name of the Pamir Highway!
In addition to its dizzying views, it is famous for its history. Construction was carried out under the leadership of the Russian military department, secretly from the European powers in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. The fact is that at that time the Russian and British empires competed among themselves for the right of influence in Central Asia.The first wheeled road through the Alai Pass was of strategic importance. The tract was intended for the operational transfer of troops and supplies.
And so, here we are approaching the peak of Lenin. The base camp is located at an altitude of 3600 m. It has a well-developed infrastructure. Comfortable tents and authentic yurts are set up for living here, which will be especially interesting for lovers of exoticism.
I would like to talk about yurts separately. The whole life of the Kyrgyz nomads took place in the bosom of nature.The environment and lifestyle dictated their own rules. Therefore, mobile homes are designed so that they can be easily transported, quickly installed and assembled, as well as insulated or, on the contrary, lightened, depending on the weather and season.
The round shape was not chosen by chance – the streamlined design contributes to less airflow and stability. The furnishings mainly consist of natural materials: mats and woolen carpets on the walls, leather on the floor. Intricate decor repeats plant motifs.
The original dwelling of the nomads is not just a house. For its inhabitants, this is a temple, a beloved motherland and fatherland, which is always with them. The carved circle in the center of the roof, the tunduk, which lets in sunlight and fresh air, is a symbol of the Universe. Through it, smoke comes out of the lit hearth – kolomto. The interior space is divided into female and male parts. To the right were kitchen utensils, tools, and handicraft materials. On the left – weapons, everything for hunting, and other things men need.
In the modern world, tent houses have not lost their relevance. Many local residents continue to use them, for example, during the period of grazing. It is also a great alternative to guest houses and tents, for those who want to experience the peculiarities of the life of a free people.
Generally speaking, being in Base Camp is quite an interesting event. Many climbers from different parts of the world come here to conquer one or more of the peaks available in the area. Representatives of different cultures and nationalities are united by a love of adventure, courage and a thirst to discover the world.Hearing multilingual speech spreading over the slopes like the chirping of all kinds of birds, one wants to discard conventions and prejudices. Just communicate, at least with gestures or smiles, realizing that the Earth is our common home, which is dear to each of us!
From Bazovy, the trail goes to Camp 1, located at an altitude of 4400 m. This picturesque section of the route crosses the famous Lukovaya Polyana, which is currently a protected area. On both sides, the platform, strewn with wild onions, drops off into an abyss.In the depths of the gorges, violent glacial rivers seethe. Their rumble is heard from afar. Steppe marmots scurry around – bobaks. There are quite a few of them here. And, judging by their well-fed appearance, they eat very well.
Further, along a loose ridge, we move to the Travelers pass. This section of our route is extraordinarily beautiful. The rocks contain a variety of oxides and limestones, which colors the slopes in all sorts of colors. Reddish, ocher, orange, brown, smoky, gray – in terms of the variety of palette, this marvelous land is comparable to the Rainbow Mountains in Peru.The picture is complemented by a contrasting azure sky, glaciers sparkling in the sun, and emerald meadows. The exclusive spectacle will remain a valuable exhibit in the treasury of your impressions!
Camp 1 is by no means the last. There are even higher-located Camp 2 (5300 m.) And Camp 3 (6100 m.), From which climbers go directly to the storm of Lenin Peak.
For a very wide range of outdoor adventures, the Deuter Air Contact range of backpacks is suitable. We even wrote a separate and very detailed article about it.
Here are all the backpacks, perfect for those who are going to trekking in the Pamirs.
We will go to Yukhin Peak with you. Its height is 5130 m. There are no technically difficult moments, as such, on the route. The slope is quite steep in some places, but this is not critical. To overcome the path to the highest mark is an activity available to any healthy person in normal physical shape. It should be borne in mind that the air at such an altitude is poor in oxygen.This puts a certain strain on the circulatory and respiratory systems. People planning to climb are shown regular cardio workouts. They can be provided by sports such as running, skiing, swimming or cycling. Especially it is worth paying attention to training a couple of weeks before the hike. Morning or evening jogging 3-4 times a week will greatly facilitate the subsequent climb up the mountain.
