Draw the Head Front Planes Made Easy for Portraits and Character Design | Chris Petrocchi
1. Front planes of the Face 1: Hey, everybody. And welcome to my video. I’m crisp it Rocky. And today I’m gonna be taking you through step by step, how to draw the front planes of the head. And once you master this skill, your faces, your head, your portrait are gonna look solid. Three D because you’re describing the form and communicating its direction in space with the simple box like structure the planes that comprise the box and it’s gonna be awesome. So let’s get started, Okay? When it comes to describing the form of the head and showing its direction in space, which one of these primitive shapes do you think is the best one to do that? Well, if we look at the sphere, we can see there’s dimension to it. But it’s hard to tell the direction in space because, well, we turn it. There’s no obvious inside corners to tell us the direction so we can see it’s a form, but it’s and it’s kind of characteristic of the head, but it’s not very good at showing the direction in space. The cylinder is a little bit better because as soon as we start to rotate it, we can see that It’s got a bottom and a top. Pretty clearly. It’s because of that inside edge that’s so crisp it shows clearly the top and the front so we can get the top run and bottom. But we can’t really get a sense off if we’re looking at the front, back or side, because I turn it. It just doesn’t have any information there to tell us that. So guess what? The Cube is the best one to do the job, because when we rotate it, we can see it has a front aside, a top and a bottom. Okay, it’s got two sides. It’s very clear because of these inside corners here that conspired to give us the dimension. So we’ve got these planes, top two sides or a bottom and two sides something like that, and that’s your best bet. So it’s the planes that actually help us squeeze that architecture out of our drawings and make it look three d okay, this is why something like this is so helpful because it’s I don’t know if you’re familiar with it, but it’s very similar to the Sorrow head named after John A Sorrow, who is a famous painter If you don’t know his portrait, its or his figure at work, you should. But he made this cast. It’s a plainer head for teaching purposes, and everybody uses it. So what it does is it basically shows off planes of the face really well. But you can see the forehead as three planes. It has an obvious top. It has obvious sides. You can see where the front plane changes into the side plane of the head, so it’s all really spelled out very clearly. And so this is the idea of the plane or head. And right now we are going to talk about how to draw the front planes in the head. So let’s get started now. A lot of people have trouble drawing the head. Sometimes it’s just with the features spacing and placing the features, the planes of the head rhythms of the head. There’s a lot of things going on, so let’s talk about why you’d want to master or begin to draw the head. So it’s kind of take a look at that, um, one. I think it’s one of the most interesting and beautiful things to draw on the planet. I love drawing the face, the head, the features, getting a likeness to me, it’s just, ah, cool thing to do. It’s also a good opportunity to solve any drawing problems you could possibly face, so it’s excellent practice. You could also get a job down the road as a sculptor. If you know the planes of the face and really well and you’re a sculpting jar, you could translate that into sculpture. You could become a portrait artist and paint beautiful portrait’s and oil are or acrylic paint or charcoal and so on. Um, you could be a concept artist or character designer. That’s cool. Ah, storyboard artist, even a caricature artist or an illustrator. So all those things are possible. Road. You could go down if you can master drawing the face. So let’s get into this in and do this. I’m gonna turn my flow down to about 9% in the mixer. Brush really kinda makes things look like natural media. So what I’m gonna do is just really lightly block in common. A. That’s that’s your quick start right there from the front is an A and just kind of kind of kind of space in place in a very general way. The egg, And then I’m gonna get bisect it vertically down the center and horizontally. I’m gonna find the center from top to bottom. Okay, that’s a great start right there. I’m just going to swing out with a little sagging C curve right there. A bit of the neck. This really roughly. Okay, so now that we’ve got that, um, we can go from the top of the head, I halfway just a little bit above the eye is gonna be the eyebrow. And then halfway between the eyebrow and the chin is gonna be where the nose is. That and then from there we can go urns. So what we just did was we went halfway is where the eyes are. And then halfway from the brow to the bottom of the chin is where the noses that was another half. And then we divided this into thirds. Okay, so the 1st 3rd is where the mouth is gonna be generally, and then next third is gonna be right below the lower lip. It’s the top of the chin, and then you get the end with the face right there. The bottom of the chin. Okay, so we’re doing good right here. Um, I’m just gonna Now that we have the eyebrow, I just draw a horizontal line all the way out to the side. That’s where the top of the ear is gonna be. So I’m just gonna draw those in real quick, and I’m gonna try and keep those real simple. The bottom of the nose is where the end of the year, the bottom of the year is going to sit. So, somewhere between that middle third is where the year is gonna be. I’m just gonna try and get that in kind of quick here. Kind of like a disk. The top. But it has a thickness is it rolls back. Okay, good. So now I’m gonna basically place a dot where the eyes I think are gonna be so I just kind of feel that and put it down right there. And then what I’m gonna do is from the middle of the forehead. I’m just gonna drop a 45 degree angle, right like that. And what that’s going to do is help me find the tear dot on the inside edge of the I and it’s also gonna help me find the edge of the nose playing where it meets the cheek. So somewhere in here there’s gonna be that edge of the nose. And so where that finishes hits the cheek and becomes the cheap plane, that’s important to know. I’m just gonna lightly put that in. And then what I’m gonna dio is kind of just from here on the right side, not quite all the way to the edge of the face, but just inside a little bit. I’m just gonna draw a visor just like an arc right there. And that’s gonna be the brow ridge. And then I’m going to go ahead and kind of block in where I think the eyes gonna be. And that tear duct is right here, and I’m gonna make that I just right right there just a little bit not touching, but very close to where the tear duct would be. Okay, just blocking that and working very lightly. And I’m not going for a clean, exact line at the moment. So then I’m gonna drop okay, plum line from the center of the eye, each of the eyes straight down that’s gonna give me two things that’s very important is it’s gonna give me one the end of the mouth where it terminates. It’s also gonna give me, uh, where that where the chin is and how the chin separates from the jaw. And that’s really important. So I’ve got that. So I’m just gonna make a little overlap for the chin right there. No overlap with the chin and jaw kind of starts. And then right here, just that little lying at the top of the chin. If I draw a horizontal line out there, that’s gonna be tell me where the chin changes direction with the job changes direction, starts going up to the ear and defines the side plane of the face a bit more. Right? Excellent. So now when I want to do is just You sure got kind of a circle here cuts in a little bit to the nose to the edge of the end of the mouth and then the top of the chin that is the two cylinder or the muzzle, and I just need a space in a place for that
2. Front Planes of the Face 2: And then next thing I’m gonna do is define the front plane of the forehead and the side plane. So I’m gonna about right right here. When you decide, I’m gonna swing out of seeker to swing out of Seeker just like that, Okay? And now I’ve got a nice front plane to side play. Part of playing stepped down side playing. The more I can show off the box, the better. So now I’m gonna take that upper part of the cranium, just make it a little more of a circle. Then I come right down all the way through. It’s gonna leave me to about the bottom of the nose, okay? And that’s important, cause that’s gonna be where the bottom of the cheek is. And so I just want toe connect everything and relate everything one thing to another, from the top of the head to the bottom of the head, and that’s gonna make it look even more realistic. If I can do that, I can connect everything. Okay, so you might see that there’s a kind of a shape now like this, right? That’s what I just made. So I find that if I can simplify shapes and find silhouettes flat to be puzzle pieces that make sense to me. Um, I can put those in there. So I tried to draw those sort of comparisons to make things easier to memorize. Kind of shape recognition for me. And so, having swung out those see curves now, I kind of got that. Um, I’m separated out again. The side plane of the forehead from the front plan. Okay. And that’s looking good. Um, next thing I want to do is write from there right from this. Ended this brow ridge right here. That’s gonna be the top part of the cheek where the cheek starts and that divides her, delineates the front plane in the face from the side plain in the face. So I’m just gonna go straight down to the to the jaw with that jaw. Starts where the Actually, it’s the chance. I’m just gonna go straight down to the chin, okay? And then take my flow down a little bit. So they’re now I’ve got that side playing differentiated from the front plain of face. So you kind of see front playing. Stepped down side plate, right front, playing side play that’s good stuff. Okay, so that jaw or that cheek Bo where it starts and where it goes down, it can go straight down to the chin. You can go right to the edge for the terminus of the mouth right there where I can go right underneath, to the top of the chin C of three options There. Where The cheek kind of Congar. Oh, it depends on the person, the sex and the ethnicity as well. Okay, so the next thing I’m gonna do is right here at the top of the forehead. I’m gonna draw a kind of a Chevron shape or Keystone shape, and it’s gonna look like that. So here’s the shape again when we draw a little bit higher. So it’s here like this. It looks kind of like a razor blade. It’s kind of a trap is only in shape that fits right there. And that’s, uh, super Salieri arch. They call it, or where the globe Bella is. And once I’ve got that, I’m gonna pull some three dimensionality into it. Some. I’m going from two D now to three D just by pulling extruding some shapes off the sides and so Now I have a front and two signs on the bottom. Okay, front two sides in the bottom. And so what? That’s gonna sort of turn out to I’m gonna translate that into my drawing here. When is your men a little bit? All right, here we go. And I’m just gonna docking at a little bit seeking you. See it there, There and there. Right. Perfect. So that’s gonna give me the inside of the eye socket of the upper part of the eye socket. Okay? And that’s usually in shadow, so I’m just going to darken it in a little bit. All right? And then that’s gonna move us right into the globe. Ella, it’s right here. We don’t need to talk about that too much, but I’ll just put it into liquid. Um, but it’s the star right here of the eyebrows of the eyebrow, wraps around, starts underneath the brow and then comes over the top and wraps around the top of the eyebrow up the ground. So it starts on the bottom and wraps around on top. Just something like fax. Still not getting a little bit. Call another layer. So it starts on the bottom wraps around the top. Okay, so there’s where your eyebrows just ride along that brow line right there. It’s kind of like, uh, you know, a piece of paper, and if you twist it, okay, and you get the kind of, ah side that twists away eyes in shadow and the stuff facing the light is lighter. So this is on top is light and here is in shadow. And that’s kind of like how this Brown is starts from the bottom and twist over the top starts on the bottom and then twist over the top. So practicing this right here is really important. Second twit, A piece of paper with a twist in it. Okay, let’s move on to, um now that we have the the eyebrow in place, wouldn’t kind of talk about, um, the inside bottom part of the eye socket. Let’s let’s do that. Um, we can kind of get that by this part of the keystone right here. Just go ahead. Right there is the bottom part of the keystone, and that just arcs right into and sort of delineates the top or the You have the top part of the orbit of the I just swing around like that. Built from here. It just swings around like that. Okay. Looking good. The next thing I want to do starting up desire ground a little bit so you can see him better. Okay, so you go back to my my pencil tool. Let’s see if we can go ahead and kind of, like, delineate the temporal plane from the frontal, playing a little bit more and come show off the bottom of the cheek a little bit. So that’s gonna be important to know where that cheek ends right there. And some people, you can really see that. Well, some people, you don’t see it at all. Put it in there for demonstration purposes. And let’s take a look here. Combining these layers and just was looking a little wise. I’m gonna make a little narrow and keep going
3. Front Planes of the Face 3: So next thing I want to do is put in the No. So the nose is basically a prison, and so I’m gonna keep it real simple for myself. Okay, so basically prison. So prison looks like Look, something like this. It’s a little bit wider at the bottom that it is on top, and it’s got a front two sides and top of the bottom. Someone trying to show that up. I’m just building it a lot of really simple primitive shapes because it’s quite a complex thing. But if I can kind of space it and place it in there with a very simple idea, like a modified, uh, rectangle, which is a pyramid. And now I’ve got a friend step down to the side, and I’ve got a bottom plane right here. Okay, so that’s awesome. That’s what I want. Just gonna take this a little bit smaller. You have a little bit more room, but, um, I basically want that to hook up. Okay, So I’m gonna hook these up this to this This to this right and then this to this, and that’s gonna build my nose from the keystone or the global A in other words. Pride in tow. Side plane of the nose. So let’s do that. What do you mean, a little bit? We’re out of color and see if we can go ahead and put that for about flow up a little bit. Okay. So narrow at the top. Wire on the bottom and go ahead, Put the bottom right there. Go ahead. Give us land a little bit. Flare there, but a curve. We’ll see if that I think I’m gonna end it in a different spot. You see how come right out of the socket of the I? And then there’s the bottom of the prison side playing of the wings of the nostrils. Also called All, uh All right, so now I’ve got a top clean side plane, front plane of the face. Okay, That’s what I’m looking for. And from there, we’re gonna put in the mouth. Let’s do that. So, from that split of the lips, basically, I’m just gonna swing an arc just like that. Put a little V shape in there. Yeah, going to connect that to the still trim from the nose to those top peaks of the lip, and then I’m gonna put the two Burkle in, which looks like a little heart shape. And then I’m gonna swing too little arcs out to the edge. We just be fat up a little bit so you can see swing out, swing out. Okay, Come in. Then. There’s something called the masculine er node right there at the end of the terminus of the mouth. So just cut that in, okay? And then I’m gonna swing in our right there, huh? And then creating almost a w shape right there. Yes, we got em shape on top. And then we’ve got an echo of that them shape. We have m shape on top right here. Can’t see them. What? Them shape the echo of that M shape. Now on the bottom, we have a w kind of a reverse at the top. Hi. And we put in the two Burkle there, right there. Such an important thing. And this is the filter, um, and in going into the septum of the nose. But let’s wait for that. So we’ve got our mouth and we’ll turn the corners up just a little bit, and the mouth is gonna be top of the mouth. Is usually in shadow. Someone that was some tone. Definitely. When it goes back into the end of the mouth into those little looks and create is gonna get darker, and then the bottom lip is going to be. There’s a top plane and a front plane, and so I leave that top plane in light. And then there’s the that shadow between the bottom of the lip and the top of the chin. We’re just gonna put that in that kind of swings around. Kind of like like a horseshoe shape right there. No. Okay, you can bring that up into almost, like the laugh lines or the muzzle and kind of see, connect that stuff a little bit. All right. And then we’ve got chin, the space for the chin right there.
