University of Washington Course Descriptions Seattle
Seattle Course Catalog
The UW course descriptions are updated regularly during the academic year.
All announcements in the General Catalog and Course Catalog are subject to change without notice and do not constitute an
agreement between the University of Washington and the student.
Students should assume the responsibility of consulting the appropriate
academic unit or adviser for more current or specific information.
For an explanation of the symbols and abbreviations used in the course
descriptions, select the Glossary link on
this page or any of the course description pages.
The Bothell Course Descriptions and
Tacoma Course Descriptions are also available online.
Search UW Seattle Courses
College of Arts and Sciences
- African Studies — See Jackson School of International Studies
- American Ethnic Studies
- Afro-American Studies (AFRAM)
- American Ethnic Studies (AES)
- Asian-American Studies (AAS)
- Chicano Studies (CHSTU)
- Swahili (SWA)
- Tagalog (TAGLG)
- American Indian Studies (AIS)
- Anthropology (ANTH)
- Archaeology (ARCHY)
- Biological Anthropology (BIO A)
- Applied Mathematics
- Applied Mathematics (AMATH)
- Computational Finance and Risk Management (CFRM)
- Arctic Studies (ARCTIC)
- School of Art, Art History, and Design
- Art (ART)
- Art History (ART H)
- Design (DESIGN)
- Asian Languages and Literature
- Asian Languages and Literature (ASIAN)
- Bengali (BENG)
- Chinese (CHIN)
- Hindi (HINDI)
- Indian (INDN)
- Indonesian (INDO)
- Japanese (JAPAN)
- Korean (KOREAN)
- Sanskrit (SNKRT)
- Thai (THAI)
- Urdu (URDU)
- Vietnamese (VIET)
- Astrobiology and Early Evolution (ASTBIO)
- Astronomy (ASTR)
- Biology (BIOL)
- Botany — See Biology (BIOL)
- Canadian Studies — See Jackson School of International Studies
- Center for Statistics and Social Sciences (CS SS)
- Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology (CSDE)
- Center for the Humanities (HUM)
- Chemistry (CHEM)
- China Studies — See Jackson School of International Studies
- Cinema and Media Studies
- Cinema and Media Studies (CMS)
- Comparative Literature (C LIT)
- Classical Archaeology (CL AR)
- Classical Linguistics (CL LI)
- Classics (CLAS)
- Greek (GREEK)
- Latin (LATIN)
- Communication (COM)
- Communication Leadership (COMMLD)
- Comparative History of Ideas (CHID)
- Comparative Religion — See Jackson School of International Studies
- Computer Science (See Computer Science and Engineering)
- Dance (DANCE)
- Digital Arts and Experimental Media (DXARTS)
- Disability Studies (DIS ST)
- Drama (DRAMA)
- Economics (ECON)
- English (ENGL)
- European Studies — See Jackson School of International Studies
- French and Italian Studies
- French (FRENCH)
- Italian (ITAL)
- Textual and Digital Studies (TXTDS)
- Gender, Women, and Sexuality Studies (GWSS)
- General Studies
- General Studies (GEN ST)
- Individualized Studies (INDIV)
- Geography (GEOG)
- German Studies (GERMAN)
- Greek (Modern) — See International Studies (Language) (JSIS C)
- Hellenic Studies — See Jackson School of International Studies
- Ancient and Medieval History (HSTAM)
- Comparative and Transregional History (HSTCMP)
- History of Africa and the Middle East (HSTAFM)
- History of Asia (HSTAS)
- History of Latin America and the Caribbean (HSTLAC)
- History of Modern Europe (HSTEU)
- History of North America (United States and Canada) (HSTAA)
- History Seminars and Independent Studies (HSTRY)
- History and Philosophy of Science (HPS)
- Honors — See Undergraduate Interdisciplinary Programs
- Humanities (See Center for the Humanities)
- Integrated Science (INTSCI)
