and-roll | Definition of Pick-and-roll by Merriam-Webster
: a basketball play in which a player sets a screen and then cuts toward the basket for a pass
Term: Roll/Replace | by Dylan Murphy | The Basketball Dictionary
Definition: A pick-and-roll action in which the screener rolls from the perimeter to the paint while a second off-ball player moves from the paint to the perimeter.
Explanation: Playing with two bigs requires intelligent spacing. In earlier eras of basketball, this meant planting one big on the block with the ball and the other big in the opposite dunker spot. If the posting up player made a move toward the middle, his teammate slid along the baseline; if the post move went baseline, the other big circled up toward the outline of the restricted area.
As pick-and-roll basketball took over the NBA, planting the non-involved big in the dunker spot became untenable. If the ball-handler sliced down one side of the lane while the roller followed suit on the other, this third player — the second big —would get in the way. Unable to roam the paint or dunker spots, the logical solution meant relocating him farther up the floor.
In practice, this resulted in an action known as “roll/replace,” a 1–5 pick-and-roll in which the 5 rolls to the rim while the 4, who starts below the free-throw line (ideally in one of the dunker spots), replaces him at the top of the key.
The beauty of this action is its simplicity. One paint-to-perimeter movement solves the two-big spacing dynamic, gives the ball-handler an extra option, and exacts a great deal of pressure on x4 (the 4’s defender) by making him choose between the 4 and the 5. As long as the 4 replaces to his shooting range, x4 cannot abandon his man to stick with the 5.
Conceptually, the roll/replace mirrors the shake in that it is designed to stress the tagger. The main difference, however, is that the roll/replace is a north-south movement, whereas the shake follows the arc of the three-point line. Furthermore, the roll/replace is usually a play drawn up by coaches, whereas the shake is a natural response to every pick-and-roll.
Of course, two-big basketball has largely disappeared. While today’s starting power forwards and centers might have the same size as their older counterparts, it is rare to find a modern pairing composed of two non-shooters. Therefore, the need to manufacture spacing is not nearly as relevant. Still, the roll/replace action is as useful as ever. In today’s game, teams frequently swap out their 4s for guards and wings, whose replace to the three-point line can cause great panic. An even more devastating evolution has been the back-screen pick-and-roll, in which the replacer back-screens x5 before heading to the perimeter. This added elements brings further chaos to an already compromised defense.
How To Roll/Replace
A proper roll/replace requires three things:
- Deep corner spacing.
- Replacing opposite the ball and outside the roller.
- Replacing later rather than earlier.
When the 4 replaces to the top of the key, he can be wide open if the tagger, x4, chooses to stick with the rolling 5. A good defense will help out x4 with a stunt, hoping to buy time for his recovery by momentarily guarding the 4. This is less effective, however, if the other offensive players are not optimally spaced to the deep corners. Every inch they creep out of the corner is an inch taken off the length of a stunt. What should be a stunt of an impossible distance could be, by virtue of suboptimal corner spacing, within the realm of possibility.
The path of the replace is another crucial element. At all times, teams strive to have their low big (typically residing in the dunker spot) opposite the ball. This gives the ball-handler more room to operate, as the dunker spot player’s defender cannot step up into the path of the ball-handler without leaving his man open.
In roll/replace pick-and-roll, this same principle applies. If a ball-screen is set to the ball-handler’s right, the replacer must replace on the left side of the floor. Although he is still circling toward the top of the key, this will prevent him from running into the downhill ball-handler.
Staying opposite the ball, however, is not enough. The replacer must also stay outside of the roller’s path, because otherwise he is dragging both himself and his defender right into the chaos of the pick-and-roll — and into the potential window for a pocket pass. Getting too wide, however, has its own set of problems: not only can this lengthen a potential pass from the ball-handler to the replacer, but it does not directly confront x4 with the tagging decision. If he stays tight to but outside of the roller, the replacer can run x4 right into the the rolling 5.
Finally, the timing of the replace can be icing on the cake. The best tags are higher up the floor, because this more easily allows for a quick closeout to the three-point line. Given that a replace starts close to the baseline, a savvy replacer who waits a beat can create a lower tag. Every moment that he waits on his replace allows for the roll to get deeper, and therefore delays tagging confrontation. Of course, he can’t wait too long — he wants to get out to the three-point and be an option for his ball-handler.
Here’s an example that combines all of these elements. As Milos Teodosic and Willie Reed of the Los Angeles Clippers run a middle pick-and-roll, Sam Dekker, in the left dunker spot, readies to replace. Notice how Dekker’s path (as outlined by the green arrow) is both opposite the ball-handler, Teodosic, and outside of the rolling Reed. This forces his man, Rudy Gay (x4), to become the tagger. But Gay is dealing with two competing interests: while Reed rumbles south to the rim, his man, Dekker, is sprinting north to the three-point line. These directionally opposite cuts stretch Gay’s two responsibilities as far from each other as possible.
As the play develops, Gay is forced into a decision. Does he tag Reed with force and momentarily leave Dekker or does he follow Dekker to the three-point line and ignore the tag? Pau Gasol, Reed’s original man, is stuck containing the ball. Gay, therefore, has no help. He is further inconvenienced by Juwan Evans, who is properly spaced to the corner. This pushes Bryn Forbes, his man, closer to the baseline, lengthening his potential stunt to Dekker on the kickout.
This freeze frame also shows the real value of keeping a replace path tight to the roller. Instead of approaching Reed somewhat from the side, Gay hits him straight on. While this allows him to tag Reed with some physicality, it also naturally pins him, as if he’s being hit with a middle pindown. This completely frees Dekker on the perimeter. If Dekker had followed a wider route, Gay would have been able to hit Reed from the side without getting trapped underneath. Furthermore, notice how Dekker waits before replacing. This makes Gay’s tag pretty deep in the paint, which creates further separation from Dekker and Gay when Dekker completes his replace.
Caught in a difficult position, Gay releases his tag too quickly. Teodosic finds Reed, and the result is an easy dunk.
Roll/Replace Evolution Part I
The foundation of any roll/replace action is the vertical stretching of the tagger. Although it was initially developed to properly space bigs in the pick-and-roll, teams have zeroed in on this manufactured tension by taking it to its logical extreme — making the replacer a dangerous shooter.
On many teams, the 4 can fulfill this role admirably. But there is no reason why it can’t be a 1, 2 or 3 as well — which, by the way, makes the tagger a smaller player and in a more difficult position to stop a rolling big.
Here’s an example of this involving the Philadelphia 76ers, who dress up a roll/replace action by having J.J. Redick, the replacer, initially peel off his teammate and the screener, Joel Embiid, toward the baseline. As the play unfolds, we can actually see Embiid slow down on his roll to physically set a middle pindown on Devin Robinson of the Washington Wizards, who is guarding Redick. This little action tricks Robinson into thinking that this is the focus of the play, and he completely abandons his tag to lock in on Redick. This means that Embiid is wide open for a drop-off pass from the ball-handler, Ben Simmons.
This is the power of involving a great shooter in the roll/replace. In the earlier example, Gay had to choose between an open Dekker three-point shot and a rolling Reed. But this isn’t a completely 50/50 decision: Dekker isn’t a great marksman, so it makes sense that Gay initially prioritized Reed. Robinson, however, wasn’t afforded the same luxury. If he abandoned Redick, he was giving one of the league’s best shooters a lot of daylight. If he left Embiid, he could potentially allow a dunk.
Roll/Replace Evolution Part II (Back-Screen Pick-and-Roll)
The latest evolution in the roll/replace series has been the increasingly popular back-screen pick-and-roll. In this action, the replacer back-screens the dropping big who is mirroring the ball in the initial ball-screen. Not only can this free the ball-handler for a layup, but it adds further confusion and tension to this already difficult defensive process. The jumble of bodies can make it unclear as to who’s tagging, who’s taking the roller, and who’s taking the ball. Amidst this chaos, an offensive player usually pops free. Here, we can see Rodney Hood of the Utah Jazz finds an open three-point shot.
This idea of exerting pressure on the pick-and-roll tagger is common to many NBA actions. Many of the league’s most successful plays rely on this concept of attacking the structural weakness of a defense. Although the roll/replace is basic in execution, it presents a consistently uncomfortable defensive problem.
The Ultimate Pick and Roll Guide
Mar 12, 2016; Oakland, CA, USA; Golden State Warriors guard Stephen Curry (30) dribbles around Phoenix Suns guard Brandon Knight (3) with a screen by Warriors forward Draymond Green (23) during the first quarter at Oracle Arena. Mandatory Credit: Kelley L Cox-USA TODAY Sports
This month we are giving you the ULTIMATE GUIDE to reading the defense on the Pick and Roll. The pick and roll (also called a ball screen or screen and roll) is an offensive play in which a player sets a screen (pick) for a teammate handling the ball and then moves towards the basket (rolls) to receive a pass. In the NBA, the play came into prominence in the 1990s and has developed into the league’s most common offensive action.
The written “reads” guide and video breakdown below is brought to you by Premier Player Development Coordinator, Mychal Martinez.
- GET DEFENDER AWAY, LATE, AND BEHIND THE BALL SCREEN
- BE PHYSICAL AND CONTROL SPACE – PUT THE DEFENDER “IN JAIL”
- GET SHOULDERS TO THE HIPS OF THE SCREENER TO CLOSE THE GAP
- BIG DROPS BACK TO “CONTAIN” PENETRATION
- ATTACK THE BIG DOWNHILL FOR A FINISH AT THE RIM OR PULL UP JUMP SHOT
- MOST EFFECTIVE TO ATTACK “INSIDE SPACE” AND/OR MAKE AN INSIDE MOVE AND TAKE DRIBBLE TO OUTSIDE SPACE
- “SNAKE” THE BALL SCREEN WHEN THE DEFENDER TRAILS THE ACTION TIGHT AND ON YOUR BACK
- GET AWAY FROM THE DEFENDER BY THROWING THE BALL ACROSS YOUR BODY INTO OPEN SPACE TO CREATE AN ISOLATION SITUATION WITH THE BIG
- BIG “SHOWS” QUICK TO SLOW BALLHANDLER DOWN AND RECOVERS BACK TO MAN
- DRIBBLE TIGHT TO HEDGE DEFENDER AND QUICKLY TURN CORNER INTO OPEN SPACE
- MANY OPTIONS ARE AVAILABLE ON THIS READ
- BIG “SHOWS” AGGRESSIVELY TO PUSH THE BALLHANDLER HARD BACK UP THE COURT
- LOOK TO “SPLIT” WHEN THE HEDGE IS LATE OR TOO FAR FROM THE SCREENER
- THE KEY TO BEATING A “TRAP” OR “BLITZ” IS TO GET RID OF THE BALL QUICKLY
- SINCE TWO DEFENDERS ARE CHASING THE BALLHANDLER SOMEONE IS ALWAYS OPEN
- SCREENER SHOULD EITHER ROLL OR POP TO OPEN SPACE
- “ICING” THE BALL SCREEN IS WHEN THE ON-BALL DEFENDER FORCES THE BALL BASELINE – SCREENER’S MAN DROPS AND CONTAINS PENETRATION ON BASELINE SIDE
- ATTACK THE BIG AND LOOK TO TAKE THE BALL BACK MIDDLE TO OPEN SPACE – HUGE ADVANTAGE IF BALLHANDLER CAN USE SCREEN MIDDLE
- DEFENDER CHEATS THE ACTION BY JUMPING TO THE “HIGH SIDE” OF THE SCREEN TO AVOID BEING PICKED
- HESITATIONS AND CHANGE OF DIRECTIONS MOVES ARE VERY EFFECTIVE “SELL” MOVES IN THIS SITUATION
- BE AWARE OF DEFENDERS THAT GET PREOCCUPIED WITH SCREEN ACTION AS YOU CAN BLOW BY QUICKLY
- WHEN DEFENDER GOES UNDER THE SCREEN LOOK TO ATTACK DOWNHILL AND PENETRATE OFTEN
- BALLHANDLERS THAT CAN SHOOT OFF OF THE DRIBBLE ARE ESPECIALLY DANGEROUS
- IF DEFENDER RECOVERS QUICKLY LOOK TO USE THE SCREEN AGAIN FOR A “RE-PICK”
- WHEN DEFENDERS “SWITCH” THERE ARE TWO MISMATCHES ON THE COURT – ONE OF THEM NEEDS TO BE EXPOSED
- ONCE SWITCH OCCURS TAKE BALL INTO OPEN SPACE TO BETTER ISOLATE MISMATCHES – THIS ALSO PREVENTS DEFENDERS FROM “SWITCHING BACK”
- SINCE HELP DEFENDERS MUST COLLAPSE ON A PICK AND ROLL MAKE SURE TO SURVEY THE OPPOSITE SIDE OF THE COURT AS WELL AS WHERE THE BALL SCREEN CAME FROM
- LOOK FOR HELP SIDE DEFENDERS THAT GET BOTH FEET IN THE LANE AND/OR “STUNT” AT THE BALLHANDLER
If you would like to receive in-person instruction on Pick and Roll Reads, please click the button below to navigate to our Premier Basketball Training page and join a group training session and/or clinic near you today!
