Pitt County Youth Lacrosse
Welcome to Pitt County Lacrosse!
Pitt County Youth Lacrosse (aka: Pitt Lax) offers boys and girls the opportunity to learn the fastest game on two feet! Pitt Lax started in 2006 and has grown over the years to more than 100 participants from Greenville, Winterville, Washington, Wilson and more! Lacrosse is one of the fastest spreading games in the country, and we’re proud to continue that growth in Eastern NC! Our regular season is during the spring, where we compete in the East Carolina Youth Lacrosse League with other area organizations (New Bern, Carteret, Jacksonville, Topsail and Newport). We welcome new players at any age, and have rental equipment available at many of our events.
Below are the events and dates for upcoming lacrosse
FALL 2021 PITT LAX
Sunday Fall Clinic Registration is OPEN!
Pitt County Youth Lacrosse will hold an 8 week series of instructional clinics for girls and boys on Sunday afternoons to learn the game of Lacrosse; “the fastest sport on two feet.
When: Sundays, September 12th – October 31st, 1:30 – 2:30pm
Girls’ ONLY Tournament: October 23-24 NC LaxFest (Goldsboro, NC)
Who: Girls and Boys ages 7-13
Where: Bradford Creek Soccer Complex; lacrosse field.
Boys’ Cost: $50. Participants must also have a current USA Lacrosse membership; $30-35 annual fee.
Girls’ Cost: $150. This fee covers tournament entry. Fee is broken into 2 payments – $100 at registration and $50 due by October 1. Participants must also have a current USA Lacrosse membership; $30-35 annual fee.
Rental Equipment: If you indicated that you will be “renting” equipment, please arrive 30 minutes before your child’s clinic’s start time on September 12th. Also, bring a check for $75 made payable to PCYL. This check will be used only as a security deposit and will be returned to you upon the conclusion of the clinic series when the equipment is returned to us.
Personal Protective Gear: ALL participants must wear a mouthguard. ALL boys must wear a protective cup. PCYL does not provide mouth guards or protective cups.
Boys Fall Clinic registration can be found HERE.
Girls Fall Clinic/Tournament registration can be found HERE.
Pitt Premier for High School Girls & 10U Boys
Registration for the teams is now OPEN!
Pitt Lax has added a new competetive division for High School Girls and 10U Boys! Particiants will have the opportunity to play on our travel teams, which will compete with other programs at tournaments around the southeast. Premier High School Girls will also allow new lax players to join the Tournament team as practice players.
Register for the Pitt Premier 10U Boys tournament team.
Register for the Pitt Premier High School Girls tournament team.
Register for the
– 10U Boys’ practices begin September 12.
– Sundays 1:30-2:30 at Bradford Creek.
– Additional practice during the week will be announced by coach Kelley.
– Girls’ practices begin September 1.
– Sundays & Wednesdays 6:00-7:30 at JH Rose
– Girls’ Tournaments/Events
– TBD September Team Building Day (Greenville, NC)
– Oct 9-10; Crystal Coast Fall Showcase (Newport, NC)
– Oct 16-17; Southern Lacrosse Showdown (Bermuda Run, NC)
– Nov 6-7; Lake Norman Fall Classic (Mooresville, NC)
– Boys’ Tournaments/Events
– Nov 6-7; Myrtle Beach Lax Classic (N. Myrtle Beach, SC)
– Nov 13-14; NC LaxFest (Goldsboro, NC)
– Nov 20-21; Virginia Beach Turkey Shoot (Virginia Beach, VA)
**All participants must have a current USA Lacrosse Membership ($30)
– Boys’ 10U Premier Players – $500
– Broken into 3 scheduled payments ($100 registration, $200 in Sept, $200 in Oct)
– Girls’ High School Premier Tournament Players – $400
– Broken into 3 scheduled payments ($75 registration, $150 in Sept, $175 in Oct)
– Girls’ High School Premier Practice Players – $75
Winter 2022 PITT LAX
Chillax is returning!
Chillax is an indoor Chumash league hosted at JH Rose. What is Chumash!? Chumash is a fast paced 3v3 lacrosse game that builds stick skills and field sense in a tight space.
SPRING 2022 PITT LAX
Registration will open in November
New Players Welcome!
NO EXPERIENCE NECESSARY! Our coaches and returning players love seeing new faces, and know you’ll fall in love with the sport the second you pick up a stick! Lacrosse is one of the fastest growing sports in the US, and has been in our local high schools for years! We especially need new youth lacrosse players so we can contiue to grow the sport in Pitt County!
Age Guidelines & Divisions:
– Girls and Boys from ages 6-13:
-Boys 14U: 7th-8th Grade
-Boys 12U: 5th-6th Grade
-Boys 10U: 3rd-4th Grade
-Boys 8U: 2nd Grade and below
-Girls 14U: 7th-8th Grade
-Girls 12U: 5th-6th Grade
-Girls 10U: 4th Grade and below
– Practices for the 2022 season will begin in February.
-Boys 14U: Days & Times TBD
-Boys 12U: Days & Times TBD
-Boys 10U: Days & Times TBD
-Boys 8U: Days & Times TBD
-Girls 14U: Days & Times TBD
-Girls 12U: Days & Times TBD
-Girls 10U: Days & Times TBD
– Games for the 2022 season will begin in March and continue into mid- May. The season concludes with the league tournament at the end of the season.
– $125 per player with $20 discount for each subsequent player from the same family. (
– EARLY BIRD DISCOUNT: Register before January 1, 2022 to receive a $25 discount!
– If you’re new to lacrosse and aren’t sure you want to buy all the equipment just yet, we have rental equipment available. Rental equipment is only available for new players and is limited on a first come first serve basis. Rental fees are based upon the items rented.
SUMMER 2022 PITT LAX
FOUR FREE Try Lax Days!
Pitt Lax wants to give kids the opportunity to try lacrosse at NO COST! Each month we will be offering FREE Try Lax Days! We’ll provide the sticks, you provide the participation! The focus of these days will be stick skills, so current Pitt Lax kids are encouraged to come out and BRING FRIENDS! Registration for these days will remain open all summer. Please register so we have a head count for each date.
Try Lax #1 – May 2022 in Greenville
Try Lax #2 – June 2022 in Winterville
Try Lax #3 – July 2022 in Washington
Try Lax #4 – August 2022 in Farmville
Try Lax #5 – September 2022 in Greenville
Registration will open in May 2022!
JH Rose Lax Camp will return in 2022!
JH Rose Varisty Girls Lacrosse is offering a 1 week instructional camp for elementary and middle school girls to learn the game of Lacrosse; “the fastest sport on two feet. ” Emphasis is on fun and fundamentals, no experience necessary. Sticks and goggles are available only for new players.
When: July 2022; 8:00am-12:30pm
Where: JH Rose High School practice lacrosse field
Fee: $150; Includes a reverisble pennie and Jimmy John’s lunch everyday! Current Pitt Lax participants can receive $25 off if they bring a friend NEW to lacrosse! Contact coach Celie for access to this discount.
2021-2022 Sponsorship Opportunities
If you own a business, work for a business and/or know of a business/individual that would like to sponsor PCYL, please let us know. Pitt County Youth Lacrosse (PCYL) is a not for profit organization and is tax exempt under Section 501 (c) (3) of the Internal Revenue Code. All donations to PCYL are tax-deductible to the extent permitted by law.
We would like to thank the following businesses and individuals for supporting our 2021 Season!
- Patrick Johnson, DDS
- Kinetic Physical Therapy & Wellness
- The Hammock Source
- Air U Greenville
- Goodstuff Juices
- Moe’s Southwest Grill
- Andrew Brown
- Blount Properties
- Summers & Johnson Periodontics
- DICK’s Sporting Goods
- Sawyer’s Fun Park
- Evans Wealth & Asset Management
- Blount Properties
- Michels & Gauquie Cosmetic and Family Dentistry
- The Farmer Family
- Eastern Carolina Foot & Ankle Specialists
Pitt County Youth Lacrosse – We are currently have car decals and magnets. Contact Julie Lindsay if interested.
Ink’d Threads – This local business has an online store full of PittLax Spirit Wear!
Irish Girl Vinyl – Jessica Mullen’s business also offers you the ability to personalize your apparel & gear with your name/number. You can reach her on Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/irishgirlvinyl/
High Tide Embroidery – High Tide is the only authorized embroider of Pitt County Youth Lacrosse logos. Not only do they have a variety of items for embroidery (caps, visors, headbands, shirts, sweatshirts, etc.), you can also have them embroider on your own items (lacrosse bags, shirts, etc.) See samples on their website (http://www.hightideembroidery.com/pitt-county-lacrosse-pitt-lax/) and contact them at [email protected]
Testimonials › Marlin LAX Camps
– Neil Duffy, (Author, The Spirit in the Stick)
“It has been an honor – and pleasure to know Coach Stewart for over twenty years as a player and as an excellent college lacrosse coach. He is an insightful teacher of the game who has a gift for sharing his extensive knowledge and passion with his collegiate players, club team members, clinicians, and campers. Coach Stewart’s insistence on teaching and emphasizing fundamentals is refreshing as is his proper attention on the long-term development and well-being of all his charges.
Mr. Duffy’s career accomplishments include: U.S. Naval Academy Lacrosse Team Co-Captain 1984, 3-Time Tidewater Conference of Independent Schools (TCIS), Lacrosse Coach of the Year, 2-Time Virginia Independent Schools Athletic Association, (VISAA) Assistant Lacrosse Coach of the Year, Coach of over 30 Scholastic and Collegiate All-Americans, a National Collegiate Player of the Year, a National Collegiate Coach of the Year, two Major League Lacrosse All-Stars, two Team USA members, and approximately two dozen collegiate team captains. He is also Norfolk Academy’s Head Girls’ Basketball Coach, Assistant Boys’ Lacrosse Coach and an Author.
– Chazz Woodson, Professional Lacrosse Player
“Simply put, Coach Stewart understands player development. Many camps have shifted focus from teaching players how to play the game, to rolling the ball out and letting them play; often with false promises of getting recruited by top Division 1 coaches. Coach Stewart’s focus on providing players the tools to improve their skills sets, and commitment to raising the level of play throughout the Greater Hampton Roads area is what makes the Marlin Lacrosse Camps stand out from others. Moreover, campers have the opportunity to learn from a coach that was born and raised in the area, has been through many of the same experiences on and off the field that they have, and has earned the respect of countless players and coaches locally and nationally.
Mr. Woodson’s professional lacrosse experience includes: New Balance Athlete, Brine Lacrosse Endorsed Athlete, LXM Pro Player, 2008 MLL All Star and Freestyle Competition Champ, Drafted 19th Overall by Long Island Lizards.
College and High School Acheivements: Brown University ’05 2005 Co-Captain, 2x All Ivy, 2x All New England, 2x Offensive MVP, Blue Ridge School 01 (Jersey retired in 2010), All VPL, All State, All American, Norfolk Academy 97-00, 2x All VPL, All State.