And so, we are at the top. Yuhuuu !!! Congratulations! Not every person has had a chance to rise to such a height in his life! Just think … 5130 m! How many of your friends have performed such a feat !? We can say that this is a significant, serious achievement.Glee, delight, admiration for oneself, gratitude to one’s body, that yes, it is capable of such achievements! Vivid feelings and emotions drown out fatigue and encourage you to dream of new horizons …
You will also be rewarded with a stunning view. From a new perspective, you will look at the already familiar Alai Valley, a giant tectonic depression. The panorama is even wider, the view is even greater! And Lenin Peak, or rather its North Side, rises as a huge ice wall, sparkling and glittering in the sun …
A trip to the south of Kyrgyzstan and the Pamirs promises such a kaleidoscope of events.Enjoyment of unique natural beauty, acquaintance with the culture and histories of nomadic peoples, delicious national cuisine, climbing a five-thousander – and all this in a comfortable format that does not require physical and mental overload! A great option to spend your vacation actively and get enough of an exceptional experience!
We remind you that all detailed information about the program “Trekking to the heart of the Pamirs” is on our website in the section “Mountain club” Kant “
All tourist programs of the “Kant Mountain Club”
To participate in the Pamir program, you will definitely need:
New items in “Kant”:
We also recommend you useful articles:
Upon purchase, you can apply the accumulated or welcome bonuses for the first purchase.To do this, you need to register in the new bonus program “Kant” and receive welcome bonus rubles to your account only for registration.
And yes – we still have a “winter sale” with discounts up to 70%.
Artist: Alexandra Khanova90,000 Jen – Fanfiction: The Triumph of the Young Wolf Alternative Historical Fanfiction [Translation] Title: The Triumph of the Young Wolf
Fandom: Saga By Stephen Atwell (blog http: // racefortheironthrone.wordpress.com/)
Link to original: http://www.alternatehistory.com/discussion/showthread.php?t=256347&highlight=starkwank
Beta: Evgeniya Trofimova (http://vk.com/id3336546)
Size: Saga Scale)
Peyring / Characters: Robb, Caitlin, Brinden, Edmar, Tywin, Stannis, Balon, Asha, Theon, etc.
Genre: Alternative History
Warnings: Of course, deviations from the plot of the saga
Summary: The Starks go around and win… at least partially
Disclaimer: everything belongs to Martin / HBO.
Status: in progress
Fanfic I found on the English-language alternative history forum alternatehistory.com. Written by Stephen Atwell, creator of the Race for the Iron Throne blog, where he publishes detailed policy analyzes of book chapters and episodes from the series. The main task that Stephen set is to turn the history of the War of the Five Kings in such a way as to avoid the Red Wedding.the first chapters of fan fiction are a timeline, which later turns into a text that is quite Martin in style. I present the translation of the first two to the public. If you like it, I will continue the translation.
Triumph of the Young Wolf
(Dedicated to everyone whose hearts were broken by the Red Wedding)
(Note: in this timeline, the main characters are 3-4 years older than in the book – that is, as in the series. Even Martin agrees , which would be more correct)
12.17.298 VA (Caitlyn 8 in Game of Thrones)
Brinden “Blackfish” Tully and his niece Caitlyn Stark arrive in White Harbor after Caitlyn’s fiasco in the Arryn Valley. Arriving in White Harbor, they meet Sera Wendell and Sera Wilis Manderly, who are preparing to join Robb Stark’s forces that are about to march south of the Caelin Moat.
Before heading south, Blackfish visits several taverns in White Harbor, trying to inquire about the state of affairs in the Riverlands. The veteran warrior Brinden Tully draws attention to one of the many news and rumors: Because of the torrential rains, the Trident overflowed its banks, and now it is extremely difficult to cross.
Quickly making a decision, Blackfish takes with him several carts of timber, construction tools, and a few skilled carpenters from the White Harbor shipyards (1). Lord Manderly objected sharply, as this would delay the construction of the ships, but Brinden explains that if his suspicions are correct, this forest will be greatly needed by Lord Manderly’s sons and their overlord.