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How to Execute A Pick and Roll in Basketball (Guide For Beginners) – Old Man Game Tips
The pick and roll is a common offensive basketball play. It is used to create space for cuts, shots, passes, or drives. Here’s how to do it and some drills to master it.
So here’s the scenario: you’re on offence and your teammate, the dude currently handling the ball, tells you to set a pick (or screen) for him.
You have no idea what he’s talking about.
You walk to where he’s pointing at and stand there. His defender slides into you, knocking you to the ground.
Now, you’re upset.
And to make matters worse, the opposing team calls an offensive foul on you because you were moving when you screened.
You call for a sub and shake your head in disappointment as walk over to the bench. You pull out your phone to search for what a pick is. And you come across this article.
What Is a Pick and Roll?
Since you were gracious enough to pick this article over the thousands already online, I’m going to be a nice guy and tell you what a pick and roll is:
A pick and roll is a basketball play that is most often used to create space (or an opening) for a player to pass, shoot, or attack the basket. A pick (or screen) can also be called by non-ball handlers to get open looks for shots.
To set a pick, a player would act as a solid screen for her teammate to run by, thus stopping or slowing her defender.
I will add that any player, position-wise, can set a screen. But it is usually more effective when a bigger player, like a center or power forward, sets it.
Also, any player can call for a screen. But it is more effective if a shooter or passer uses it because they can create more plays out of the pick and roll.
Got it? Cool, cool, cool.
The pick and roll is one of the most effective plays in basketball. That’s why it’s one of the most used plays in the sport.
Some teams’ playbook revolves around this single play.
It’s good because it’s simple. With a single screen, you can create space for a multitude of different plays.
You can stagger a trailing defender, allowing you to get an open shot. Or you can create a mismatch, allowing your big to be defended by a smaller player.
The options are endless (well, it’s finite, but you get what I mean)!
How to Set a Screen
To set a screen, the ball handler will call a player over and direct them to where she wants them to create a screen. If it’s on the left side, she will point or look at that position.
The screener will go to where he is supposed to set the pick. He will stand there and tense up his body, making sure he’s not moving. If he moves, there a good chance an offensive foul will be called on him.
Once the screen is set, the ball handler will direct her defender into the screen. From here, she can attack the basket, shoot a shot, or pass the ball to an open player.
To learn all the pick and roll options, check out the following tutorial from Larry Bird:
For those of you with friends, here’s how to do the group drill.
Okay, this drill is essentially a 2-on-2 game. But the difference is that all offence has to start with the pick and roll. And the ball handler is only allowed 7 dribbles.
And if the ball handler decides to pass the ball, the receiver is only allowed 1 dribble before he has to shoot it.
So, it’s quite different than a 2-on-2 game, now that I’m thinking about it.
But anyway, the goal of the offence is to score via the pick. The goal of the defence is to prevent the basket. If the D is successful (they turnover or stop the O), they get to swap roles and play offence.
You can play to how many points you want -7, 11, or 21. But the first team to reach the goal is the winner, obviously.
If you’re unsure how to do this drill, watch the video above. It’s similar to what I showed but more basic. Mine has tweaks to it to make it more competitive.
READ MORE: Dwyane Wade’s Go-To Basketball Drills
Give these two drills a try and see how it improves your game. Hopefully, they’ll help you master the common, simple art of the pick and roll.
What is an Illegal Screen in Basketball?
A screen, also known as a “pick” is an important offensive tool that is frequently used to create open shots or driving lanes. The screen involves one offensive player blocking or moving to a position that will impede the movement of another offensive player’s defender allowing them to get free.
Screens are a big part of most offenses and you will often hear about plays such as a “pick and roll” or a “pick and pop” being utilized by the majority of NBA teams. These are traditional but effective ways to use screens and most teams will incorporate these into their offense in one form or another.
Picks are a fundamental of basketball and coaches usually begin teaching how to set them as soon as players are old enough to learn simple plays. It is important that players learn the technique properly otherwise they will get called for illegal screens.
This concept is important for coaches and players to understand and it is also nice to know as a fan since you will often hear commentators and analysts speak about it. Let’s take a look at the definition of a screen, the difference between a legal and illegal one, what the penalty is and why it needs to be enforced.
The Definition of a Screen
A screen is an offensive move in which a player uses their body to block the defensive player who is guarding one of their teammates. The player setting the pick (the screener) must first establish their position near the teammate’s defender or in the path of the defender. The teammate will then make a cut close to the screener in a manner that sheds the defender, leaving the offensive player open to shoot, pass, receive a pass or drive to the basket.
There are different types of screens such as on-ball, off-ball, down-screen, and a back-screen. The different types all require the same set of fundamentals discussed above. Take a look at this instructional video to see an example of how to set a proper screen.
The most important thing is to make sure that the pick being set is not illegal. Let’s take a look at what will make it illegal.
What Makes it Illegal
An illegal screen can happen for multiple reasons but it is most likely that the offensive players are not using sound fundamentals when executing the play. In general, the screener must provide space and give the defender a reasonable opportunity to avoid the pick. Below are some situations that will most likely draw a call from the refs.
As mentioned above, the screener must give the defender enough space and opportunity to avoid the pick. If the defender is stationary this is usually one step and if they are moving it is generally two steps. This is often a judgment call by the referee who will determine if the defender was given proper opportunity to avoid the offensive player.
This is something we see from players who have not properly learned the fundamentals. Leaning your body or shoulder into the defender might seem sneaky but the refs will usually catch this one right away and make the call. Even if the screener’s feet are completely stationary, they are not allowed to lean their body toward the defender.
Extending Your Lower Body
Sticking your foot, knee or hip out to make it more difficult for the defender to get around is also illegal and will most likely draw anger from the defender. Tripping or going for the legs in basketball is looked down upon and can lead to serious injuries.
For young players who are still learning, it can be tempting to extend an arm or try to grab the defender with their hands. This will result in a very quick and easy call by the officials.
This is another one that occurs from players who are not playing fundamentally sound. It is probably the most common illegal screen violations and can occur for multiple reasons. The offensive player must stay stationary and not move into the defender’s path or along with them as they attempt to go around. They are allowed to move once contact is made in order to “absorb” the blow but the movement must not be to intentionally impede the defender.
Movement often occurs when running a “pick and roll” or a “pick and pop” and the screener moves prematurely into the “roll” or “pop”. Movement may also occur when the ball handler is impatient and does not wait for the teammate to get properly set. The ball handler may try to drive around the screener while they are still moving towards the defender and this can end in a violation.
When this violation occurs, the offending player is given an offensive foul. This will result in a turnover and the other team will get the ball or possibly shoot free throws if they are in the bonus. This can often be a critical call that can change the momentum of a game, so it is important that players practice setting screens in order to avoid this penalty.
Why Does Basketball Need This Rule
A good pick is one of the more physical plays in basketball. It’s not uncommon to see bodies colliding or falling to the court after an effective hard screen is set. Because of this, the game must have rules around it to ensure that the opposing team has a fair opportunity to defend against it.
Without this call, a team could just block defensive players like an offensive lineman in football. Not only would this create an unfair advantage to the offense, but it would make the game far too physical and would probably result in fights and serious injuries.
The illegal screen violation is an important rule in the game of basketball. Without it, the strongest players would be able to push defensive players out of the way allowing their teammates to score at will.
The illegal screen takes place when players are lazy or they just do not know how to properly set picks. This can usually be corrected by good execution of plays and making sure that players learn the proper fundamentals of setting a screen at a young age. Take a look at this video for some examples of NBA players not executing properly. It goes to show you that even players at the highest level aren’t immune to illegal screens.
Do you think the illegal screen rules are too strict? We’d love to hear from you, so please leave your comments.
Modern Moves: Chris Paul’s pick-and-roll snake
A basketball game is made up of discrete actions — quarters can be divided into possessions, and possessions into individual moves. Moves that score points, save points, create space, distribute the ball and embarrass defenders. The signature ones, the ones that define the NBA in the here and now have been collected in The Encyclopedia of Modern Moves
Pick-and-roll defense in the NBA has one main goal: keep the guard out of the middle of the floor.
The invention of “ice” defense on side pick-and-rolls is entirely geared toward this objective. Defenders will jump toward the middle of the floor well before screens actually arrive in order to lock off that area and force the offensive player toward the baseline, where he can use the sideline and baseline as extra defenders, restricting the space with which the guard has to work.
As defenses have become more complex over the last decade or so, offenses have had to adapt to find new ways to take advantage. Chris Paul has become a master of getting to the middle of the floor no matter what, exerting immense pressure on the defense as they scramble to take away his options and the weapons around him. Paul “snakes” the pick-and-roll, flipping the screen and taking the open space the defense provides. But instead of trapping himself along the baseline, he crosses back over toward the middle of the floor to get into that dangerous area.
Teams like to combat the ice coverage by flipping the screen, as Clint Capela does in the above clip. When Capela flips to a flat screen — in which his feet are parallel to the baseline — Paul can get in front of his guy and cross over to the middle of the floor. Once he does, there’s perhaps nobody more dangerous in the league than Paul in those areas because he’s a lethal mid-range jumper, in addition to being a fantastic passer.