Presently Mr. Woodson is the 2011 Development Officer for Thailand Lacrosse Association, Director, Chazz Woodson Lacrosse Camps, Owner/Director Chazz Woodson Initiatives, LLC., 2006 – Present, Assistant varsity lacrosse coach, Ransom Everglades School (Miami, FL) and JV basketball coach.
– Zander Laney, Marlin Lacrosse Camper
Zander Laney has just finished the Marlin Lacrosse Fall Clinic in Norfolk, VA. He took time to share some of the things he learned during the camp as well as tell us what “fireball” is all about. He’s pretty pumped on his Virginia Lacrosse Camp experience and we were glad that he was able to take some new skills back to his team the Chesapeake Bandits.
Best of luck Zander! Check out the video by clicking on Zander’s photo.
– Virginia Beach Police Captain
Thanks again for allowing my 10 year old grandson to participate in the Marlin Summer Lacrosse Camp. It was one of the highlights of his summer vacation with us and he raved about it. It was exciting to listen to him each day as he described his experiences and then took me into the backyard to practice what he had learned. He went back home to Chicago yesterday and was anxious to share his experiences with his family and friends. You and your staff are to be commended for a job well done. My own observations were that you and your staff were very professional, friendly, and helpful to all of the participants.
Ashburn Youth Lacrosse ClubRainout Information System
If PRCS closes the fields then we will not hold practices. Please download the app at Rainoutline.com
PRCS Rainoutline. com.
Parents and Coaches can download the app iPhone /Android which will be updated by 3 pm on weekdays and 7 am on weekends. As PRCS manages a total of 425 recreation use areas (fields, diamonds, gyms, etc), you will want to mark favorites.
A video tutorial on the app can be seen here: https://youtu.be/_1PAT-b6CHs
1. Upon downloading the app parents/coaches will want to search for: “Loudoun County” or “PRCS”.
2. You can then scroll through all the fields/schools listed and by tapping the star on the right select only your favorites you would like to monitor‚ Remember there are 425 (fields, diamonds, gyms, etc) so you’ll want to narrow it down to your favorites.
3. We strongly suggest you favorite the following Fields:
- Hampshire Park Field 1
- Hampshire Park Field 2
- Belmont Ridge Middle School
PRCS aims to have updates by 3pm on weekdays and 7am on weekends.
If for some reason you would not like to use the app, but instead the website you will have to create an account here: https://rainoutline.com/login
1. Create a new user account (located on the right-hand side of the page)
2. You will then receive an email from Rainoutline.com to verify your email address and activate your account
3. Login into your account and in the SEARCH box type in “PRCS”
4. Select Loudoun County Parks and Recreation and SELECT your Favorites by clicking on the stars
People can receive email or text alerts, but the App is the best way to go. The app gives the benefit of quickly checking the status whenever you need to know as opposed to alerts that are sent every time the status is updated (which could be more often than you’d like).
Girls lacrosse team in Charlottesville playing at ‘Elite’ level
CHARLOTTESVILLE, Va. (WVIR) – Lacrosse teams in Charlottesville are really, really good.
The UVA men’s and women’s teams are national championship-caliber programs, and it seems like at least one high school is winning a state title every year.
But there’s always room for improvement.
The Cav Lax Elite Girls Travel Lacrosse Club was started less than a decade ago, but they have quickly risen to become one of the nation’s elite programs.
Their Class of 2024 team is currently ranked No. 21 in the nation in the US Club Lacrosse Poll, and they were holding tryouts this week at St. Anne’s-Belfield.
The program was the brainchild of UVA women’s lacrosse head coach Julie Myers.
Co-Head Coach Henry Oakey says, “Her vision was to have a place for local girls to play, here in Charlottesville and Central Virginia, instead of going to Richmond and DC.”
The program was started seven years ago, with one team of fourth-graders.
“We still had a lot of pigtails, and didn’t know how to put a mouth guard in,” says Oakey.
They’re planning on fielding six teams this fall.
Oakey says, “The 2024′s and 2025′s, we got going, and there were enough little sisters on 2026′s and 2027′s to keep the ball rolling.”
Covenant rising freshman Delaney Poindexter says, “My mom got me started on lacrosse. I did not want to go to the tryouts, but a couple years later, and I really, really love lacrosse.”
Western Albemarle rising sophomore Reeve Goldstein has been there since the beginning.
“A lot of the girls that I started with are still here playing with me,” says Goldstein, “so we’ve kind of grown up together, and learned the game together.”
Cav Lax Elite is playing teams from places like Baltimore, New York, and Philadelphia, and they’ve been ranked as high as 15th in the nation.
“For a little town like Charlottesville, with the numbers we’re pulling from, that’s pretty good,” says Oakey, “and we’re proud of it.”
And it’s a big jump, as the team was ranked in the 80′s just last year.
The national rankings, tournaments, and showcases put the players in great position to play at the next level.
“During showcases, a ton of coaches are there, so we get to play in front of them,” says Goldstein.
Poindexter adds, “Definitely, I would love to try and play college lacrosse, and I know that this club, and my coaches and teammates, will help me get there.”
They are just scratching the surface in terms of recruiting, as the oldest group of girls are just starting their sophomore year of high school.
The Class of 2024 team will have a chance to showcase its skill at a tournament in Texas this fall.
Copyright 2021 WVIR. All rights reserved.
BUCKHANNON-UPSHUR – B&G
INTEREST or FORMING:
CONCORD – M – Inactive
FAIRMONT STATE – M- Inactive
MARSHALL – M
SHEPHERD – M – Inactive
WEST VIRGINIA – M&W
WV WESLEYAN – M – Inactive
DAVIS & ELKINS - M&W
CHARLESTON – W
BETHANY – M&W
OHIO VALLEY – M&W – Inactive
POTOMAC STATE – M
SHEPHERD UNIVERSITY – W
WHEELING UNIVERSITY - M&W
WV WESLEYAN – W
Home Page | Carpetbagger Lacrosse
X10 is offering 10% off camp tuitions for anyone who uses “AVLCLASSIC” You can request a friend or teammate as a roommate. If you have any questions feel free to reach out to Emily Bocklet at [email protected] and be sure to check out some great camp videos at www.x10lacrosse.com.
X10 LACROSSEWAS BUILT BY THE BOCKLET FAMILY. ALL PROFESSIONAL PLAYERS THEMSELVES; MIKE, MATT, CHRIS, AND CASEY, CREATED CAMPS THAT SHARE THEIR PASSION FOR LACROSSE WITH A BALANCE OF FUN & ADVENTURE. FOR THE PAST 10 YEARS THE X10 EXPERIENCE HAS BEEN UNMATCHED!
CAMPERS WILL RECEIVE INSTRUCTION FROM TOP COLLEGIATE & PROFESSIONAL PLAYERS. BETWEEN SESSIONS, CAMPERS WILL ENJOY PLAYING OUTDOOR SPORTS, RIVER TUBING, CAMPFIRES, EVENING CAMP ACTIVITIES & A CARNIVAL DAY WITH A DUNK TANK.
FIVE DAYS OF MEETING NEW FRIENDS, LEARNING & PLAYING WITHOUT ANY SCREEN TIME!
Boys Director: Chris Bocklet University Of Virginia | MLL & PLL Pro
Girls Director: Kara Koolage Salisbury University | Beach Lacrosse | Puerto Rico Senior National Team
Other X10 Lacrosse Camp Locations
X10 UTAH – July 26-30
X10 ADIRONDACK – Aug 16-20
X10 COLORADO – Aug 2-5
What the parents have to say:
My kids have gone to X10 day and overnight camps for a few years now and they feel it is simply the best lacrosse instruction they have ever received. I think the camps are well organized, beneficial, and fun! My kids come home tired and excited about lacrosse. I love that they are kept safe, well fed, and well cared for while developing a love for lacrosse. I will keep sending my kids to X10 camps year after year- the instruction is so amazing! The camps are intense and a ton of fun. –Marissa Hewitt
I wanted to thank you all! My daughter Ella had an amazing time and her only complaint was that it was too short! Her experience was priceless. She loved her counselors who gave great advice and created long term friendships. Her love of lacrosse and being a teammate was deepened. I applaud you all and thank you.”
— Mother of Ella Bahari, camper
“THANK YOU!! Hunter had a blast! The sharing of funny stories and activities is never-ending. He is already looking forward to next year! When we asked him what he loved the most, his reply “ Everyone was just so nice, and I met so many friends, it was awesome!”
— Mother of Hunter Ginty, camper
Chris Bocklet and The Bocklet Family
X10 Website Address: www. x10lacrosse.com
UNC vs Virginia : Semifinal Recap
Memorial Day Weekend is the pinnacle of our sport. It provides amazing matchups and the excitement of playing to secure your place in history. Our first recap of the day, UNC vs Virginia.
UNC vs Virginia Recap
Quarter 1: UNC 3 – UVA 2
Jeff Conner (UVA) picked a hell of a time to get his first career goal as he helped UVA strike first to take a 1-0 lead. Teams traded goals through out the quarter before William Perry scored with 3:00 to go, giving UNC it’s first lead of the day. Both teams looked a bit sloppy, maybe it was nerves or field conditions, either way the stars are making their presence felt early, and the middle of the field is CHAOS.UNC vs UVA , Jeff Conner scores first
Quarter 2: UNC 4 – UVA 9
The riding/clearing game became increasingly impactful. Virginia struggled to clear it cleanly but when they did they found themselves with scoring opportunities in transition. UNC really struggled offensively to find clean looks, working harder than they usually do just to get an average shot on goal. The Cavaliers scored 5 straight goals and won 10 straight face-offs forcing Breschi to take a timeout and reassess. Overall, Virginia dominated possession and situational doubles on defense gave the Tar Heels offense fits.
QUARTER 3: UNC 8 – UVA 12
North Carolina came out looking like a new team, tighter offense, crisper passing, and they finally won another face-off. The Tar Heels looked like the better team for about 11 minutes before UVA did Cavalier things and strung together some great possessions and closed the quarter with back to back goals. The issue was that even when UNC looked better, shots weren’t falling, and Alex Rode continued to dominate the goalie battle. UNC needs better goalie play, a continued fight for face-offs, and to convert on more possessions if they want a chance in the fourth.
QUARTER 4: UNC 11 – UVA 12
North Carolina continued to the improved play from the third, an incredible second half by Zac Tucci along with a tenacious ride led to increased opportunities for UNC, opportunities that William Perry didn’t waste. Virginia wouldn’t score this quarter, they would simply try and hold on.
Ultimately UNC found themselves with the ball within 1 goal and with 46.4 seconds on the clock. A missed shot by Carolina and an amazing backup by a Cavaliers defender gave Virginia the ball before immediately turning it over on the clear.