12.25.298 (Caitlin 9)
Restless Robb Stark meets his mother and uncle at Caitlin’s Moat. Now that the Lannisters have almost taken possession of the Riverlands, Robb Stark can no longer wait and must march south.He wonders if it is worth trying to cross the Trident through Gemini, not knowing if the Freys can be trusted, or risking and possibly being attacked at the Ruby Crossing.
And then Brinden offers him a third way: he has ready-made wood and skilled carpenters. The heir to Winterfell regains confidence as he realizes the indispensability of the tree in politics. The entire army is ordered to help the masters from White Harbor, and in just a few hours a temporary wooden bridge appears on the Green Prong, and the army of the North begins the crossing.
At the same time, Caitlin Stark and Brinden Tully are sent to negotiate with Lord Walder Frey as equals. Angered that a bridge is being built on his land without his permission, Lord Walder Frey still realizes that he cannot demand much – but he still manages to strike a good deal. The hand of Edmar Tully, sitting in the besieged Riverrun, is promised by Roslyn Frey – Lord Frey’s attempt to get Robb Stark as his son-in-law was rejected, Arya Stark conspired for Elmar Frey, two young Walders will be sent to be raised in Winterfell, and Olivar Frey will become Robb’s squire.Robb’s army is joined by 4,000 Frey standard-bearers. Once on the west bank, Robb dismantles the bridge and separates the army.
1.2.299 (Caitlyn 10, 11)
Battles at the Green Prong, in the Whispering Forest and the Battle of the Camps take place as in the original – the Starks win two crushing victories and gain strategic superiority. The Lannisters are forced to retreat, with the Stark and Tully forces totaling 40,000, but it is unclear where to go next. The overall strategic situation is extremely difficult – the North is not sufficiently protected, and the Greyjoys pose a threat to its very existence; Stannis and Renly have proclaimed themselves kings and are about to move to King’s Landing; Tywin takes up residence in Harrenhall while his henchmen burn down the Riverlands, and his family gathers new Lannister armies in the Western Lands.
Robb Stark’s unexpected proclamation as King of the North creates both new threats and new opportunities. Brinden leads her niece, nephew and grand-nephew to their quarters, where they devise a new plan:
To prevent the dispersal of the River Lords’ forces to defend their domains, Caitlin invites Robb and Edmar to urge the southern lords to vow to free the Riverlands with one army without dividing it. while enemies trample the Riverlands. (Anyone who breaks the oath and withdraws the troops will endanger the safety of a neighbor.)Robb agrees, on the condition that Brinden becomes Robb’s Hand in the South Marks and advises Edmar in the name of the new king. Edmar is unhappy (especially when he finds out about his engagement), but after he almost suffered a defeat, you should not refuse to help his uncle.
Robb’s plan to form an alliance with Balon Greyjoy undergoes changes – while Robb’s great-uncle restrains Caitlyn’s desire to attack the plan in a rage. In the end, they come to a decision that Robb should start negotiations with House Greyjoy from a position of strength.For this, several orders are being prepared: House Manderly was ordered to build (in addition to completing the construction of the White Harbor fleet) a new port on Salt Lance – Salt Harbor, blocking the bay with a chain.
House Glover ordered to rebuild their castle in stone. House Mullister is ordered to move ships to Iron Man’s Bay and begin patrolling it and Blazewater Bay (?) Mountain Clans and Houses of Manderly, Glover, Tallhart and Wild Hares are ordered to gather troops on the west coast, waiting for the Mallister ships.House Reed is ordered to fortify Kaelin’s Moat. Daisy Mormont and Jason Mallister are sent to Pike instead of Theon with new conditions: King Balon Greyjoy is recognized as the rightful monarch of the Iron Islands since the Greyjoy Uprising, and he is offered a dynastic marriage. Theon will pay for Sansa Stark’s hand with iron, and Robb Stark will marry Asha Greyjoy, giving the new port of Salt Harbor and his fleet as a dowry.