- Integrated Social Sciences (ISS)
- Jackson School of International Studies
- Comparative Religion (RELIG)
- International Studies (Gateway/Core) (JSIS)
- International Studies (Area Studies) (JSIS A)
- International Studies (Global/Thematic) (JSIS B)
- International Studies (Comparative Religion/Jewish Studies) (JSIS C)
- International Studies (JSIS D)
- International Studies (Language) (JSIS E)
- Jewish Studies (JEW ST)
- Japan Studies — See Jackson School of International Studies
- Jewish Studies — See Jackson School of International Studies
- Korean Studies — See Jackson School of International Studies
- Labor Studies (LABOR)
- Latin America and Caribbean Studies — See Jackson School of International Studies
- Law, Societies, and Justice (LSJ)
- American Sign Language (ASL)
- Linguistics (LING)
- Mathematics (MATH)
- Microbiology (MICROM) — See Microbiology under School of Medicine
- Music (MUSIC)
- Music – Applied (MUSAP)
- Music Education (MUSED)
- Music Ensemble (MUSEN)
- Music History (MUHST)
- Music Performance (MUSICP)
- Near Eastern Languages and Civilization
- Arabic (ARAB)
- Aramaic (ARAMIC)
- Coptic (COPTIC)
- Egyptian (EGYPT)
- Ge’ez (GEEZ)
- Biblical Hebrew (BIBHEB)
- Modern Hebrew (MODHEB)
- Near Eastern Languages and Civilization (NEAR E)
- Persian (PRSAN)
- Turkic (TURKIC)
- Chagatai (CHGTAI)
- Kazakh (KAZAKH)
- Kyrgyz (KYRGYZ)
- Uygur (UYGUR)
- Uzbek (UZBEK)
- Turkish (TKISH)
- Ugaritic (UGARIT)
- Neurobiology (NBIO)
- Neuroscience (NEUSCI)
- Ethics (ETHICS)
- Philosophy (PHIL)
- Applied Child and Adolescent Psychology (PSYCAP)
- Clinical Psychology (PSYCLN)
- Psychology (PSYCH)
- See French and Italian Studies
- See Spanish and Portuguese Studies
- Danish (DANISH)
- Estonian (ESTO)
- Finnish (FINN)
- Latvian (LATV)
- Lithuanian (LITH)
- Norwegian (NORW)
- Scandinavian (SCAND)
- Swedish (SWED)
- Bosnian/Croatian/Montenegrin/Serbian (BCMS)
- Bulgarian (BULGR)
- Czech (CZECH)
- Polish (POLSH)
- Romanian (ROMN)
- Russian (RUSS)
- Slavic Languages and Literatures (SLAVIC)
- Slovenian (SLVN)
- Ukrainian (UKR)
- Portuguese (PORT)
- Spanish (SPAN)
- Spanish Linguistics (SPLING)
College of Built Environments
- Architecture (ARCH)
- Built Environment (B E)
- Construction Management (CM)
- Landscape Architecture (L ARCH)
- Real Estate (R E)
- Urban Planning
- Community, Environment, and Planning (CEP)
- Infrastructure Planning and Management (IPM)
- Urban Planning (URBDP)
Foster School of Business
- Accounting (ACCTG)
- Business Administration
- Administration (ADMIN)
- Business Administration (B A)
- Business Administration Research Methods (BA RM)
- Business Analytics (BUS AN)
- Business Communications (B CMU)
- Business Economics (B ECON)
- Entrepreneurship (ENTRE)
- Finance (FIN)
- Information Systems (I S)
- Information Systems Master of Science (MSIS)
- International Business (I BUS)
- Management (MGMT)
- Marketing (MKTG)
- Operations Management (OPMGT)
- Quantitative Methods (QMETH)
- Supply Chain Management (SCM)
School of Dentistry
- Dental Clinical (DENTCL)
- Dental Electives (DENTEL)
- Dental Foundations (DENTFN)
- Dental General Practice (DENTGP)
- Dental Hygiene (D HYG)
- Dental Pre-Clinical (DENTPC)
- Dental Public Health Sciences (DPHS)
- Dental Selectives (DENTSL)
- Dentistry (DENT)
- Oral Surgery (O S)
- Pedodontics (PEDO)
- Endodontics (ENDO)
- Oral Biology (ORALB)
- Oral Health Sciences (OHS)
- Oral Medicine (ORALM)
- Orthodontics (ORTHO)
- Periodontics (PERIO)
- Prosthodontics (PROS)
- Restorative Dentistry (RES D)
College of Education
- Curriculum and Instruction (EDC&I)
- College of Education (EDUC)
