Officials Commonly Asked Registration Questions
Is there a minimum age to start officiating?
USA Hockey has no minimum or maximum ages for officials. It is highly recommended that officials not work games of their own age classification or higher, regardless of level attained. Generally, officials can successfully officiate as young as age ten years-old. However, some local areas do have minimum age requirements due to their State’s specific Child Labor Laws. In this instance, you will need to contact the Local Supervisor of Officials for location-specific information.
What are the registration requirements for the various levels of officiating?
A complete list of registration requirements for each level is listed at the Registration Rules page under the OFFICIALS tab at USAHockey.com.
Can I attend a seminar before registering as an official?
No, all officials must complete Membership Registration prior to completing Seminar Registration. Furthermore, since the registration fee is non-refundable it is strongly encouraged that an official confirms that he can attend a seminar before registering.
How do I get an Official’s Application?
USA Hockey offers online registration for all officials. Simply look for the Membership Registration link under the OFFICIALS tab at USAHockey.com. Returning officials (those registered the prior season) will be sent a reminder postcard for the current season in early August.
Is there a fee involved with the official’s application?
The official’s registration fee is collected with the application and must be paid when the application is submitted in order for the application to be processed. All revenue generated from the registration fees is used to cover the day-to-day operations the Officiating Program. These include volunteer expenses, seminar expenses, educational materials, printing, postage, and all other expenses incurred to operate the program.
In addition, some districts or affiliates also charge a nominal Affiliate Fee in order to fund special programs and local operating expenses. These fees may be collected as part of the USA Hockey application process and then are distributed to the district or affiliate level.
USA Hockey Officiating Program Registration Fees
LEVEL 1 – $45.00
LEVEL 2 – $90.00
LEVEL 3 – $90.00
LEVEL 4 – $90.00
(Does not include local Affiliate Fees or Local Officiating Association Fees)
How do I find out if my Local Affiliate charges an annual registration fee?
Not all Local Affiliates (your local governing body) charge a fee each year; however this question can be answered by your USA Hockey Local Supervisor of Officials or District Referee-in-Chief.
It looks as if I’m paying two registration fees to be an official. How do the fees break down?
USA Hockey’s officiating registration fee is considered a separate entity from that of a player and/or coach. Whereas an adult player can also coach under the same registration fee, the official’s fee is separate and must be paid by each official. In the case of the adult player, USA Hockey utilizes the joint fee for them to coach as a means to encourage these adult players to volunteer their time as a youth hockey coach. This is not done on the officiating side for a variety of reasons.
Maintaining a separate fee actually assists us in being able to keep our costs down. USA Hockey purchases insurance coverage for each member type, recognizing that the insurance risk for a player/coach is going to be different than it is for an official. By doing so, our insurance costs are actually held to a minimum. Instead of purchasing a blanket insurance program that covers all inherent risks for all member types at a greater cost to all members, we can be more specific and actually purchase coverage that accounts for the specific risk of each member type.
In addition, the Officiating Education Program is a distinct program that has several benefits included as part of the registration process. These include the Rule Book/Case Book, Officiating Manuals, the majority of the expenses for the officiating seminar, and administrative costs that are specific to the conducting of our direct registration program, including testing and distribution of materials.
In contrast, there is an additional fee charged by the Coaching Education Program for clinic attendance and many of the coaching manuals would also need to be purchased. Finally, in many cases, the officials are perceived to be the only people involved who are getting paid, so the USA Hockey Board of Directors feel strongly that the cost of our Education program should be funded strictly by our officiating membership, hence the independent registration fee and program.
How do I find out who is my Local Supervisor of Officials?
The Officiating Program Directory is located at USAHockey.com using the District Directory link appearing under the OFFICIALS tab. Once you arrive at the Directory page, select your USA Hockey District using the appropriate links and find your District RIC and Local Supervisor contact information at your district page.
How do I get my Open Book Rules Exam?
The Open Book Rules Exam can accessed online at the Officials website 24-hours after online registration. Information about completing the Open Book Rules Exam will be sent to you from the National Office upon receipt of your application and registration fee. For those who register online, an email will be sent with information on how to complete the online Open Book Exam.
It is strongly recommended that all officials use the current USA Hockey Playing Rules & Casebook and Basic Officiating Manual to complete the Open Book Exam.
Where can I get a Rule Book and Officiating Manual?
All new officials will receive a copy of the USA Hockey Playing Rules & Casebook and red Basic Officiating Manual in the mail within a few days of their processed registration. Since the USA Hockey Rule Book is a four-year rule book all returning officials will receive a copy of the Playing Rules & Casebook every four years (after each rule change process).
The Playing Rules and Casebook and all Officiating Manuals are also available for (PDF) download online at the Rule Book & Resources page under the OFFICIALS tab.
A mobile friendly version of the USA Hockey Rule Book & Casebook is available by entering USAHockeyRuleBook.com into your computer, tablet, or smart-phone web browser.
How long do I have to take the Open Book Rules Exam?
The Open Book Rules Exam is designed to be completed in a time frame convenient to the official. An official may sign into their exam and complete the entire exam in one day, or use the “save” feature to save their progress over a few days.
Please understand that new officials will not be eligible to work games until they have completed the exam and attended a seminar. Furthermore, a returning officials’ previous year registration expires on November 30th of the new season, so they will need to complete the exam in a timely manner in order to continue to work games. Ultimately, USA Hockey will accept Open Book Exams up until early May of the current season at which point the registration season closes.
Do I have to complete the Open Book Exam prior to attending my seminar?