4. Front Planes of the Face 4: you know? So I was put in Thier knows, so the nose can really look like and m shave. At the beginning, I was just kind of a m right there becoming a bringing this up just a little bit. It’s looking a little low to me. Storms bring up. Sometimes you have toe always be modifying the thing. Okay, so we’ve got the basic kind of m shape for the nose, and, um, now we can put the nostrils in. So from that septum of the nose, uh, so I don’t go and explain a little bit. So I’m gonna put in the ball of the nose right there and then the wings of the nose, and then they kind of come in. So you have the bottom of ball knows. So what you have is front plan of the nose. Stepped down to the side plan top plane of the wing of the nose, stepped down to the side plane of the way of the nose. Right. Step down top. Sorry. Like that. So we’re thinking like a sculpting jar trying Teoh, find the planes and show off the corners. The more than we can do that. Surprisingly, our head is gonna look more real, Do you? Okay, so let’s break down. That knows again. So the ball of the nose just looks like circle just like that. And then we come down into the septum of nose here, which looks like, like this into the nostrils so that all the nose goes right into something like this. Okay, so that is like a hot air balloon. Right? So that’s the shape. Kinda like the hot air balloon. Okay, then. Then we’ve got darknet up. Look it. So the wings of the nose look kind of like, uh, tiles on a Spanish house. Right? So kind of goes right into the waiting’s knows right there. That spot on playing by plane. All right. Okay. So we have that. Stop that out a little bit more, so we can get to see it. Okay. Connect. Set them to fill from into the two Burkle. All right, Steve. Very sound good. Okay, great. We’re making great progress here. Now we’re gonna put in. I think we’re gonna define the top part of the cheeks a little bit, so let’s do that. So, from this inside top part of the eye, socket. We’re just going to swing, take a special look bigger. We’re swing an arc out just like that Boom. And that’s gonna be the bottom part of the eye socket. Okay, so from that line, boom, swing arc out. And that’s gonna give me the top part. It’s kind of the top of the cheek. Bottom of the eye socket. Okay, so this is all gonna be front playing right here. Front plane of the face. And this stuff is gonna be top plane. See that? That’s good to know, because sometimes you want really sculpted cheeks. A supposed to really soft cheeks. You might have more masculine cheeks as opposed to feminine cheeks, you know, depending on the character and what you gotta do.
5. Front Planes of the Face 5: and let’s put in the eyes now. So the eyes let’s go down here a little bit. You could kind of think of this is, like draw a circle here and then redo a dolphin shape like a poor piss. And then we do another dolphin shape around it. Okay? That’s gonna give you basic. I we’ll put there Iris in there in the middle of the people, And that top lid is gonna overlap the bottom lid. So dismayed that happen. And then what you’ve got is the step goes into shadow and the ends of the legs go into shadow. It’s gonna be dark. And then that top live is gonna cast a shadow. Want to the iris on this? Clara Like that in the bottom was just gonna hit it like that. So right in here is right there. That’s that side plane. It’s the beginning of the nose. And wherever that keystone is sitting there, right, and then I brown twists over the top there so you can put really dark right in center there for people back here. You were gonna dark in inside part of that spear. Okay, so what you have is really a top part of the lead who’s down over the ball, and I you got the top part of the lower lid and then going down to the front of Lower that okay, top part inside. So try to sculpt that out a little bit. Okay, so let’s go ahead and let’s do one more thing about that from the side. You’ve got the ball of the I got the cornea and you’ve got people in there, and then you have the top lid that top live is gonna come out farther and overlapped the bottom. That’s the bottom with it’s here like that as the I last there. And so you have cash shadow right there from the upper lip into the eye. You have shadow that lower lip, and so a lot of times, students, we’ll get that messed up. And so you don’t have that upper lid overlapping the lower lid. There’s the people, and you have that cash shadow theme. The other thing you have is the catch light right there, Um, right there next to right next to the people, overlapping it that catch light. That’s like the life like that shows that you have a living being in there. The window of the soul. Okay, so let’s do that. Let’s put the eyes in so and coming up, Start this color. So you get tear duct going to need this digital pressure here. Back off on the flow. Okay, so we have teared up to teared up. There is one I in between tear ducks. One I leg. Yes, I think I can swing this over the ball, and I Okay, that I’m a swing. The lower is live right in there. So that that kind of pour piss. Look, the dolphin look that we talked about, You can see the apex of the upper lead is not right above where symmetrical with the lower lip, they’re offset. And that’s important. Student on the sides about teared up. Swing out to your duct here, upper lid, overlapping the lower lead. You can see a little bit of that inside of the upper lid. The tear duct is usually dark. Yeah, lower lips. Let’s put in where the I it’s gonna be a Okay. You put that pupil in their real dark. Okay, We’re sticking up that upper lid. Got that shadow. It’s also got eyelashes that I’m not gonna draw lashes. That never looks good. Okay, then there. Stop the top of the lower lead and then the site. Side plan lower. Coming up your top. The lower lead. Okay, check it out. Take by. I need that side point his nose. I’m gonna out of value here just to show that and you know, you can you can drop it straight down. You can. You can kind of create a a rhythm right here. You’ll see it more bowed out on some people. Either way, it’s OK, um depends on the person. So I’m just gonna go ahead and put that in. And so there’s the that were the side play to the end, then side plane of the nose ends and moves into the cheek is tricky. So, um, that’s why the prison helps, because it gives you kind of a definite place for that to happen. I’m just gonna dark out the bottom cheek care, come here. And where the terminus of the upper layer is, who put that into some shadow and talking to stuff a little bit inside. Playing up the keystone that keystone isn’t actually a downplaying. So I’m gonna go ahead. Put that into shadow. That would be facing away from the life. Let’s go ahead and put in cash. Shadow upper lid onto the square up. Yeah, hi itself the iris darker. The pupil is going to the only place where super dark and in the white to the eyes you’re not gonna have It’s never gonna be super white. It’s always wait, So I’m not gonna I’m gonna leave the white accent for the highlight. So let me just put that in. No, but people in it’s not up a little bit called the new layer. Get real black with that, okay? And then put in that highlight. Go. Oh, I had something like that. Just hit it. Let it be starting up the eyes a little bit here, something this side. Sometimes these things are easy to do with a chalk or pencil as opposed to full of shop on glass, you know? So that’s I started looking better beef up this crease right here, and I just give that lower. I live just a touch because that’s we’re going to see some hair. But the inner one, right? I don’t beef that one up too much so that I could define the iris a little bit more. Get into that a little bit more later. Beef up there, I bro. It starts underneath, twists over, starts underneath, brown twists over. It ends up on top of the forehead. Okay, the inside part of the eye socket times will swing around like that. This kind of swings around, okay?