- Early Care and Education (ECE)
- Early Childhood and Family Studies (ECFS)
- Education (Teacher Education Program) (EDTEP)
- Educational Leadership and Policy Studies (EDLPS)
- Educational Psychology (EDPSY)
- Special Education (EDSPE)
College of Engineering
- Aeronautics and Astronautics
- Aeronautics and Astronautics (A A)
- Aerospace Engineering (A E)
- Chemical Engineering
- Chemical Engineering (CHEM E)
- Nanoscience and Molecular Engineering (NME)
- Civil and Environmental Engineering
- Civil and Environmental Engineering (CEE)
- Construction, Energy, and Sustainable Infrastructure (CESI)
- Environmental Engineering (CEWA)
- Structural and Geotechnical Engineering and Mechanics (CESG)
- Transportation Engineering (CET)
- Computer Science and Engineering
- Computer Science and Engineering (CSE)
- Computer Science and Engineering — Accelerated Masters Program (CSE M)
- Computer Science and Engineering — Data Science (CSE D)
- Computer Science and Engineering — Professional Masters Program (CSE P)
- Electrical and Computer Engineering (E E)
- Engineering (ENGR)
- Human Centered Design and Engineering (HCDE)
- Industrial Engineering (IND E)
- Materials Science and Engineering (MSE)
- Mechanical Engineering (M E)
College of the Environment
- Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (FISH)
- Atmospheric Sciences (ATM S)
- College of the Environment
- College of the Environment (C ENV)
- Science Teaching (SCI T)
- Earth and Space Sciences (ESS)
- Program on the Environment (ENVIR)
- School of Environmental and Forest Sciences
- Bioresource and Science Engineering (BSE)
- Environmental Science and Resource Management (ESRM)
- School of Environmental and Forest Sciences (SEFS)
- Friday Harbor Labs (FHL)
- School of Marine and Environmental Affairs (SMEA)
- Marine Biology (MARBIO)
- Oceanography (OCEAN)
- Center for Quantitative Science
- Quantitative Science (Q SCI)
- Quantitative Ecology and Resource Management (QERM)
- Quaternary Sciences (QUAT)
The Information School
- Informatics (INFO)
- Information Management and Technology (IMT)
- Information Science (INSC)
- Information Technology Applications (ITA)
- Library and Information Science (LIS)
- Library Information Technology in Schools (LITS)
Interdisciplinary Graduate Programs
- Biomolecular Structure and Design (BMSD)
- Data Science (DATA)
- Graduate School (GRDSCH)
- Human-Computer Interaction Design (HCID)
- Individual PhD (IPHD)
- Molecular and Cellular Biology (MCB)
- Molecular Engineering (MOLENG)
- Museology (MUSEUM)
- Near and Middle Eastern Studies (N MES)
- Neurobiology and Behavior (NEUBEH)
- Neuroscience (NEURO)
- Nutritional Science (NUTR)
- Science, Technology, and Society Studies (STSS)
- Technology Innovation (TECHIN)
Interschool or Intercollege Programs
- Bioengineering (BIOEN)
- Pharmaceutical Bioengineering (PHARBE)
- Global Health (G H)
- University Conjoint Courses (UCONJ)
School of Law
- Law (LAW)
- Law A (LAW A)
- Law B (LAW B)
- Law C (LAW C)
- Law E (LAW E)
- Law (Health) (LAW H)
- Law (Intellectual Property) (LAW P)
- Law (Taxation) (LAW T)
School of Medicine
- Anesthesiology (ANEST)
- Biochemistry (BIOC)
- Bioethics and Humanities (B H)
- Biological Structure (B STR)
- Biomedical Informatics and Medical Education (BIME)
- Comparative Medicine (C MED)
- Conjoint Courses (CONJ)
- Family Medicine (FAMED)
- Genome Sciences (GENOME)
- Global Health (G H)
- Health Metrics Sciences (HMS)
- Human Biology (HUBIO)
- Immunology (IMMUN)
- Laboratory Medicine (LAB M)
- MEDEX (MEDEX)
- Medicine, Department of
- Emergency Medicine (MED EM)
- Medicine (MED)