The secret meaning of the proposal is that the North and the Riverlands are ready to fight on equal terms with any army of the Greyjoys – there will be no sneak attack.Balon Greyjoy is enraged by these conditions, but with the Mallister ships cruising in the bay and 20,000 Northerners gathering on the coast, he realizes that he has no choice and has to agree: the Greyjoy fleet will not sail North. 10,000 Northerners sail to Sigard to join Robb’s army in the South, but 10,000 remain in the North under the command of Ser Rodric to enforce the terms of the treaty.
Gathering 16,000 warriors, Robb Stark attacks the Lannister army at Bull Crossing, as in the original, and Brinden and Edmar take on the hard work of expelling the Lannister from the Riverlands.Raiders Sera Gregor and Brinden avoid face-to-face battles, and the war escalates into violent skirmishes, in which the defenders of the Riverlands gradually gain the upper hand thanks to superior forces and the use of boats to enter the Lannister’s flanks and rear. Lannister forces slowly retreat along the banks of the Battlements in the direction of Harrenhall, and finally two equal armies stop near the ruined castle.
TO BE CONTINUED
1.14-27.299 (Beginning of the Battle of the Kings)
After the victory at the Bull Crossing, King Robb takes the fortress of Ashmark, and instead of going north to Craig, turns south into the heart of the Lannister lands, dividing his forces into small parties, to confuse the remnants of the Lannister troops trying to resist. Glovers and Karstarks plunder the coastal lands, Maige Mormont captures thousands of cattle and sends them under the protection of several hundred warriors to the Riverlands, where they are used to feed the hungry kingdom.Big John Amber captures the gold mines of Castamer, Nunn Troughs and Pendrick Hills.
Meanwhile, the River Army descends along the prongs of the Trident, using rivers as supply lines and reinforcements – all the forces of the Riverlands are aimed at pushing the Lannister into Harrenhall and creating at least the appearance of a siege of a huge castle. During a siege in a small village, a strange skirmish occurs – a group of fugitives from Harrenhall, pursued by Gregor Clegan and the Brave Guys, stumble upon the scouts of Brinden the Blackfish – and Berik Dondarrion and the Brotherhood Without Banners immediately ambush.The battle – or rather, the dump – suddenly ends when a whole army of wolves comes to the aid of the fugitives.
The defeated Blackfish first meets his grand-niece Arya and her she-wolf Nymeria.
Brinden and the Brotherhood Without Banners enter into tense negotiations – finally, the Brothers agree not to attack the troops of the Riverlands in exchange for supplies.
King Robb makes a deceptive maneuver, moving first to Beaver Bluff, but instead leaves half of the army to hold the siege, and he directs the attack on Lannisport.At the same time, 100 Greyjoy ships with 4,000 Ironborn on board land in the harbor for a daring night raid. Asha Greyjoy, seeking to annex the port to his personal possessions, quickly seizes the docks and claims his right to the Lannister fleet of 60 ships.
The Northerners and the Ironborn meet in the central square of the city – it cannot be said that the parties were happy to meet. At the foot of Beaver Cliff, a celebration begins, which will later be called the Golden Wedding – the newlyweds are surrounded by the riches of Castamer, Nunn Hollows and Pendrick Hills.
At first, the wedding does not come out very joyful – the northerners and islanders remember the thousand-year enmity, they have little in common, except for enemies. The bride and groom are hot-tempered and now and then snap at each other, clearly trying to determine which of them is in charge – Theon is desperately trying to rectify the situation, taking on the role of the Master of Ceremonies. Thanks to him, the death toll does not exceed several dozen, among which there are no intentionally killed.
After the ceremony of being escorted to the bedroom, the bed-room at the door hears a furious quarrel: insults are poured down to Robb’s masculinity and Asha’s innocence, followed by the sound of an ax hitting a sword and breaking furniture, and then the roar and clicking of Gray Wind’s teeth.The bedclothes burst inside and find the young in frantic intercourse, and the Gray Wind chases the intruders out the door.