6. Front Planes of the Face 6: I want to define this these planes a little bit more from Talis, the temporal. It’s the site of the head. You know, We’ve got the top of the cheekbone here, starting and then coming right down to here. And then we’ve got the chin box that’s gonna come in defined chin right there. So the chin has the front plane and a top and a side to someone hit this. It’s a little bit. And so it’s just kind of defined a lot of important when you show up the box. Like I said before. Then it curves and corners of too many curves. It looks cartoony. You get too many corners. It looks lifeless, the curves and corners of the best of both worlds trying. If this looking, let’s digital one more what I like. So, like I said, you can have the cheek go right to the corner of the mouth. It can swing in and go right to that space between the lower lip on the top fortune, or go right to the side of the chin right there. So you have three options depending on you know who it is, male or female, and the ethnicity. Uh, you can have, you know, cheekbones coming in right there, um or not. But it’s helpful to know, and then you have the front plane of the front of the face. And then, uh, the mouth, the barrel mouth basically so that’s gonna protrude out. And then at the edges, it’s gonna recede away from us. Something dark in that little bit. And I would make the edges really right there between the top of the lip in the bottom of lift that goes into really dark shadows is gonna go ahead correcting that up. That takes a little while, but starting toe starting to get there. You’re trying to hit this thing a little dark right there. In fact, in decrease my flow a little sense, a shadow that top Let that I always get want to go back to my pastel like brush and hit that lower leg casting shadow. It’s a little dark in here. What dark in there? We’re definitely getting there. I want to sculpt that out. That knows a little bit. Let’s do that kind of beef up this front part of the cheek a little bit. It’s right there. So now have a look. Quite a sense of its turning away. And then we have a friend, and then we have a top. So again, we’ve got no comment, talk, friend, and then it goes lender top front Under is, let’s get to that knows, scoped out the front part of it again. So we’ve got the wing of the nose. Took part. What part of all of the nose oak plane change there? No stroll. Okay, So that ball the nose is going a lot of times has a split in it right there. So we can dry that out. And then what? We have the top part of the nose where it begins and separate town from the club L A. So I got this shape that looks like a diamond and that fits right into that. All of the nose she looks like, you know, kind of like a diamond. Or even like a coffin. Okay, that’s that bone part of the nose. That bone part ends right there. So we’ve got front plane side playing end of the side plan of the nose beginning of cheek. That’s that. That’s what we want those areas really tricky. It’s hard to see some of those plan changes, so we can kind of put him in and overstate them a little bit. Then we can back off a little bit. We need it so that front plan of the nose is gonna fit. Kind of lock and key right into the ball knows, and, you know, right, Miss can kind of sometimes you see increase here. Depending on the age sex of the person can play that play that down could define a little bit of open space right there in the lips. Looks like persons. You can say something and keep that upper edge of the lip kind of soft. You don’t want to any hard lines there. Okay, just get the cheese a little bit. Sort of that. The two cylinder or that that mouth is sitting on a ball that lips were sitting on a ball. No one could make that sides of the ball go away in turn, under just kind of state that a little bit more, somebody might have like a dimple. You can take some stuff out here that nose playing into shadows a bit more. Besides, in the shadow, just a little bit just has to pop out. Look, it’s too much with this shadow for sure. You know another possible playing right there dio for their delineating the Fontana lists front part before head. See that sometimes when people
7. Front Planes of the Face 7: it’s getting to find top of this. When will be the hairline? Somewhere in here. So callous. Taking a bit of a hairstyle back off. Kind of lost that years. In this whole process, you can put those in quick and then the sideburns come somewhere there, depending on the hair style. Those years in their own quick, tricky years Alitalia. All right. It’s a big years. Stick that just move it in a little bit. No. Okay. And then I’ll just hit them with some tone to pushing back. I don’t want you looking at this too much. One of their, but not to call trust attention. This just to find that neck right into should have been there. Corrector, if you care about that too much. Okay. So back to this hair style, putting on the style just kind of throw it in to complete this thing, race out some of the staff so you don’t see how did it and then push there. And that kind of just to find that a little bit too much, it’s there. It was kind of push it back in the space. A little good. – Who will show we count and you’re always modifying continually. It never never ends. Art never ends. Sometimes you have a deadline, so you have to just stand ship. He’s put a little bit of told him his hair. That’s that’s all right. So there you have it. Suara trying to get those eyes set back a little bit. It was too much because I could pull it out again with them. Super white highlight beef up the pupil. Try to get them to emerge out of that shadow glass glass polls. Oh, right, That’s basically it. You master this. Your drawings are gonna get a lot better. Trust me. So practice it and watch your drawings become more three d More convincing and solid and realistic. All right, we’ll see you next time.
8. Projects 1 and 2 front planes practice: All right, here’s what you’re gonna do in the first project. You’re simply going to practice drawing the planes of the head using this front planes of the head drawing guide. So if you look on the left, you’ll block in the head with the basic proportions heights with placement of the ears or the angle of the ears where they go and then you add continually. Add the proportions of the features just really basic stuff in the second step, and in the third step, you go ahead and indicate the planes, the front planes of the head, and you’ll just do that in every box, right down the page. So that’s the front planes, the head right? Then he’ll do the same thing with the side planes of the head. You used the side planes they had drawing guide and your block in on the left with a quick triangle, and you put the proportions in and then you’ll construct. So there’s the workflow going here with, um, a big block in with simple shapes here and then figuring out where the proportions are the eye line brow, nose, lips and so on. And then you’re gonna go ahead and construct so three steps. Just do that all the way down the page. Now, just doing this is gonna familiarize yourself with the planes of the face. That’s the fastest way I know how to do it. And you got to know this cold. Once you know it cold, you’re free and you can You can design. You can redesign. You can draw realistic faces and you can communicate it your ideas to others. You can teach it to others, so it’s really powerful. So just spend the time on these drawing guides. Do that work now. It’s going to take you half a dozen times to a dozen times to really get this under your belt so you could do this worksheet more than once. And then what I recommend is doing some studies from reference. So let me show you what I mean. Take a photo and have it next to you. The planes diagram and then just cover your photo with some tracing paper. Or you can do it on a photo shop on another layer or even procreate. And then just with a big fat marker or something, you can see just draw in find the planes and draw them in and study where they go. Um, and this is really a great way to now. Take your what you’ve learned and make it practical. And just tracing from photos is is great. You can do it from life, too, but this is just a good. And once you start doing that, you’ll be able to kind of look at the model or look at photos and understand why something’s happening. Why some things light and where it where the plane change turns dark, gives your drawings dimension. And that’s what you want. You want that three D kind of architectural sculpting. Draw her look and you can do it from the front side and 3/4 views. And, you know, do that your sketchbook do about No. 5 to 10 of those, and you’ll be in really good shape
9. Project 3 construct head in three quarter: Okay. In the second project, you’re going to construct a plane or head in 3/4 view. So we have the front side, and right over here, you’re going to space for you to create your 3/4 view head with the planes. So what you’re gonna do? There’s some instructions right down here and you’re just going to draw the guidelines from the side view of the head towards the right that corresponded plane changes in the tops and bottoms of features. So just like you see here extended out the top of the head to find the top of the head of the side view from the front view. The bottom of the chin just extended out and I confined. What a place. The side view chin. All right, Bottom of the nose. This is exactly how I worked when I was working as character designer on The Godfather game at Electronic Arts. Basically, after I had drawn the 1st 1 here, then I would just carry some horizontal guidelines off to the right. I’d find the top of the head widow’s peak, top of the eyebrows, top of the ear. Hi line right top of the nose wings of the nose brought up in the nose peak of the lips, split of the lips. Right. You get the picture, and this is this is what we did. And then we over on this side here, we could start to construct a profile view that was have the exact proportions as this one on the left. And so we’re trying to redraw it from the right inside view and just make it a lot easier. Seems a little technical, and at first, but it actually works really good when you’re under a deadline toe work this way. So that’s what you’re gonna do here from the side view. Just extend out guidelines this way and you’ll find just picked the peaks, pick the things that stick out to you. Um, and this is great for lining up the features finding, uh, exactly where the parts are. The eyes, nose, mouth, ears. So it’s really good for that in terms of vertical spacing like this space here, the space here, right between the eyebrow and the nose like this. This space here, right for the with for this year, you can just you can measure it. The with is a little bit harder to find with this method. But basically, if you just, you know, draw a circle and add a little triangle, you’ll be OK. I mean, the head fits into a box. So if you’re really wondering how wide to make the head, you know, remember, just fits roughly inside a box. You can You could do it that way too. So I wouldn’t worry too much about that. But the main thing is just to line up the features and then start to put start to construct a 3/4 view of the head. All right, when you’re finished, it’s gonna end up looking something like this. Okay, so that’s kind of what you’re shooting for. I know you can do it. Have fun with this assignment. It’s very constructive and productive. You’re going to get a lot out of it and you’ll be moving down the road with your art. And don’t try to be perfect. Just make progress. All right. So I really hope you enjoyed these lessons that these projects air helpful to you. And I can guarantee you if you do this work you’re drawing is gonna get better, faster, and that’ll be awesome. So All right, We’ll see you next time
Loomis Head Front View | My Drawing Tutorials
When it comes to free-hand drawing the head, there are many methods uses by many artists. One of the most popular (and in my opinion, the most effective) method out there is the Loomis method.
This method was developed by artist, Andrew Loomis, many years ago as a way to construct the head and draw it from any angles. Unlike the grid method, which is limited to photo references, once you master the Loomis method, you’ll be able to draw the head at any angles, from photo, life, and even your imagination.
Here’s how it works…
The head can be simplified into 2 geometric shapes: a sphere for the cranium and a boxy wedge shape for the jaw.
Let’s examine the sphere shape. This shape is formed by taking a perfectly round sphere and cutting off the sides. This puts it closer to the shape of a real head.
And you can examine this for yourself: the top of you head isn’t perfectly spherical. Rather it’s mostly round with the sides being somewhat flat.
From the front, the shape will look like this, with the sides being straight lines. As the head starts to turn, we are able to see more of the side and it looks like an ellipse. As the head continue to turn, the ellipse gradually gets bigger. And when the head is all the way in profile view, the ellipse will be a perfect circle.
Now let’s see how we can use this information to draw a head from the front view.
We’ll start with a circle. We’ll trim off the sides in a bit, but first let’s put in the center line.
The center line is an imaginary line the runs down the center of the face. From the front view, the center line will be right in the middle of the face and just a straight line.
However, as the head turns, the center line will shift off the center and towards the direction that the face is looking.
Also, the un-even terrain of the face will also cause the center line to change from a straight line to a more complex wavy line.
Even though the center line won’t actually show up in a finished portrait, it’s a very helpful tool for visualizing the head as a three-dimensional object.
Next let’s locate the browline. The position of the browline will depend on the tilt of the head.
When the head is look straight ahead, the browline will be leveled with the top of the ears. When the head is tilted up, the browline will be higher then the ears. And when the head is tilted down, the browline will be lower than the ears.
In this case, the head will be looking straight head so the browline will be right in the middle of the circle and leveled with the ears.
Next, let’s locate the hairline. The hairline will be about 2/3 of the way up from the browline. So if we just divide the top portion of the circle into thirds, the hairline will be right here.
Now let’s find the nose. The bottom of the nose will also be about 2/3 of the way down from the browline. So, we can just take the measurement we got for the hairline, bring it down, and mark the bottom of the nose.
Lastly, the chin will also be the same distant down from the nose, once again, we’ll take that same measurement, bring it down from the nose, and mark the bottom of the chin.
Notice how the face is divided into 3 equal parts: from the hairline to the browline, from the browline to the bottom of the nose, and from the bottom of the nose to the bottom of the chin.
This is known as the “Rule of Thirds” and is very effective tool for measuring the proportions of the face. Of course, not every face will conform perfectly to this rule. Some people will have bigger foreheads or shorter chins, but this is a great starting point.
OK, so now let’s trim off the sides of the circle to bring it closer to the shape of a real head.
There’s not really an exact rule for how much to take off here. I like to take off just enough to give the circle and slight oval shape. As you draw more and more heads, you’ll develop a sense for how much to trim off.
And once finished, do a quick check to make sure both sides are symmetrical… and erase the extra lines.
OK, now for another detail…
Here’s top-down view of a head. Notice how the head is slightly thinner in the front than it is in the back. Because of this when looking at the head from the front view we’ll be able to see a bit of the sides.
We can represent this by drawing two thin ellipses on the sides. Unlike normal ellipses, these ones are going to be a bit more pointy at the ends.
Also, notice that the ellipses correspond with the hairline and the bottom of the nose.
To give the sides of the head some dimension, let’s draw in these vertical and horizontal lines. These lines also serves to indicate the tilt of the head. The vertical lines shows that the head is pointing straight up and the horizontal line shows that the head is looking straight ahead.
Now let’s draw in the lower portion of the face. First we’ll roughly estimate the width of the chin. Next, we’ll attach the jaw. The sides of the jaw usually taper in a bit as it moves down. Then connect the lines.
Sometimes I find that it can get a little bit crowded down here. In which case, I’ll deviate from the Rule of Thirds and move the chin line down a tiny bit. But in this case, everything looks fine.
Before going further, let’s erase this guideline here.
There are two rhythm lines that connects the side of the face to the corners of the chin. These lines represents the separation between the front plane of the face and the side planes. And you can probably see this plane change on your own face.
Now, let’s add the neck for some support and our simplified head is complete.