It is strongly recommended that all officials attend their seminar prior to completing their Open Book Exam. We recommend all officials to sign into their exam and printing a hard-copy before attending their seminar. That way they may review the questions and ask the seminar instructors for assistance with any question they don’t understand.
Where do I find out about the seminars in my area?
Since seminar attendance is one of the registration requirements, USA Hockey conducts several hundred seminars throughout the country each season. You can obtain seminar information by clicking the Seminar Registration link under the OFFICIALS tab at USAHockey.com and then use the search fields at the Seminars page to find a seminar in your area. Please Note: You are not required to attend a seminar in you local area. An official may attend any accredited seminar in any District and still get credit toward their membership.
Sometimes, a local area may add a late-scheduled seminar in order to accommodate officials who did not attend any previously scheduled seminars. These seminars may not appear on the schedule or be posted on the website. In this instance, you may wish to contact your Local Supervisor of Officials to inquire about a late scheduled seminar in your area.
How do I get credit for attending the seminar?
Depending on where you live, each official who attends a USA Hockey seminar must complete Seminar Registration and check-in at the seminar they attend. Seminar attendance information is then sent to the National Office where your attendance is matched up with your registration record.
If Pre-Registration is not required in your area, it is imperative that each official “check-in” at the seminar. Furthermore, they may be required to sign an Attendance Form. Officials who do not go through the required seminar “check-in” process may not be given credit for seminar attendance.
What should I bring to the seminar?
For the Classroom Session, all officials should bring a pen, notebook, USA Hockey Rulebook, and pencil (for the Closed Book Exam). While at the seminar, make sure you record the contact information for your Local Supervisor of Officials and Local Assignor for future reference after you complete your registration and are ready to work games.
For the On-Ice Session, all returning officials must wear their full officiating gear. New officials are expected to bring skates, a hockey helmet, and some form of whistle. We do not require full equipment for new officials.
Since most seminars last an entire day, officials may want to pack a lunch unless other arrangements are made.
Where do I take the Closed Book Exam (Levels 2, 3, & 4 only)?
The Closed Book Exams required for Level 2, 3, & 4 applicants will only be administered at the seminar you attend. The exam books and answer sheets will be collected at the seminar and the answer sheets are forwarded to the National Office for grading.
It is imperative that each official take the Closed Book Exam required for the level they registered for. If you submit the incorrect exam it will impact what level your registration is completed at.
What if I choose not to take a Closed Book Exam?
Provided you have completed all other registration requirements, you will be issued a Card and Crest for Level 1 as you have met the requirements to be a Level 1 official.
What is Online Seminar Module Education?
Online Seminar Module Education is a series of video modules that uses videos examples, animation, content slides, and quizes to help educate our 25,000 officials across the country.
Access to the modules will be given 24-hours after membership registration is completed. Once accessed, all officials are encouraged to read the directions at the homepage carefully.
At the end of each module, there is a short quiz to complete. If the official does not answer the required number of questions correctly the official must complete the entire module again.
Online Seminar Education requires both Required and Elective-Menu courses be completed, and an official will not receive credit for Online Education until all course categories are completed.
Once completed, the official will still have access to the modules to continue/review educational material through the season.
When will I receive my Card and Crest?
Once the National Office has received your,
- Membership Registration
- Open Book Exam
- Closed Book Exam (Level 2, 3 & 4 officials only)
- Online Seminar Module credit
- Classroom Seminar attendance credit
- USA Hockey SafeSport Training credit (if 17+ years of age)
- USA Hockey sanctioned Background Screen clearance
your Card and Crest will be issued to you and you will be eligible to work games.
What do I have to do to make sure I am receiving emails such as registration conformation and exam results?
All of the emails sent from USA Hockey come from a server with the address of @usahockey.org. You need to enter in a valid email address such as [email protected] into your email address list and that will let your spam filters know it is an “accepted” address.
Naturally, keeping your contact information current and accurate in the USA Hockey database is also critical to successful communication. To update your personal information please contact [email protected] or call the Ice Hockey Officiating Department at the National Office (719-576-8724)
There is a lot of stuff going to and from the National Office. How long does it take to receive materials?
Generally, we are simply at the mercy of the U.S. Postal Service. Once the material is received at the National Office, it will be processed and the appropriate materials will be sent out within 2 business days. Furthermore, the National Office has little control over is the timeliness of receiving seminar attendance and Closed Book Exam information from our volunteer Seminar Coordinators. They are encouraged to submit the seminar materials within a day of the seminar, but sometimes it takes a little longer to reach the National Office.
Of course submitting your Membership Registration, Open Book Exam, Online Education Modules, and SafeSport training online should speed up this process as we are not counting on the Post Office for obtaining some of the necessary information.
Is there a way I can check my registration status?
All USA Hockey Officials may check their registration status online in the USA Hockey Courses System.
Before this can be done, the official must create an online profile for themselves in the USA Hockey Courses System. To do this the official must start at the USAHockey.com homepage. Use the Check Registration link under the OFFICIALS tab to access the registration status page. Once at the page, read all information carefully and scroll down to the sign-in area to “create a profile”.
Note: This process simply creates an online website profile and it does not register you as a member with USA Hockey. You will pay no registration fee and your membership information will not be affected
Now that I have my Card and Crest and I am eligible to officiate, how do I get games?
First, you should be aware that simply completing registration with USA Hockey is not a guarantee of game assignments. Although we highly encourage all of our Local Supervisors and Local Assignors to involve every eligible official in the assignment process, as Independent Contractor officials it is still up to the individual official to solicit game assignments from assignors, leagues, or affiliate governing bodies.