Now with 20.9 seconds on the clock, UNC had the ball and one last chance, but again the UVA defense left no room for a shot and ultimately created a turnover as time expired.
Down goes No. 1⃣‼️
UVA holds on to knock off North Carolina, 12-11. UVA advances to Championship Monday for the second NCAA Tournament in a row 💪#GoHoos pic.twitter. com/oiVRpIaGW1— Virginia Men’s Lacrosse (@UVAMensLax) May 29, 2021
The pace was exhausting and the energy electric. Players were selling out for end line calls, groundballs, and double/triple teams were everywhere. If you wanted to teach players the clear find different film, but this is the game you use to exemplify the ride. There were so many difference makers in this game but none more glaring than the performance by Alex Rode (15 Saves, 11 GA, 57%). Rode wasn’t perfect but he made saves that his opponent didn’t (29%) and it ultimately made a huge difference.
Alex (Rode) bailed us out time and time again.Lars Tiffany
Virginia will await the winner of Duke vs Maryland and will play in the National Championship on Monday.90,000 Coronavirus vaccine race. We compared them, and this is what happened
- Nikolay Voronin
- Science Correspondent
Photo author, ReutersPhoto caption,
The three leaders turned out to be quite motley : Potential vaccines differ almost more than their manufacturers themselves
Already three developers of coronavirus vaccines, which are in the last stage of clinical trials, have made optimistic statements about the incredible effectiveness of their drug.
Messages published one after another literally within a week were a bit like a race ahead – records were broken one after another.
And although all three statements are made on the basis of preliminary results, it seems that the main candidates for early access to the finals have been identified – and so far their declared effectiveness exceeds even the most optimistic forecasts.
WHO experts said that any vaccine that exceeded 70% would be considered a success.The American authorities announced their readiness to purchase drugs that give at least 50% protection against the virus (approximately the same effectiveness as the flu vaccine). The European Medical Agency hinted that they are ready to consider even less effective drugs.
The fact that there are not so many similarities between the three vaccines adds to the optimism, which means that the drugs are more likely not to compete with each other, but to complement each other.
The BBC Russian Service compared the leading developments, examining the strengths and weaknesses of both the potential vaccines themselves and their manufacturers.
The three leaders promising to end the pandemic, which has claimed more than 1.3 million lives worldwide, turned out to be quite motley.
Pfizer, an American pharmaceutical giant with a century and a half history, was the first to declare its success, which earned millions of dollars back in the Second World War on the production of penicillin.
A week later, the company released detailed interim data from clinical trials, which led to the conclusion that the Pfizer vaccine (BNT162b2) provides 95 percent protection against Covid-19.
This is a very good indicator: it means that out of every 100 people who are vaccinated, 95 will develop stable immunity. In other words, vaccination reduces the risk of infection by about 20 times.
The innovative company Moderna breathes in the back of the leader, which has been operating in the biotechnology market for only 10 years and has not registered a single drug.
On the one hand, this is not surprising: the development of this company is based solely on the use of messenger RNA, and for the vaccination of humans, no drug has been approved yet, created using this technology.
On the other hand, the Pfizer vaccine works on the same principle – so it is all the more impressive that both innovative drugs are so effective. According to preliminary data, the modern vaccine provides 94.5% protection against the virus.
In addition to them, Russian scientists from the Gamaleya Center have officially announced the effectiveness of their vaccine. According to them, Sputnik V provides 92 percent protection against Covid-19.
Like Pfizer, Russian developers also boast a century-old history – however, unlike Pfizer’s vaccine, Sputnik was created with budget money. NITsEM named after Gamaleya is part of the structure of the Russian Ministry of Health, and the development was funded by the state fund RDIF.
The Russian vaccine is distinguished from American drugs by the unwillingness of developers to publicly share information about ongoing clinical trials, which makes experts doubt any claims about the effectiveness of Sputnik.
Are these the final numbers?
All three drugs are still undergoing large-scale clinical trials, which will not be completed until May.So conclusions about the effectiveness of vaccines are based on preliminary analysis of the data – however, the sample is different for all companies.
To determine whether a vaccine protects against Covid-19, you need to wait until a sufficient number of vaccinated volunteers have become infected with the virus, and compare – who of them actually received a shot of the vaccine, and who was injected with a placebo. So it is not surprising that the statements almost coincided in time: the season of colds is in full swing. 90,013 90,018 Of the 30 thousand volunteers participating in the experiment, 95 people were diagnosed with Covid-19.90 patients were from the control group (that is, those who received a placebo) and only five from the experimental group.
Scientists are especially pleased with the fact that among those who were injected with the real vaccine, there is not a single serious patient: all 11 serious cases of the disease are in volunteers who received a placebo.
Pfizer’s 95% efficacy claim is based on 170 cases (40,000 trial participants), of whom only eight received the actual vaccine.
But the conclusion about the effectiveness of the Russian vaccine, according to the statements of the RDIF, was made based on the results of only 20 infections. How many of them received the real drug is unknown. The details that led to the conclusion that it was 92 percent effective were not disclosed.
In addition, out of 40 thousand planned volunteers, only 20 thousand have been vaccinated with Sputnik so far, and the statement was made based on the results of 16 thousand vaccinated, which means that by the end of the tests, Russian indicators may change greatly.
Sputnik V vs. Pfizer: Coronavirus vaccine comparison
When to wait for a vaccine?
Pfizer announced that it is ready to deliver 50 million doses by the New Year. This is enough for 25 million people, since each one needs to be vaccinated with two injections (three weeks apart).
Considering that the drug is being tested in six countries (Argentina, Brazil, Germany, USA, Turkey and South Africa), in each of them it will be possible to vaccinate about 4 million people.
Who gets the vaccine in the first place, the authorities of the countries will decide on their own, however, significant restrictions are imposed by logistics. The fact is that the Pfizer vaccine must be stored at a very low temperature, around -80 degrees.
The company has already chartered planes from several transport companies to deliver the drug, but at the moment the vaccine is available in boxes of 4000 doses, and these boxes can be opened no more than twice a day.
This means that it makes sense to send the first batch only to the largest clinics in large metropolitan cities, such as New York or Rio de Janeiro.How to organize delivery to small medical practices (say, in rural areas) is still unclear.
For these purposes, Sputnik V is much better suited (of course, provided that scientists can confirm the declared effectiveness). The Russian vaccine is produced in dry (lyophilized) form, so it is much easier to deliver it anywhere – both to remote areas in the north and to hot tropical countries.
Taking into account this peculiarity of the drug, it is logical to assume that the countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America will become its main sales market.
Photo by Reuters
The RDIF reports that they have already received bids for the purchase of Sputnik from 50 countries – a total of 1.2 billion doses. For vaccination, two doses of the drug also need to be administered, so we are talking about 600 million people.
The Russian vaccine is planned to be produced abroad: for example, production in South Korea should be launched in December. The promised capacity is 150 million doses per year.
Moderna also promises to launch its vaccine into mass production by mid-December and release 20 million doses of the drug by the end of the year.Taking into account two injections for each, this should be enough for 10 million people.
The vaccine does not require special storage conditions: it can easily lie in a regular refrigerator for a month, in a freezer – up to six months. By the end of 2021, the company intends to release 500 million doses and even announced its readiness to reach the level of 1 billion doses annually, subject to the availability of starting materials.
There are no talks about any orders from abroad yet. Unlike Pfizer, which tests the vaccine for its own money, Moderna is fulfilling the order of the American authorities: the research of the drug was paid for from the budget.So, first of all, US citizens will get the vaccine.
One of the main developers of the drug is the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. The head of the institute, Anthony Fauci, has already said that first of all, the vaccine will go to doctors and other health workers who work directly with coronavirus patients.
Fauci said it will take about four months to vaccinate the most vulnerable populations. By March-April, it will be necessary to decide on who it makes sense to vaccinate next.
However, in the coming weeks, the list of favorites may be replenished.
Photo author, ReutersPhoto caption,
AstraZeneca is testing a vaccine developed at the University of Oxford. Test results will be announced shortly
Preliminary data for its study is due to be released by AstraZeneca, which is testing a vaccine developed at the University of Oxford. Scientists had to halt clinical trials twice because of the illness of the volunteers, but the cold season should lead to an increase in infections – and therefore help them to make up some lost time.90,000 Scrum, Kanban, PRINCE2 and others
08 Jul 2016
“Of all the challenges NASA faced in getting a man to the moon, managing was probably the most difficult task.”
– Roger Launis, NASA Historian
Throughout history, mankind has accumulated an impressive list of successfully implemented complex projects. From the construction of the Pyramids at Giza to sending a man to the moon, the most daring human endeavors required the coordinated work of thousands of people.And this implies a complex project management system.
Although only a few of us will be faced with tasks of this magnitude, most of the readers of this blog are faced with project management in one way or another. PMI estimates that there will be 15 million new design positions by 2020 – and many other professionals often have to manage mini-projects, at least on a personal level.
In simple terms, Project Management is about managing and organizing everything you need to achieve a goal – on time and on budget, of course.Whether it’s developing new software, running a marketing campaign, or landing a man on Mars – project management is the key to success.
All projects are different. There is no perfect project management system for every type of project. Also, there is no system that would fit every leader and be convenient for all team members. However, during the existence of project management, many effective approaches, methods and standards have been created that can be adopted.We will talk about the most popular of them today.
The developed approaches are very different from each other. They differ in scope, detail, self-sufficiency, and formalization. In the title, we called them “methods” for convenience, but in fact, this article introduces the standards, concepts, methods, and frameworks that are used in project management. The purpose of this article is to provide the broadest overview of existing approaches to project management.
In this article we will look at:
And before considering specific methods, let’s answer the obvious question – “Why do we need systems and project management methods at all?” – consider, of course, briefly, the history of project management and define the basic terms of project management.
Why Project Management?
The names of Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin will forever go down in history as symbols of one of the greatest achievements of mankind – the landing of man on the moon. However, the major contributors to this event were 400,000 NASA employees and 20,000 companies and universities working together on the Apollo mission.
In 1961, John F. Kennedy set the task of landing a man on an Earth satellite and returning him back – despite the fact that at that time NASA sent a man into space for only 15 minutes.Such an ambitious goal required an incredible amount of resources, cooperation, innovation and planning.
As NASA’s Managing the Moon Program says, the main problem was not, “ what to do?” , and in that, “ how to do so much in such a short time?”. According to Dr. Max Faget, head of engineering at The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) , NASA had no idea how to do everything in 10 years.Therefore, the first step was to “break the project into manageable stages.”
Then it was important to accelerate the execution of each individual phase and make sure that the teams and companies working in each phase communicate effectively with each other and deliver results on time. This task was entrusted to Dr. George E. Muller, who managed every part of the Apollo project, from the White House to the supplier of the smallest part. To make the project easier to control, he decided to split the project into 5 areas: Program Control, System Engineering, Testing, Reliability and Quality, and Flight Operation.The Apollo program control scheme is shown in Figure 1 .