I’ll just go over it one more time and darken and clean up some of the lines.
From here, we can add in the features. I’ll cover exactly how to do this in the future lessons.
For now, your assignment is to practice drawing your own head at least five times until you are comfortable with all the steps and have them memorized. Rewind and pause this video as many times as you need, then try and see if you can draw it all on your own.
It might seem a little complicated at first, but once you’ve done it a few times, you’ll be surprise at how intuitive it is.
Drawing Female Head-Front, Profile, Three-Quarter
Drawing Female Head-Front, Profile, Three-Quarter
Learn how to draw the female head in three separate positions; frontal, profile and in three-quarter view. You will learn how to map-out the placement of the eyes, eyebrows, nose, mouth, hair and ears. Using our instructor’s overlay method, you will love how she makes drawing one of the hardest things, easy.
|1||Mapping the Front Facing Head||1-15|
|2||Finishing the Front Facing Head||1-18|
|3||Mapping the Female Head in Profile||1-9|
|4||Finishing Drawing of Head in Profile||1-9|
|5||Mapping the Female Three-Quarter Head||1-14|
|6||Finishing the Three-Quarter Female Head||1-10|
Full transcript is available if you subscribe.
MODULE 1 • Mapping the Front Facing Head
|1||Now I am going to do the female head. You see here, the 3 head shapes. So, I am going to do the female head in 3 positions: front, profile and three-quarter. I am going to start with the front first. So, the first thing you want to do is think of the head and its shape. Basically again, it’s a nice egg shape. Have you ever seen those bald women and you just go, oh my God she has got such a great shaped head. Nice smooth symmetrical shaped head.|
|2||Next, we map-out the face and its features. The eyes are halfway, between the crown and the chin.|
|3||The nose we map-out as halfway between the eyes and the chin.|
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© 2008-2018 University of Fashion® – – Transcript for use with University of Fashion lessons only and not authorized for download or distribution
Human Head, Front Profile And Left Side Royalty Free Cliparts, Vectors, And Stock Illustration. Image 13500401.
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It’s Easy to Laugh at a Fake Horse Head Glued to the Front of a Car… | by Nir Eyal
Nir’s Note: This guest post is an excerpt from the new book Invisible Influence: The Hidden Factors that Shape Behavior, written by my friend and Wharton School professor, Jonah Berger.
Being different, the notion goes, is the route to success. Think different was even Apple’s motto for a period. And Apple is often held up as a poster child of the benefits of this ethos. Conventional wisdom suggests that products like the iPhone and Macintosh succeeded because they were different from the rest. Steve Jobs was a visionary because he thought different from everyone else.
There’s only one problem with this advice. It’s wrong.
While the success of companies like Apple and Google is often attributed to them “thinking differently,” different ideas just as often fail miserably (remember the Segway, the Newton, or Google Glass?). Further, Apple and Google’s biggest successes actually came in areas where they were followers rather than leaders. Apple didn’t introduce the first smartphone, IBM did. Yahoo and AltaVista were doing search way before Google was. Research finds that almost 50% of market pioneers fail, and later entrants, or organizations that don’t enter a market first often end up being more successful.
So if being different doesn’t explain success, what does?
In the 1800s, a new innovation was introduced that had the potential to radically change transportation. At the time, most people traveled via horse and buggy. This was fine for shorter distances, but as cities grew, the method proved restrictive. It was slow, expensive, and even dangerous. The engine (horse) had a mind of its own, and fatality rates in large metropolises like Chicago were seven times what they are for cars today.
Gasoline powered vehicles promised a solution. These early automobiles could go farther, faster, and even cut down on manure, which at the time was threatening to suffocate many major cities.
But getting people to adopt what we now think of as cars required a huge mind shift. Horses (and donkeys) had been the primary transportation method for thousands of years. While there were many drawbacks to this method, people were comfortable with it. They knew what to expect. Automobiles were completely new. They required different fuel to run, different skills to drive, and different know-how to fix.
These changes required some getting used to. The first time people saw a carriage roll down the street without a horse in front, they were shocked. Rural Americans viewed this “Devil’s Wagon” as symbolizing the decadence of the city, and introduced restrictive laws to block its intrusion. Horses, skittish to begin with, were spooked by these loud, rambling horseless carriages and prone to run away, taking their passengers careening with them.
In 1899, Uriah Smith came up with a solution. The issue he realized, was psychological more than functional. Even if automobiles performed better, a horseless carriage was still hard to conceptualize.
Smith’s Horsey Horseless
So Smith proposed something to make horses, and people, more comfortable. Named the Horsey Horseless, it involved taking a life-size replica of a horse head, down to the shoulders, and attaching it to the front of a carriage.
The buggy had the appearance of a horse-drawn vehicle, and thus horses, and their human riders, would be less likely to be scared when it passed by. The fake head also could be used as a gas tank.
It’s easy to laugh at a fake horse head glued to the front of a car. It seems silly, almost comical. But while it might seem ridiculous today, it’s hard to imagine how daunting and unconventional cars were when they were first introduced.
So rather than highlighting what made the automobile new and different, Smith did the opposite. He made the novel innovation seem more familiar. Similar rather than different.
Smith isn’t alone. Chobani has taken the yogurt market by storm. When they started, so-called Greek Yogurt made up only a tiny sliver of the yogurt market. Less than one quarter of one percent. Now Greek yogurt makes up more than 50% of the market. Chobani alone claims at least half that.
It’s tempting to attribute Chobani’s success to them being different from everyone else. But that’s just not the case. Not only weren’t they first to market, when Chobani came on the scene Fage had already been selling Greek Yogurt in the United States for almost a decade. Chobani succeeded not by being different, but by being similar to existing consumer tastes. In Greece, yogurt often came unflavored in large family size containers. But American consumers were used to buying single serving yogurt with fruit already mixed in, so that’s what Chobani offered. They reinvigorated the yogurt market by providing a healthier take on an old favorite (single serving yogurt with fruit already mixed in).
Turns out that being different doesn’t drive success, being optimally distinct does. Offering the right blend of similarity and difference. Successful innovations and ideas aren’t identical to what came before, but they aren’t completely different either. They mix familiarity and novelty, old and new.
The Toyota Prius succeeded not by going full electric, but making a gas powered car more energy efficient. Highly successful songs blend similar melodies with new lyrics. And high-impact scientific research is often grounded in prior work with a few unusual combinations of new ideas sprinkled in. Sure there is some difference, but there is also a lot of similarity.
Successful companies, products, and ideas, then, are a bit like Goldilocks and the Three Bears. Goldilocks is always turned off by the extremes. The firm bed is too firm and the soft bed too soft. The hot porridge too hot and the cold porridge too cold. But the middle is just right.
The same pattern often occurs with new products, services, and ideas. If something is too different, it requires such a shift in thinking or behavior that it often fails. The Apple Newton, an early predecessor to today’s iPhone, wasn’t just a new device, it was a completely new category. At the time, people had a hard time understanding why they needed it or how it would fit in their lives. The Segway faced similar challenges. Supposed to be a “game changer” in personal transportation, it was so different from anything else that people didn’t know what to do with it.
On the other extreme, if something is too similar, it doesn’t provide enough reason to change. If this year’s software is exactly the same as last year’s there’s no reason to upgrade. If a competitor’s product offers the same features at the same price, there’s no reason to switch.
But in between and it’s just right. Similar enough to what is already out there to evoke the warm glow of familiarity, but different enough to seem new and not simply derivative of what came before. Distinct, but optimally so.
Leveraging this Goldilocks Effect, or optimal distinctiveness, then is particularly important when managing innovation. When launching a new product like the Swiffer, how should it be described? Is it a revolutionary mop? A completely new cleaning category? And what about design? Should seats in driverless cars face forward because that is what people are used to, even if that is no longer required?
The same is true when introducing new ideas. Is it better to present a strategy as completely new, unlike anything the company has ever considered before? Or frame it as the logical progression from something being done already? Focus on difference or highlight similarity and difference at the same time?
Just like the Horsey Horseless, successfully introducing more radical innovations and ideas often involves making difference feel familiar. When TiVo introduced what we think of today as a digital video recorder, they had a similar challenge to the automobile. The technology was innovative and had the potential to create a completely new market. But tapping that potential required getting consumers to shift their behavior.
So to make it easier for consumers to understand the service, and help transition people from passive watchers to active content directors, TiVo designed their device to look like a VCR. A black, rectangle that sat below the TV or above the cable box, just like a regular VCR or DVD player would.
Pry open a DVR and a VCR and the guts are completely different. Digital video recorders don’t contain any film, so there was no need for the device to look anything like a VCR. It could have been shaped like a standard desktop computer, colored bright blue, or made into a pyramid.
But by using a familiar form, TiVo made people more comfortable adopting this radical innovation. By hiding the technology in something that looked visually familiar, TiVo used similarity to make difference feel more palatable.
Many digital actions today visually evoke their analog ancestors. We click on the icon of a floppy disk to save documents and drag digital files to be thrown away in what looks like a waste bin. eReaders have page numbers like physical books. Visual similarity also shows up offline. Digital cameras were designed to resemble film cameras and Edison designed the light bulb to resemble the existing technology of the kerosene lamp. All make the different seem more similar.
That’s not to say that difference is always bad. For incremental innovations, or ideas that seem unoriginal, highlighting differentiation helps. When Apple introduced the iMac in 1998, it featured only minor technological improvements. But from a visual standpoint it was radically different. Rather than the same old black or grey box, the iMac was shaped like a gum drop and came in colors like tangerine and strawberry. The design helped make similar technology more optimally distinct, and ultimately more successful.
For things that provide only a modest enhancement over current practice, emphasizing difference creates the needed novelty to encourage behavior change. But for things that provide a more marked change, embedding them within, rather than distinguishing them from, existing practice speeds adoption.
Too different and it’s unfamiliar, risky, and overly complex. Too similar and its boring, played out, and yesterday’s news. But in between and it’s just right. Optimally distinct. Maybe we could all learn a thing or two from Goldilocks.
Nir Eyal is the author of Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products and blogs about the psychology of products at NirAndFar.com.For more insights on changing behavior, join his free newsletter and receive a free workbook.
How to draw the head and face – anime-style guideline front view tutorial
Drawing the head have always been one of the many difficulties that an artist struggle with. To draw a decent head, you will need to know how to draw the facial features properly as well. However, just knowing how to draw the different facial features is not enough, you’ll need to place them properly on the head to complete the whole head. Since the head is made up of different facial features, being able to draw them properly first will help you in drawing the head as a whole.
In this post, I will be going through how I construct and draw basic anime-styled heads. If you’re interested in how to draw more realistic head proportions, I’ve made a post about it here. I will also talk about how you can modify the proportions to achieve different styles. This post will only be for drawing the head and placing the facial features in the front view. I will make a separate post on drawing in different angles, facial features and hair in the future.
Examples of different anime styles
As you probably already know, anime-styled drawings can differ quite a bit depending on the artist. Once you’ve learnt the basic proportions and guidelines, you can change things up depending on your own preferences! Below are some anime-styled heads in different proportions. As you can tell, they have very different proportions ranging from more realistic to less realistic.
General Construction Process
Below is just one way on how you can construct an anime style head. There are many other ways you can draw them, simply do a google search and you’ll see how other artists approach drawing heads.
First, draw a circle or an oval for the general head shape, In my case, I drew a circle. If you have difficulties drawing circles and ovals, you can use the shape tools in your digital drawing software.