Contact your Local Supervisor of Officials or Local Assignor and let them know you are now eligible to work games and when you are available. If possible, identify a more experienced official in your local area to serve as a mentor and who can also help you get games. Once you get that first assignment, go out and give 100% to do your best and the rest will take care of itself.
Does USA Hockey have any assignment guidelines? What levels of games is each respective level of official eligible to work?
Yes, USA Hockey has established some assignment guidelines. But they are just that – guidelines. There may always be some unusual circumstances or emergency situations where it may be impossible to follow the specific guidelines. In this instance, the game(s) should be played as long as there are capable and completely registered officials available to work.
USA Hockey strongly recommends that our younger officials only work age classifications that are at least one age group younger than what they would currently be playing at. The remainder of the assignment guidelines are available posted below:
Referees and Match Officials in southern California
Updated: March 21, 2019
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Process for Becoming a Referee
Becoming a referee has never been easier! The first thing to do is go down to your local club. When you see two people fencing, ask them if they would like a referee and when they say, “Yes, please!” go ahead and jump right in. That’s it, you’re a referee!
Of course, there is a great deal more to learn if you are interested in becoming a certified referee, but the first step is to jump in at the local level and referee informal bouts whenever you have the chance. Refereeing even informally among your clubmates can seem intimidating for many because nobody wants to make a mistake, but by practicing to referee you will learn the rules, as well as right of way and improve your own fencing along the way.
Hopefully, with some experience under your belt, you will make the choice to become a certified USA Fencing referee. There are multiple steps to getting your certification that are designed to help ensure a consistency among referees across the United States. Fencing is a constantly evolving sport, and there are always new and sometimes subtle changes in the way rules and convention are applied. The goal of certification is to help ensure all referees are working from the same knowledge base.
The steps involved in getting your certification are:
Practice in your club at every opportunity, and if possible find a local experienced referee or your coach to help mentor you.
Read the Rulebook. Since the job of the referee is ensure a fair bout, you have to know the rules. Even if you decide not to become a referee, this step will make you a better fencer so you can advocate for yourself in case a referee misapplies a rule.
Download the Referee Study Guide. Click on the link to find the updated study guide designed to help with passing the test as well as practical tips to help improve your refereeing. The study guide is laid out to create a learning environment from page one! It will help you conceptualize critical aspects of all three weapons. Get started today!
Take a referee seminar. Certified Referee Instructors across the United States give refereeing seminars on a regular basis. All certified referees are expected to attend a seminar every two years. All currently scheduled referee seminars can be found here. In the “All Types” box, choose “Referee Seminars. “
Take the online exam. The test is divided into a general section, as well as weapon specific sections. There is a fee to take the exam, but if you fail, can retake the exam within the next 48 hours. Did you pass? Congratulations, you just earned your first referee rating!
Take a practical examination. By passing the test alone, you earn a P rating (for pass), but in order to earn a local/regional referee rating, you must pass a practical examination administered by a Referee Examiner.
Get out there and ref! Refereeing is a skill that needs to be practiced. Offer to help at local tournaments and watch as much fencing as you can. Video footage of high level domestic fencing can be found on the USA Fencing Facebook page, and video of international bouts can be found on the FIE YouTube page. As you get better and more experienced, you should consider refereeing at the national level as well.
All USA Fencing referees must be a current member of USA Fencing and referees age 18 and over must purchase the +CheckEd add-on to complete a background check and Safesport training. The +CheckEd add-on can be purchased through your profile in the USA Fencing Membership Database. Referees under the age of 18 do not need the background check or Safesport training. However, upon turning 18 the referee must have the criminal background check and Safesport. A referee who is nearly his or her 18th birthday may contact the USA Fencing Safesport Coordinator to access the Safesport training so that it is completed on or by his or her 18th birthday. The criminal background check cannot be started until the referee has turned 18.
Minnesota State Referee Committee
NEW Referee Certification Back Open; Recert Re-Opens Aug 1
Updated Jul 10, 2021
2022 US Soccer Referee certification for new referees in Minnesota is now open again. If you have not been a referee before, you can go through the entire process online and certify to work games for the remainder of this summer, this fall, and all of 2022.
If you are a returning official who did not certify in 2020 or 2021, that process will re-open on August 1.
Referees who have completed certification in 2020 or 2021 are certified through December 31, 2021.
Returning officials who certified in 2020 or 2021 will be able to begin re-certification for 2022 on August 1, 2021.
Please review options here:
2022 USSF Referee Certification Options
June’s Two-Footed Tirade
Updated Jun 30, 2021
It’s the end of the month, and that means Two-Footed Tackle is back! We take a look at Stopping a Promising Attack (SPA)…
US Soccer Reminds States No Two-Whistle Systems
Updated May 17, 2021
Due to the scarcity of officials this summer and the increasing number of games, we are fully aware that matches will likely be short-staffed. US Soccer sent out the following reminder this week to warn state associations that two-whistle systems on USSF-affiliated matches are NOT PERMITTED.
NOT Sanctioned: Two (2) Referees on a Match
This is a reminder that if there are only two (2) certified referees officiating a match, that match is not sanctioned by U.S. Soccer and the liability policy does not apply. You may only have one (1) referee/whistle on the field; all other officials must be assistant referees or 4th officials.