This 5-stage system – named “GEM Stages” after Dr. Mueller’s initials – was designed “to focus on product testing and product development, with the idea of being tested,” as Mueller himself notes. Program Control determined what needed to be done, managed budget and requirements, and managed the relationship of program elements. The field “Systems Engineering” was responsible for the development of new devices and assemblies, “Testing” for the fact that these new elements work, “Reliability and Quality” checked the developed elements for compliance with requirements and standards, and “Flight Operation” was responsible for the fact that these the nodes will work during the flight.
Many people initially reacted with skepticism to the method proposed by Müller, but in the end he managed to convince the members of the program to follow this algorithm. This system has shown its effectiveness – the project was completed successfully, and, one might even say, triumphantly, ahead of the announced deadlines. This became possible only thanks to the breakdown of a large-scale project into manageable, repeatable stages, which allowed many separate companies and specialists to work in a single rhythm.This is how project management proved its effectiveness in the Space Race.
A Brief History of Project Management
Project Management was not invented by NASA and Dr. Mueller. The Egyptian pyramids and the Great Wall of China are products of project management from prehistoric times. Unfortunately, there is no documentary evidence of how these projects were implemented and managed, and the current project management is divorced from the knowledge of past centuries.
The most obvious way to implement a project is to break it down into phases or individual tasks. Like a culinary recipe – buy ingredients, mix them correctly, cook and serve them. The simplest project management tool is a checklist of actions that need to be taken to achieve a goal. Simple and effective.
However, if you are a chef and you are preparing more than one dish, but several, for example, a salad (the preparation of which consists of 3 stages) and a dessert (which only needs to be served), then you will need a tool that allows you to track the time spent on each of the elements and the time when they should be ready. And here one of the first modern project management tools comes to the rescue: the Gantt chart, presented in Figure 2 .
Invented independently by Korol Adamecki and Genry L. Gantt in the early 20th century K about , the Gantt chart shows a project schedule based on task completion and completion dates. Tasks, their durations and relationships are entered into it, and then the critical path is calculated – the longest chain of interrelated tasks that determine the duration of the project.The relationships between starting and ending different tasks are very important – you can’t serve soup to your guests until you’ve cooked it, can you?
So, a typical project is very similar to a project for preparing and serving a dinner, only it has many more tasks, relationships, deadlines and types of resources. For projects with tight deadlines, the Gantt chart helps you decide when to start certain tasks in order to shorten the implementation time. And for projects with strong resource constraints, the Gantt chart provides the ability to build an event-driven process chain for resource planning.
Different projects need different levels of control. For example, if you are publishing a series of articles on a blog, then tight deadlines are not that important. Much more important is a clear process whereby it is possible to structure each article, sketch each article, get feedback, make edits, finish the article, proofread and publish. Instead of managing time and resources, you control the process.
Agile project management and related approaches such as Lean, Kanban and others are better suited for such projects.There are also methods that allow you to manage both the workflow and time and resources – 6 Sigma and Scrum.
Popular project management systems
Throughout the history of project management, many different project management methods have been created for almost any need. Even if you are not going to send a person to the moon and do not have the same amount of resources, you will still find a suitable tool for yourself. The key is to understand what is most important to your project – deadlines, resources, adherence to the process, or several factors at once – and then choose a project management method focused on achieving this indicator.
Before we start looking at the most popular methods, let’s define some key terms.
Basic terms of project management
Agile: A flexible, iterative-incremental approach to project and product management, focused on the dynamic formation of requirements and ensuring their implementation as a result of constant interaction within self-organizing working groups consisting of specialists of various profiles.There are many methods based on Agile ideas, the most popular of which are Scrum and Kanban.
Critical Path: A continuous sequence of activities and events from the start to the end event that takes the longest time to complete.
Event chain of processes ( EPC diagram): diagram showing the sequence of the implementation of projects based on the availability and utilization of resources
Time slack: Time by which the start of work can be postponed without affecting the total duration of the project . ..Thus, the reserve for works on the critical path will be equal to zero.
Milestone (milestone, milestone): A key event, for example, the end of a stage. Indicated on the Gantt chart is a task with a duration of zero.
Project manager (project manager, project manager, PM ): Project team leader responsible for project management (planning, implementation and project closure).
Resources: Items required for project implementation. Resources are time, equipment, materials, employees, and so on.
Scope of the project ( Scope): Description of the work that must be performed in order to receive the product.
Sprint ( Sprint): An iteration (work cycle) in Scrum, lasting from a week to a month, during which a working version of a product or its element of value to the customer is created.
“Classic” or “traditional” project management: The most widely used method of project management, based on the so-called “waterfall” or cascade cycle, in which the task is transferred sequentially in stages that resemble a flow.
Next, we will look at the different approaches to project management in more detail. We’ll start with Classic Project Management and Agile and then look at Scrum, Kanban, 6 Sigma, and more.
Classic Project Management
The most obvious way to make your project more manageable is to break it down into successive steps.It is on this linear structure that traditional project management is based. In this sense, it resembles a computer game – you cannot go to the next level without completing the previous one. The workflow is illustrated in Figure 3 .
This approach is focused on projects that have strong constraints on the sequence of tasks. For example, building a house – you cannot build walls without a foundation.
Usually there are 5 stages of classical project management, but additional stages can be added if the project requires it.
5 stages of traditional management:
Stage 1. Initiation. The project manager and team define the requirements for the project. At this stage, meetings and brainstorming sessions are often held, at which it is determined what the product of the project should be.
Stage 2. Planning. At this stage, the team decides how it will achieve the goal set in the previous stage. At this stage, the team clarifies and details the goals and results of the project, as well as the scope of work on it.Based on this information, the team creates a schedule and budget, assesses risks and identifies stakeholders.
Stage 3. Development. This stage is not implemented for all projects – it is usually part of the planning phase. In the development phase, typical for technological projects, the configuration of the future project and / or product and the technical ways of achieving it are determined. For example, in IT projects, a programming language is chosen at this stage.( In domestic practice, this phase is usually not highlighted, and the term “development” is not used – approx. Trans.)
Stage 4. Implementation and testing. In this phase, the actual main work on the project takes place – writing code, erecting a building, and the like. Following the developed plans, the content of the project, determined earlier, begins to be created, control is carried out according to the selected metrics. In the second part of this phase, the product is tested, it is checked for compliance with the requirements of the Customer and interested parties.In terms of testing, product deficiencies are identified and corrected.
Stage 5. Monitoring and completion of the project. Depending on the project, this phase can consist of a simple transfer of the project results to the Customer or a lengthy process of interaction with clients to improve the project and increase their satisfaction, and support the project results. The latter applies to projects in the field of customer service and software.
What is described above is the basis on which various project management methods are built.Different projects need different implementation phases – for some, three phases are enough, others much more. Sometimes the so-called “iterative waterfall” is used, in which each stage is a sub-project, during which tasks are implemented in fixed iterations. But the essence remains the same – the project is divided into stages, which are executed in a strictly defined sequence.
Due to the fact that classical project management is strictly tied to the execution time of tasks, as a rule, pre-determined at the planning stage, scheduling tools are excellent for implementing projects within this approach.The most common scheduling tool is the previously mentioned Gantt chart. There are many tools to build it, from simple spreadsheets like Excel and Smartsheet to professional software packages like Microsoft Project and Primavera.
Strengths of classical project management
Today it is often said that the classical waterfall approach is outdated, but it does not even think to give up its positions.The big advantage of this approach is that it requires the Customer and the company’s management to determine what they want to get, already at the first stage of the project. Early inclusion brings a certain degree of stability to the project, and planning helps to streamline the implementation of the project. In addition, this approach involves monitoring indicators and testing, which is absolutely necessary for real projects of various sizes.
Potentially, the classic approach allows you to avoid stress due to the availability of spare time at each stage, in case of any complications and the realization of risks.Plus, with the planning phase done right, the project manager always knows what resources he has. Even if this estimate is not always accurate.
Weaknesses of classical project management
The main weakness of classical project management is intolerance to changes. Famed for building systems such as Lean and Kanban, Toyota executives are often criticized for taking the classic approach to developing software for their company, and precisely because of the lack of flexibility.
The mainstay of the classical approach today is construction and engineering projects, in which the content of the project remains practically unchanged throughout the entire project. But if resources and time are not the key constraints in your project, and the content of the project is subject to change, you may need to look at other project management systems.
As mentioned earlier, not all projects can be structured in such a way as to be implemented according to the classical project approach.Returning to our example with the chef: the preparation of one dish ideally falls on the “waterfall” approach, but it will be almost impossible to prepare and serve a four-course dinner on time if you have to wait every time for the end of one dish to start cooking another.
This is where Agile comes into play – a family of flexible, iterative-incremental methods for managing projects and products. According to this approach, the project is not divided into successive phases, but into small sub-projects, which are then “assembled” into a finished product.An operation diagram is shown on Figure 5 .
Thus, initiation and high-level planning are carried out for the entire project, and the subsequent stages: development, testing and others are carried out for each mini-project separately. This allows you to transfer the results of these mini-projects, the so-called increments, faster, and starting a new subproject (iteration), you can make changes to it without high costs and impact on the rest of the project.
Despite the fact that Agile has become fashionable relatively recently, the idea of iterative development is not new per.). The Agile family got its current name in 2001 with the publication of the Agile Manifesto, which enshrined the core values and principles of agile software development, based on teamwork and adaptation, even a “love” of change.
Agile itself is not a project management method. It is rather a set of ideas and principles for how projects should be implemented. Already on the basis of these principles and best practices, individual flexible methods were developed or, as they are sometimes called, frameworks (frameworks): Scrum, Kanban, Crystal, and many others.These methods may be quite different from each other, but they follow the same principles.
Agile’s greatest strength is its flexibility and adaptability. It can adapt to virtually any organization’s environment and processes. This is what determines its current popularity and how many systems for various fields have been created on its basis.
One of the principles of Agile: “Responding to change is more important than following the plan.”It is this quick and relatively painless response to change that is why many large companies strive to make their processes more flexible. In addition, Agile is great for open-ended projects such as launching a service or blog.
Fiefdoms Agile – the development of new, innovative products. There is a high degree of uncertainty in projects for the development of such products, and information about the product is disclosed as the project progresses. In such conditions, it becomes impossible to implement the “waterfall” project – there is no information for planning.
Unlike PRINCE2 and PMBOK, Agile is neither a methodology nor a standard. Agile is a set of principles and values. The weak point is that each team will have to independently compose their own management system, guided by the principles of Agile. This is a difficult and time-consuming process that will require changes throughout the organization, from procedures to core values. This is a thorny path and not all organizations can do it.
This path will require not only knowledge and perseverance from the leader, but also serious administrative resources and costs. Fortunately, there are out-of-the-box practice kits that facilitate the Agile transformation of an organization. These sets include the Scrum framework, the Kanban method and many others – Crystal, LeSS, SAFe, Nexus.