- Medicine Elective Clerkships (MEDECK)
- Medicine Required Clerkships (MEDRCK)
- Medical Science (MEDSCI)
- Microbiology (MICROM)
- Neurological Surgery (NEUR S)
- Neurology (NEURL)
- Obstetrics and Gynecology (OB GYN)
- Ophthalmology (OPHTH)
- Orthopaedics (ORTHP)
- Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (OTOHN)
- Pathology (PATH)
- Pediatrics (PEDS)
- Pharmacology (PHCOL)
- Physiology and Biophysics (P BIO)
- Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences (PBSCI)
- Radiation Oncology (R ONC)
- Radiology (RADGY)
- Rehabilitation Medicine
- Prosthetics and Orthotics (RHB PO)
- Rehabilitation Medicine (REHAB)
- Surgery (SURG)
- Urology (UROL)
School of Nursing
- Infant and Early Childhood Mental Health (IECMH)
- Nursing (NSG)
- Nursing (NURS)
- Nursing Clinical (NCLIN)
- Nursing Methods (NMETH)
School of Pharmacy
- School of Pharmacy
- Health Economic Outcomes Research (HEOR)
- Medicinal Chemistry (MEDCH)
- Pharmaceutics (PCEUT)
- Pharmacy (PHARM)
- Pharmacy (PHRMCY)
- Pharmacy Practice (PHARMP)
- Pharmacy Practice (PHRMPR)
- Pharmacy Regulatory Affairs (PHRMRA)
Evans School of Public Policy and Governance
- Public Affairs Executive MPA (PA EX)
- Public Policy (PUBPOL)
- Public Policy and Management (PPM)
School of Public Health
- Biostatistics (BIOST)
- Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences
- Environmental Health (ENV H)
- Epidemiology (EPI)
- Global Health (G H)
- Health Systems and Population Health
- Health Informatics and Health Information Management (HIHIM)
- Health Services (HSERV)
- Health Services Management (HSMGMT)
- Nutritional Science (NUTR) — See Interdisciplinary Graduate Programs
- Pathobiology (PABIO)
- Public Health Genetics (PHG)
- School of Public Health
- Public Health Interdisciplinary (PHI)
- School of Public Health (SPH)
Reserve Officers Training Corps Programs
- Aerospace Studies (A S)
- Military Science (M SCI)
- Naval Science (N SCI)
- Social Welfare BASW (SOC WF)
- Social Welfare (SOC WL)
- Social Work (MSW) (SOC W)
Undergraduate Interdisciplinary Programs
- Arctic Studies (ARCTIC)
- Honors (HONORS)
- Leadership (LEAD)
|2000 – present|
|2020-2022||General Catalog: Undergraduate, Graduate, and Professional Study||2,089 pages; 12. 1Mb|
|2018-2020||General Catalog: Undergraduate, Graduate, and Professional Study||2,570 pages; 9.9Mb|
|2016-2018||General Catalog: Undergraduate, Graduate, and Professional Study||2,803 pages; 13.4Mb|
|2014-2016||General Catalog: Undergraduate, Graduate, and Professional Study||658 pages; 19.6Mb|
|2012-2014||General Catalog: Undergraduate, Graduate, and Professional Study||649 pages; 18.7Mb|
|2010-2012||General Catalog: Undergraduate, Graduate, and Professional Study||622 pages; 12. 2Mb|
|2008-2010||General Catalog: Undergraduate, Graduate, and Professional Study||886 pages; 5.5Mb|
|2006-2008||General Catalog: Undergraduate, Graduate, and Professional Study||721 pages; 4.2Mb|
|2004-2006||General Catalog: Undergraduate, Graduate, and Professional Study||721 pages; 3.7Mb|
|2002-2004|| General Catalog: Undergraduate Study|
General Catalog: Graduate and Professional Study
| 481 pages; 4.5Mb|
363 pages; 5.2Mb
|2000-2002|| General Catalog: Undergraduate Study|
General Catalog: Graduate and Professional Study
| 330 pages; 15.1Mb|
450 pages; 20.3Mb
|1998-2000||General Catalog: Undergraduate, Graduate and Professional Study||530 pages; 8. 3Mb|
|1996-1998||General Catalog: Undergraduate, Graduate and Professional Study||512 pages; 99.6Mb|
|1994-1996||General Catalog: Undergraduate, Graduate and Professional Study||490 pages; 81.7Mb|