DIAGONAL SYSTEM OF CONTROL
The diagonal system of control consists of one referee and two assistant referees. All competitions sanctioned by the U.S. Soccer Federation require the use of this officiating system and certain competitions may require the use of a fourth official.
In order to comply with the Laws of the Game all games sanctioned directly or indirectly by member organizations of the U.S. Soccer Federation must employ the diagonal system of control and be assigned according to the following order or preference.
– One registered referee and two registered assistant referees
– One registered referee, one registered assistant referee and one unregistered club linesperson*
– One registered referee and two unregistered club linespersons*
– One registered referee only if no unregistered club linespersons are available or if one registered referee is appropriate for the level of competition
*Club linespersons are only allowed to signal the ball in or out of play. The preference should always be given to unregistered club linesperson who have no affiliation to the participating teams.
MNSRC Protocol for Dealing with Discrimination in Matches
Updated Mar 2, 2021
Due to a spate of significant recent incidents regarding potential discriminatory comments made in matches around the state, the SRC is releasing a recommended protocol for dealing with such statements in games. Further training will be forthcoming in 2022 to expand on this protocol.
MNSRC Protocol Recommendations for Discriminatory Comments in Matches
Lightning Topic 2.11: 2020-21 Handling Updates
Updated Nov 3, 2020
Series 2 concludes with a review of the 2020-21 updates to Law 12 regarding handling. If you are interested in reviewing previous Lightning Topics, be sure to check out our YouTube channel where every video we publish is archived!
Connecting with Assignors
Updated Nov 16, 2019
If you are looking to connect with an assignor to get games, remember there is a full presentation on how to use our site to do so. This presentation was required for both new and returning officials. For out-of-state officials, the link to the presentation is available here:
Connecting with Assignors
Entry Level Classroom Material Now Published Online
Updated May 19, 2020
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, all classroom material for the four-hour entry course has been moved to an online format for the remainder of the 2020. This material is now available on the Online Materials page once entry students complete the other pre-class online work (US Soccer Grassroots Course, 10 MNSRC online presentations). Once the entry student completes the classroom material online, they will have to pass the US Soccer Grassroots Test, at which point they can be certified with US Soccer.
Please understand these online presentations are being provided out of necessity due to the pandemic. The SRC fully realizes the quality of the education from this material does not compare to what a student would receive from a classroom with an experienced instructor and a quality discussion. We regret having to use this to finish our referees’ education, but we all must make due with what we can in these times.
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Continued referee education in the USA with eye on LA 2028
Across three weekends in March and April, USA Team Handball (USATH) in conjunction with the IHF, ran an ‘Intermediate Referee Course’ – the second of three planned free courses which aim to provide handball officials in the North American country with the best knowledge for their roles.
The ‘Intermediate Referee Course’ was held via Zoom on three consecutive Saturdays – 27 March, 3 April and 10 April – three steps towards the ongoing goal of motivating and strengthening both the quantity and quality of referees within USATH but also with an eye on the Los Angeles 2028 Olympic Games with roles as referees, technical delegates, statisticians, timekeepers and scorekeepers for the Games potentially available.
Like last year, the course was led by Per Morten Sodal, IHF Playing Rules and Referees Commission (PRC) Lecturer and IHF Official. Joining Sodal was USATH National Referee Committee Chair Tugomir Anusic and IHF PRC Chairman Ramon Gallego.
More than 110 people registered with each session lasting around two hours with the first Saturday covering ‘7m and the Goal Area’, the second Saturday looking at ‘Attackers’ Faults & Provocations’ and the third and final session looking at ‘Body Language’.
A message of ‘finding a line’ was consistent in the sessions which also saw participants able to ask, and have answered, questions throughout by Sodal who used examples from the 2021 IHF Men’s World Championship, the 2019 IHF Women’s World Championship, Olympic Qualification Tournaments and leagues around the world to illustrate the various topics.
Sodal started the course with a clear goal written on the first slide for everyone to see: ‘LA 2028 – YOU can be there’.
“This is the big target for this course, to build up USA Team Handball so we are ready for LA 2028 and for the future but it will take time,” he explained, before explaining the potential roles available.
“We hope to come and view you in the USA soon to see the high level [you’re at]. What is most important is what you do in your own competitions and communities.
“The game is getting quicker and quicker, the players are getting stronger and stronger,” he added. “The referees must be ‘athletes’. The role demands concentration and mental strength. Referees are leaders of the game and they need management skills. A study has shown 1,000 decisions are taken during two 30 minutes halves in handball and we must aim for perfection.”
“This is the second step but in the future there are lots of steps, and our finish line is LA 2028,” said Gallego. “We want you to become better, to develop handball in the USA and I really hope we can be together soon face-to-face to discuss openly when you are able to whistle and we are able to send our advice.
“There are a lot of important topics at a high level. Open your eyes and take with you all the videos, advice and lessons and from time-to-time look again, read your notes, we are always able to help,” he concluded.
Tugomir Anusic, Chair of the USATH National Referee Committee, had a final word of encouragement for everyone involved upon the conclusion of the course.
“This has been a really good education,” he said. “It’s a great reminder for all referees to know that we are the leaders of the game and in the first 10 minutes we show the players and everyone involved in the game how we are going to lead it.
“We are not police officers on court; we are just helpers to help the players achieve the best results according to the rules of the game and that’s what we need to keep in our minds going forward.”
The ‘Intermediate Referee Course’ follows on from the ‘Beginners Referee Course’ in 2020 with an ‘Advanced’ course planned for the future.
For more information about USATH, visit their website.