Now, draw a vertical line down the middle of the circle, this is the centre line and your nose will be placed somewhere on that line.
Then, using the circle as a guide add in the chin and shape the whole head. How long or short the chin depends on your preferences or the style you want to achieve.
Add a horizontal line in the middle of the head. This is where the top of the eyes will be. In a realistic style, the eyes would be higher. The eyes should be roughly one eye apart. However, since it’s anime style, you can place them slightly closer if you want.
The nose is placed in the middle between the bottom of the chin and the middle of the eyes.
The lips will be placed slightly above the middle between the bottom of the chin and nose.
For a front view where the head is facing forward and not looking up or down, the top of the ears will align with the top of the eyebrows and the bottom of the ears will align with the nose. However, since it’s anime style, the ears can be smaller.
And above we have a proportional looking anime head! Add in the neck and hair and we have a complete drawing of an anime head!
Drawing the guidelines will help you draw the head and place the facial features more accurately. However, once you’ve done a few of them and are more experienced in drawing the head in this view, you should be able to draw them with less guidelines and quicker.
Changing up the proportions to suit your own style!
Here comes the fun part! By changing the proportions, you can create different looks. I will go through a few examples and the changes made to achieve the style.
Cute/ chibi style
The trick here is big heads, big eyes and short chins! I’ve made a more detailed post on how to draw the chibi style here.
From the picture above, you can see that a cute chibi style head is a lot shorter and rounder, thus cuter. The eyes are placed a lot lower on the face and there is little space for the nose and mouth. Some of the noses are almost on the same line as the bottom of the eyes. The eyes are also relatively larger.
More matured anime style
For a more matured anime head, the proportions should be more towards a realistic proportion. I’ve made a post about it here.
As you can see from the example above, the eyes are relatively smaller and slightly higher.
Above are how to draw the head in anime style in front view! I hope you’ve learnt something new from this post and are able to draw your very own anime head in proportion.
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90,000 Headache: 5 symptoms and reasons why a head hurts
Let’s talk about headaches, causes and consequences.
Traditionally, headache is associated with body fatigue, reaction to the weather or stress. Headache treatment is also traditional, we climb into the medicine cabinet for headache medicines, take pills and wait for the headache to stop hurting.
And if the head does not stop hurting? It is necessary to look for the cause of the headache, which is sometimes difficult to do.It is no coincidence that the doctors called the person with a headache “a medical orphan”. But, in any case, you cannot put up with a headache, the cause of the pain must be.
Let’s look at several of these reasons.
This sensation of pain, popularly described as “drilling in the temples,” occurs at low pressure, accompanies tension headache or an attack of cluster (beam) pain. The most common pain of tension among people of mental work (table and chair workers).It helps to carry out a manual massage of the head or shoulder girdle, rest for a few minutes in a horizontal position, good sleep at night and breaks from work.
Cluster pain is much more complicated. Such pain is quite rare (in five out of six cases in men), the causes of pain are not yet understood. The symptoms of this pain are pain in one side of the head.
Pressing forehead or pressing head pain
If, with a runny nose, the body temperature rises and pressing pains appear in the forehead, then perhaps these are symptoms of inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, which are located in the frontal bone.Treatment of inflammation of the paranasal sinuses at the ENT doctor and treatment is advisable not to postpone.
Shoots in the ear
Hypothermia of the head can be obtained during a morning walk or jogging to the nearest store without a headdress, as a result – in the evening there is already a feeling of pain in the ear. Hypothermia can cause both otitis externa (inflammation of the ear canal) and inflammation of the middle ear. With an existing predisposition to otitis media associated with the anatomical features of the structure of the ear, you should never overcool your head, neither in winter nor in summer.
Pierces the jaw
Possibly with trigeminal nerve inflammation. You would not wish the enemy to experience the feelings of a person with trigeminal neuralgia. The pain often does not have a specific localization, it occurs abruptly, quickly passes, but comes back again and again, sometimes at intervals of 15-30 minutes. It is easy to get inflammation, it is enough to oversleep the night in a draft or overcool on the street. The treatment will be difficult and long.
Disables half of the face
There is still a misfortune associated with cold – damage to the facial nerve, the nerve responsible for the work of facial muscles.In this case, severe pain appears in the ear area, the person’s ability to control facial expressions (most often on the right side) is lost. The face seems to be skewed.
The list of possible causes and symptoms of headaches does not end there. The way all organisms are different, the pain in the head can also manifest itself in different ways.
However, it is important to remember that headaches that appear should not be allowed to take their course. Self-medication and taking various medications without knowing the exact reason, without knowing the state of the vessels of the head and neck, blood is dangerous to your health! Therefore, we recommend to undergo an ultrasound of the vessels of the brain and neck.
90,000 What to do if your head hurts constantly?
We all have headaches, though not so often. But what if the head hurts constantly, and not three times a month? The reason can be both in the way of life and in the deterioration of health.
How lifestyle affects headache
If you suffer from a regular headache, pay attention to your habits. Discomfort can come from fatigue, hunger, lack of sleep, overexertion, or stress.To relieve pain, try changing your routine for at least a couple of weeks:
- Go to bed early – a person needs at least 8 hours of sleep to rest. But don’t sleep for more than 10 hours. In this case, the oxygen and blood sugar levels will drop and cause a headache.
- If you sit for a long time at books, a computer, or your work is connected with looking at small details – be distracted every half hour. Get up, stretch, do not strain your eyes for at least a couple of minutes.
- Stop drinking alcohol. It affects blood pressure and affects the state of blood vessels in the head.
Try to avoid stressful situations and negative emotions. If your headache isn’t caused by illness, then these simple tips can help you avoid it.
To relieve pain, you can take an analgesic (which medicine is right for you, the doctor will help you choose), have a snack, lie down to sleep for half an hour, ventilate the room and do a head massage.
When to see a neurologist
There are very few diseases that affect nerve tissues and the brain. May cause headache:
- Neuralgia of the facial and trigeminal nerves – with it, the nerve fibers are pinched and inflamed, which can cause you to constantly feel pain;
- Neoplasms. Both benign and malignant tumors press on the vessels, increase intracranial pressure. The head hurts only on the side where the tumor is located.The disease can be suspected by a general deterioration of the condition, fever, lethargy and fatigue.
If the causes of the headache are not clear, the neurologist will refer you to an MRI or CT scan of the brain – they will quickly determine the cause of the discomfort. And if everything is in order with the brain itself, a competent neurologist will be able to find the source of the pain and send it to the doctor of the required specialty.
Heart and spine as a cause of pain
Often the head hurts due to problems with the heart and blood vessels.Usually older people are prone to this, but some diseases are common among young people:
- High and low blood pressure. The head hurts when the weather changes, with a sharp rise, dizziness may begin and darken in the eyes. This is due to vascular tension and oxygen starvation of the brain.
- Vascular diseases. With them, the pain lasts for several hours in the eye area, and blood may flow from the nose.
- Sclerosis and pinched vessels are inevitable companions of atherosclerosis and scoliosis.Due to the reduced lumen of the vessels, less oxygen enters the brain, the head begins to ache either over the entire area, or in the back of the head and temples.
- Stroke – thrombosis or rupture of the vessels of the brain. Severe dull pain appears, a person may lose mobility on one side of the face or body, and stop distinguishing familiar objects. At the first symptoms of a stroke, it is necessary to urgently call an ambulance – after a few hours, the brain will begin to die.
To detect pressure problems, you just need to monitor your condition.It is no coincidence that at every appointment with a therapist, you must measure your blood pressure. Do not be alarmed if it changes on some day: this is completely normal. But vascular disease can only be seen on MRI of the brain or magnetic resonance angiography. You will be referred for these examinations in order to accurately establish a diagnosis if it did not work out right away.
If you have back problems, the headache is most likely due to them. Any curvature of posture, an increase in bone tissue on the vertebrae, hernia and protrusion lead to pinching of blood vessels.And because of this, oxygen and nutrients cannot enter the brain, which causes pain, fatigue and drowsiness. Much less often, the pain from the spine radiates to the head. This happens with injuries, hernias and curvatures of the cervical and upper thoracic regions.
A neurologist and an orthopedic surgeon deal with problems of the spine. The doctor will pay attention to the curvature of the back, first of all, even on a simple visual examination. To clarify the diagnosis, the doctor may prescribe an X-ray, MRI or CT scan of the damaged spine.
Headache after injuries and illnesses
Pain can be caused by two types of injuries: damage to the skull and spine. The reason for their discomfort is different:
- Traumatic brain injury results in a hematoma that increases intracranial pressure. It squeezes blood vessels and proximal parts of the brain. If the skull is damaged, debris can get inside and cause bleeding. In this case, the pain occurs some time after the injury. The eyes will darken, dizziness and nausea will begin.There is pain all over the head, but at the site of the injury it is especially strong.
- With spinal injuries, large vessels are clamped, which causes oxygen starvation. If the neck is injured, then the head will ache simply from the proximity of the injury.
In both cases, you must immediately consult a doctor. To clarify the nature and extent of the injury, the doctor can do an X-ray or MRI, but only after the acute phase has passed.
Diseases can affect headache both directly and indirectly:
- Severe infections can lead to inflammation of the brain structures, thinning of the vessel walls and destruction of the meninges.
- With flu, colds, sore throats and any other respiratory illness, breathing is impaired. And because of the smaller amount of incoming air, oxygen starvation and headache begin.
In these conditions, there is no point in going to a neurologist complaining of a headache. It is better to tell your doctor about it so that he can analyze the situation, adjust the treatment or refer you to hospitalization.
Are there any other reasons why you have a headache all the time?
Possible and even very likely! May cause headache:
- Medicines .For many drugs, pain is listed as a side effect.
- Hormonal failure . It can be both physiological (pregnancy, adolescence, menopause) and pathological (disruption of the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, ovaries). Hormones control our entire body, and when their concentration changes, the state of health will inevitably deteriorate.
- Mental diseases and pathological conditions . With neuroses, panic attacks and depression, headaches are not uncommon.Physiologically, they are also caused by hormones and oxygen deprivation, however, to get rid of the pain, you have to cope with mental ailments.
- Constant exposure to allergens can trigger headaches due to nasal congestion (and therefore lack of oxygen) and pressure changes.
- Constant exposure to toxic substances causes respiratory distress and irritates mucous membranes.
There can be much more rare diseases, for example, multiple sclerosis or parasite infestation, which lead to the destruction of brain tissue.
At the first visit, the doctor will ask you about everything that may be related to the cause of the pain. Probably will refer you to another specialist: endocrinologist, psychotherapist, allergist. In the case of an incorrectly selected medicine, the doctor will be able to prescribe an analogue without side effects. For diagnostics, you may need:
- MRI or CT of the brain,
- MRI of the cervical spine,
- blood test for hormones,
- general and biochemical blood test,
- tests for allergens.
There are many causes of headaches and can be difficult to identify quickly. However, the diagnostic methods are very similar, and you do not have to spend a lot of time on examinations. And, even if the fifth doctor can cure you, and not the second, getting rid of a constant headache is worth all the time spent on it.
90,000 Headache in children (cephalalgia in children)
Why does the child have a headache?
Headache (cephalalgia) is any discomfort that occurs in the area from the eyebrows to the back of the head.This is one of the few sufferings that almost anyone will be familiar with. At a neurologist’s appointment, every fifth patient complains of a headache.