The flexible framework, created in 1986, is considered the most structured of the Agile family. Created in 1986, it combines elements of the classic process and the ideas of an agile project management approach.The result is a very balanced combination of flexibility and structure.
Following the precepts of Agile, Scrum breaks the project into parts that can be immediately used by the Customer to obtain value, called product backlog. And in spite of the fact that “product groundwork” is a fairly correct translation and is used in professional literature, in Russian practice, most often just “backlog” is used. Then these parts are prioritized by the Product Owner – the Customer’s representative in the team.The most important “pieces” are selected first for execution in the Sprint – these are the Scrum iterations lasting from 2 to 4 weeks. At the end of the Sprint, the Customer is presented with a working increment of the product – the most important “pieces” that can already be used. For example, a site with a part of the functionality or a program that is already working, albeit partially. After that, the project team proceeds to the next Sprint. The duration of the Sprint is fixed, but the team chooses it independently at the beginning of the project, based on the project and its own productivity.
To make sure that the project meets the requirements of the Customer, which tend to change over time, before the start of each Sprint, the project content that has not yet been completed is reassessed and changes are made to it. Everyone is involved in this process – the project team, the Scrum Master (Scrum Master, the project team leader) and the Product Owner. And the responsibility for this process lies with everyone.
As already mentioned, the Product Owner is the representative of the Customer in the project, or personifies all the clients of the future project if there is no Customer. To do this, he must thoroughly know their needs and way of thinking, as well as understand the product and its manufacturing technology. The Scrum Master is designed to help project participants better understand and accept the values, principles and norms of Scrum practice. He is the leader and mediator between the outside world and the team. His task is to make sure that no one interferes with the team independently and comfortably working on the assigned tasks. The team is responsible for ensuring that at the end of the sprint, all the necessary tasks are completed and the deliveries are completed.
The core structure of Scrum processes revolves around 5 main meetings: backlog ordering, Sprint planning, daily fly-ins, Sprint debriefing and Sprint retrospective.
- Backlog Arrangement Meeting ( Backlog Refinement Meeting, “ Backlog Grooming”): This meeting is similar to the planning phase in classic project management and is held on the first day of each Sprint. It examines what has already been done on the project as a whole, what remains to be done, and a decision is made on what to do next. The Product Owner determines which tasks are of the highest priority at this stage. This process determines the effectiveness of the Sprint, because it depends on it what value the Customer will receive as a result of the sprint.
- Sprint Planning: Once the Product Owner has prioritized, the team jointly decides what exactly they will do during the forthcoming iteration, how to achieve the goal set at the previous meeting.Teams can use various planning and evaluation tools at this stage, as long as they do not contradict the principles and logic of Scrum. Sprint planning is done at the very beginning of the iteration, after the Product Sequencing Meeting.
- Daily Meetings: Every sprint day, ideally at the same time, team members spend 15 minutes sharing information on task status and project status. There is no discussion of problems or decision-making – if after the meeting questions and conflicts arise, the Scrum Master and the involved participants discuss them separately. The flyer is needed to exchange information and keep all team members updated on the status of the project.
- Summing up the Sprint: The purpose of the stage is to examine and adapt the product being created. The team presents the results of activities to all stakeholders. The main task is to make sure that the product of the stage meets the expectations of the participants and is consistent with the goals of the project.
- Sprint Retrospective: Conducted immediately after the Sprint Summary and before planning the next Sprint.On it, the team finds out how clearly and smoothly the process of implementing the stage went. Problems in operation, methodology and communication are examined. It is this stage that allows the team to conduct reflection and conduct the next Sprint more efficiently.
To many, Scrum may seem difficult to implement – a new process, new roles, a lot of delegation, and a completely new organizational structure. But it is a flexible yet structured approach to project delivery that, unlike Agile’s vague and general principles, will prevent work from going the wrong way.
Scrum was designed for projects that require quick wins combined with a tolerance for change. In addition, this framework is suitable for situations where not all team members have sufficient experience in the area in which the project is being implemented – constant communication between team members allows a lack of experience or qualifications of some employees due to information and help from colleagues.
Netflix is a great example of fast delivery of results.The site of the resource is updated every two weeks thanks to Scrum, which not only allows you to work at high speed, but also accumulates user experience and makes it possible to identify the most important things for clients.
During each iteration, the developers add and test new features of the site and remove those that were not used by customers. According to the Netflix team, the main benefit of Scrum is that it allows you to “get it wrong quickly.” Rather than taking a long and expensive time to prepare a large release, the biweekly Scrum shipments are small.They are easy to track and, if something goes wrong, they can be quickly corrected.
Scrum is very demanding on the project team. It should be small (5-9 people) and cross-functional – that is, team members should have more than one competence required to implement the project. For example, a software developer must have knowledge of testing and business intelligence. This is done so that part of the team does not “stand by” at different stages of the project, as well as so that employees can help and replace each other.
In addition, team members must be “team players”, actively take responsibility and be able to organize themselves. It is very difficult to find such a mature team!
Scrum is not suitable for all teams and organizations also because the proposed process may not be suitable for the development of a specific product – for example, an industrial machine or a building.
Agile tells us to break down into small manageable work packages, but says nothing about how to manage the development of that package.Scrum offers us its processes and procedures. Lean, in turn, adds a workflow to the principles of Agile so that each iteration is performed equally well.
In Lean, just like in Scrum, work is broken down into small delivery packages that are implemented separately and independently. But in Lean, there is a workflow for the development of each delivery package with stages similar to those created for the Apollo project. As in classical project management, these can be the stages of planning, development, production, testing and delivery – or any other stages necessary for the high-quality implementation of projects.
Lean steps and their flexibility make sure that every part of the project gets done the way you want it to. Lean does not contain clear boundaries for stages, as in Scrum Sprints limitations are spelled out. In addition, unlike classical project management, Lean allows you to perform several tasks in parallel at different stages, which increases flexibility and increases the speed of project execution.
Like Agile, Lean is more of a concept, a way of thinking, rather than something set in stone.Using Lean ideas, you can independently create a system that meets your project management requirements.
If you like Agile ideas, but your project requires very consistent quality and precise execution, Lean provides a set of tools to meet these requirements. Lean combines flexibility and structure, like Scrum, but in a slightly different way.
Not every part of the project requires the same detailed and meticulous study and attention.But Lean assumes exactly this approach to each task and stage. This is the main disadvantage of using Lean for large and heterogeneous projects.
Also, unlike Scrum, Lean does not provide a clear workflow for the implementation of the “pieces” of the project, which contributes to the stretching of the project deadline. This problem can be solved with effective leadership and clear communication – the main thing to remember is this.
Lean looks a little abstract on its own, but when combined with Kanban it becomes much easier to use it to build your own project management system.Created by Toyota engineer Taiichi Ono in 1953, Kanban is very similar to an industrial production scheme. At the entrance to this process, a piece of metal enters, and at the exit a finished part is obtained. Also in Kanban, the product increment is passed forward from stage to stage, and at the end a ready-to-ship item is obtained.
In addition, the creator of Kanban was inspired by supermarkets, namely their principle – “keep only what the customer needs on the shelves”. Therefore, in Kanban, it is allowed to leave an unfinished task at one of the stages if its priority has changed and there are other urgent tasks. An unedited blog post, hanging without a posting date, or a piece of feature code that might not be included in the product are all fine for Kanban work.
Kanban is much less strict than Scrum – it does not limit sprint times, there are no roles other than the product owner. Kanban even allows a team member to conduct multiple tasks at the same time, which Scrum does not. Also, meetings on the status of the project are not regulated in any way – you can do it as you like, or you can not do it at all.
To work with Kanban, you need to define workflow stages. In Kanban, they are represented as columns, and tasks are represented by special cards. The card moves through the stages, like a part in a factory going from machine to machine, with a higher percentage of completion at each stage. As a result, we get a product element ready for delivery to the customer. A board with columns and cards can be either real or electronic – even here, Kanban does not impose any restrictions on users.
Your own Kanban system can be as flexible as you want it to be – in many ways, Kanban is a visualization of an Agile idea. But Kanban has 4 pillars that support the entire system:
- Cards: An individual card is created for each task, in which all the information about the task is entered. Thus, all the necessary information about the task is always at hand.
- Limit on the number of tasks at the stage: The number of cards at one stage is strictly regulated.This makes it immediately obvious when a “congestion” occurs in the workflow, which is quickly resolved.
- Continuous stream: Tasks from the backlog are sent to the stream in order of priority. Thus, the work never stops.
- Continuous improvement (“kaizen” ( kaizen)): The concept of continuous improvement appeared in Japan at the end of the 20th century. Its essence is the constant analysis of the production process and the search for ways to increase productivity.
Like Scrum, Kanban is well suited for a reasonably cohesive team with good communication. But unlike Scrum, Kanban doesn’t have clear deadlines, which is great for motivated and experienced teams.
When properly configured and managed, Kanban can be of great benefit to the project team. Accurate calculation of the workload on the team, the correct placement of restrictions and a focus on constant improvement – all this allows Kanban to seriously save resources and fit into deadlines and budget.And all this is combined with flexibility.
You can often hear that in Kanban, unlike Scrum, you can work with almost any team. But it is not so. Kanban is best for teams whose members’ skills overlap with each other. In this way, they can help each other overcome difficulties in solving problems. Without it, Kanban will not be as effective as it could be. Also, as already mentioned, Kanban is better suited for situations where there are no tight deadlines.For tight deadlines, the classic approach or Scrum is better.
Motorola, along with Toyota, has also contributed to the development of global project management. An engineer at this company, Bill Smith, created the 6 Sigma concept in 1986. This is a more structured version of Lean than Kanban, with more planning added to save resources, improve quality, and also reduce scrap and problems.
The ultimate goal of the project is customer satisfaction with the quality of the product, which can be achieved through a continuous process of improvement of all aspects of the project based on rigorous performance analysis.6 Sigma focuses on troubleshooting problems that arise.
A 5-step process has been proposed for this, known as DMEDI:
- Definition ( Define): The first stage is very similar to the early stages of other project management systems. It determines the content of the project, collects information about the prerequisites of the project, sets goals.
- Measure ( Measure): 6 Sigma is focused on collecting and analyzing quantitative project data.At this stage, it is determined what indicators will determine the success of the project and what data needs to be collected and analyzed.
- Explore ( Explore): During the exploration phase, the project manager decides how the team can achieve their goals and meet all requirements on time and within budget. At this stage, it is very important for the project manager to think outside the box when solving the problems that have arisen.
- Develop ( Develop): At this stage, the plans and decisions made in the previous stages are being implemented.It is important to understand that at this stage, a detailed plan is needed, which describes all the actions necessary to achieve the set goals. Also at this stage the progress of the project is measured.