|1992-1994||General Catalog: Undergraduate, Graduate and Professional Study||474 pages; 74.9Mb|
|1990-1992||General Catalog: Undergraduate, Graduate and Professional Study||465 pages; 72.2Mb|
|1988-1990||General Catalog: Undergraduate, Graduate and Professional Study||441 pages; 69.7Mb|
|1986-1988||General Catalog: Undergraduate Study, Graduate Study and Research||433 pages; 69.9Mb|
|1984-1986||General Catalog: Undergraduate Study, Graduate Study and Research||293 pages; 58. 6Mb|
|1982-1984||General Catalog: Undergraduate Study, Graduate Study and Research||289 pages; 55.3Mb|
|1980-1982||General Catalog||572 pages; 75.4Mb|
|1978-1980||General Catalog: University of Washington Bulletin||533 pages; 69.8Mb|
|1976-1978||General Catalog: University of Washington Bulletin||509 pages; 68.5Mb|
|1974-1976||General Catalog: University of Washington Bulletin||592 pages; 67.3Mb|
|1972-1974|| Bulletin of the University of Washington|
Bulletin of the University of Washington
| 371 pages; 36.3Mb|
233 pages; 31.2Mb
| Vol. 1|
|1970-1972||Bulletin of the University of Washington||601 pages; 62.0Mb|
|1969-1970||Bulletin of the University of Washington||683 pages; 64.6Mb|
|1967-1969||Bulletin of the University of Washington||610 pages; 57.4Mb|
|1965-1966||Bulletin of the University of Washington||578 pages; 52.2Mb|
|1964-1965||Bulletin of the University of Washington||566 pages; 55.4Mb||General Catalog Issue|
|1963-1965||Bulletin of the University of Washington||245 pages; 13.4Mb||Graduate School|
|1961-1963||Bulletin of the University of Washington||1271 pages; 72. 6Mb|
|1959-1961||Bulletin of the University of Washington||1062 pages; 61.9Mb|
|1957-1959||Bulletin of the University of Washington||1044 pages; 60.7Mb||First time the Bulletin surpasses 1,000 pages|
|1955-1957||Bulletin of the University of Washington||817 pages; 48.1Mb||Name changed to “Bulletin” and printing switched from annual to bi-annual|
|1953-1955||Catalogue of the University of Washington||317 pages; 41.7Mb|
|1952-1953||Catalogue of the University of Washington||317 pages; 20.3Mb|
|1950-1951||Catalogue of the University of Washington||352 pages; 23.9Mb|
|1949-1950||Catalogue of the University of Washington||294 pages; 19. 3Mb|
|1948-1949||Catalogue of the University of Washington||275 pages; 17.7Mb||Contains 13-page supplement announcing the College of Business Administration and Dept. of Economics|
|1947-1948||Catalogue of the University of Washington||223 pages; 14.3Mb|
|1946-1947||Catalogue of the University of Washington||210 pages; 12.6Mb|
|1945-1946||Catalogue of the University of Washington||205 pages; 12.9Mb||Contains a special announcement regarding temporary change from quarter- to semester systems.|
|1944-1945||Catalogue of the University of Washington||204 pages; 11.8Mb||Contains a special announcement regarding temporary change from quarter- to semester systems.|
|1943-1944||Annual Catalogue of the University of Washington||346 pages; 18. 1Mb|
|1942-1943||Annual Catalogue of the University of Washington||374 pages; 18.6Mb|
|1941-1942||Annual Catalogue of the University of Washington||328 pages; 16.5Mb|
|1940-1941||Annual Catalogue of the University of Washington||306 pages; 15.0Mb|
|1939-1940||Annual Catalogue of the University of Washington||370 pages; 18.9Mb|
|1938-1939||Annual Catalogue of the University of Washington||372 pages; 19.4Mb|
|1937-1938||Annual Catalogue of the University of Washington||362 pages; 19.7Mb|
|1936-1937||Annual Catalogue of the University of Washington||342 pages; 18. 3Mb|
|1935-1936||Annual Catalogue of the University of Washington||318 pages; 17.3Mb|