Read More: Harden and Paul barely need to dribble to pick apart defenses
Once again, watch how Bryn Forbes jumps over the screen before Capela gets there, making it easy for the Swiss center to flip the screen around and get Paul moving toward the basket. Even though the Spurs initially keep Paul out of the middle of the floor, their drop coverage gives him a lot of space to work with between the screen and eventual contact with the defensive big man. All it takes is one left-to-right dribble for Paul to get to the free-throw line, where three San Antonio defenders crash in on him to try to deter the jumper.
When teams bring up their big men to try to combat Paul’s ability to get back to the middle of the floor, it usually doesn’t work very well. Paul’s handle is too tight and big men are usually much too slow to be able to contain him toward the sideline.
As Paul comes around the screen, DeMarcus Cousins meets him north of the elbow, lunging well toward the 3-point line to try to deter Paul from going to the middle of the floor. Paul doesn’t let that stop him, using his superior lateral quickness and ability to handle the ball under pressure to get to his spot. Once he’s there, there’s not much Sacramento can do defensively; the Kings either commit to him and give up a dunk to DeAndre Jordan, rotate over and give up an open 3-pointer or they let him take the mid-range jumper. They played the percentages and gave up the mid-ranger, but that shot from Paul is very efficient.
Guards will also snake back across the paint when defenses implement “weak” coverage, in which defensive guards will jump the screen again to force the point guard toward his weak hand, usually his left hand. Guys like Paul and Kyrie Irving are excellent at making defenses pay for that coverage, snaking back toward their stronger hand.
The primary defender jumps above the screen in a very similar to way the ice coverage we saw earlier, giving up the left side of the floor in order to keep Paul and Irving from going to their right. Both all-world guards take the space given to them, and then cross back over toward their right, keeping their defender behind them while they probe the defense and make the correct decision for their team.
There are plenty of guards in the league who have implemented this into their games and Paul certainly wasn’t the first to do so, but he’s mastered it in such a way that any pick-and-roll he doesn’t snake is an aberration from his norm.
Next: The Encyclopedia of Modern Moves
Snaking back toward the middle of the floor or to get to the offensive guard’s stronger hand puts so much pressure on the defense that it’s become the go-to move in pick-and-roll for a lot of high-level primary ball handlers. With so many teams using the same pick-and-roll principles, these guards have figured out different ways to get to the positions on the court where they’re most effective. As guards like Paul and Irving spread various techniques throughout the league, defenses will adjust to the new order, spurring a whole new era of offensive and defensive advancement.
Switching 1 Through 3 Basketball Meaning – Sports Fan Focus
Defensive versatility is extremely important in modern-day basketball due to the advanced level of offensive skill many players possess. When teams combine that skill with offensive sets that create space and driving lanes, they can consistently get quality looks on offense. One of the main tactics offenses use to create space and driving lanes are picks (also called screens).
One way teams may choose to negate the effectiveness of screens is to switch on defense. Because of this, defenders need to be versatile themselves if they want to stand a chance in slowing down elite offenses.
If you are watching an NBA or college basketball game, you may hear a commentator, coach, or player talk about switching “1 through 3”. What does switching 1 through 3 mean in basketball?
Switching 1 through 3 in basketball means that the defenders guarding the 1 guard, 2 guard, and 3 guard will switch the players that they are guarding if both players are involved in the same pick or any other type of rub action used to get the offensive players open.
In basketball, the numbers 1 through 5 are used to represent the five offensive players that are on the court at that time. These numbers are just mainly for communication purposes and do not play an official role in the game (we will discuss this in more detail below).
The numbers 1, 2, and 3 are assigned to the three guards on the court. When a defense is switching 1 through 3, that means the defenders guarding the three perimeter players will switch the players they guard when both players are involved in the same pick or rub action.
Switching 1 through 3 is not the only type of switching that teams will use. Some teams may even switch all five spots if their personnel allows for it, or if the situation calls for it.
Switching can be complicated to understand if you are unfamiliar with some of the terminology. In this article we will discuss the major components involved with understanding 1 through 3 switching, and switching in general, which includes:
- What is a pick?
- What is a pick and roll?
- What is a pick and pop?
- What are the numbers 1 through 5 in basketball?
- What is switching?
- Why would teams switch 1 through 3?
- Switching NBA vs College
After this hopefully you will have a better idea of what teams are trying to accomplish when they use this type of defensive adjustment.
What is a Pick in Basketball?
A pick in basketball, also known as a ‘screen’, is when an offensive player (with his feet set and not moving) uses his body to block the path of another player’s defender. This allows his teammate to run freely and causes the defense to have to help and allow time for the defender who got screened to recover to his man. (If you want to see an example of a pick, here is a video of one on YouTube.)
Screens are difficult to guard because it creates, momentarily, an uncovered offensive player. To combat this, teams execute what is called a ‘hedge’. A ‘hedge’ is not a switch. In a ‘hedge’, the defender of the player who is setting the screen, will momentarily “hedge” out and cover the offensive player who is running free off the screen.
When a defender hedges out on the offensive player who is running off the screen, this creates a quick moment for the defender who got screened to recover back to his man, and then the defender who is hedging will also recover to his man.
As you can see, there are a lot of moving parts wrapped up in this process that takes about two seconds to execute. If the defense is not in tune, there are easy opportunities to score.
Many offensive plays are built around picks/screens. They create space for shooters and driving lanes for ball handlers. A screen can be set for any player on the court, even if they are not the offensive player who currently has the basketball. Setting a screen while moving is illegal for an offensive player and will be called as a foul.
Setting screens for the player with the ball is a particularly effective way of creating quality shots. There are two main variations of this:
- Pick and Roll
- Pick and Pop
What is a Pick and Roll?
A ‘pick and roll’ (also called a ‘screen and roll’ and a ‘ball screen’) is an offensive basketball maneuver. To perform it, an offensive player will set a screen on the ball handler’s defender, then after he set’s the screen he will turn and run towards the rim.
Pick and rolls are hard to defend because the defender guarding the screener must help defend the ball handler while the original defender fights off the screen (this helping action is what we discussed above, called a ‘hedge’), but when the screener turns and dives toward the rim after setting the screen, his defender is out hedging the ball handler. This creates a free man running towards the rim, and the defense is forced into a help rotation to cover it. When a defense is rotating to help, this is when it is most vulnerable.
The pick and roll is a staple of offensive basketball. It can be run on its own, or may be part of a larger set play that the team runs on offense.
Pick and rolls (and pick and pops) are very popular in the NBA because the size and skill of offensive players is so elite that if executed correctly, an offensive team will get a high percentage shot attempt the majority of the time.
What is a Pick and Pop?
Pick and pop is a variation of the pick and roll. Instead of rolling towards the basket after the setting a screen, the screener will ‘pop’ out towards an open area on or near the perimeter where they can receive a pass and shoot a jump shot.
Pick and pops are very effective if the screener is a good shooter.
What is Switching in Basketball?
Before we talk specifically about switching 1 through 3, let’s discuss what switching in basketball is.
Switching in basketball is when two defenders swap players that they defend while action is live. Defenders typically do this as a way of combating screens and picks. Instead of fighting through a pick, they will just switch who they are guarding with the other player in the screen action.
Why not just switch all picks?
Instead of fighting through screens, why don’t players just swap who they are guarding on every screen? The reason teams don’t do this is not every defender is capable of guarding every offensive player.
If a team is switching every screen, it becomes an easy way for the offensive team to exploit a mismatch. What happens when a small guard gets switched onto a post player? Or vice versa? These mismatches lead to high percentage offensive shot attempts and can be a recipe for disaster for a defense.
Numbers 1 through 5 in Basketball
Teams use the numbers 1 through 5 as an unofficial way of assigning roles to the players on the floor. Generally, many teams play three guards with two post players. Numbers 1-3 are assigned to the guards, and numbers 4-5 are assigned to the post players.
When you hear the phrase “switching 1 through 3” it means that the defenders guarding the 1-3 (guards) positions will swap who they are guarding if they are both involved in the same screen.
The numbers 1 through 5 are usually assigned in this format:
- 1 – Point Guard
- 2 – Shooting Guard
- 3 – Wing Guard or Small Forward
- 4 – Power Forward (or another Wing Guard if a team is playing 4 guards)
- 5 – Center or Power Forward
Positives to Switching
- Makes it easier to handle picks and screens
- Helps keep ball handlers out of the lane
- Minimizes the need for rotation defense
- Helps players conserve energy
Negatives to Switching
- Can create mismatches
- Can lead to miscommunication on defense
Why Teams Switch 1 through 3
Teams will switch 1 through 3 when:
- The other team is running offensive sets with their guards that involve screens or rubs (like perhaps a perimeter dribble weave offense)
- and they feel like their guards defensively are versatile enough to handle the switches and not be mismatched with an offensive player they are not able to guard effectively.
Why Do Teams Switch?
Switching in basketball is considered by many experts to be the best way to defend pick and roll basketball if you have the correct personnel to handle it. The problem is, if you don’t have the correct personnel, it can create even more issues for you on defense.
Pick and roll basketball, if defended traditionally (without switching), creates easy driving lanes for ball handlers and open shots for shooters. It puts extreme stress on team defense, forcing help defense to rotate to account for the screen. When a defense is rotating to help, that is when it is most vulnerable.
As we discussed earlier, a drawback to switching is it can cause one-on-one mismatches when poorly equipped defenders get switched onto dynamic offensive players. But one drawback to not switching is it forces constant help rotations and puts a lot of stress on the entire defense.
The decision whether or not to switch screens may come down to which is the lesser of two evils. Does the coach feel his rotation defense is more vulnerable, or does he feel like the mismatches on screens make his team more vulnerable.
There are other things that can factor into this, but these two issues are usually the biggest factors to consider.
End of Game Switching
Switching is very common late in a game. For example, when a team is down three late in the game with only one possession left, the defensive team has no need to guard inside the three point line, because the offensive team must score three to tie the game.
At that point, teams will switch all five spots. The reasoning is they don’t want any space for shooters so they never want to disengage an offensive player.
If a team hedged in a spot like this, it would create an opportunity for a pick and pop, where the screener could relocate after setting the screen and possibly get an open shot attempt since the defender did not switch.
Even if a mismatch occurs in this scenario where a small defender gets matched onto a big body who could bully them to the rim, this is of no concern to the defense in this situation because the offensive team must shoot a three.
In these late game “switch 5” scenarios, teams will usually put five very versatile defenders on the floor so that switches and floor coverage are smooth.
Switching in the NBA vs College
Switching in the NBA has become more and more popular over recent years. In the past, it had not been used a lot due to mismatches.
With dominant offensive weapons in the NBA like James Harden, Lebron James, Kevin Durant etc., you can pay a severe price if these types of players are able to consistently get matched onto defenders who physically are unable to guard them.
There are also more defensive restriction rules in the NBA (compared to college basketball) that limits the amount of help a defender can get. So when a mismatch occurs, it can be really hard to defend.
When a player like Lebron James gets switched onto a smaller defender, he can bully that defender to the rim and the amount of help defense he has to face is limited.
College basketball is a little bit different because there is not a defensive three-second rule. This means the lane in college basketball is more clogged with defenders, which means that bullying smaller defenders to the rim effectively is harder because the offensive player will still have to deal with help defenders in the lane.