Photo: USA Team Handball
Qualifications to become a USA Powerlifting State Referee & link to apply – USA Powerlifting Arizona
As you all know, USA Powerlifting is run primarily by volunteers. Judging is one of the areas that we, as an organization, cannot do without. While the current core group of referees has always done a great job and gone above-and-beyond the call of duty to volunteer their time at our Local, State, Regional and National Meets, it is a large burden for so few to always carry, particularly in light of our unprecedented growth as an organization over the past couple of years.
We are looking for interested members who will be committed to helping out at meets more than just once a year as the key to feeling confident on the platform is practice.
Our organization prides itself on fair and consistent judging. It is not enough to have the appropriate rules and procedures written in a rulebook. Those rules (all rules – the major ones AND the seemingly insignificant ones) must be applied in a consistent, fair, objective, and professional manner. It is important to note that enforcing the rules as written and being “lifter friendly” are not mutually exclusive ideas. When rules are bent or a competitor gets a “gift” on a lift, his or her competition is disadvantaged and it is no longer a level playing field; that is NOT lifter-friendly.
If you have an interest in becoming a Referee, the minimum requirements and certification process are as follows:
1. Candidates must be a minimum of 18 years of age. Candidates must be current members of USA Powerlifting. (Current Membership Cards must be presented to the State Chair prior to test administration.)
2. Candidates must have approval of their State Chairman to take the test.
3. Candidates must be actively involved in the sport of powerlifting for a minimum time period of one year in one of the following capacities: Athlete, Meet Volunteer or Coach.
4. Candidates must pass the written and practical section of the state referee test. A minimum score of 80% is required on the written test and 90% on the practical portion of the test.
The written exam consists of a 110 question open-book, online exam with questions covering the USAPL-Rulebook-Version 2019 and a practical exam in which you will sit with a National or IPF Referee during a meet and adjudicate 100 attempts (40 squats, 30 bench press and 30 deadlifts).
You should read the rulebook completely before taking the test. To pass the exam, the candidate must score at least 80% on the written portion and 90% on the practical portion.
5. Once you have passed both the written and practical portions of the test you will need to complete SafeSport training. This takes about 1.5 hours. Upload your certificate to the national office.
6. Lastly, complete the Verified Volunteers background check.
Congratulations, your credentials will be sent to you shortly! You can find the referee polo at USA Powerlifting E-Store – Referee Polos
When necessary, retest arrangements may be made after a minimum of six weeks following the previous test date.
Please fill out the application and submit it. Application Form – Referee Test
Questions, contact Rodney & Miryam Elm [email protected]
Becoming a referee is a great way to give back to the sport and gain a wealth of knowledge. Your participation is much appreciated. Thank you for your support of USA Powerlifting, Arizona.
90,000 New U.S. Supreme Court Justice loves the Constitution and believes in God
Amy Connie Barrett. Photo: whitehouse.gov
The U.S. Senate has approved Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals Judge Amy Connie Barrett, nominated by President Donald Trump, to serve on the Supreme Court. 52 senators voted for 48-year-old Barrett, 48 against.
All Republicans voted in favor except Senator Susan Collins of Maine. It is noted that for the first time in 151 years, none of the members of the minority party supported a candidate for the Supreme Council.
After Amy Connie was approved, Barrett was sworn in at the White House. The ceremony was attended by US President Donald Trump, husband Barrett and Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas.
“I will do my job without fear or bias, regardless of political divisions or my own preferences. I love the Constitution and the Democratic Republic that was founded thanks to it, and I will devote myself to preserving it, ”- said Barrett during the oath of office.
Donald Trump welcomed her appointment, noting: “This is a momentous day for America.”
Amy Coney Barrett became the 115th life-long judge of the US Supreme Court and the fifth woman in history to hold the position. She will start working on October 27.
In the US Armed Forces, Barrett took the place of Ruth Bader Ginsburg, who died on September 25 at the age of 87 from complications from pancreatic cancer. Shortly before her death, according to some reports, she asked Trump to postpone the election of her successor to the Armed Forces until the end of the presidential race.However, this request was ignored.
Barrett 48 years old, she is known for her conservative views – in particular, opposed to abortion. In her opinion, life begins from the moment of conception. She is also a devout Catholic. Barrett herself has repeatedly argued that her faith and views will not affect the work in any way.
There are nine judges in the US Armed Forces, all of whom are appointed by the presidents of the United States for life. This instance can be both appellate (in this case, the court’s decision is no longer subject to appeal), and the first (for example, if one of the states files a claim against another).Judges are appointed by the President with the approval of the Senate.
90,000 The appointment of the US Chief Justice could play a defining role in the upcoming elections
In the next 45 days before the presidential elections in the United States, one of the most important is the appointment of a new head of the Supreme Court. Much depends on how America’s judicial system functions. That is why, for Trump, this is the main decision now. With this opinion, the special correspondent of VGTRK Valentin Bogdanov spoke on the air of the Russia 1 TV channel, commenting on the current situation in the United States.
The journalist recalled that the day before, the American president had already named two candidates for the position of Chief Justice: one – a judge from Chicago, Amy Connie Barrett, the second – Cuban Barbara Lagoa from Atlanta.
Valentin Bogdanov also spoke about Donald Trump’s speech yesterday to his electorate in North Carolina. During the speech, the President of America jokingly noted that it was a woman who would be appointed to the post of Chief Justice, since “he likes them more than men.”The correspondent drew attention to a certain subtext in this phrase: Trump first of all meant that he would appoint a person with conservative values as opposed to those who profess non-traditional ones.