Robb Stark appears in the morning bruised, scarred and redder than the Fossaway apple; Asha arrives in high spirits, despite a black eye and an abrasion on his chin, and says that men in the Green Lands grow up too modest for her tastes, but fortunately, in a rage, her husband turns into a wolf; Gray Wind believes that the two-legged needlessly worry: the two leaders are just deciding who to command the pack.This is how an alliance begins, in which hardly anyone could believe. However, this is not the first and not the last skirmish between the Starks and the Greyjoys.
On orders from Caitlyn Stark, crows are sent to every castle in the Riverlands and Crown Lands to tell Tywin Lannister: “The King of the North has taken Beaver Cliff. If the Bald Lion wants to return the castle, then let him try to take it from the Young Wolf by force. ”
Real Perm | 1943 | Lysva Metallurgical Plant is the only manufacturer of soldier’s helmets
Svetlana Fedotova Writer
ShareHelmet SSh-36, it was also produced by the Lysva Metallurgical Plant
Officially this product is called SSh-40 – a steel helmet of the 1940 model.
The development of this product at the Lysva Metallurgical Plant began in 1932, but the first samples were made only in 1936-1938. The tests carried out gave negative results: the helmet was pierced by bullets as easily as “a needle pierces tissue paper.” We began to look for a new brand and configuration of the helmet – the distribution of metal in it.
Finally, in 1939, from steel that was smelted at one of the numbered special factories in the city of Perm and rolled at the Nytvensky metallurgical plant to the required thickness, samples were made that corresponded to the terms of reference.By 1940, the steel helmet was ready. They say that Mikhail Budyonny, who participated in the “state acceptance”, first tried to cut the helmet with a saber, then began to shoot at point-blank range from the “Browning”. The helmet passed the tests: the Lysvenians were more ready for the 1941 Patriotic War than the others.
In the very first months of the war, it became clear that cooperation with other factories would not work, and therefore the People’s Commissariat decided to organize the production of the required sheet steel directly at the LMZ.In books about that time it is written that “there were steel workers at the plant who knew the high art of steel making. Even before the war, of the seventeen best steelmakers in the country, ten worked in Lysva. True, there were many difficulties: before that, the Lysva steelworkers did not deal with armor metal, the furnaces were not adapted. ” An additional complicating factor was the fact that the steel had to be rolled by adolescents aged 16-18 who had no production experience. However, they coped with both steel and technology, which was quite complex and required great skill from the workers.Photo: Archive Publishing House “Companion”
In addition to the Lys’venians, the helmet was manufactured by the Stalingrad plant “Red October”, but by 1943, for obvious reasons, the Lysva metallurgical plant remained the only manufacturer of steel helmets in the USSR. At the same time, in 1943, a group of developers of this helmet was awarded the Stalin Prize, including Ivan Yastrebov (1911–2002), who in the future would become the first secretary of the Molotov City Committee (1953–54) and a legendary member of the Central Committee of the CPSU.He will be responsible for heavy industry and energy, and they will call him “the conscience of the Central Committee.”
During the war years, plant No. 700 (as the LMZ was called during the war years) produced more than 10 million helmets. She saved thousands of lives. The words of the artist Yuri Nikulin are known that the Lysva helmet saved him from certain death three times.
90,000 How to get the “Brilliant Smile” Festival of Lost Triumph
Destiny 2 ‘s Festival of the Lost has an obvious starter quest that takes players into the Haunted Forest and starts them on their way to collecting the Festival of the Lost masks and the Braytech Werewolf assault rifle.But what is not obvious is the quest that sends players across the entire solar system of the game and ends with the opening of the Triumph event called Brilliant Smile.
It is more commonly referred to as a “Toothbrush Quest” among players because at the end of the quest, Destiny 2 players receive a toothbrush item that matches the theme of Halloween and Festival of the Lost candies. Here’s exactly how to start the quest and how to complete it completely.Keep scrolling to continue reading.Click the button below to start a quick scan of this article.