Also, the skill level of offensive players in college is very raw in comparison to the the NBA. Many young physically-dominant guards in college are still not sure how to use the size advantage effectively and may be hesitant to attack a mismatch with confidence.
The college basketball floor is also smaller than the NBA floor. This means rotation defense has less space it must cover, which means less vulnerabilities. Of course this does not mean that rotation defense in college basketball is not vulnerable, it just means that due to less skill level and smaller courts, the price you pay in college for poor rotation defense is often less than the price you would pay for poor rotation defense at the professional level.
90,000 Top 10 mistakes when choosing snowboard equipment
Finally, this magical day has arrived – you go to the store to purchase “all yours” for snowboarding. Most likely, you already have suitable clothing with a protective membrane and thermal underwear, and now it’s your turn to buy equipment – a snowboard, bindings and boots. Riders often do not know how to choose the right equipment and make annoying mistakes that make themselves felt already on the slope.To prevent this from happening – read our top 10 tips on how NOT to do when choosing your dream snowboarding kit.
1. Choose equipment according to its “beauty” and color
Perhaps the most versatile piece of advice that is suitable for any sports equipment and equipment is to choose equipment based on functionality, not appearance. This is especially true for girls who are very fond of choosing a snowboard by the design of the cover, and boots by color and compatibility with clothes.With this approach, you are likely to become the most unfortunate snowboarder on the slope, with uncomfortable boots and the wrong board. But the most beautiful 🙂
2. Save on boots
Miser pays twice. And in the case of boots, the curmudgeon also pays with the agony of controlling the board in uncomfortable boots and legs falling off after rolling. Boots are a very important piece of equipment. Buy the most comfortable and perfect boots that fit exactly on your foot, even if they stand like an airplane – at first it is quite possible to study on rental boards, but rolling or uncomfortable boots will greatly complicate the learning process, or even completely discourage all the desire to ride.
3. Buying shoes without careful fitting
This tip is closely related to the previous one. Once again, let’s pay attention to the fact that boots are paramount. The shoes should fit perfectly: do not press on the toes and shins, while the heel should sit tight and not rise when walking. Finding flawlessly fitting shoes is a real quest, spend as much time as possible on the search issue. Re-measure every shoe in your size in the store, select a few of the most suitable candidates, try on models one size larger and one size smaller than yours, rest, have a coffee – and try again.Perfectly matched boots can work wonders: it will be more comfortable and easier for you to learn, the board will be better controlled, your legs will not get tired, and you will be able to stay on the slope longer during the day.
4. Buy an expensive top-end snowboard if you really don’t know how to ride
The other extreme is to spend all your money on the expensive flagship snowboard that your idol rode so beautifully in the new snowboard movie, even though you yourself can barely stay on the leading edge.In the process of training, you will not feel all the advantages of an expensive “pro” level snowboard, and perhaps, on the contrary, you will suffer with it. Start with mid-range gear, both in terms of performance and price.
5. Choose a snowboard only by height, excluding weight
The system for determining the size, which they love to use in rentals – attach a snowboard to yourself and choose one that fits between the nose and chin – has a bunch of flaws and is generally hopelessly outdated.The weight of the rider is much more important. A large, overweight man with a height of 175 cm and a slender girl of the same height cannot ride on the same boards: it will be easier for a girl to handle a short board, while a man, on the contrary, needs a long and wide snowboard that will not “fly out” from under it. Almost all snowboard manufacturers have special size tables that take into account the height and weight of the rider, thanks to which you can find out what size for a particular snowboard model https: // www.kant.ru/catalog/snowboards/snowboard/ is right for you.
6. Bindings and boots of different rigidity
Do not forget that snowboarding equipment is, first of all, a set of boards, bindings and boots, therefore, ideally, all three elements of the set should have approximately the same rigidity. And if a soft snowboard and hard bindings or boots can somehow make friends, then crepes and boots of different rigidity will bring a lot of trouble to their “lucky” owner.Rigid bindings can push through boots that are too soft and even injure your foot, and in hard boots with soft bindings, the legs will “dangle”, as a result of which the board control will resemble Russian roulette, and not meaningful skating. Therefore, choose both bindings and boots of the same stiffness level.
7. Ignore protection and helmet
“I’m just starting to ride, I still don’t know how to ride like all these tough guys on the slope, I don’t need protection!” is one of the biggest mistakes beginner riders make.It is during the training process, when the snowboarder is not always fully aware of his actions and cannot fully control the board, that various injuries occur due to banal negligence: you can accidentally catch on the edge and injure your head or tailbone, or wrist. But this will not happen if you take care of your own safety and ride in protection from the very first day of going on the slope.
8. Buy a long and rigid board at once – “for growth”
Sooner or later you want more speed, more off-roading, more control and more precision.And then your best friend will be a long, hard and possibly directional snowboard. But while you are just starting your way into big snowboarding, there is no point in tormenting yourself when learning on a hard board – it does not forgive mistakes, it becomes difficult to learn and painful in places. It is much wiser to start with a soft and docile board, which makes learning an enjoyable and interesting experience. Yes, one or two seasons later, you will “grow” out of this board and you will want to change it to a harder model, but until then you will enjoy riding and progression, and not curse the whole world trying to make friends with a snowboard of an inappropriate level.
9. Buy bindings without trying on with boots
This point is especially true for guys with large feet. It is very important to try on your existing boots with new bindings to make sure they are not too small or too large. The next step is to “try on” the bindings on the snowboard and make sure that the heel and toe of the foot will not hang over the board and cling to the slope when changing edges.
10. Do not take into account the peculiarities of skiing and the relief when choosing a snowboard
When you are just starting to learn and do not yet understand HOW you like to ride (freestyle, freeride, jibbing, carving), choose a board taking into account WHERE you plan to start your snowboarding journey.For riding in large mountains, longer boards of medium hardness are better suited, capable of holding high speed well on the track. If you master city spots and often ride on low mountains with an abundance of parks, choose a softer and shorter projectile that will be easy to cope with on figures and short runs.
Spend a lot of your time and attention to the selection of a set of equipment, study the features of brands and models, or simply consult with the store’s consultants – and riding your own equipment will bring a lot of fun and cool snow impressions.Good luck with your choice!
90,000 How to choose the right ski boots! / Articles
Too much depends on ski boots – skiing safety, ski control, wellness during the day, ease of training and speed of progress. Boots are the most important part of a ski kit, even more important than the skis themselves, so be careful with your choice!
A large number and variety of rulers and models is due to the combination of comfort, rigidity and ease of fitting the boot on the foot, the ability to individually customize the boot to your needs.
Points to consider when choosing:
· your skill level;
· the purpose of the model and specific features.
1. Skiing Level and Experience
It is very important to choose ski boots based on your skill, skiing style and experience and projected progress.
For beginner skiers and those who prefer quiet skiing, the convenience of the model is very important, but rigidity and great control are in the background.The higher the level, the more important is the control and coordination of alpine skiing and the more important is the stiffness and narrowness of the last, the accuracy of the model’s fit.
In the Head collection, the boots are divided into 5 levels: for athletes, experts, advanced riders, advanced and beginners.
• SPORTSMAN – competitions, sports disciplines, aggressive style, maximum speed, prepared slope, ice.
For current or former athletes, for tough, prepared competition tracks.
Models with a width of less than 98 mm are suitable (the width of the last is indicated hereinafter at size 26.5; with an increase / decrease in size, the width of the last increases / decreases proportionally) and stiffness from 120 for men, for girls from 100.
100% control over skiing, lightning-fast reaction, the size is chosen without a stock, individual boot customization and the possibility of bootfitting.
• EXPERT – aggressive style, high speed, slopes in various conditions (prepared, ice, bumps, offpist).
The condition of the slope is not important for you, you do an excellent job with a hard prepared track in the morning, with ice, with a broken afternoon track, bumps or fresh dry virgin soil.
Boots with a rather narrow last less than 100 mm, with a stiffness of 110 for men, from 90 and above for girls, will suit you. This combination of width and stiffness will provide maximum control on the slope. The size is selected without a margin, fine tuning and fitting of the boot is required, bootfitting is recommended.
• ADVANCED – confident arc guidance, speed above average, tracks in different conditions (prepared, ice, bumps, offpist).
You feel equally at home on a well-prepared and bumpy track, on a steep slope or on bumps and do not mind rolling fresh snow outside the track.
Shoes with a width of 100 mm or more will suit you (depending on the width of your foot, you can choose wider options), with a stiffness of 110 for men, 80 for girls. This combination of width and stiffness will provide comfort and good control on the slope.
The size is selected without stock, fine tuning and fitting of the boot is required, bootfitting is recommended.
• IMPROVING – confident riding style, average speed, different slope conditions (prepared, broken, offpist).
You strive to progress on the slopes in any condition, but you are still in the advanced stage of technique.
Choose models with a comfortable last from 102 mm, with a stiffness from 90 to 110 for men, for girls from 70 to 90. This shoe will be comfortable during the whole day of riding.
• BEGINNER – calm style, low speed, prepared track.
You spend time on the tracks in good condition, ride calmly or just study.
A wide shoe last from 102-104 mm and a stiffness of no more than 90 * is best for you, for girls no more than 80.
* There is an expert opinion that even for beginners it is recommended to use the boot as stiff as possible to have more control and recoil. Also, when choosing a skiing level, be sure to consider your plans for the next 2-3 seasons. If you are in good physical shape and spend a fair amount of time on the slopes, you can level up in technique over the course of the season.
2. Rules for fitting and sizing
Dimensions of ski boots, like all sports shoes, are measured in centimeters (Mondopoint, MP). In order to know your exact size, you need to measure your foot. Put a sheet of paper on the floor, put your foot on it, relax your foot, make marks on the heel and the most protruding toe, measure the resulting length, be sure to measure the other leg, round the resulting value to 0.5 cm.At the same time, measure the width of the foot, this value is the same may come in handy when choosing boots.
All ski boot manufacturers produce the outer boot of the same size for 2 sizes, that is, sizes 27 and 27.5 will have the same outer boot, but the liners will differ in size.
Try on boots in the ski socks in which you will ride. If you don’t already have specialized ski socks, be sure to purchase them first.
Put on and try on your boots while standing! Put on your boots, fasten the clips, starting from the bottom.The position of the foot in the boot when riding will be different. In order to understand whether the boot is right for you, take a “ski stance” – bend your knees a little, the lower leg rests on the tongue of the boot, the body is above the knees, the weight is evenly distributed over the entire foot, the heel does not come off the insole. Sway slightly, shifting your weight from toe to heel. In this position, the foot moves back and takes the correct position. Tighten the clips, if necessary, tighten the upper strap.
What should it feel like? The heel fits snugly, the toes do not rest, but you can feel the toe of the boot.The boot fits snugly around the entire foot and lower leg without critical pressure points. Bend your knees to the right or left without lifting your feet, swing, shifting the weight from toe to heel, or rise on your toes, the foot should not walk inside the boot, the heel should not dangle and move up and down or left and right.