According to the journalist, in the current situation all Republicans will be under great pressure, primarily those on whom this appointment depends. But the American president has already received assurances from Senator Mitch McConnell of Kentucky that he will do his best to fully staff the Supreme Court by the date of the US election.”After all, it is clear that a lot depends on the composition of the Supreme Court and its functioning. Both sides have outlined their positions. Trump made it clear that there are circumstances in which he will not abandon his victory. do not recognize the elections, “- explained the special correspondent on the air of” Sunday evening with Vladimir Solovyov. ”
In addition, on the eve of the elections, the President of the United States publicly harassed the head of the FBI, Christopher Ray, who testified about Russia’s interference in the new American elections.”Trump is not happy with how the Deep State is responding to these challenges,” Valentin Bogdanov concluded, recalling that the current American president has had a very strained relationship with the FBI since Obama.
The U.S. presidential election is scheduled for November 3, 2020. During the upcoming campaign, Donald Trump will run for a second term, the main competition for him will be the Democratic candidate Joe Biden.
According to polls, Trump is currently closing the gap in hesitant states.At the same time, there are two times less undecided voters than during the last election campaign. For the underrated Trump, this is rather bad news, but each candidate has two more months to convince him to make a choice in his favor.
90,000 Trump nominated his candidate for the US Supreme Court | News from Germany about events in the world | DW
Despite protests from Democrats, US President Donald Trump on Saturday, September 26, nominated conservative-minded Amy Connie Barrett for the post of Supreme Court Justice.
The seat became vacant following the death of Liberal Judge Ruth Bader Ginsburg, who has held the position since 1993. Amy Connie Barrett, 48, is a Catholic believer and a staunch opponent of abortion. She herself has seven children, including an adopted son from Haiti and a child with Down syndrome. At the same time, both Barrett herself and her Republican colleagues have repeatedly stated that her views are not reflected in her work.
What the appointment of Barrett to the US Supreme Court can affect
Representatives of the Christian conservative camp in the United States are considered the nuclear electorate of Donald Trump, reminds the Reuters news agency.In reporting that he is nominating Barrett for the post of Supreme Court Justice, Trump called her “one of the most brilliant lawyers in the United States.”
At the same time, Democratic presidential candidate Joe Biden has called on the Senate not to approve Barrett’s candidacy until the November presidential election, saying it would be Trump’s “abuse of power” otherwise. If Barrett is approved, conservative judges will have a 6 to 3 superiority over Democratic-appointed judges in the Supreme Court.The Senate is expected to begin hearings on Barrett’s candidacy on October 12.
The US Supreme Court is vested with the powers of the highest nationwide court and the main part of its activity is to determine the compliance of laws and acts of the executive branch with the country’s constitution. According to experts, if the results of the US presidential elections scheduled for November are challenged, it is the Supreme Court that will have to make a decision. The office of a judge of the US Supreme Court is life-long.
US presidential elections: from primaries to the White House
Two options to choose from
A feature of the US political system is the bipartisan system.Since 1852, representatives of either the Republican or the Democratic Party have become presidents of the country. Representatives of the so-called third parties (the most prominent of them are the Constitutional Party, the Libertarian Party and the Green Party), with rare exceptions, fail to intervene in the struggle between Republicans and Democrats.
US presidential elections: from primaries to the White House
This time, the struggle for the presidency will again unfold between Democrats and Republicans.But first, both parties must decide on their candidates. For this purpose, a series of preliminary / primary votes are held in individual states, called primaries.
US presidential elections: from primaries to the White House
“Donkeys” against “elephants”
The unofficial symbol of Democrats is the donkey, and the Republicans are the elephant. Not the most obvious choice. This is due to the case and fantasy of the cartoonist Thomas Mast. In the 1870s, he chose these images to take turns making fun of both parties.But politicians were not offended and began to use images of these animals as their symbols. Of course, attributing to them radically different qualities than Mast.
US presidential elections: from primaries to the White House
The pre-election race continues: two Democrats …
In the current Democratic primary elections, six people applied for the title of US presidential candidate, but three withdrew their candidacies even before the primaries began. and another, Martin O’Malley, dropped out after the Iowa primary with less than 1 percent of the vote.The struggle for the nomination of the Democratic candidacy continues two – Hillary Clinton and Bernie Sanders.
US presidential elections: from primaries to the White House
… and two Republicans
17 people wanted to become a presidential candidate from the Republican Party. Five dropped out before the primary, and ten after failures in various stages of the primaries. The last to withdraw his candidacy was Ted Cruz after the defeat in Indiana on May 4. Now the fight will unfold between Donald Trump and John Keysik.
US Presidential Election: From Primaries to White House
The latest GOP primaries will be held June 7 in South Dakota. The Democratic Party will complete its primary election a week later, June 14, in the District of Columbia (Washington). While Hillary Clinton looks like the favorite of the Democrats, and Donald Trump of the Republicans.
US presidential elections: from primaries to the White House
Another small formality
At the end of the primaries, candidates will still have to be approved at party conventions to be held at the end of July 2016.This is usually a formality, as state delegates must vote on the outcome of the primary. But rumor has it that this time the Republican convention could be a stumbling block for Trump, even if he gets the right number of votes in the primaries.
US Presidential Election: From Primaries to the White House
First Female US Presidential Candidate?
There has never been a single female president in the history of the United States. Moreover, the fair sex has never claimed the highest public office in the United States.Therefore, if Hillary Clinton bypasses Bernie Sanders and becomes the Democratic presidential candidate, then that in itself will be a historic event.