For a long time it was believed that cephalalgia in children, especially young children, is rare. In fact, this is not the case. It’s just that kids cannot describe their feelings with a headache, and older children do not like to complain about it and even hide this fact from their parents.
The most common causes of cephalalgia in children are mental, physical and emotional stress, vegetative-vascular dystonia, migraine, head trauma, inflammatory diseases in the head and neck.It is worth paying attention to how much time the child spends near the computer or TV. Prolonged stress on the organs of sight and hearing can provoke a headache.
Often, cephalalgia occurs in a child who spends a long time in a stuffy room or eats irregularly. By the way, children who do not attend kindergarten are more likely to experience pain. This is due to the fact that parents do not always adhere to the daily routine for a child in a family setting, while in kindergarten there is timely nutrition and daytime sleep.
Sometimes a severe and especially sudden headache can signal problems of a disease of the brain or central nervous system. Also, cephalalgia may indicate emotional or psychological problems, or a viral disease: tonsillitis, colds, flu.
Parents should remember that headache complaints are subjective and difficult to verify. There are “phenomena of pain” that make it possible to judge the presence and nature of the pain syndrome. It is necessary to analyze how a child behaves with complaints of cephalalgia.With complaints that deserve attention, the background of the mood is reduced, interest in the environment weakens, the child seeks to lie down. There is a serious expression on the face, sometimes shifted eyebrows, folds over the bridge of the nose. Sometimes crying or moaning occurs. Pallor or redness of the face, dark circles under the eyes, cold fingers are striking.
Headache in infants is manifested by general anxiety, sleep disturbance, refusal to eat, regurgitation of the “fountain”, fever. In severe cases, there is a monotonous “cerebral” cry.At 1-2 years old, children, instead of complaining of headaches, talk about fatigue, want to lie down. They may blush whites of the eyes, yawning appears. Children from 3 to 7 years old can already distinguish and describe cephalalgia.
Nowadays, schoolchildren are constantly experiencing stress and overwork. Among all types of cephalalgia in adolescents, muscle tension headache is more common in 80% of cases and more often. Children complain of a feeling of “tightening” around the head, there is tension and soreness of the scalp muscles, and there is discomfort when combing the hair.
At the age of 12-13, hormonal changes begin in the child’s body, affecting the work of his blood vessels and psychoemotional state, which can provoke the development of vascular headache. A large dependence on changes in weather conditions is revealed.
Migraine may be a possible cause of recurrent headache attacks. The likelihood of migraine in a child is the higher, the more his adult relatives are exposed to it. An attack can provoke hunger, certain foods, such as cheese, chocolate.The headache is accompanied by nausea, in severe cases – vomiting, “spots” appear before the eyes, photophobia.
To clarify the nature of cephalalgia in many children, it becomes necessary to conduct laboratory and instrumental studies, which makes it possible to exclude volumetric formations of the brain, the presence of concomitant diseases.
Currently, in addition to drug therapy, a wide range of therapeutic methods and effects are used to treat cephalalgia.The amount of medical assistance is determined by the doctor in each case.
Treatment of episodic headaches in children should begin with the correction of the regimen and nutrition, creating comfortable conditions for sleep. Daily walks in the fresh air are required. From sports disciplines, preference is given to swimming, wushu, karate, yoga. For emotionally labile, impressionable children, classes with a relaxation psychotherapist and auto-training are recommended.
Physiotherapeutic methods of treatment can become an alternative to drug therapy.
In children’s clinics “ProMeditsina” for the treatment of headaches, the methods of transcranial micropolarization (for cephalalgia after head injuries) and interstitial electrical stimulation using the Gerasimov apparatus (for migraine, vascular headache) are successfully used. Children with vegetative-vascular dystonia are shown acupuncture, massage, therapeutic baths.
In most cases, a child’s headache is benign, but one should not forget that in some cases the headache becomes a manifestation of a serious illness.That is why it is important not to ignore even the child’s rare complaints. Parental anxiety is often understandable and justified.
The author of the article: doctor – neurologist of the highest category Tukhfaeva Svetlana Gennadievna
90,000 Why does a teenager have a headache and what to do about it
Headaches and fatigue occur in schoolchildren of all ages, but in adolescents, for example, they appear with some nuances.
Anna Chernousova, osteopathic doctor at the Osteon Clinic
Parents notice that at a certain age, their children begin to complain of discomfort more often than before.Of course, the stress at school, a sedentary lifestyle, unbalanced diet and constant lack of sleep do their job. Letidor turned to an expert for clarification.
Not getting enough sleep Most teenagers go to bed very late and have to get up very early. Parents need to pay special attention to this. Below in the article we will talk about sleep rates.
Stress This factor should be given great importance, because the stress of schoolchildren is very different.These are fears of teachers, fear of going to the blackboard, fear of classmates – all these phobias provoke poor posture, which makes the head seem to be pressed into the shoulders.
Incorrect posture Children slouch, try not to stand out instinctively, in order to be invisible. When writing, students, as a rule, lean on one side: either turn to the stand with books, or simply write askew all the time, lift their shoulder, usually right-handed – right, left-handed – left. Most kids wear their backpacks incorrectly.Children in primary school usually carry them over their shoulders and under the supervision of parents who take care of both the anatomical backrest and the light weight of the textbooks. But older students consider backpacks unfashionable, carry a bag on one shoulder and warp, especially if they travel to school from afar.
Inactivity or overload Parents often complain that schoolchildren have little physical activity. Not all children go in for sports all the time, and children often like to shirk from physical education lessons at school.They simply stopped walking a lot.
It also happens vice versa – there are children-athletes who have constant stress from excessive physical exertion. Often they do not correspond to the inner potential of the child, that is, physically children can exercise, but they do it through force, because the parents and the coach demand. Naturally, such processes cripple the spine; children develop hernias with inadequate overload.
Consequences of childbirth or intrauterine development There is indeed a violation of the structures of the base of the skull, which occurred during intrauterine life: the child was not very physiologically lying in the mother’s stomach.Or, during childbirth, there was some kind of bone shift that did not compensate on its own. Or a child was born as a result of a cesarean section and, for example, he has functional torticollis in infancy, which is compensated by massages, physical activity, gymnastics, exercise therapy, but is not fully cured.
Children born as a result of difficult prolonged labor have problems with posture. As a rule, in the first year of life, this is manifested by high or low tone, strabismus, mild neurological abnormalities.In principle, our nature is tailored to compensate for everything on its own. Nevertheless, in conditions of constant tension, a complex school curriculum, new and not always smooth relationships with peers and teachers, the body reveals its weaknesses.
Types of headaches in schoolchildren
I, as an osteopath, distinguish pain due to:
- neck muscle tension Pains of a cervicogenic nature are often observed in schoolchildren. Cervix – neck, that is, these pains arise due to the tension of the cervical muscles, provoked by stress, fear, an uncomfortable position at the desk, improper wearing of bags and backpacks.
- mental, mental and emotional stress
- Disorders of venous outflow from the head In adults, such pains occur mainly in the morning, and in children they can be during the day, regardless of the degree of fatigue. The problem is a violation of the outflow of the internal jugular vein, which passes through the base of the skull and draws venous blood out of the skull.
What osteopathy knows about headaches
We note that children with fatigue and headaches usually have an incorrect bite, posture, visual defects, flat feet, valgus or varus feet.But only an osteopath sees the body as a complex and knows that there is rarely one defect. During the diagnosis, something else is found, but during the treatment we immediately affect the entire system of the body.
People who have not been treated in childhood with different eyes often seek help, for example, when one eye is larger and the other is smaller. It is possible to get rid of the consequences of difficult childbirth even in adulthood, only osteopaths can move the bones of the skull. Results can be quick or slow.
Children often have headaches due to spasm of the muscles of the neck, blood vessels, vertebral arteries.If the muscles of the neck are spasmodic, they disrupt the biomechanics of the vertebrae, and when they move, they disrupt the direct course of the artery. When diagnosing children’s headaches, it is often revealed that the vessels of the vertebral artery, the branches of which go to the brain, are narrowed on one side.
These are the problems that an osteopath can solve: – Improve the biomechanics of the spine – Restore the structure of not only the neck, but the entire spine – Relieve tension from the neck muscles – Improve the blood supply to the brain.
Recommendations for parents of schoolchildren
Reasonable physical activity Each child has its own constitution: it is easy for someone to ski, for someone it is extremely difficult, and love for sports should be instilled, and not require records from the child.Overloads give rise to complexes in relation to themselves, and they do not bring health. Children should engage in feasible physical activity, choosing it on their own, listening to the advice of parents and the recommendations of the coaches.
Two physical education lessons per week are not enough, you can take children to general physical training, gymnastics to strengthen the muscle corset. Not bars and rings, but just good physical education, yoga, Pilates for children.
It happens that a child does a lot of dancing, for example, but still suffers from headaches.That is, it seems that physical activity is constantly present in a child’s life. This means that we must look for the problem in something else.
Correct sleep and rest If a child gets up at 7 am, then he should go to bed at 9 pm. He may not fall asleep right away, but he will already be preparing for bed. You can read books, you can do a light massage, talk, but this is already a prelude to sleep. Relaxation is also part of relaxation. A ten-hour sleep for young schoolchildren is a must.They get tired very quickly when they don’t get enough sleep. And children in elementary school are still supposed to sleep during the day.
Walking It’s good when children walk from home to school. But in the conditions of modern life, this happens less and less, many children are taken. I would like to advise parents to park further away, arrive a little early and walk with the child to school. Walking perfectly restores the body: lymphatic drainage improves, we breathe fresh air, of course, with a reservation for the surrounding urban environment.In any case, it’s better than sitting in a car and breathing in exhaust fumes.
At school, you need to alternate lessons with lunch, a walk, if there is an extended period, then you can do the lessons, and then go for a walk again, but at least 2 times a day for at least an hour. In principle, such things must be observed if the weather allows it again, and up to minus 15 it is quite normal, even if there is wind, rain and snow. There is no bad weather, there are bad clothes.
Nutrition Everyone knows about the harm of fast food and soda.Children want what is forbidden, and taste enhancers do their dirty work.
It is difficult, of course, when you yourself are not an adherent of healthy food, to impose proper nutrition on children. If a child sees that his parents have sandwiches on the table, and he must eat oatmeal, then a certain dissonance arises. We must start with ourselves, instill in the family a culture of proper nutrition.
Children need proteins, fats and carbohydrates. All three components. The child definitely needs oil, not only vegetable, but also of animal origin.The cholesterol that we fear is not only harmful, but also beneficial. It is a building material.
Everyone has their own constitution, someone can be a vegan in childhood and feel good at the same time, and someone needs red meat, beef, which saturates the body and brings hemoglobin.
You need everything, the only question is how much. You don’t need to eat meat every day, 2-3 times a week is enough. As a snack, you do not need to give sweets and breads, dried fruits and nuts are better.Eat more seasonal fruits and vegetables.
Svetlana Vazquez Cremades is a journalist from Vladimir. She is the founder of the TV-MIG website and at the same time remains our contributing author, although today Svetlana lives with her husband in Spain. The last time she came to Vladimir was for the New Year holidays …
A week ago, we were shocked by the news that Sveta was diagnosed with COVID.She was hospitalized in Valencia. Many Vladimir colleagues were interested in her health, worried …
Today, she herself will openly answer questions about her health and tell you whether to be afraid of the coronavirus.
I have to tell it
I decided to talk about my illness, about what is happening to me and what happened for several reasons.