The most common mistake when trying on a shoe is that at the beginning of the try-on it may seem to you that the shoes are small. This can be a misleading feeling. Take your time to make a decision until you try on the shoe according to all the rules.Walk around, stand in the ski rack, try to feel the pressure points. Most Head boots have a thermoformed liner. The boot will fit better and fit your foot more accurately after a couple of days on the slope. You can also thermoform the boots in a special oven, which heats the inner and outer boot and adapts it even better to your foot. Get bootfitting at a store or specialist workshop.
If the feeling that the shoes are small does not leave you, try on one size larger and compare your feelings.Be careful, if the boots are too big for you, then after a few days on the slope you will feel discomfort. The boot will sit too loosely and reduce handling. And if you tighten the clips even more to compensate for the free space, signs of numbness may appear.
3. The correct width and volume of boots is an important aspect when choosing
Choosing the right size is half the battle. The width of the last and the inner volume of the boot are also very important components of the fit.Models are divided into narrow ones less than 98 mm, medium 100-102 mm and wide ones more than 104 mm (the width of the shoe is hereinafter indicated at size 26.5, with an increase / decrease in size, the width of the shoe increases / decreases proportionally). The boot volume is the internal volume in cubic centimeters. For example, sports boots with a shoe width of 93 mm have a volume of 1500, and for station wagons with a width of 102 mm – 2100. The smaller the volume of the boot and the narrower the last, the more precise the control. The wider the last and the more internal volume, the higher the comfort.
Note that beginners with narrow feet may have trouble fitting because the beginner models are wider, in which case narrow expert boots can be fitted. Likewise, experts with wide feet will also face problems, since all expert boots are less than 100mm wide, this problem can be solved with bootfitting.
The feeling of comfort in the zone of the instep and arch of the foot is very important. A block that is too narrow can cause severe discomfort on a slope.Spend at least 15 minutes in fully buttoned boots.
4. Which stiffness should you choose?
The flex-index of the model is responsible for the rigidity of the plastic and the fixation of the boot, as well as for handling and control, as well as the width / volume of the last. Flex ranges from the softest 60 (for beginners) to the very hard 160 (for athletes). Very often the stiffness is deduced in the name of the boots, for example, the Advant Edge 105 has a stiffness of 105 units. In some models, the stiffness can be adjusted by 10-20 units.
Male athletes choose rigidity in the approximate range of 120-140, experts 110-130, for advanced and improving athletes, we recommend choosing a rigidity of at least 90-100. For women, boots are selected with a stiffness of 10-20 units less than for men.
Choosing the right stiffness will depend on your skill, riding style and the type of slope you prefer. The more aggressive your skiing style, the harder the slopes and the higher the speed, the more control the skis require, the narrower the last of the boot and the higher the stiffness.Riding in the park or freeriding requires less rigidity.
5. Ladies ski boots
Ladies’ models are distinguished by great comfort and special geometry that better suits the woman’s legs. Girls weigh less and ride less aggressively, so models with less rigidity are suitable for them.
For beginner girls, a hardness of 50-70 is suitable, for advanced and improving from 70 to 90, for expert girls and athletes 100-110.
The shaft of girls’ boots is lower and slightly wider to better match the shape of the female calf muscle.The liner is usually warmer, as comfort is the most important thing for women.
If you still have questions, be sure to ask our consultant!
Choosing a snowboard for your riding style
Despite the fact that snowboarding is a relatively young sport, this did not prevent it from becoming one of the most popular in the world and capturing the hearts of millions of people. The first board was invented in the 60s of the last century, and snowboarding was included in the Olympic program in 1998. Agree, in a historical perspective, this is quite a bit.However, the sport’s industry has grown enormously over the decades. Various directions of skiing were formed, numerous variations of boards and an uncountable amount of snowboard staff appeared.
It is often difficult for people taking their first steps in this field to navigate the basic principles and subtleties of choosing a snowboard. This sport does not start with choosing a board, but a clear understanding of what style you want to master and what exactly you want to get from riding on snowy slopes.This is a starting point to help you navigate and choose the right equipment.
Freeride – free skating without restrictions
Freeride is the freest riding style wherever there are opportunities. It can be a measured ride on a well-prepared and knurled track, or downhill skiing in “wild” mountain areas. With a freeride board, you have access to all ski areas and optimal glide on snow of any thickness.Adherents of this style are both experienced snowboarders, not accustomed to restrictions, and beginners. Freeride snowboards provide an excellent opportunity to learn basic riding skills and then try your hand at a different style.
Within the framework of freeriding, it is customary to distinguish three styles of riding:
All mountain – the most versatile style, providing both slow and high-speed driving, usually on well-maintained trails;
Back country – descents on unsettled and hard-to-reach parts of the mountain, to the top of which you ascend independently;
Heli-ski – a radical version of wild freeride, on difficult and dangerous descents in hard-to-reach places (usually riders are delivered to the top by helicopter).
For freeriding, boards of the Directional type with directional geometry are traditionally used. The shape of these patterns clearly defines the direction of travel. This snowboard has a short and stiff tail and a wider and softer nose. The rider’s position on the freeride board is noticeably shifted towards the tail. The directional geometry provides excellent maneuverability and excellent glide on all types of snow. On such a snowboard, you can easily maneuver between other skiers, among trees and other natural obstacles on a wild slope.
Freestyle – entertainment and thrills of stunt driving
Jumps, flips, grabs (board grabs in flight) – this is the whole spectacular essence of the freestyle style. In this case, tricks can be performed both on prepared figures and on natural trampolines. Freestyle is a very aggressive and dangerous area of snowboarding. Naturally, beginners don’t belong here. People who have confidently mastered freeriding come to him for new sensations.
There are several varieties of this extreme discipline:
Park Freestyle is all kinds of jumps on artificial springboards (big air), sliding on trick rails (jibbing) and tricks on the ramp (halfpipe).
Backcountry (backcountry) – a kind of freestyle, in which natural obstacles on wild slopes are used for tricks: jumps on the relief, cliffs, etc.
Street freestyle – performing tricks in an urban setting. In this case, elements of urban architecture become shells: railings, parapets, etc.
Stunt snowboard noticeably surpasses other models in width, lightness and flexibility. This makes it more responsive in handling and more responsive to the slightest movement of the rider.The classic shape for freestyle snowboards is the Twin-tip. It is a board with symmetrical geometry, with the nose and tail of the same width, length and shape. Thanks to the symmetry of the board, the rider can successfully roll forward with both left and right sides, which opens up opportunities for the most spectacular tricks. For all its merits, such a board is completely unsuitable for high-speed riding on snowy slopes.
Carving – high-speed driving without compromise
Along with freestyle, carving is considered a professional riding style.The essence of this discipline is to perform sharp “cut” turns at high speeds. Today, the concept of carving has turned out to be a little blurry. Speaking of this style, they often understand not only the technique of making sequential turns, but also the usual maneuverable driving at high speeds, although this approach is not entirely correct. If you are being overtaken on a slope at the speed of a car, laying sharp turns, this rider probably has a carving board on his feet.
Naturally, this style requires special equipment.The boards are distinguished by increased rigidity, as well as an elongated and narrowed shape. In addition to a special board for carving, hard snowboard boots are used, equipped with a special type of fastening, like on skis. Despite the fact that it is somewhat easier to operate a carving snowboard than a freeride board, this discipline is not for beginners. For confident control of such a board at high speeds, you need to have a well-developed technique of classic skiing.
In this article, we examined the main styles of snowboarding and the specifics of the boards that are used in each of them.You can read about how to choose equipment for the individual characteristics of the rider (height, weight, etc.) in our material http://novasport.ru/poleznoe/kak-vybrat-snoubord-novichku/
What are the types of skateboards, what you need to know when buying and how to learn to ride correctly?
Have you never skated before? And if they did it, then, perhaps, a long time ago. And you have no idea how to choose a board. What length, width is needed? Which is better to take: Penyboard? Longboard? Then this article is for you.
Step 1: Decide on the type of skate and type of skateboard
Step 2: Choose the right board shape
Step 3: Choose the right size for the skate
Step 4: Choose a board made of good material
Step 5: Try to assemble the skateboard yourself
Step 6: Check the quality Skateboard and Purchase
Step 7: Set Up Your
Skateboard Step 8: Ride Properly
There are many factors to consider when choosing a skateboard for a beginner. From the size of the board you buy to the equipment you wear.Also, a beginner needs to learn how to properly operate a skateboard and take care of his “board”.
Choosing a skateboard can be quite a difficult process for a beginner, so in this article we have collected tips that will help you step by step to choose the right “board” for comfortable riding.
Step 1: Determine the type of ride and type of skateboard
The first and most important question when choosing a skateboard – what will it be used for? You probably won’t buy a violin if you want to learn how to play the guitar – it’s the same with a skateboard.
You need to understand whether you will ride a board in the yard, ride the streets or skate professionally. Or maybe you want to learn some acrobatic tricks? If you need a board for universal riding on the streets or on specially equipped tracks, then a longboard or pennyboard will do. If you decide to learn how to do tricks, then pay attention to the traditional skateboard – the shotboard.
Longboard – characterized by a long board, which is suitable both for stunt riding on city streets and for high-speed wheelchairs on special tracks.Longboard deck lengths usually range from 90 to 150 cm, depending on the type and preference of the skateboarder.
There are the following types of longboards:
- Carving – designed for downhill descents along mountain slopes or long street descents. Advantages: agility, lightness and speed.
- Cruisers are a station wagon board, on which you can leisurely ride along the city streets or master the basics of riding in the yard. Speed is not the main thing here, the main advantage is maneuverability.
- Broadwalking – The name of the board comes from a riding style that resembles a dance and is similar to sliding on a surfboard. The length of such boards ranges from 100 to 130 cm.
- Downhill – This skate is for experienced riders who like to ride steep and long downhill slopes. For beginners who decide to learn how to ride such a board, it is recommended to do it only with an instructor.
- SurfStyle (“surf style” – eng.) – the longest of the line of longboards, the length of such boards can reach 3 meters and you can even ride on them alone or lying down.
- Speedboard is a skateboard designed for professional speed riding.
- Slide is a rare type of boards, characterized by the curved shape at the ends of the deck.
Pennyboard is a small plastic skateboard. It has high maneuverability and is great for teaching children to skate, but can also appeal to an adult skater.
There are two types of pennyboards:
- Original – the smallest type of boards.The length of the board is 56 cm and the width of the suspension is 7.5 cm. This pennyboard can be easily put in a backpack and skated in the schoolyard during breaks. More suitable for children and adolescents of small build.
- Nickel – This pennyboard is slightly longer and wider than the original – length – 69 cm, suspension – 10 cm. Maneuverable and practical, suitable for beginners with a large foot size.
Shotboard or classic skate – a classic versatile skateboard that is suitable both for city walks and for performing a variety of tricks.The length of the board deck varies from 70 to 85 cm.
So, having learned what types of skateboards there are, the first recommendation: if you are not sure of your skills, first try the classics (shotboard). You can both ride such a board and try to do tricks at the same time. The longboard is too heavy and cumbersome to perform tricks on, the pennyboard will work for a teenage schoolboy, but it may also work for some adults.