|1934-1935||Annual Catalogue of the University of Washington||311 pages; 16.2Mb|
|1933-1934||Annual Catalogue of the University of Washington||274 pages; 14.1Mb|
|1932-1933||Annual Catalogue of the University of Washington||304 pages; 15.7Mb|
|1931-1932||Annual Catalogue of the University of Washington||438 pages; 22.9Mb|
|1930-1931||Annual Catalogue of the University of Washington||412 pages; 21.6Mb|
|1929-1930||Annual Catalogue of the University of Washington||388 pages; 20. 6Mb|
|1928-1929||Annual Catalogue of the University of Washington||530 pages; 30.0Mb|
|1926-1928||Catalogue of the University of Washington||450 pages; 26.5Mb||Contains announcements for 1927-28|
|1925-1927||Catalogue of the University of Washington||424 pages; 25.1Mb||Contains announcements for 1926-27|
|1924-1926||Catalogue of the University of Washington||387 pages; 23.0Mb||Contains announcements for 1925-26|
|1923-1925||Catalogue of the University of Washington||374 pages; 21.9Mb||Contains announcements for 1923-24|
|1922-1924||Catalogue of the University of Washington||356 pages; 21. 7Mb||Contains announcements for 1923-24|
|1921-1923||Catalogue of the University of Washington||344 pages; 21.7Mb||Contains announcements for 1922-23|
|1920-1922||Catalogue of the University of Washington||384 pages; 22.4Mb||Contains announcements for 1921-22|
|1919-1921||Catalogue of the University of Washington||389 pages; 23.8Mb||Contains announcements for 1919-21|
|1918-1919||Bulletin of the University of Washington||526 pages; 26.9Mb||Name changed the Bulletin|
|1917-1919||Catalogue of the University of Washington||336 pages; 19.1Mb||Contains announcements for 1918-19|
|1916-1918||Catalogue of the University of Washington||588 pages; 24. 3Mb||Contains announcements for 1917-18|
|1915-1917||Catalogue of the University of Washington||530 pages; 21.7Mb||Contains announcements for 1916-17|
|1914-1916||Catalogue of the University of Washington||510 pages; 20.2Mb||Contains announcements for 1915-16|
|1913-1915||Catalogue of the University of Washington||498 pages; 19.7Mb||Contains announcements for 1914-15|
|1912-1914||Catalogue of the University of Washington||388 pages; 15.8Mb||Contains announcements for 1913-14|
|1911-1913||Catalogue of the University of Washington||270 pages; 12.5Mb||Contains announcements for 1912-13|
|1910-1912||Catalogue of the University of Washington||395 pages; 15. 5Mb||Contains announcements for 1911-12|
|1909-1911||Catalogue of the University of Washington||356 pages; 14.2Mb||Contains announcements for 1910-11|
|1908-1910||Catalogue of the University of Washington||332 pages; 13.0Mb||Contains announcements for 1909-10|
|1906-1908||Catalogue of the University of Washington||543 pages; 19.9Mb||Contains announcements for 1907-08 and 1908-09|
|1905-1906||Catalogue of the University of Washington||254 pages; 8.8Mb||Contains announcements for 1906-07|
|1904-1906||Catalogue of the University of Washington||254 pages; 8.9Mb||Contains announcements for 1905-06|
|1903-1905||Catalogue of the University of Washington||203 pages; 7. 2Mb||Contains announcements for 1904-05|
|1902-1904||Catalogue of the University of Washington||208 pages; 7.0Mb||Contains announcements for 1903-04|
|1901-1903||Catalogue of the University of Washington||208 pages; 7.1Mb||Contains announcements for 1902-03|
|1900-1902||Catalogue of the University of Washington||213 pages; 7.0Mb||Contains announcements for 1901-02|
|1899-1900||Catalogue of the University of Washington||157 pages; 5.2Mb||Contains announcements for 1900-01|
|1898-1900||Catalogue of the University of Washington||181 pages; 6.1Mb||Contains announcements for 1899-00|