Firstly, there is still a lot of speculation on social networks about whether COVID-19 is so dangerous.”Sofa experts” cite as an example “data” on deaths from ARVI, influenza and other diseases, “secrets” of the world conspiracy are being revealed, a lot of fake information and rumors: “Here is my grandfather’s friend’s cousin told.”
Secondly, many people may miss or misunderstand the first symptoms of the disease and miss the time to seek medical help when it is still able to help.
Thirdly, perhaps my story will make you more careful and more serious about your own and other people’s health.
In addition, I have noticed a number of features that can alleviate or aggravate the condition in case of illness.
I have 15 days of illness. You can assume that I survived. The condition is almost excellent, although doctors warn that for at least another 14 days I must observe the self-isolation regime at home.
Everything has changed
I am in Spain. It happened. I have a family here. We live mostly in Valencia. Back in February and even at the beginning of March, when the virus was raging in China with might and main, life in Spain went on as usual.Very warm winter. During the day, the temperature rose to 25 degrees. The Spaniards are very fond of gatherings in cafes and bars, communication, all sorts of holidays. There is no stiffness in their culture, and double kisses when meeting friends and acquaintances is an old and good tradition. Was.
Everything changed in mid-March. There were signs that it was time for the country to enter quarantine, but the political ambitions of the country’s current leaders led to the quarantine being delayed. For about a week. This led to a large outbreak.After all, tens of thousands of people have visited feminist marches across the country, many of whom were infected there.
I am a very responsible and disciplined person. When quarantine was introduced in the country, I tried to minimize the threat of infection – a mask, gloves, a hat on my head, disinfection of goods from a store where I went once a week.
But it did not help. I think that my assumption about who and where could infect me is absolutely correct.But there is no point in talking about it. That person appears to be asymptomatic with the virus. And this makes the virus especially insidious.
The first day
Everything was as usual: shower, breakfast, teleworking, cooking dinner. At about five or six in the evening, when we watched a movie, I felt nauseous. Strange. Heavy. But by this time the stomach was already almost empty. Therefore, going to the bathroom “talk to Walter” did not bring relief.About an hour later, apparently tired of watching my throwing to the toilet and back, my husband offered me a Coca-Cola drink. Say, they all here are so struggling with nausea. I remembered reading somewhere about this strange effect of this drink, which helps in such cases. She took a can of cola out of the refrigerator and drank it almost in one gulp. The nausea is really gone. But by the night there was a feeling of sore throat. But I figured it was because of the cold drink I drank so quickly.
In the morning, the sore throat did not go away, but increased.There was a strange weakness and a wadden sensation in my head, when thoughts are difficult to gather in a heap. However, I tried not to unstuck too much, began to drink “Tsitovir” brought from Russia. I even managed to go to the store to shop.
In the morning I again refueled on Russian medicine. It seems that I feel much better. Did a general cleaning. In the evening, I got a headache and a nasty feeling of trembling in my body. The temperature began to jump – from 37, 2 to 36.
The headache intensified, weakness returned again, a cotton head, confusion, a cough (at times – dry, at times – not very), trembling in the body. It was then that for the first time I wondered what it was for me, and where did it come from. However, my condition, though unpleasant, is not critical. I try to protect my loved ones as much as possible – I began to wipe everything around with bleach more often.
The fifth day
The weakness increases.Confused, like a drunk, consciousness, temperature 37-37.3. Cough. Dry. Paroxysmal. Pains began to appear in the lungs, well, or in the chest, both in front and behind. Lost appetite. You have to force yourself to eat. I feel the taste and smells and so calm myself. Communicating with relatives via video link, I see how they are worried, and just like me, they are afraid to believe that this is IT.
It became a turning point. It got much worse. The feeling that air has been released from you, like from a balloon.No strength at all. When performing any action – the strongest sweating, so that you have to change clothes several times a day. The head is still wadded and not thinking, the temperature jumps like crazy – from 37.5 to 35.7. I decide to go to the local clinic.
The girl at the front desk writes down my data and sends me to the doctor. Rather, they come for me and take me to another office. The doctor asks carefully about the symptoms, listens to breathing, measures oxygen in the blood and pressure.For some reason, special attention is paid to the symptom of the loss of taste and smell, although according to statistics, this symptom occurs in only 10% of patients. She writes me prescriptions, including for a cough syrup, and sends me home to self-isolation. At the same time, he repeats several times that if I feel worse, I have to call the hotline. You don’t have to come to the clinic anymore. Now they themselves will call and ask how I am.
When I was returning home, I saw neighbors walking in the courtyard.No, they are not a couple, they are just neighbors, they walked side by side, walked and talked. No masks and no protection. Mothers with children are located on the playground. Also all without masks. I wanted to shout to them, “People, what are you doing? Put on your masks. Get away from each other! It is very dangerous!”. Of course, I didn’t shout anything. I just didn’t have the strength.
Easier again. This virus has strange retreat-onset periods. In medical practice on the COVID-19 pandemic, it has been repeatedly noted that people can feel relief and fall into a coma in a couple of hours.This is a very dangerous and insidious enemy. It is easier for me, of course, slightly – pain in the sternum and coughing persist, my head still does not understand well, the temperature is still jumping. Slightly less weakness. I can get up. Appetite appeared. The last two points please the doctors from the local clinic who call me every day. They say I carry the virus mildly.
Rollback again. Right in the morning. The weakness increased again.I try not to panic, although the first attacks of shortness of breath appear. Distracted by work and household chores. Every night before going to bed, I tell myself that tomorrow will be easier. Doctors remind that if it worsens it is better to call the hotline. I make excuses for myself why I don’t. I called my sisters in Russia, whom I hadn’t seen for several years. In Russia, they still treat the disease with sarcasm and irony. And this is bad.
Condition, as on the previous day.But the difficulty in breathing increases. I told about this to the physician from the local clinic, who called. Spanish relatives insist on hospitalization and ask me to believe that their doctors are good specialists, and in the hospital I will be calmer and more reliable. By the evening, my health deteriorates sharply – I am shaking, there is not enough oxygen, I am suffocating. A panic attack hits me. It seems that now I am going to die. I go out onto the terrace. Cool. I’m out of breath. The terrace seems to be better. The coolness and iodized sea air help a little.Manages to inhale oxygen. I have never felt so bad in my life. My husband demands that I call the emergency hotline, or threatens to do it myself. And I’m scared: the language barrier when the head does not work. With great difficulty I fall asleep by three o’clock in the morning, having opened the doors to the terrace, from where coolness and fresh air come.
Everything is the same as in the ninth. Difficulty breathing, paroxysmal dry cough, extreme weakness.The phone never stops. These are relatives from Russia and Spain who persuade me to go to the hospital. The local doctor does the same and calls to see how I feel. Realizing that I will not survive one more night like this, I dial the hotline number. My data is recorded there. After 15 minutes, they call from the local clinic to specify the address. They say that you have to get ready, the ambulance will arrive within half an hour (the ambulance in Spain is not the same as in Russia, it only travels in case of emergency). An ambulance arrives in an hour and a half.I am not outraged by such a delay, because I understand how many emergencies there are now. They call me to come down. The driver guy in the outfit of almost an astronaut gives me new gloves. We’re going to the hospital. In Castellón, compared to all of Spain, there are not so many sick people. No one has died from COVID-19 for the entire time of the epidemic. An additional hospital block is being built here for the infected, but endless torrential rains prevent completion of the construction. Everything in the hospital is divided into zones covered with thick cellophane.I will be escorted to the hall where I am waiting for the doctor to see me. Nearby (but further than 1.5 meters) mother and daughter are sitting. A girl of about 7 years old seems to have appendicitis – she complains of pain in the lower abdomen, she vomits, she has a temperature. The girl is taken away. It is good that they continue to provide assistance to emergency patients here. It’s my turn. Again measurements of temperature, pressure, oxygen, pulse. X-rays are taken. There is no pneumonia. And this is a great joy. Difficulties in breathing, as the doctor explains, are caused by two factors: the trachea is inflamed – this is also one of the virus entrances to the lungs, and a spasm arises from constant coughing in the lungs.Now Russian pathologists say that breathing problems in patients are caused by the fact that hemoglobin in the blood, affected by the virus, cannot deliver oxygen. I don’t know which of all this is true. I am offered to move into the “ward”. This is the staff’s area, separated by a thin partition. The hospital is overcrowded. And if at night they bring someone who needs oxygen, they will move me to the “waiting room”. The spasm from my lungs was removed, and it is much easier to breathe. Therefore, in order not to take the place of another person, I decide to go back.Moreover, the doctor agrees that I have a mild form. I don’t need intensive care. Through the open doors of other chambers, I see people hooked up to oxygen. They let me go, but with only one condition – total self-isolation in one of the rooms, no contacts in others. On the street – not a foot. In case of any deterioration, return or call an ambulance.
We bought medicines at the pharmacy (these are medicines with codeine) that relieve pain in the lungs and relieve spasms.Breathing is easier, albeit a little. The cough persists but has become productive. Temperature 37.2. Headache and weakness. The shaking inside also persists. I spent the whole day in bed. Only in the evening I went out onto the terrace to breathe a little fresh sea air. Doctors from the local clinic continue to monitor my health. And I am very grateful to them. They are very attentive.
The wrinkle is gone from the head, although the head itself still hurts.There is still a cough. Still cowards from the inside. Appetite is so-so – I eat more, because I have to eat. The temperature is still over 37. There is still weakness. The cough also persists. But not in fits. I am a smoker. But during her illness she began to smoke two or even three times less. There is nothing to breathe without tobacco.
You can breathe. For the first time in a week, I was able to breathe deeply. Lord, what a happiness it is. No, it’s really happiness – to breathe.The head still hurts, but the temperature is already exactly 37. The appetite is coming back worse, and this worries the doctors. Weakness is also there, but not so critical. Today I even managed to walk on the terrace. And in the evening I went out to applaud with all the doctors.
How I looked forward to this day! According to rumors, the infection is treated for 14 days, however, the doctor from Castellón said that it was from 14 to 21. My friends in Tarragona – a married couple – were sick for three weeks.
The weakness is still there, but mild. There is almost no cough. The head is clear. The temperature is below 37. I survived!
Now the answers to the main questions
Did I do the test and what did it show?
I did. I am attaching a photo from the appointments. They took it from the nose, thrusting a cotton swab almost into the brain. Gave a positive result. It is clear that no one in the world sends the test results on paper.They just call and speak. Whether you take my word for it is up to you. In Spain, due to the difficulties with the number of patients, only those who need urgent help are diagnosed. Then you will need to pass another one to confirm the negative one. But this does not mean that I can immediately leave the quarantine. After recovery, the person remains infectious for about two weeks.
Does alcohol help?
Not. Every time I drank even a sip of wine, I got worse.Alcohol reduces the body’s defenses.
Can I get sick again?
I am not a physician, and virologists all over the world argue about this. On the one hand, there are re-illnesses, on the other hand, the reliability of the tests is not so high, there are both false-negative and false-positive results. In addition, the virus constantly mutates, but the transfusion of plasma from the recovered helps the newly ill. In general, no one will give you an unambiguous answer to this question now.
Y is it true that I have recovered?
Not. If you read carefully what I wrote, you noticed that there were days when it seemed to me that the virus had receded. But then he came back. Here he is so insidious. Even on the same day, you can feel normal, and within an hour, the state of health sharply worsens. However, if I hadn’t had pneumonia before that day, I definitely survived.