Step 2: Choose the Right Plank Shape
You might think that all boards are flat and the same, but soon you will find that there are many options to choose from.Radial, Progressive, Concave, Flat, Asymmetrical, Convex … these are all useful for experienced skaters who can do various tricks, but for beginners, this information is more for information. However, it will not be superfluous to learn more about the construction of the skateboard.
So, the skateboard consists of the following elements:
- The deck is the staple of any board you ride on. The important parameters of the deck are length and width. It depends on the length how much your skate will be maneuverable and high-speed, and on the width – how much it suits you in terms of body size.Board width sizes can range from 7.75 to 9.0 inches. The correct choice of width depends on height, foot size and the choice of terrain for riding. Boards with a width of 7.75-8.25 dm are suitable for riding in parks or on the street, 8.25-8.5 dm – for lovers of tricks in skateparks, 8.5 dm wide – for cruising.
- Nose and tail (tail) – As the name implies, these are the edges of your board or deck. As a rule, the “nose” is slightly larger than the “tail” and more curved.
- The wheelbase is the distance between the internal suspension mountings.Depends on the length of the deck, it does not really matter when choosing a board.
- The suspension is a T-piece that holds the wheels of the board.
- Wheels – here, we think there is no need to explain.
- Concave – deflection between the side edges of the deck. Is just as important when choosing a skateboard as the width of the deck. How difficult tricks and turns you can perform on the board depends on the depth of the concave. The deeper this parameter, the more maneuverable the board and the more difficult tricks can be done on it.
- The kicktail is a bend in the tail of the deck that allows you to kick the board or jump. It should be said that on most models of shotboards there is a kicktail on both sides, which significantly increases the possibilities of the board for tricks.
Now that you know what a skateboard is made of, here’s a second tip: Beginners should always choose the easiest option. You will always have time to improve your board or buy a more complex one.
Step 3: Choose the Right Skate Size
There are four basic sizes of skateboards.All measured across board widths: micro, mini, medium and full size. The 6.5-6.75 inch micro boards are designed for children aged 5 and under, while the 7 inch mini boards are ideal for older children.
The most common children’s board size is medium, corresponding to children’s shoe size. For adult beginners, use a 7.5-inch or larger full-size board.
Step 4: Choose a board made from good material
Canadian Maple is the most common material in skateboard construction.The other two are bamboo and birch. Another alternative is plastic, which is much cheaper and is commonly used in pennyboards. There are also aluminum and fiberglass decks that work in a similar way. The popularity of Canadian maple is largely dependent on the quality of the wood and the strength it provides.
Advice: If you do not know how to distinguish maple from birch, then ask a sales assistant, but rather invite a skateboarder friend who probably understands such intricacies for help.
Step 5: Try to build the skateboard yourself
Now that you understand the construction of skateboards, you can build your own skate by purchasing the deck, wheels, bearings and suspension separately and then assembling them as a designer. We warn you right away, if you are a beginner in skateboarding, then you better trust the professionals and buy a ready-made board according to your preferences. An improperly assembled skateboard is not only uncomfortable to ride, but it can also be unsafe.In any case, the choice is yours.
Step 6: Check the quality of the skate and buy
On a good quality skateboard, the wheels will spin smoother and easier to turn. On good models, the board is more stable than on cheaper versions. Check the quality of the deck, what material it is made of. As a rule, the amount of plastic in the composition is checked. The more plastic, the worse the quality, unless of course it’s a pennyboard.
Here’s what to look out for:
- The suspension connects the wheels to the deck and must be metal.If the suspension is plastic, this is bad.
- Wheels: plastic or rubber. Wheels should be made of polyurethane for smoother ride and better traction.
- Wheel rotation: if they rotate freely, without any squeaks, braking or wobbling, then this indicates a good quality of bearings.
Tip: Be careful when buying skateboards from supermarkets or large retail chains, because the quality of the boards sold there, as a rule, leaves much to be desired, which means that they are more difficult and not always safe to ride.
Step 7: Set Up Your Skateboard
Now that you have selected and bought the right skateboard for yourself, you need to adjust it correctly. Skate tuning usually means adjusting the stiffness of the suspension, it depends on how well the board will handle turns and maintain balance. Here’s what you need:
- Phillips screwdriver;
- Allen wrench (usually fits 15mm and 13mm, with some exceptions).
With these tools, we adjust the rigidity of the suspension by clamping or, on the contrary, loosening it. If you just want to roll on the asphalt and turn smoothly without focusing on tricks, then you can slightly loosen the mount or even leave it as it was at the time of purchase – the skate will tilt slightly left / right when you stand on it. If you want to perform tricks and jump on the board, then you need to tighten the fasteners (“kingpin”) on the suspension until it stops, and then unscrew one turn back.This will make the suspension more rigid and the skate more stable. At the same time, the board will be controllable and capable of turning.
The same procedure should be repeated with the fasteners fixing the wheels – screw in until it stops, and then unscrew one turn (180 degrees) back. Please note that the wheel should rotate smoothly, without braking.
The final touch is to tighten the screws on top that hold the deck. To do this, we clamp the lower nut with pliers so that it does not rotate, and using a screwdriver, tighten the screws all the way.
Hint: Use only the tools that fit the mounts for your particular skate board to avoid damaging the mount. Please note that some boards may be secured with hex screws.
Step 8: Ride Right
So, the skate is set up, you are out and ready to skate, but what is the right way to do it? Follow these simple tips to learn how:
- Stand on the board with your feet on the anchor bolts perpendicular to the board and learn to balance.Balance forward / backward on the board to feel it.
- Turning on the skateboard is as follows: you make a slight tilt to the left or right, throwing your weight in the right direction and tilting the deck accordingly in the direction of the turn.
- To accelerate, you need to stand firmly on the board with one pivot foot, and with the other, push off the surface, picking up speed.
- To speed up on a skateboard, you need to master the pumping technique. To do this, you need to learn how to quickly balance, standing on the board with two feet while moving.In this case, it is necessary to perform a quick transfer of weight by vibrating the body forward / backward, forcing the board to move faster. The faster the vibrations, the higher the speed, while the board should not go in a straight line, but as if along smooth arcs.
Separately, it is worth talking about the methods of braking, since there are several of them:
- Getting off the skate is the simplest method and is best for beginners. With the foot you push off, you take a step forward, and with the pivot foot you push the board back.
- “Braking with a foot” – if you need to quickly slow down, then you need to brake with a foot that pushes off. we put it parallel to the skate on the entire foot and transfer the center of gravity to it. The supporting leg thus relieves the pressure on the board and it slows down.
- Tail-braking or “bumping on the pavement” is not the best way for your board, as it is not a good idea. it can be damaged, and the tail is quickly erased, but for an emergency and spectacular “stop” is suitable. You just need to press on the tail of the board and transfer all your weight there and the skate will instantly stop.
- Heel braking – similar to the previous method. Only unlike him, instead of the tail, the sole of the sneaker is erased? You just need to hang the edge of your foot from the tail and transfer the center of gravity to it, braking with your heel. It is not recommended to use for emergency braking. injuries are possible at high speed.
- Fs power slide – a trick technique that advanced skaters can do – involves turning the board sharply perpendicular to the axis of travel and shifting weight forward to lock the wheels.
- Bluntslide – another trick not for beginners, it combines two methods at the same time: the board turns perpendicular to the movement and, while sliding, “shuffles” against the asphalt with a tail.
Theory is good, but in practice it is not so simple. Therefore, before you skate on your own, ask a skateboarder friend to teach you a little or hire an instructor.
In conclusion, I would like to note that no matter what skateboard you choose, for proper and safe riding, you should practice well, choose comfortable equipment and properly care for your board, which will be discussed in the next article.Just remember that skateboarding should be fun above all else, so go for fun!
HOW TO CHOOSE A SKI MASK | ALPINDUSTRY
Why you need a ski mask
Before answering the question “how to choose”, let’s figure out why a ski mask is needed at all. Many novice skiers refuse to buy this piece of equipment, considering it a non-essential item. However, when you look at the ski mask as a piece of equipment, rather than an expensive accessory to decorate a helmet, a very different picture emerges.
Eye protection from solar radiation
Yes, first of all, a ski mask is a pair of sunglasses. If you ride in sunny weather or in the mountains, where the sun is closer and more active, the mask will save you from blinding and burns. Even a second blinding is dangerous, because you lose your sight, which means you cannot see the relief and the people around you. You can drive slowly and on the edge, but on a slope like on a highway, everything happens too fast. And you are obliged to see and evaluate what is happening at least in front of you.In addition, the sun interferes with reading the relief, and white snow blinds with reflected light.
Riding in cloudy weather does not eliminate solar radiation as it travels through the clouds.
The ski mask does not transmit ultraviolet radiation, so the eyes and skin of the face will be protected from burns. In winter, tanning is no less intense than in summer, especially in the mountains. Therefore, it is necessary to use sunscreen and a ski mask.
Improved visibility in poor lighting conditions
It is not always possible to ride on the slopes drenched in the sun. Often “flat” gray light evens out the relief and makes it difficult to see its irregularities, which is fraught with falls or difficulties in assessing the quality of the slope. This happens in cloudy weather or at sunset. You will squint and strain your eyes trying to see a track that is hard to read in low-contrast gray light.An appropriate lens will enhance contrast and make bumps, pits and other reliefs more visible and make descents safer.
Protection against cold, wind, rain and snow
It is not pleasant even at low speed to feel thorny snow flying in the face and eyes, freezing rain or scorching wind. In addition to discomfort, all this causes tears, makes you squint, and, as a result, interferes with the review. And visibility is safety.In winter, the weather changes during the day from sunny and comfortable to absolutely unacceptable for going on the slope. And if in the morning you came to ride on flat corduroy with excellent visibility and weak wind, fog or a blizzard can catch you upstairs, from where you will inevitably have to descend. Always take a ski mask with you. In frosty weather, the mask will save you from frostbite or simply from the unpleasant sensations associated with low temperatures. We go to the slope for pleasure, and not for the sake of fighting nature.
Nobody is going to fall, nobody at all. All these people who fall and get up, who are carried away on stretchers by rescuers, were not going to fall at all. There are many factors beyond our control that lead to falls. Bruises and bumps are inevitable, they are part of our life, part of training, part of sports. Damage can be minimized by using protection, and the mask is included in the list of required protective equipment. It is designed in such a way as to prevent damage from face impact on the slope.The mask will protect the nose and eyes from scratches, bruises and snow ingress. The mask will protect the face when hit by a ski, a stick or … Yes, any object used when skiing. Including “flying crowbars”, which sometimes are inexperienced, but extremely self-confident skiers.
The wrong approach when choosing a ski mask
Many years of work have revealed not the most encouraging statistics. Most of the buyers who come for a ski mask are guided by the following criteria:
- The mask should be beautiful (here you can write anything you want, everyone has their own ideas).
- The mask must match the color of the costume.
- Impressive design: petrol mirrored lens, huge / small size, matte / shiny color, etc., regardless of the quality and features of the lens.
- Perfect match in shape and color to the helmet.
- Cheaper, still for one time / wife makes / I look stupid in her.