US presidential elections: from primaries to the White House
45th US president
The decision on who will become the 45th president of the United States will be decided by the citizens of this country by voting on November 8, 2016.
Author: Ilya Koval
90,000 Joe Biden criticized the decision of the US Supreme Court justices “to smithereens”
Biden praised the US Supreme Court a few weeks ago, and now called his decision malicious and linked it to a political attack.
US President Joe Biden harshly criticized the US Supreme Court for its decision, which concerns the issue of discrimination during the electoral process.
This is Brnovich v. Democratic National Committee.
As reported by the US media, on July 1, the US Supreme Court by its decision actually expanded the powers of the states to impose restrictions on voting. Thus, the issue in this case was that state and local governments are free to enact voting laws that discriminate against minorities without full protection from the Voting Rights Act of 1965 (VRA).
The judges were divided 6 to 3, with three Liberal members of the court dissenting. The decision was one of the most important in recent decades with regard to voting rights.
The dispute was that the Arizona Legislature had previously made it a crime for anyone other than an election official, family member or guardian to process or collect completed early voting or absentee ballots, thus prohibiting the collection of ballots …
The Democratic National Committee filed a lawsuit claiming that Arizona’s policy of rejecting ballots dropped in the wrong precinct violated the First and Fourteenth Amendments regarding voter rights. The committee argued that the legislation directly discriminated against Hispanic, African American, and Native American populations of the state, as the new rules made it “especially burdensome” for voters in districts with large minority populations to vote because they tended to have fewer or no seats to vote individually. them in general.
Ultimately, the US Supreme Court ruled that none of Arizona’s electoral policies violated the Voting Rights Act (VRA) or pursued racial discrimination.
Joe Biden hastened to publicly express his outrage at the decision on his Facebook page and the White House page.
“I am deeply disappointed with today’s decision by the United States Supreme Court, which undermines the Voting Rights Act and upholds what Judge Kagan called” significant racial disparity in voting power. “
In just eight years, the Court has seriously damaged two of the most important provisions of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 – a law that took years of struggle to enforce.
After everything we have gone through to convey this Nation’s promise to all Americans, we must fully enforce voting rights laws, not weaken them. However, the decision came just over a week after Senate Republicans blocked even at the level of debate a People’s Act that would protect the right to vote from Republican lawmakers in states across the country.
While this widespread assault on voting rights is unfortunately not unprecedented, it is taking new forms. It is no longer just a struggle over who has the right to vote and simplifying the voting process for eligible voters.
It is about who will count the vote and whether your vote will be counted at all. Our democracy depends on an electoral system built on honesty and independence. The attack we are witnessing today shows more clearly than ever that additional laws are needed to protect this beating heart of our democracy.
… The judgment of the Court, however harmful it may be, does not limit the ability of Congress to remedy the damage done today: it places the burden on Congress to restore the Voting Rights Act to its intended strength. This means building a coalition of Americans of all backgrounds and political parties – from advocates, activists, and business leaders – to raise the momentum and demand that our democracy truly reflects the will of the people and that it serves the nation.This is what Vice President Camilla Harris and I will continue to do. This is the work of our whole life and all of us. Democracy is at stake. We can do it together, ”said Biden.
Notably, just a few weeks ago Joe Biden upheld the US Supreme Court’s decision to continue Obamacare. This is stated in a statement by the President, released by the White House.
At the time, he called the Supreme Court’s decision to continue the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare) “a big win for all Americans using this innovative and life-changing law.”
Thus, the American president is probably pursuing a “carrot and stick” policy towards the highest court in the United States, which raises some questions about the political independence of the judiciary, which the United States so requires from partner countries.
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Caucasian Knot | U.S. Embassy expresses disappointment with the election of judges in Georgia
The Georgian parliament elected judges of the Supreme Court in violation of agreements with the opposition, the US Embassy said.Opposition MPs are confident that the new judges are fully under the control of the authorities. At the parliamentary hearings, the candidate judges demonstrated their incompetence, the Young Lawyers Association said.
As the “Caucasian Knot” informed, on May 22, the US and the EU opposed the elections to the High Council of Justice of Georgia. The appointment of judges by the High Council of Justice prior to the planned reform of the judicial system casts a shadow on its reputation, and the elections themselves were held with violations and signs of a conflict of interest, Georgian human rights activists say.
Judicial reform in Georgia is one of the points of agreement between the authorities and the opposition on overcoming the political crisis. The European Union threatened Georgia with suspension of financial assistance if judicial reform was disrupted, and this was a signal to Prime Minister Irakli Garibashvili to resign, but Bidzina Ivanishvili may ignore the message and leave Garibashvili as head of government, Georgian analysts interviewed by the Caucasian Knot said.
Opposition doubts the independence of elected judges
On July 12, the Georgian Parliament elected six indefinite judges to the Supreme Court: Gocha Abuseridze, Giorgi Gogiashvili, Levan Tevzadze, Bidzina Sturua and Lasha Kochiashvili.All six judges are affiliated with the ruling party and will not work independently, MP from the opposition United National Movement party said Roman Gotsiridze . “These people represent the last instance of power. Therefore, they were approved so forcefully. Three candidates for judges were not supported, one of them is a rather independent figure and competent. When necessary, these judges are used for their political purposes: political persecution, financial decisions questions of businessmen close to the authorities and the party, “Gotsiridze told the” Caucasian Knot “correspondent.