- Control ( Control): Key step in 6 sigma methodology. Its main task is the long-term improvement of project implementation processes. This stage requires careful documentation of the lessons learned, analysis of the collected data and the application of the knowledge gained both in projects and throughout the company as a whole.
6 Sigma is very similar to Kanban, only with defined milestones for achieving objectives – planning, setting goals, and testing quality. Most likely, there will be significantly more team meetings with 6 Sigma than with Kanban, but the process of project implementation is more structured and it is more difficult for the team to go astray. And like Kanban, 6 Sigma can be relatively easily tailored to the needs of a particular company or team. A strict requirement is only careful measurement and control of project indicators at the stages of implementation – without this, continuous long-term improvement of the project implementation processes is impossible.
6 Sigma Strengths
6 Sigma provides a clear framework for project delivery and continuous process improvement. By defining goals, then carefully analyzing and revising them, you get quantitative data for a deeper understanding of the project and better decisions. While collecting, analyzing data and extracting lessons can take some time, it will improve and optimize project implementation processes and thus save resources in the future.
6 Sigma is suitable for difficult projects with many new and complex operations. This approach allows you to implement project elements, learn from mistakes and improve quality in the future.
Weaknesses 6 Sigma
The problem with 6 Sigma is that although the main declared goal is to reduce costs and increase efficiency, but customer satisfaction is often taken to the fore. Given some differences in goals at different stages of a project, teams often have confusion about priorities, and this is not easy to avoid.
In addition, the main theme of 6 Sigma is: “Everything can always be made even better”. This can demotivate employees who do not feel satisfied with the work they have done. In addition, if the project is a one-off and the company does not plan to implement similar projects in the future, all the costs for analysis and learning the lessons may be in vain.
NASA is not the only government agency to have contributed to the development of project management. The British Government has long appreciated the effectiveness of project management, and in 1989 the British PRINCE2 methodology was created.The name comes from the acronym “ PR ojects IN C ontrolled E nvironments version 2 ”, which translates as “Projects in a controlled environment, version 2”. Unlike agile methods, PRINCE2 does not take an iterative approach to the project. Compared to other products, PRINCE2 is like a hybrid of the classic project management approach and a focus on quality from 6 Sigma.
The PRINCE2 methodology, unlike, for example, the PMBOK body of knowledge, does not contain:
- Specialized aspects of project management, for example, industry-specific;
- Specific Project Management Practices and Tools like Gantt Chart, WBS, etc.p.
PRINCE2 focuses on the management aspects of the project, expressed in 7 principles, 7 processes and 7 project themes.
- 7 principles define the general rules of project management according to PRINCE2, define the basis of the methodology;
- 7 processes define the steps for advancing the project cycle;
- 7 topics – aspects on which control is carried out to achieve the success of the project.
In addition, PRINCE2 recommends adapting the methodology for each specific organization.
At the beginning of the project, PRINCE2 invites us to identify 3 main aspects of the project:
- Business aspect (Will this project bring benefits?)
- Consumer aspect (What product is needed, what will we do?)
- Resource aspect (Is it sufficient do we have everything to reach our goal?)
PRINCE2 has a more clearly defined project team structure than most project management approaches. This is due to the fact that PRINCE2 is focused on large-scale government projects and large organizations.
According to PRINCE2, each team member has a specific role in each of the 7 processes:
- Start a project (Start ing up a project ): the project manager and the general requirements for the characteristics of the product are determined. The Project Manager, whose primary responsibility is attention to detail, reports to the Project Steering Committee, which is responsible for overall project management.It is the Steering Committee who makes sure that the project does not go off course, and it is also fully responsible for the success of the project.
- Initiation (Initiation a project ): During this process, the project manager prepares “Project Initiation Documentation”, which contains the project plan by stages. The stages can last for different amounts of time, but, as in the classical approach, they follow strictly one after the other.
- Project Management (Directi ng a project ): This process allows the Steering Committee to have overall responsibility for the success of the project without going into details that are within the purview of the project manager.
- Stage control (Control ling a stage ): During the implementation of the project, even in ideal conditions, certain changes will be made. The Stage Control process implements one of the principles of PRINCE2 – the principle of control by exceptions. The responsibility of the project manager is to monitor during the implementation of the stage deviations from the planned parameters of the project in terms of time, content, budget, etc. ways out of the situation.
- Managing Product Creation ( Managing Product Delivery): The Product Creation Management process is the interaction between the project manager and the team manager to create one of the project products. The responsibilities of the project manager in this process include delegating product creation authority to the team manager and acceptance of the product created.
- Stage Boundary Management (Manag ing a stage boundary ): During this process, the project manager provides the Steering Committee with all the necessary information to assess the results of the passed stage and decide on the transition to the next stage …
- Closing the project (Closing a project ): One of the PRINCE2 differences is that the process of project completion is not separated into a separate stage or stage, as in the classical approach, but is carried out as part of the final stage of product creation . .. The purpose of the process is to confirm that the product of the project has been accepted or that the project can no longer provide anything useful.
PRINCE2 can be adapted for projects of any size and any subject area.The methodology offers specific recommendations for changing the project life cycle, role model and set of required documents in accordance with the needs of the project.
- Organizational adaptability;
- Clear description of roles and responsibilities;
- Focus on project products;
- Defined management levels;
- Focus on economic viability;
- Sequence of design work;
- Emphasis on capturing experience and continuous improvement.
- Lack of industry practices;
- Lack of specific tools for working in the project.
The best project management system … for you!
Project management is a science, but science is not the most accurate. In this area, there are no unshakable foundations and universal solutions. If you can find a method that suits your project perfectly, consider yourself lucky, as most less fortunate leaders have to put in the effort to create and customize their own project management systems.These systems can be composed of elements of existing systems, or even created completely from scratch, as in the case of the Apollo mission. The main thing is to use something that will give you at least some structure and will not forget about what is important for your project.
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personnel management in new conditions
HR-Forum: management personnel in new conditions
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XXIX regular project
Adushev DmitryDirector of the macroregion Moscow “Russian Post”
Alexandrova AlexandraFirst Deputy Head of the Department of Labor and Social Protection of the Moscow City
ArshevskayaAllA Product Director Service for quick search of employees and work Worki Kaspersky Lab
Barinov Denis Academy to personnel “Magnit”
Bodyagina LarisaDirector for Human Resources and Organizational DevelopmentPyaterochka Trade Network
DolgovNikolay Head of Department – Director for Development of the Platform “Professionals 4. 0 “Gazprom Neft
Alexander ZabuzovPartner, Head of HR and Change Services, Strategic and Operational Consulting Practice KPMG in the CIS
Koroleva (Gorshkova) Elena General Director NPF Renaissance Pensions
Matveeva Svetlana Vice President for Human Resources AFK Sistema
Nakhapetyan GorBusinessman and Philanthropist, Co-founder of Sensemakers, Honorary Professor of Business Practice and Honorary Member of the Association for the Development of the Moscow School of Management Skolkovo -Cola HBC Russia
Plink Yaroslav General Director ITM Group
Alexander Podolchak Member of the Board of Directors, HR Director Metro Russia
Elena Pozolotina Deputy General Director for Human Resources – Director of Corporate State University TMK2U Pipe Metallurgical Company
Saratov Sergei Head of HR Department Russian Railways
Sveshnikova Anastasia Head of training projects Leroy Merlin, Skillbox
Sitnikov Aleksey Coach, psycho- and hypnotherapist, member of the board of trustees and coaching staff of the airport Vnukovo
Tikhonova-Bykodorova IrinaDeputy General Director for Human Resources and Organizational DevelopmentKalashnikov Group of Companies
Khatalkar LakishManaging Director of Consumer Health Products for Russia, Ukraine and the CIS; Co-Chair of the Women’s Leadership & Inclusion of the EMEA region “Johnson & Johnson”
Khimanych Vladimir Managing Director of Human Resources Raiffeisenbank
Khmel Venus Development Director of HRBP Leroy Merlin
Super Retina 900 and Super Retina XDR10 displays on iPhone 9000 Super Retina and Super Retina XDR use organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology.They are improved over conventional OLED displays for incredible picture quality. These are the first OLED panels to meet all iPhone standards.
OLED technology provides the highest contrast ratio and stunning resolution. Even without backlighting, the OLED display emits light through every pixel, a feature that has made it thinner. With high brightness, wide color gamut support, and industry-leading color accuracy, Super Retina and Super Retina XDRs overcome the challenges of traditional OLED displays.
If you look at the OLED display from an angle, you will notice slight shifts in colors and tints. If the display brightness is lowered, slight blurring or color changes may appear on a black background while scrolling. This is typical for OLED displays and is not a malfunction. With continued long-term use of the OLED display, slight visible changes may also appear. It’s okay too. Among such changes are effects such as image retention or burn-in, where even after a new image appears, faint traces of the previous one are visible on the screen. This can happen in extreme cases, for example, if the same high-contrast image is constantly displayed on the display for extended periods of time.
With the design of the Super Retina and Super Retina XDR OLED displays, we have kept the burn-in effect to an absolute minimum. Special algorithms track the use of individual pixels to prepare display calibration data. Using this data, iPhone automatically adjusts the brightness levels of each pixel to minimize the burn-in effect and ensure a consistent image.
In addition, all OLED and LCD displays have a tendency to degrade in brightness over time. This can happen with any consumer electronics.90,000 Why a large share of the state in the economy hinders the development of the country – Gazeta.uz
This article is based on a review prepared by the author for the Ministry of Finance of Uzbekistan.
Almost half a century ago, economists established that the welfare of the country’s inhabitants, that is, the income of the population, depends entirely on labor productivity and capital productivity. Empirical studies show that differences in general factor (labor and capital) productivity explain 50–70% of differences in income between countries. This means that 50–70% of the difference between the wealth levels of different countries corresponds to the difference in the productivity of the respective economies.
Robert Lucas (1995) and Robert Solow (1987) deservedly received their Nobel Prizes: their works changed the course of economic thought and clarified the question that was not very obvious for their time: what does economic growth depend on?It turns out that for a state interested in increasing the incomes of citizens of the country, almost the only priority is to increase productivity.
If the standard of living of people is so strongly dependent on the productivity of the economy, how to increase it ?
Productivity is the efficiency in the use of labor and capital resources. For example, labor productivity is usually measured by the ratio of a country’s GDP to the number of workers (or hours worked). Labor productivity and investment resources can only increase if enterprises are interested in increasing profits in a competitive environment. That is, competition is a prerequisite for increasing productivity.
Why is competition so important?
Firms are interested in making profits. Obviously, with high competition, profitability falls. In an ideally competitive environment, all firms earn very little, and at the limit the firm’s profitability tends to zero.But, since entrepreneurs are interested in making profits, they are forced to constantly do something better (faster, higher, stronger): either produce goods (or services) at lower costs, or invent new products, or slightly modify existing products, or find new niches. Entrepreneurs make money by satisfying and sometimes even anticipating people’s preferences. In general, the key to a company’s profitability (in a competitive environment) is its ability to be more productive: to earn as much as possible while spending as few resources on it. In pursuit of competitiveness, firms are investing in more efficient means of production and technologies, and therefore the demand for innovation and science is growing.