The reason for this approach is the lack of objective information about how it really should be, the abundance of conflicting opinions read on the Internet, the pressure of fashion trends and a huge number of models, from which the hair is on end.Let’s try to figure it out and draw up an approximate algorithm for choosing a ski mask that can simplify the process and help in purchasing a quality item that does not leave a feeling of wasted money, fulfills its declared functions one hundred percent and, of course, pleasing to the eye design.
Photo by Anna Dragunova
The right approach for choosing a ski mask
The first question to ask yourself before buying:
1.Under what light conditions do I plan to ride?
Suburban hills and low mountains in the middle belt or northern regions rarely boast stable, clear weather. Most often it is partly cloudy and cloudy days with clouds and monochrome light. But the highlands and resorts located on the southern slopes are famous for the absence of clouds and blinding sunlight. And here everything is like with sunglasses – the brighter the sun, the darker the lens. The lens is the base and most expensive part of the mask.It performs the main function – it protects the eyes. You should start with the choice of lenses. Lenses differ in the degree of darkness (or light transmission – VLT). Material – polycarbonate. It does not break on impact, like glass, therefore, does not damage the eyes from fragments. Polycarbonate does not tan in the cold and is elastic enough not to break if you accidentally sit on the mask. All lenses are double-layered to prevent fogging or freezing due to temperature differences between the inside and outside of the mask.
VLT ( Visible Light Transmission) – the light transmittance of the lens.
The choice of the light transmittance of the ski mask filter directly depends on the lighting conditions under which you intend to ski. There are no absolutely universal proposals. But there are five VLT categories: from 0 to 4.
Giro Semi Mask, S0 lens included
Category S0 – uncolored light filter that transmits from 80 to 100% of visible light.This filter is suitable for night skiing or low light conditions when a mask is used to protect the face. He will not save from the bright sun
Cebe Striker L mask, S1 lens
Category S1 is a slightly darkened filter that transmits from 43 to 80% of visible light.Partly cloudy, low heights, cloudy weather and night skiing are the area of application of the “one”.
Giro Facet, S2 lens
Category S2 – a light filter that transmits from 18 to 43% of visible light. We use the filter for sunny weather at low altitudes and partly cloudy weather with a predominance of the sun.It is the most versatile filter, suitable for most users and fits well in a variety of lighting situations. However, at high altitudes S2 cannot boast of a sufficient degree of protection.
Cebe Icone mask, S3 lens
Category S3 is a highly darkened filter used in sunny and variable weather in the mountains.Transmits 8 to 18% of visible light. In cloudy weather, such a filter will greatly reduce visibility and strain your eyes.
Category S4 – the darkest possible filter for high mountains and very bright and active sun. Light transmittance – 3-8%. Do not use at night, cloudy weather or low altitudes.
Julbo Starwind mask, S1-3 lens
The industry also offers photochromic lenses , which can change the degree of dimming depending on the lighting conditions.The more light hits the filter, the darker it becomes, and vice versa. The speed of darkening and clearing is usually comfortable for most reputable manufacturers and is about 20 seconds. Photochromic filters can be categorized in one to three steps: S0-1, S1-3, S2-4.
The choice depends on the conditions of use in the same way as the choice of a lens with a fixed VLT, however, photochromic filters are much more versatile and provide more options.You don’t have to bother with several masks designed for different weather, or replaceable filters, using one both under the clouds and under the bright sun. Cons – the relative high cost of technology and a relatively high price for the end user, as well as the ability of the weather to “deceive” the filter, for example, in fog with diffused lighting.
Spy Legacy Mask, Lock Steady ™ Quick Change Lenses
Giro Article Mask, Magnetic Replacement Lenses
Masks with replaceable filters are still the solution for those who ride in any weather, except for storms and blizzards (in this state of affairs, nothing is visible at all).Instead of two or three masks, there is one, and the filter changes depending on the brightness of the light. This technology has its advantages and disadvantages.
Pros – Less luggage and things that you drag with you on the slope, and a mask with replaceable filters is cheaper than several full masks. Minus – replacing the filter is not an easy process and if you handle it carelessly, there is a chance to damage the coatings or scratch the lens itself. Nowadays, manufacturers have come up with a mass of
All categories of light filters protect against ultraviolet radiation by 99 -100%.
The blue lens matches the blue jacket perfectly.However, blue light is not very good for the eyes, and if you ride in the suburbs, where the weather is mostly cloudy, a yellow or orange shade is more suitable for you, alas.
Giro Basis mask, yellow lens
In general, color matters. Avoid red filters as they tire your eyes quickly. For cloudy and changeable weather, give preference to yellow and orange colors.They distort the color rendition, but they perfectly emphasize the unevenness of the track, enhance the contrast and show the world as cheerful and bright. In “flat” light and terrain leveling, yellow and orange filters are a real lifesaver, however, remember that they do not “illuminate” the terrain like a flashlight. And if in dense fog you cannot see with your own eyes more than three meters, no lens will broaden the horizons.
Many people may like the pink filter, which can deepen shadows and convey volume.
Oakley Flight Deck Mask, brown lens
Brown filters are calm, darken highlighted areas well, make the image contrast and create a sense of depth without increasing eye strain.
Gray and black filters practically do not distort colors, they are contrasting and clear, do not strain the eyes and do not lead to increased fatigue.
Green shades have a beneficial effect on eyesight, they accentuate colors and have a calming effect.
Oakley Fall Line Mask
Anti-fog or anti-fog coating . It is applied to all modern lenses, despite the fact that they are all double and have a buffer zone that protects against temperature differences inside and out.We are living people, and we breathe. Sometimes inside the mask. Do not do like this. The breath will settle on the lens in the form of condensation and permanently deprive you of the opportunity to see the world through the mask. The same will happen if you wear glasses over your hat, because the evaporation comes from the head too! The anti-fog coating protects the mask from condensation, but it is almost powerless when we breathe or evaporate inside it. Antifog is water-soluble, so do not rub the inner surface of the lens to remove snow that has got there.Just shake it out thoroughly and let the mask dry, and then gently wipe the remaining stains from the drops with a napkin.
The ventilation holes on the mask lens also help circulate air and prevent fogging. Their shape and size are determined by the manufacturer and in any case perform the same task. If there are no such holes on the lens, the mask is still blown through the inside.
Oakley Line Miner with Prizm technology
Polarization. What are polarized filters for? Bright sunlight often hits smooth surfaces, snow, ice, glass, and water. Reflecting from these surfaces, the light is polarized. Once in the eyes, such a flash can blind you to loss of vision for a few seconds, which is quite enough to commit a fatal mistake.In addition, sunlight is polarized, reflecting off dust and moisture particles in the air, in general, from everywhere! That is why it is so important to use dark polarized filters in cloudless mountain weather. The filter removes reflections, softens glare, leaving your vision safe. By blocking glare, the polarized filter enhances the contrast and clarity of the image.
How does it work? Multidirectional sunlight, reflected from various surfaces, is polarized horizontally.The mask filter blocks horizontally polarized light and only lets vertically polarized light through. This is achieved through the use of a special film applied to the lens surface. Polarization removes glare from water, snow, ice, and other smooth surfaces and allows for better relief reading. This surface is very suitable for high altitude areas where the sun is harder and more active, the speed is higher and the terrain is more difficult. On suburban slides, a mirror finish is enough to soften glare.
In addition to polarization, there are other modern technologies with a similar effect, for example, Trident ™ from the SPY brand or Prizm Solution from Oakley, which work on a different principle.
Spy Optic Bravo mask with mirror lens
Mirror finish. A feature loved by many fashionistas that hides the eyes and looks spectacular in the overall ski outfit.The mirror finish can be denser or less dense. A dense mirror is commonly used for dark filters to help protect the eyes from glare, intense and reflected sunlight. Dense mirrored lenses are good in bright sunlight and are inappropriate in cloudy weather as they will tire your eyes and impair visibility. The lightweight mirror finish goes to the universal lenses and low light filters. It looks aesthetically pleasing, adds charm, and naturally copes with occasional highlights and highlights.
In addition, the lens can be coated with a protective coating against scratches and anti-reflective coating .
2. Comfort, fit and visibility
Finally, the information has been studied, the terms have been memorized, the categories of lenses have been decomposed in the head on shelves within walking distance, the VLT, the color and coating of the lens have been determined. Now what? We take a helmet (do you have one?) And go to the store to try on ski masks.If you don’t have a helmet, you should buy it in the same store before choosing glasses, because now we will combine three positions: the shape of the helmet, the shape of the mask, and the features of the face shape. This is not an easy task.
. When you can’t choose a lens shape
Large-eyed masks are staring at us from the mirrored shelves through the glass.Some are even, others are round. What’s better? We inform the seller which category of lenses we need, and we get several options for fitting. It turns out that lenses still differ in shape and are divided into cylindrical and spherical. Cylindrical “straight” lenses may produce slight distortion. They are cheaper to manufacture, which means they are more budgetary for the end consumer. Spherical “round” lenses have a surface curvature close to the shape of the eye, so distortion is unlikely.Their production is more complicated and expensive. It should be noted that the convex surface of a spherical lens is more likely to be scratched and the mask must be handled more carefully. A relatively recent invention is the toric lens . The technology is not new and is used in the manufacture of contact lenses, but in the design of ski masks is still not widely used. The toric lens shape combines the advantages of a sphere and a cylinder. Lack of distortion, good visibility, abundance of air between the face and the light filter, spectacular appearance.A toric lens mask won’t come cheap either.
Giro Contact Mask Toric Lens
Bolle Laika mask, spherical lens
When choosing, you need to put on a mask and focus on the sensations. Turn your head, look up and down.If the lens does not distort, we leave it as a working option. Lenses from good manufacturers do not distort reality regardless of shape.
One of the most important characteristics of each particular mask. There are no masks with good or bad vision. There are masks, the overview of which is not enough for you.On a slope, your safety, as well as the health and life of those around you, depends on your peripheral vision. A person’s field of view with a fixed gaze is approximately 180 degrees. The wider the horizontal view of the mask, the more likely it is to notice what is happening on the sides. Do not look at your feet, this is typical of beginners, and it will pass with experience. The skier is looking a few meters ahead, not at the toes of the skis. He reads the relief and is ahead of the curve. This is one of the reasons the side view is important.You will be able to notice the movement and have time to make a maneuver, avoiding the collision.
Put on the mask, stand up straight and look left and right without turning your head. Rate how far you can see in each direction. You can stretch your arms in front of you, bring your index fingers together, and then spread your arms to the sides until the fingers disappear from the field of view. If this happens close to a 180-degree angle, the view is fine for you.
Fit and helmet compatibility
Who wants to fix sliding equipment all the time during skiing or rest? There are no such? Or does anyone enjoy experiencing breathing problems? I doubt.We are pulling out rare moments of joy from life and work, we come to the mountain to have fun, to enjoy nature, snow, speed. Not that that’s all. Therefore, we will be picky about the position of the mask on the face.
So, fitting. You can start trying on without a helmet if you plan to sometimes ride without a head … That is, without head protection. And we are not currently considering the option of choosing the wrong helmet. In this case, the helmet can sit too deep and shift the mask to the nose, or, conversely, tilt back, revealing the forehead.Assuming the helmet is perfect and choosing a mask.
– The mask should fit snugly, adhering to the skin along the entire perimeter. The cracks on the bridge of the nose are not critical, but undesirable. Will blow out.