All six judges worked during the presidency of Mikhail Saakashvili and were under the control of the executive branch, the same will happen now, believes the deputy from the opposition Citizens party Levan Ioseliani . “It is very important to find new honest people who can work independently for the post of a judge of the Supreme Court. This is important, since judges are appointed for life, which means that a judge must have an impeccable reputation, and they don’t have that,” the deputy told the correspondent “Caucasian Knot”.
He noted that the procedure for impeachment of a judge can only be started if he commits a criminal offense or disciplinary offense. However, it is very difficult to prove that the judge committed a crime, Ioseliani stressed.
The MP added that by electing judges, the ruling Georgian Dream party violated the agreement reached with the opposition in April. “This appointment of judges, not only formally, but also essentially contradicts the agreement. The Georgian Dream will force them, by the hand, into these positions,” concluded Levan Ioseliani.
A deputy from the Lelo party also pointed out the violation of agreements with the opposition Sergo Chikhladze . “The agreement says that the process of appointing judges should be suspended until a fundamental reform is adopted, in the work on which everyone – the opposition and non-governmental organizations should be included,” Chikhladze said.
However, the chairman of the parliamentary committee for human rights and civil integration Mikhail Sardzhveladze said on the air of Channel One that the previously suspended process of electing judges was resumed after taking into account the recommendations of the Venice Commission.
Judges elected after failure at parliamentary committee hearings
The Association of Young Lawyers, which monitored the appointment of judges, noted that when selecting candidates, Georgian Dream did not take into account the “calls” of international and non-governmental organizations. “At the hearings in the parliament’s legal committee, the questions asked to candidates for judges related to both rights and dignity, work experience and cases considered by the candidates. In some cases, some candidates could not answer even simple questions of law.One of the candidates refused to answer a question posed by a representative of a non-governmental organization, “the” Caucasian Knot “correspondent translated from the Georgian language the statement of the” Young Lawyers Association “circulated on July 14.
In its statement, the NGO points out that all candidates for judges are united by a reluctance to admit that there is a crisis in the judicial system. Some of the candidates for judges assert that the opinion about the clannishness of the judicial system is based on ignorance. However, despite the dubious competence and conscientiousness of the candidates for judges, the legal committee recommended some of the candidates when presenting their candidates to the plenary session of the parliament, which took them into account.
The NGO indicates that people loyal to the “judicial clan” and its leaders have been elected as judges. “The ruling party did not consider the context, appeals of international partners and expert assessments, which caused significant damage to the independence of the judiciary, strengthened the influential group and the clan’s position in the Supreme Court and further alienated the justice system from the prospect of recovery,” the statement said.
The election of six Supreme Court justices is “extremely disappointing” and does not build confidence in the country’s judicial system, the US embassy said in a statement.
“Unfortunately, this process of nomination and appointment, as well as the failure to implement an inclusive and broad judicial reform, did not fulfill the commitment of leaders, including the ruling party, to faithfully implement the April 19 agreement. The parties agreed to implement an ambitious judicial reform through a broad and transparent process. , with the participation of legal experts, civil society and opposition parties Unilateral legislative changes, adopted against the advice of international partners, while negotiations were still underway on the April 19 agreement, do not correspond to the content and spirit of the agreement.Especially the changes introduced in early April to the Organic Law on General Courts, which do not fully reflect the recommendations of the Venice Commission, including the main recommendation in connection with the postponement of the appointment of judges, “the embassy said in a statement released today by the Georgian newspaper Interpressnews.
The Embassy cited a July 9 report by the OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR), which stated that “the nomination of candidates took place in an environment where there was a lack of public confidence in the independence of the judiciary”, and “the selection, screening and interview process carried out by The High Council of Justice did not meet international standards. “
Author: Inna Kukudzhanova
source: “Caucasian Knot” correspondent
90,000 Judge in the United States was suspended for indecent argument
As you know, a kind word and a Colt are more convincing than just a kind word. Perhaps the judge from Wisconsin thought so. But colleagues did not understand him and deprived of part of his salary.
It cannot be said that Winnebago County Judge Scott Waldt abused the additional argument, but in 7 years he received 6 complaints regarding the demonstration of weapons. So, he showed the gun to a group of high school students during a visit to the courtroom on “Government Day”, answering a question about the security of the building, writes the Post Crescent edition.
Another time, S. Waldt said to the accused, who suffered from “significant cognitive impairments”: “You are lucky that you did not die, because if you came to my house, you would be dead!” And to make it more convincing, he raised the pistol he carried with him.
Several incidents related to his communication with victims of crimes. For example, he said to a victim of domestic violence, “I’m tired of the fact that first they call the cops and then they come here and say,“ Oh no, this man is an angel. ”I’m tired of hearing that! ”
The State Supreme Court ruled that S. Waldt used “unworthy, impolite and disrespectful language, inappropriate for a judge.” As punishment for behavior that “had a detrimental effect on public opinion about the judicial system,” he was removed from office without pay for 7 days.
S. Waldt admitted that the facts described in the complaints took place, but did not agree with the assessment of the incidents. And most of all he was surprised why these questions are raised years later (5 years have passed since the most recent).
As if instead of answering, the State Supreme Court ruling says, “We remind him and the other judges that how justice is administered is often as important as the substance of the judgment.”
However, two judges did not agree that the demonstration of weapons is an argument not worthy of a servant of Themis. In the end, no one was hurt, and the state’s right to bear arms has not been revoked.
By the way, recently in Ukraine the Supreme Rada of Justice deprived a judge of additional payments for a month for using profanity during a meeting.