In other words, innovation, technological development, resource efficiency, high quality goods and services can only be achieved in highly competitive markets. Competition provides increased productivity, and productivity, as discussed above, is the only way to increase the quality of life for people.
H The more competition, the richer the country. Therefore, the presence of monopolies and low competition guarantee low income growth of the population. In other words, 90,075 the less competition within the country, the poorer its inhabitants.
Most often, monopolies arise with partial or full participation of the state.
What about performance?
Since income can be a good (not ideal) measure of productivity, things are not going well for us. In Uzbekistan, incomes of the population are low, this year per capita GDP will be around $ 1238 per year. For comparison: the world average is about $ 10,714 per year.
In principle, starting with low income is not so scary. The main thing is to grow faster to catch up. Unfortunately, numbers are not on our side. If we grow at about 5% per year, or just $ 62 per capita per year, while the world economy is growing at an average of 1.91%, which is about $ 204 in dollars.The curious reader can easily calculate how many years at current growth rates it takes to become a middle-income country (our population growth is only 0.5% higher than the world average).
Potential for growth
But there is good news: there is potential for economic growth in Uzbekistan, namely the opportunity to increase productivity. Since most sectors of the economy are state-owned in one way or another, denationalization is the very unused potential for the growth of competition and productivity. And the increase in productivity, as is known, will lead to an increase in the income of the population.
Our participation of the state in the economy is extremely high: there are only a couple of sectors where the role of the state is relatively small. In the vast majority of industries, be it agriculture, transport, construction, pharmaceuticals, medicine, the chemical industry, education, mining, energy, communications or even tourism, the share of state-owned enterprises is either very significant or absolutely monopoly.Reducing the role of the state is likely to lead to increased productivity.
What is the problem if the state is the owner of the enterprises?
With state-owned enterprises, many problems arise at once that do not appear (or appear on a smaller scale) with a private owner:
1. Being part of the state, enterprises pursue 90,075 different goals, in addition to increasing profits : most state-owned enterprises own non-core assets. For example, the National Bank of Uzbekistan owns hotels, ballrooms or sports facilities for a variety of other reasons, not for reasons of profitability. Thus, the efficiency of the use of funds decreases, which leads to the fact that productivity does not increase (and, accordingly, the welfare of the country). The misallocation of funds, in this case, the waste of money for purposes other than making a profit, is a huge obstacle to increasing the efficiency of the enterprise.You don’t need to be an economist to understand that, for example, Uzbekneftegaz’s ownership of cattle farms or pasta shops is not done for the sake of increasing the productivity of an oil company.
Beldersay Hotel. Photo: Otpusk.uz.
2. Incentives within enterprises. Theoretical research and many years of practice have shown that decision-making management should be fully responsible for both the success of enterprises and their failure. In private companies, shareholders and owners are very interested in making a profit and, accordingly, do everything to achieve this through incentives for management and employees. In most commercial companies, the material remuneration of managers is directly related to market capitalization, thereby forcing the management to care only about this. In state-owned enterprises, where the government is technically the owner, the inability to build the right incentives prevents market efficiency from being achieved.
A private owner has stronger incentives than a government official to invest in increasing company productivity and optimizing costs. If successful, the owner consumes all the fruits of his labor, but if he does not cut costs or increase productivity, then he will have to pay for the costs of his own incompetence. The manager of a state-owned enterprise has fewer incentives as he can be fired before reaping all the benefits of a successful investment.Equally, in the event of incompetence, the manager of a state-owned company rarely or almost never takes responsibility: after all, he is not risking his own money!
Moreover, given the relative advantages of state-owned companies in lobbying, all citizens of the country are paying the price for ineffective management of state-owned enterprises. In this situation, state corporations will constantly demand assistance from the state to prevent bankruptcy. And by supporting underperforming enterprises, the state constrains economic growth and subsidizes inefficiency.
3. When the state is the main owner of enterprises, often the inherent inefficiency of these companies becomes the cause of distortions and interference (from the state) in market processes and pricing. That is, due to interference, the inefficiency of even one company leads to large economic losses. For example, when the state owns an automobile plant, inefficiency of production processes and high costs lead to the fact that the company intervenes in the market with the help of administrative resources.
In the case of Uzavtosanoat: instead of working on efficiency, such a company creates (lobbies) barriers for its competitors in the form of customs duties and other non-tariff restrictions. The problem, again, is incentives: an inefficient private enterprise can go bankrupt and exit the market, and an inefficient state enterprise will tax citizens at the expense of high prices (and low quality) not only for its products. Citizens pay more for all cars – not just local ones – than in other countries.This is a rather heavy burden on the economy.
Thus, a large proportion of state-owned enterprises leads to strong and improperly regulated markets. The bad news is that these regulatory barriers are being placed in the name of maintaining the competitiveness of existing SOEs. This naturally prevents the rapid reallocation of resources from low-performing firms and inefficient sectors to high-performing firms, high-performing sectors. Thus, one of the factors of increasing productivity works very weakly for us, or in some cases works altogether counterproductively. Regulation is not evil, but the essence of any regulation should be to increase competition and reduce barriers to entry for new players.
When there is a state-owned enterprise in the market, the sense of regulation becomes the highest barriers to market entry and, in general, damage to the industry. Such regulation cannot but have bad consequences for the well-being of the population.
4. State-owned enterprises cannot effectively innovate and increase productivity, as do not have the ability to choose the right directions for development and investment. With private ownership of enterprises, the owner, in pursuit of profits, has to look for new methods of development and new technologies in order to be more effective than competitors. And the heads of state-owned companies are not very interested in this, since their owner (the state) cannot provide the right incentives and, moreover, control their implementation.
Moreover, if a state-owned company does not work to improve efficiency, this is not so noticeable to the owner, given that state-owned companies rarely operate in a competitive environment.If there is any competition, and such an enterprise becomes ineffective, the state will come to the rescue anyway.
Innovation and technology includes working with limited information. Both state monopolies and private companies operate with limited information. But the difference is that if an entrepreneur makes a wrong decision, then only he bears responsibility for this in the form of loss of profits: if the decision is made by a government official, he is not financially responsible, and in case of failure he risks taxpayers’ money.
Example. For nearly 80 years in Mexico, oil production was carried out by one state-owned enterprise, consolidating all the state-owned assets of the oil industry. They even included an article in the constitution that oil should be state property. As a result, after so many years under the state wing, the price of production increased so much that a huge company with access to large hydrocarbon reserves became very ineffective, and competitors from other countries, of course, all this time invested in new technologies, thereby remaining profitable even at low world prices.In 2017, the government finally allowed foreign companies to mine oil in Mexico.
Of course, the PEMEX monopoly invested in technology development, but it did so much less efficiently than its competitors. As a result, the market put everything in its place: high costs forced the government to admit the ineffectiveness of state ownership, but, alas, lost time and lost income cannot be returned.
The same example of the inefficiency of the national oil company can be observed in Russia: the state-owned Rosneft in 2008 had a capitalization of $ 130.7 billion (maximum).Today the company is worth $ 67.7 billion. This is despite the fact that in 2013 Rosneft bought TNK-BP for almost $ 55 billion. 90,013 90,010 Examples of Russia and Mexico illustrate not just the problems of these companies, market conditions or selective stories of failure. Ownership problem: econometric analysis of all oil companies has shown that state-owned oil companies are far worse in all dimensions of productivity or profitability.
5. When the management of an enterprise is in the hands of the state, or rather, in the hands of government officials, the problem of the principal-agent arises: there is a conflict of interests between the company’s managers and shareholders.The principal (i.e., the shareholder), in this case the state, is interested in the firm’s operations, but appoints an agent (i.e., the manager) to direct its activities. The principal (state) cannot fully control the actions of the agent (management), which often leads to the fact that the agent makes decisions not in favor of maximizing the profits of the principal. That is, the state and the management of enterprises are unequal actors with different degrees of awareness: the person giving the order (the government) is usually in the highest hierarchical position and expects the solution of the task in his own interests.On the other hand, the person executing the assignment (agent, appointed official) is in the lower hierarchical position, but possesses more information than the principal, and can use this information in his own interests, which almost always leads to inefficiency, often to corruption. In private companies, this problem is less common, since owners can more effectively control management, and often managers and owners are the same people.
Consequences of low productivity of state-owned enterprises
The history of the nationalization of industry in Great Britain is significant: after World War II, the government nationalized industries such as steel, coal, aviation, electricity, rail transport and other industrial enterprises.Despite the fact that after the war Britain was richer than its continental neighbors, as a result of nationalization, the economy stopped growing. In the spheres of industry and transport, the lag was very noticeable. By 1979, France and Italy were richer per capita.
Margaret Thatcher’s rise to power marked the beginning of the mass privatization of state-owned companies. Of course, Britain was not destined to become an industrial power; many state-owned companies had to simply be closed.But economic growth accelerated, and by 1998 Britain had overtaken both France and Italy in revenue.
Approximately the same problems of inefficiency of state-owned enterprises can be clearly observed in the context of modern Uzbekistan. Of course, not all financial data of private or public companies can be found in the public domain. But based on the tax revenues of companies, certain conclusions can be drawn about their profitability.
The Citizens Budget recently published the tax revenue shares from the largest companies in the country.Despite the fact that the number of large private companies is not so large, state-owned companies are definitely less productive. With only 1,000 employees, UzBat brings in more taxes to the treasury than such giants. as “Uzbekiston Temir Yullari” with a staff of 75 thousand people.
We do not see all the data of all companies, and this does not allow us to draw undeniable conclusions. But if productivity is measured by the ratio of the number of working hours per year to the level of profitability, then private companies have indicators that are many times higher than the state ones.
Source: Budget for Citizens, 2018.
In the absence of sufficient data, the reader will need more numbers to draw a conclusion about the effectiveness of SOEs in Uzbekistan.
Let’s take a look at a country where state capitalism is considered to be even successful – Norway. But economic theory here correctly predicts the obvious. Scientists from the Norwegian Business School conducted a study that affected all firms in the country and came to the unsurprising conclusion: private firms are significantly more efficient by all measures of productivity than public ones.Even in one of the richest countries in the world, where corruption and nepotism are absent, where the level of education is one of the highest in the world, the economy is relatively open and all state-owned companies have almost ideal standards of corporate governance, all equally private companies are more efficient.
Again, problems of inefficiency of state-owned enterprises are a worldwide trend. Many economists, including Stiglitz (2001 Nobel Prize), Shleifer, Vishny, have convincingly shown more than once that state-owned companies operate less efficiently than private enterprises.For this reason, it makes sense to restrict the activities of state-owned companies.