– Pressure on the nose and cheekbones should be felt (you have a mask on your face, you can’t get away from this, you don’t wear this in life, that’s why it’s unusual), but breathing remains free, without interference. Stay in it for a while and assess the pressure on your cheekbones.If it recedes, and does not intensify to noticeable irritation, everything is in order.
The frames of the masks are made of soft and plastic material. The inner walls are especially soft, the surface is covered with soft inserts of different density. Most often, the frame is close to the shape of the face, and the soft inserts are adapted to the characteristics of a particular person. Give the mask a few minutes to settle on your face. In the process of riding, the materials will sit around, take the desired shape, and the mask will stop pressing. Often the manufacturer equips the surface directly adjacent to the face with a hypoallergenic and very pleasant to the touch fleece.
– The elastic of the mask should run parallel to the floor, not at an angle. Changing the angle of the elastic will change the fit of the mask. On the elastic, it is desirable to have a silicone strip that can hold the mask on the helmet when you lift it off your face. Helmets usually have a loop to secure the elastic of the mask.
– Note the mating of the top of the mask and helmet. It is very difficult to achieve a perfect match in shape and size, and it is not necessary. It is enough that the helmet and the mask do not conflict with each other, and an impressive gap does not form between them.
If breathing is free, it is comfortable for you, nothing presses, it is clearly visible and comfortable for the eyes, the mask and helmet do not fight for a dominant position on your head, it is likely that this is it! Long-awaited acquisition. There can be several such options. It is from them that you need to choose the most beautiful, suitable in color, design and price. Then you will be satisfied, and your choice will delight you for many years. However, there are situations when there is only one option. Or two. And both don’t match in color.You can, of course, go around the whole world in search of “the one”, or you can prioritize and, instead of searching, buy the right thing and go for a drive as soon as possible.
And I ordered in China …
… everything suits me, I’ve been skating for the third year already.
First, congratulations. For several hours people choose a mask so that it fits correctly, does not press, does not interfere with breathing and vision, but you ordered from the picture, and everything suits you. It’s a miracle, you hit the jackpot.Perhaps it was worth betting on zero, the winnings could have been much larger. But you shouldn’t advise your friends. Their level of luck may differ from yours.
… they have normal lenses, I ordered with a mirror, everything is visible, the eyes are comfortable. It is still stamped at one plant.
Surprise again. However, the sensitivity of the eyes is different for everyone. You will feel vision problems in two to three seasons, and your child in two to three days. You could be lucky, and the lens does not transmit ultraviolet light, and a friend with a low threshold of luck will get a beautiful and dangerous toy.In this case, you shouldn’t believe the reviews on the product page. They were written by people who also order from China. Most likely, they do not understand the issue and have little experience with their purchase.
Why not order a ski mask from an unknown manufacturer?
There is, in general, one reason – safety for your health. You can talk for a long time about the fact that this is done in the same factories on the same equipment and from the same components as the equipment of well-deserved brands.That brands are spending huge amounts of money on advertising and marketing. That the name is worth more than the product. However, a responsible manufacturer also spends funds on development, and then on checking and testing their products, and then also on certification. And there is no guarantee that a fake or non-name has gone through all these stages and is made of the same material using the same technologies.
But sight is expensive. We understand this when we start to lose it. Our eyes see through the light hitting the retina.The pupil also reacts to light, which, by narrowing, is protected from burns. We put on glasses and limit the flow of light, causing the pupil to dilate. If the lens is of good quality, it will protect the eyes from ultraviolet radiation. And if not, we get a temporary deterioration in vision or a retinal burn, which we may not notice right away. The eye is a complex instrument that loses balance and tuning over time. It is very easy to spoil your eyesight. It is in our interest not to create conditions for irreparable loss and to protect our eyes as much as possible.You should not trust an unknown manufacturer, about the quality of the products of which there is no information, except for reviews on the Chinese website.
Buy only the best, only high-quality equipment, take care of your health and enjoy skiing.
Good luck and happy days in the mountains!
90,000 Seat selection. Anatomy. Shapes and other differences.- DimaPetrov
Which saddle is the best? One that you do not think about either during the ride or after!
How to choose? Size, shape, filler, cutout? What is the difference?
The first , with which any saddle selection begins, is its width .
For some, this will be a revelation, but the saddle must first of all fit in the width!
The same Specialized makes some saddles in four sizes! 130, 143, 155 and 168 millimeters.
To understand this, you need to remember a little anatomy.
We are sitting on the ischial tubercles . These are rounded protrusions in the lower part of the pelvis.
Let’s not forget about the differences between men and women. On average (according to PeopleSize 1998 statistics, http://www.openerg.com/), in women, the ischial tubercles are 12 millimeters wider.
Also the difference in genitals and related features.
Many are accustomed to sitting on soft tissues, while the bones can be almost in the air.
In such a situation, it seems to be soft to sit, but after 30 minutes of constant pressure on the perineum, everything can go numb there.
Therefore, it is extremely important that most of the pressure falls on the bones, because they are designed for this. Sitting on the same stool, we are sitting on the bones.
It happens that a person transplants from a narrow saddle to a more suitable wide saddle, sits on his bones, instead of soft tissue, as a result of which these same bones begin to hurt! This means that the pressure that used to be taken by soft tissues, genitals, now falls on the bones! Bingo! This is what we are trying to achieve. The bones will get used to the load in 2-3 trips.
You can find out the width of your ischial bones during the Body Geometry Fit tuning procedure , or simply by using the tool that has already been called the “popomer”.
Saddle width should, on average, be 20 millimeters wider than the ischial tuberosities for proper fit. For example, if the distance between the bumps is 110, then you need 130 saddle, if 125, then the saddle 145. But you still need to look at the second step, but more on that below in the text.
There are other methods, but they are less traditional and representative …
Determining the width of the ischial tubercles is the first step towards choosing the right saddle! Remember this! And tell a friend 🙂
The second step is taking into account the fit, or rather the angle of the torso, in which you are sitting on the bike.In an aero landing, your pelvis is tilted more forward than in a mountain bike landing, and as a result, you sit on a narrower part of the bone called the pubic arch.
This is the reason why it is not always possible to get by with one saddle for a mountain bike and road bike or for a road bike and led for a triathlon / cut.
Thus, the more “aggressive” the fit, the less wide the saddle is needed.
In the case of a comfortable fit, we sit clearly on the ischial tubercles.
In all cases, our task is to maximally reduce the pressure on the soft tissues, distribute it precisely on the bones and stabilize the pelvis so that there is no unnecessary “fidgeting”.
The third step is the selection of the saddle shape.
The saddle is round, when viewed from the rear , and sometimes flatter. We need a compromise that works best for you.
In most cases, a flatter saddle is better.You sit on it more stable, it minimizes pelvic vibrations from side to side.
An additional plus will be a decrease in pressure on the perineum due to the fact that the saddle is farther from the pubic arch, increasing the volume of “free” space.
Also when viewed from above the saddle is T-shaped, and sometimes pear-shaped.
In general, for cyclists who like to often move back and forth on the saddle, the pear shape is more suitable.For those who sit more stable in one place – T-shaped.
Also, the T-shape is sometimes better for those with large hips, reducing friction against the saddle while pedaling.
From the side view distinguishes between flat and raised seats.
The elevated saddle is ideal for people with lumbar lordosis. And for those who are looking for a clearer and more stable fit, because on such a saddle you can move all the way back and sit “like a glove.”
The flat saddle allows more movement along the saddle back and forth, for some it will suit more.
Next is seat softness. Different seats have different layers of damping material, sponge or similar.
It may seem that a softer saddle is more comfortable to sit on, but perhaps this is only the first 5 minutes. Feelings can be deceiving. The fact is that, again, as in the case of the shape, a softer saddle will reduce the “free” space under the pubic arch.
Another difference between the saddles is the presence of cutout (cutout). In most cases, a cutout can significantly reduce soft tissue pressure and increase comfort.
Sometimes manufacturers instead of a technologically more complex cutout in the middle of the saddle insert softer filling, aiming for the same results as with the cutout.
Last but not least! This is the correct seat angle setting of .
The seat must be set horizontally at 0 ° if it is a flat seat. True, it is allowed to tilt the saddle nose down in some cases, but only by 1-2 degrees, no more, so that the load on the hands does not increase excessively.
If the saddle has a raised rear part, then we kind of do not take it into account, but set the level along the middle part of the saddle.
The theme is actually eternal! There are a lot of features. Each individual case must be considered separately.Your anthropometric traits, riding style, fit, and goals. During the setting of the fit, I help with advice on the type of saddle that might suit you best. It is also possible to immediately try several types of saddles, if desired and if necessary.
And more! The saddle may look very unusual or not stylish in the classic sense of the word. But if it suits you, then do not listen to anyone, including yourself. The priest has no eyes 🙂
Differences between longboard and skateboard, riding styles
What is the difference between a longboard and a classic skateboard? The most popular longboard riding styles.
Have you decided to learn how to skate, started looking for a good model and faced many manufacturers, types and models? Not everyone can tell the difference between a skateboard and a longboard, a cruiser from a pennyboard, and skating styles can be explored indefinitely. This article is devoted to the differences between the boards!
What is a longboard and what is its purpose?
The name “longboard” itself speaks for itself, which translated from English means “long board”.This is one of the main differences between a longboard and a skateboard: a longboard is a straight flat deck (board) with a length of 90-100 cm or more.
The main difference is the purpose of the longboard. This type of boards is designed for long-term riding in the park or city streets.
The skateboard is much smaller in size and is suitable for performing tricks, all kinds of jumps and slides. Small, hard wheels can’t get the board up to speed, so long-distance rides will take a lot of effort and won’t be fun.
Longboard components and features
The components of a longboard are similar to a skateboard, but have their own differences:
- The deck (board) is made from layers of Canadian or Chinese maple, as well as from impact-resistant composite polyurethane. The length of the deck is much longer than a skateboard and varies from 90 to 200 mm, soft and resilient.
- The shape of the board is straight, in some models only the rear part (“tail”) is bent.
- The suspension (tracks) are also wider and softer than a classic skateboard. The size of the suspension depends on the parameters of the board itself.
- Wheels are soft and large in diameter (about 70 mm) – allow you to develop high speed and quickly move around the city.
- The bearings depend on the style of the longboard. The standard class for this part is ABEC5 and ABEC7. This board is perfect for beginners for learning, it will be easy to manage. Bearings of the ABEC9 class will allow you to accelerate well and maintain speed for longer.
What are the different styles of longboard riding?
When choosing a model, you need to clearly understand why you need a skate. Indeed, in addition to the characteristics of the boards, they differ in their riding style.
- Freeriding – riding at high speed and performing various tricks. The deck of such longboards is as short as possible.
- Slalom is a riding style for overcoming obstacles on a board, which uses special cones, cups, barriers and much more.
- Carving is a style reminiscent in its technique of snowboarding and surfing. Namely, the transfer of weight from toe to heel. Thus, it turns out rolling in a kind of arcs.
- Speedboarding is downhill, when the longboarder develops high speed on the board. Such skating delivers a lot of emotions and adrenaline.
- Dancing is practically a “dance” on the board.