Visit Masked Eris
While Eris has been keeping players busy this week, launching the new Altars of Sorrow public event on the Moon, opening The Pit of Heresy dungeon and giving players a quest for the exotic Xenophage machine gun, players can get another a quest from Eris when they visit her wearing a Festival of the Lost mask. When the players go to her on the moon with the Masquerader helmet, she gives them a Tiny Box of Raisins, which is an Easter egg and nods to Destiny 1 (in Festival of the Lost in the original game, the Tower vendors gave the players candy, while Eris gave the players box of raisins).This item officially launches the quest.
Go to the Spider on the Tangled Shore
Take the Tiny Box of Raisins to the Spider on the Tangled Shore. It gives players the Even Handed quest stage, requiring players to defeat enemies in the Tangled Shore. Specifically, players need to find and defeat 12 fallen, 12 despicable, 12 hives and 12 cabals. While these enemies can be scattered throughout the destination, the hotspots for each are Thief’s Landing for the Fallen, Four Horns Gulch for Contempt, Saturn’s Jets for Hive, and Reduction Sorica for a click. “When finished, the Spider gives the players a Winged Chew.
Go to Ana Bray on Mars
Give the Winged Chewing to Ana Bray and get the quest step Armed to the Teeth. This requires killing 10 enemies with each weapon type – kinetic, energy, and heavy. Just exit the merchant area and there are plenty of enemies nearby to take care of it. There is also a Lost Sector nearby in case players need a higher concentration of enemies to complete.When done, return to Ana Bray to receive the Unchocolate item.
Go to Asher World on Io
Bring the Unchocolate to Asher World on Io to receive the quest “Exactly”, which requires players to have accurate final strikes at 10 Vex and 10 Taken. In the area of The Rupture, where Asher Mir is located, there are many enemies of every type. Get accurate final blows and then return to Asher Mir for the item “Piece of Celery”.
Go to Brother Vance on Mercury
As the quest around the solar system continues, take a Piece of Celery to Brother Vance on Mercury and complete the In the Elements quest step.This requires 10 kills with each element type – arc, solar, and void. Then take the splice drops from Brother Vance.
Go to Failsafe on Nessus
Drops of splice are sent to Failsafe on Nessus and players receive a Touched By The Light quest step in which they defeat 5 Fallen, Vex and Cabal with the abilities to return to Failsafe and obtain Salted Sweets.
Go to Devrim Kay on EDZ
Turn in Salty Treats to Devrim Kay on EDZ and players will need to use the new Shadowkeep finisher moves on 5 Cabal, Taken and Fallen.Walk around the EDZ to do this, then return to Devrim Kay for a Sour Engram.
Go to Petra Veni in the City of Dreams
This is followed by Petra Venj, who, in exchange for the Sour Engram, gives the players the quest “The Best of My Abilities”, which requires 5 melee kills, 5 grenade kills and 10 super kills in the city of dreams to then receive the Sugar Engram.
Go to Sloane on Titan
Then travel to Titan to give Sloane the Sugar Ingram.From there, players will be tasked with entering various parts of the Titan Arcology area and getting kills. Better to do this on patrol than start a Savathun Song strike. Travel east of Sloane to enter Arcology. Refer to the map to double check the area and then simply kill the enemies in each area. When you’re done, get to Sloane for the Void Fizz item.
Return to Eris Morn on the Moon
Return to Eris on the Moon and turn in Void Fizz.This last step is to perform a cool dance in front of Eris. This means that you have to put on the correct emote and then perform it in front of Eris. If it is not currently equipped, players simply need to go to the character menu and find it in the available emotes and assign it to one of the emote buttons. It depends on the race of the player, not on his class. If the player is human, he must perform the city dance, the Awakened one must perform the graceful dance, and the exo must perform the popping dance.
Once this is done, Eris will give the bag with beeps.Accept this to receive some rewards, including the Toothbrush, which will go into your inventory screen. Go to the item on the inventory screen and use it. The toothbrush will become a Used Toothbrush and the “Brilliant Smile” triumph is about to emerge and get credit.
Destiny 2: Shadowkeep is now available for PC, PS4, and Xbox One, and a Stadia version is also in development.
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