Of course, in most countries, the size and influence of SOEs is incomparably small compared to Uzbekistan. And, despite the fashion since the mid-2000s, in some countries in favor of nationalization and government support of the so-called “national champions”, this strategy has failed. State-owned enterprises, which are part of the 500 largest companies in the world, have lost 33-37% in their capitalization since 2007.
The inefficiency of SOEs is not a unique problem in Uzbekistan.Our unique problem is that 90,075 a disproportionately large 90,076 part of our economy is in the hands of SOEs, which is a serious barrier to productivity development and therefore income growth.
For productivity growth, there must be entrepreneurs who are interested in keeping this process going. That is, people who hope that by applying new technologies, training the workforce, introducing new management practices, learning know-how, they will receive a sufficiently high return for this, and therefore are ready to bear the associated risks.
But in our country now, due to the high state sector and the incredibly large state intervention in the economy, it turns out that such risks are greatly increasing, especially when compared with other countries.
In other words, investing in increasing productivity is a very risky exercise for many firms, and artificial government intervention increases these rather high risks by several times. As a result, investing in the productivity of even private firms becomes unprofitable or even dangerous.Unfortunately, given such an unfriendly business climate (primarily associated with a huge share of the state in the economy), it is naive to expect an increase in investment and, consequently, productivity in the foreseeable future.
Before talking about how to solve the problem, you need to outline the plane of the solution. We often understand the problem of productivity as a technical and economic one: it seems that if you make changes in the management of companies, introduce the principles of corporate governance, buy technology or invite foreign experts, then the problem will be solved.In fact, this problem is purely political and economic (the problem is in the form of ownership), and in order to solve it, it is necessary to abandon the current form of ownership in most sectors of the economy. Denationalization of the economy and its transition to market rails is the most important reform for the development of the country and improving the well-being of the population.
The opinion of the author may not be the same as the opinion of the editorial board.
Official website REDMOND
1.Chop the garlic and dill.
2. For the sauce: put mayonnaise, garlic and dill in a separate container, add black pepper, mix until smooth.
3. Add salt and spices to the minced pork, mix thoroughly and form a round cutlet.
4.Cut champignons and cucumbers into slices, onions – into rings, tomatoes – into circles. Cut bacon and cheese into thin strips.
5. Plug in the grill. Close the lid. Set the switch to position # 5. Wait until the red indicator comes on. Open the lid. Cut the loaf in half, put the halves on the grill. Do not close the cover. Cook for 2 minutes.
6.Put the rolls on a plate, grease the panel with vegetable oil.
7. Place the cutlet on the center of the grill, place the mushrooms and bacon on the sides. Close the lid. Cook for 4-5 minutes. Turn the bacon after one minute, after another minute put it in a separate container.
8. After cooking, place the cutlet and mushrooms.
9. Grease one half of the roll with mayonnaise sauce, put the ingredients on it in the following sequence: pork cutlet, cheese, cucumbers, mushrooms, bacon, tomatoes, lettuce. Crumple on top with the second half of the roll.90,000 The Sputnik V vaccine is being discarded. Due to the manufacturer’s negligence? | World Events – Estimates and Forecasts from Germany and Europe | DW
The Russian Sputnik V coronavirus vaccine has been approved for use in 60 countries around the world.But the European Medicines Agency (EMA) has not yet issued such a permit – the vaccine is still being tested.
Meanwhile, in Brazil, the National Sanitary Inspection Agency (Anvisa) has banned the import of “Sputnik V” – according to a press release, admission was denied due to “inherent risks” and “serious defects.” The agency explained the decision, referring to the available data that the drug used for the second vaccination was found not inactivated, “live” adenovirus, which is able to multiply in the human body and cause infection.
Why Brazil refused Russian vaccine
Anvisa’s technical department previously recommended a ban on imports of Sputnik V, pointing out “critical issues” related to the vaccine’s safety and efficacy that need to be clarified before importing it.
Answers to these questions, according to the assurances of the vaccine developer, the Gamaleya Institute, were given in an official letter sent to the Brazilian regulator on March 26. This is stated in a press release from the institute on April 30.In it, in particular, it is emphasized that in no shipments of Sputnik V there was a “live” adenovirus *.
However, according to the Brazilian regulator, the Russian side did not provide “coherent and reliable data” on the development, testing and production of the drug. In addition, there was no or incomplete information on the effectiveness of the vaccine, as well as its safety and quality control standards, Anvisa said. “We will not allow millions of Brazilians to use a drug whose effectiveness, quality and safety have not been confirmed,” said Antonio Barra, head of Anvisa, in this regard.
Brazilian hospitals overcrowded with covid wards
He said that all the control lots of Sputnik V tested by the Brazilian national agency had detected multiplying particles of adenovirus. “This means that the adenovirus, which should have been used only to bring the genetic material of the coronavirus to the cells, is capable of multiplying (in the human body – Red .) This is a serious deviation (from the declared standards – Red .) “, – said Gustavo Mendes, general manager of Anvisa for drugs and biological products.
The Sputnik V vaccine can be dangerous for people with weak immunity, since the vaccine can lead to the occurrence of disease due to the fact that the adenovirus, which is the causative agent of the disease , Not inactivated, Angela Rasmussen, an American virologist from Center for Global Health Science and Security at Georgetown University, wrote on Twitter.
What’s wrong with the doses of “Sputnik V” for Brazil? companies AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson.Their advantage over RNA vaccines is that they are easier to store – you can use ordinary refrigerators for this.
Vector vaccines are created on the basis of safe viruses (vectors) that lack the gene for reproduction. A special code is embedded in them – a small section of the SARS-CoV-2 genome, in this case, a spike from a coronavirus. Vectors deliver pathogenic organisms to cells, where viruses multiply and induce an immune response against SARS-CoV-2 proteins. According to this principle, in particular, vaccines have been developed against measles, chickenpox, mumps and rubella.
Sputnik V was developed on the basis of an adenoviral vector (based on human adenovirus), which normally causes ARVI. In general, the standard procedure in vaccine production is to destroy the E1 and E3 genes in vectors and thereby inactivate them. But in the drug Sputnik V, which appeared in Brazil, this probably did not happen – it is not known whether this was due to negligence or an accident. The national regulator made such conclusions based on the analysis of the documentation provided by the developer of the Russian vaccine.
Why Slovakia abandoned Sputnik V
In March 2021, a big scandal flared up in Slovakia over the Russian vaccine Sputnik V. The State Institute for Drug Control SUKL found that 200 thousand doses of vaccines received by Slovakia were not identical in every detail to the drug that was inoculated in other countries, and which was presented in the medical journal The Lancet. These vaccines only have a common name, the Slovak inspectors concluded.
This led to a conflict between Russia and Slovakia, as a result, the Slovak Minister of Health was forced to resign. Russia demanded to return the drugs delivered to Slovakia.
Recent messages from Brazil are called fakes by Sputnik V manufacturers in Russia. According to the Russian Direct Investment Fund (RDIF), which promotes Sputnik V, the Brazilian regulator did not test samples, which the head of Anvisa confirmed by RDIF, and also misinterpreted the data provided.* “Large pharmaceutical companies – rivals of Sputnik V – are afraid of its success, cannot find weak points in it and must spread fake news that is easy to expose,” the vaccine manufacturers wrote on their Twitter account.
* After publication, the text was supplemented by statements by the RDIF and the Institute. Gamalei.
What vaccines humanity is vaccinated against coronavirus
BioNTech / Pfizer: the beginning of the mRNA revolution
Turkish roots of Ugur Shahin and his wife Ozlem Tyurechi.Their firm BioNTech from Mainz entered into an alliance with the American giant Pfizer, and the vaccine began to be called “Pfizer’s” vaccine. In 2021, 2 billion doses will be released. The media started talking about a “revolution” in pharmaceuticals, since the first mRNA vaccine was created.
What vaccines mankind is vaccinated against coronavirus
Moderna: originally from Harvard University
The American biotechnology company Moderna also specializes in RNA technologies, which are considered a new word in medicine.Its headquarters are located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, near Harvard University, whose scientists founded the firm in 2010. The Moderna vaccine, created with financial support from the authorities, became the second registered in the US and the EU at the turn of 2020-21.
What vaccines mankind is vaccinated against coronavirus
AstraZeneca has an “Oxford vaccine”
Oxford University scientists have entered into an alliance with the British-Swedish company AstraZeneca for clinical trials and the production of their vaccine.It provides a significant amount of vaccination for UK residents, fulfills a large EU order and actively works with developing countries, because the “Oxford vaccine” has a very low price. So, in India it is produced for the local market and for export.
What vaccines mankind is vaccinated against coronavirus
“Sputnik V”: the very first registration
In August 2020, Russia announced that it was the first in the world to register a vaccine against coronavirus, called “Sputnik V”.Mass vaccination of the Russian population officially began in January 2021. This vector vaccine, developed by scientists from the Moscow Gamaleya Center, is being promoted to foreign markets by the Russian Direct Investment Fund (RDIF). The picture shows the arrival of the first batch in Bolivia.
What vaccines are used to vaccinate humanity against coronavirus
Sinovac: a quiet competitor from China
Without unnecessary noise and detailed reports on the results of clinical trials, China has developed at least three vaccines.One of them, created on the basis of an inactivated (killed) coronavirus, was tested by Sinovac Biotech in several Asian countries, including Indonesia, which then purchased it. To set an example for his compatriots, the country’s president, Joko Widodo, was the first to be vaccinated.
What vaccines mankind is vaccinated against coronavirus
CureVac: printer for vaccines from Tesla
Registration of the second German mRNA vaccine is still postponed: it is not effective enough, CureVac, which has entered into an alliance with Bayer, reported in June 2021.This thwarts a plan to make it in clinics around the world. A sample of a mobile printer created by his German subsidiary Tesla Grohmann was demonstrated by Elon Musk (center) to the Bundestag in the summer of 2020.
What vaccines are used to vaccinate humanity against coronavirus
Sanofi: two failures and assistance to the European Union
The French pharmaceutical company Sanofi is one of the world’s largest vaccine manufacturers. But this time it failed twice: neither a joint development with the British GlaxoSmithKline, nor an attempt to create an mRNA vaccine have so far yielded the desired result.To help provide EU countries, its Frankfurt am Main plant (pictured) will release 125 million doses of BioNTech / Pfizer vaccine in the summer.
What vaccines the humanity is vaccinated against the coronavirus
Johnson & Johnson: one dose is enough
One of the six manufacturers of vaccines against coronavirus, with which the EU entered into preliminary supply agreements, is the American corporation Johnson & Johnson. Her vector vaccine only requires one vaccine, not two, and is stored in conventional refrigerators.For the EU, the vaccine, registered on March 11, 2021, will be produced by the corporation’s Belgian subsidiary, Janssen.
Author: Andrey Gurkov