Will everyone have this disease like this?
Not.Each person will have a different course of illness. For some, it is completely asymptomatic.
What are the most dangerous days in illness?
6th and 8th to 10th. These days the crisis is coming. These are the statistics, at least in Spain. The main thing is to survive them. However, with a severe course of the disease, another 15th and 22nd day are added. You may not survive them.
Are there as many sick people as they say?
There are many more.Tests are done to people in critical condition, in a severe form of the disease, during hospitalization (at least in Europe and the USA), the tests give a 30% error, and they, in an amicable way, need to be repeated, but there are few of them, so people with false negative test can actually be sick and be dangerous to others, without knowing it. The exact number of survivors can be determined after a pandemic by the presence of antibodies to the virus in their blood. Unfortunately, most likely, the whole world will be faced with the fact that they will find lonely deceased people who could not wait or call a doctor.The statistics will be further refined.
Many Russians play sports incorrectly, harming themselves
Before any exercise it is imperative to warm up and stretch. Warming up should take at least 7-10 minutes. Stretch out immediately after warming up. When running, if you feel pain or tightness in the lower leg area, you need to stop and stretch the lower leg, as well as the thigh muscles in the front and back. There is a venous pump in the lower leg – a pump that pumps blood up through the body – so the lower leg should never be left “stone”.
Today, thousands of men and women jog, wind kilometers on bicycles and swing abs on horizontal bars. But even with the naked eye it is clear that many of them play sports incorrectly and harm themselves. How to avoid injury?
If in my youth I knew about the correct running technique, muscle pumping and other nuances of physical education, says a professional fitness trainer, Honored Master of Sports, multiple champion of Russia and European champion (1996) in triple jump, European champion in pentathlon, as well as master of sports in rugby and football Elena Lebedenko – then today I would have my menisci and knees, a healthy back and so on.Unfortunately, some things people find out too late. And this is why I train in order to teach my wards not to get injured and to increase their health ”.
According to Elena, the most traumatic amateur sport is running.
First, when running, a person receives a serious shock load on the orthopedic apparatus, knees and lower legs. The body of a 20-year-old runner will cope with this load on its own, but if you are
30 or more, the joints must be spared in order to maintain their working resource as long as possible.“I often see large men and women running in marathons (competition sneakers with a thin heel. – Ed.), Or even not in running shoes at all, besides, on asphalt,” says Elena. – This is a direct path to serious knee injury. To avoid unpleasant consequences, sneakers should be chosen with the thickest and softest sole and, if possible, not save too much on them. It is also advisable to select sneakers with the correct pronation for each particular runner (pronation, or inversion, of the foot is an internal eversion of the foot while walking or running.- Approx. ed.) and just comfortable, for a specific foot. And you need to run along a gravel path or, even better, along a tartan, forest path or grass. This is especially true for runners weighing more than 80 kg for men and 60 kg for women. I will say more, in the gym, during workouts, I forbid running even on an automatic treadmill – there is only race walking on it. The point is that the treadmill gives a strong kickback when the foot is positioned and the shock load on the knees increases. ”
Secondly, you need to run correctly.The expert emphasizes that the foot should be placed softly, as if it were made of papier-mâché, not jump high, but “creep” over the path so that the head always remains at the same level. It is better to run slowly, since a fast run does nothing to health, but only takes away from him. It is better for health to run longer and slower, and it is easier to follow the technique when running slowly. Better yet, walk long and fast with sticks.
“You need to show your running technique, it’s really difficult,” continues Elena Lebedenko.- But all the same I will try in words. You need to run not with your shins – we call it “gluing your legs” – but with your thighs and buttocks. The thigh should be extended forward of the pelvis and during the push pass through the pelvis back. The leg should be lifted off the ground at the last moment, and not in the middle of the trajectory. It is necessary to put your foot under the center of gravity, and not try to bring it forward. And do not jump in any case – otherwise you will be left without a foot, knees, lower leg and lower back! The groin and chest must be in front. If a runner’s butt is “off”, this is wrong, not running anymore, but, as we say in internal slang, “pushing a wheelbarrow”.
Further – also extremely important – elbows and shoulders. We often tell clients that elbows are running. When running, the shoulders should be relaxed and lowered, the arms should be bent at the elbows at about 90 degrees. The elbows should move in parallel planes and work like pendulums – with each step, move a little forward and wind up all the way back. Improper use of the arms while running leads to injuries to the neck and ribs. If you learn how to run correctly, you can do it even with overweight, and everything will only be a plus ”.
A separate running technique, quite complex, but minimizing the load on the legs, is toe running. Without experience, it is unlikely that it will be possible to immediately run “to the tip”. It is necessary to introduce this technique into use gradually, at first for the first 5 minutes of jogging, after a couple of weeks for 10 minutes, and so on. The point is that after the flight phase the runner should land not on the heel or even on the entire foot, but on the toe. Then the foot rolls onto the heel, or rather, the weight is transferred to the entire foot, followed by the traditional push.It should be noted that running “to the toe” is not equally physiological for all runners – it is easier for someone, harder for someone. In any case, it is necessary to start running “on the toe” at an extremely slow pace.
The main mistakes when cycling are completely different, for example, a low-set saddle, continues Elena. A large load on bent legs is extremely unphysiological, since the cartilage at this moment has a small area of contact with the joint. The saddle must be positioned so that the leg is straight at the bottom of the trajectory.
Further – the swing of the press. Only dry and short people can afford to lean back and sit on a special device. For heavy and even people with an average weight, this exercise will lead to lower back injuries, warns Lebedenko. “The abs should be pumped like this: lie down on the floor at home, put your outstretched legs with your heels on the sofa, relax your legs, put your hands behind your head and twist your torso into a roll until your shoulder blades are off the floor.” For a start, 30 times is enough.
The next exercise for the press is to lie on the floor, put your legs bent at a right angle on the sofa so that the buttocks are close to the sofa.Then relax your legs, put your hands behind your head and in this position do another 30 twists, trying to tear your shoulder blades off the floor.
Further, the number of twists in both positions can be increased.
Horizontal bars and parallel bars are very good for men of short stature with short arms, emphasizes Lebedenko. People whose arms are longer than average should approach strength exercises on horizontal bars and uneven bars carefully, gaining the load gradually. It is also worth remembering that excessive zeal when working on the uneven bars and horizontal bar, especially in people with a large weight and age over thirty, can lead to serious complex injuries of the elbow and (or) shoulder joints, which are difficult and long to heal.
“Alas, a person is strong in hindsight,” Elena Lebedenko repeats her main idea. – Most of my clients came to me after knee surgery, spinal disc replacement and other unpleasant surgeries. Now they know for sure that they need to do sports correctly. Do not bring it to this, learn everything in advance ”.
The third lesson in rehabilitation. Intensive exercise in apartment conditions
To help those who do not know how to cope with lack of movement and feelings of anxiety from self-isolation or quarantine, RG continues to publish advice from senior researcher at the National Medical Research Center of Therapy and Preventive Medicine of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences Natalia Novikova …And also the author’s complexes of exercises developed by her for different categories – both age and health.
We move actively
– To maintain physical activity and better respiratory activity, it is necessary to use exercises for joint mobility and coordination of movements, advises Natalya Konstantinovna Novikova. -Since it is not always possible to use complexes at home, for which a large space is needed, I propose a set of exercises with a stick that do not require this.Instead of a gymnastic stick, you can use any household equipment – a mop stick, a shovel handle, or even a metal pipe from a vacuum cleaner.
Exercises are performed in a sitting position on a chair, the back is straight. We repeat each from 3 to 6 times.
Exercises for those who want to move and have little space
1. Sitting on a chair, back straight, stick with a wide grip on your knees. Raise the stick up just above the level of the head, bending in the lower back and not bending the elbows – a slow inhalation through the nose.Lower the stick down to your knees with straight arms, raising your shoulders as much as possible. The body is tilted so that the shoulders go beyond the line of the hands – a slow exhalation through the mouth.
2. Stick with a wide grip over the head. Move the stick horizontally, to the right, left hand in front, right hand in back, elbows straight – inhale slowly through the nose. Return to starting position – slowly exhale through the mouth. The same – in the other direction.
3. Stick with a wide grip on straight arms in front of the chest. Move the stick to the right to a horizontal position with a rotation of 180 degrees.Left hand above, right below – stick parallel to the floor – inhale slowly through the nose. Return to starting position – slowly exhale through the mouth. The same in the other direction.
4. Stick with a wide grip above the head, arms straight. Move the stick to a vertical position to the right, left arm bent at the elbow, above the head, right straight at the hip joint – inhale slowly through the nose. Return to starting position – slowly exhale through the mouth. The same in the other direction.
5. Stick on the shoulders with a wide grip, turn the body to the side as much as possible, lingering at the extreme point – inhale slowly through the nose.Return abruptly to the starting position – a quick exhalation through the mouth. The same – in the other direction.
6. Stick on the shoulders with a wide grip. Tilt your torso to the side, trying to get as close to the hip joint as possible – inhale slowly through your nose. Return to the starting position – slowly exhale through the mouth. The same – in the other direction.
7. Stick on the shoulders with a wide grip, tilt the body forward at 45 degrees, bending the lower back and tilting the head – inhale slowly through the nose. Return to the starting position, resting your back on a chair – exhale slowly through your mouth.
8. Legs wide apart, stick on shoulders with wide grip. Tilt the torso forward and to the side, the elbow to the knee of the same name – a slow inhalation through the nose. Return to starting position – slowly exhale through the mouth. The same in the other direction.
9. Stick on the shoulders with a wide grip. Raise the stick up and at the same time raising your head – inhale slowly through your nose. Stick on your chest, lower your head as low as possible – exhale slowly through your mouth. Raise the stick again while lifting the head – slowly inhale through the nose.Return to the starting position with your head lowered – slowly exhale through your mouth.
10. Stick with a wide grip on straight arms in front of the chest. Turn to the right with the stick behind the back of the chair, stick parallel to the floor – inhale slowly through the nose. Return to starting position – slowly exhale through the mouth. The same in the other direction.
11. Pull the hand with the stick to the side with support on the floor. The right outstretched hand is on a stick, the left is on the belt. Tilt the torso to the side without bending the supporting arm, touch the upper edge of the stick with the other hand over the head – a slow inhalation through the nose.Return to starting position – slowly exhale through the mouth. The same in the other direction.
12. Legs wide apart, stick between the legs vertically, with support on the floor. Hands on the upper end of the stick. Springy forward bends of the torso on account of “one-two-three”, elbows straight, head tilted at the level of the elbows. On the count of “four” to return to the starting position – breathing is arbitrary.
13. Legs apart, knees straight, stick between the legs vertically with support on the floor. Tilt the torso forward and intercept it with your hands alternately from the upper end to the lower and back, without bending your knees.
14. Sitting on the edge of a chair, legs apart, knees straight, stick with a wide grip at the top, strictly above the head. Tilt your torso forward and to the side, touch the toe of the opposite leg with your hand, bend your knees – inhale slowly through your nose. Return to starting position – inhale slowly through your mouth. The same – in the other direction.
15. Stick with a wide grip on the knees. Raise the stick up slightly beyond the level of the head, bending in the lower back and not bending the elbows – a slow inhalation through the nose. Tilt your torso forward, stick on your knees, chest lower to your knees, do not lower your head – exhale slowly through your mouth.