|1897-1898||Catalogue of the University of Washington||117 pages; 4. 0Mb||Contains announcements for 1898-99|
|1890-1891||Annual Catalogue of the State University of Washington||56 pages; 3.1Mb||Contains announcements for 1891-92|
|1874-1890||Handwritten notebook of courses and notes on UW Catalogues from 1874 through 1890.||43 pages; 5.9Mb||Notepaper bears the name of the fifth UW Registrar, Edward N. Stone (Registrar from 1910-1925)|
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3 hours ago General Catalog for Seattle Campus. Founded in 1861, the University of Washington is one of the oldest state-assisted institutions of higher education on the Pacific coast. From its original site on a 10-acre tract of wooded wilderness that is now located in downtown Seattle, the campus has grown to comprise 703 acres of trees, landscape, and
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University of Washington Human Resources
7 hours ago Benefits. As a University of Washington employee, you receive excellent benefits including a variety of health plan options, generous retirement plans, life insurance and long-term disability coverage. While many of these programs are administered by the Washington State Public Employees Benefit Board, the UW Benefits team helps new employees
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Office of the University Registrar (OUR)
3 hours ago Student Resources Forms and information about registration, grades & transcripts, academic records, personal data, and graduation. Staff & Faculty Resources Forms and information about class scheduling, advising, academics, syllabi, grading, and graduation. Employer Resources Information related to degree & enrollment verification, FERPA, CeCredentials, transcripts, and …
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International Student Services
7 hours ago The UW is home to nearly 8,000 international students representing more than 100 countries. ISS staff advises international students with F-1 or J-1 visas who are enrolled in undergraduate, graduate, and professional degree programs on the Seattle campus of the University of Washington.
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University of Washington School of Pharmacy
7 hours ago 2021 Awards Presentation. STELLAR SOP NAPLEX & MPJE RESULTS. SOP Class of 2020 Bests National Averages. Read More. SPRING ’21 ISSUE OF DIGITAL DAWG SCRIPTS. Read the issue online or download a PDF of the full print edition. Read The Issue. 2020 IMPACT REPORT. A new showcase for our Pharmacy.
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Merchant Services University of Washington
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Welcome to the Michael G. Foster School of Business
2 hours ago Washington Research Foundation awards $300,000 to support new startup accelerator at UW Foster School of Business. The University of Washington today announced a $300,000 grant from Washington Research Foundation (WRF) to support the recently launched Creative Destruction Lab (CDL) partnership with the Foster School of Business.
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The University of Washington School of Medicine
8 hours ago exposure. After the University of Washington School of Medicine Office of Admissions receives the AMCAS application, applicants may submit a MSTP application on-line. Applicants should contact the MSTP office for application deadlines and other information: [email protected] uw.edu or …
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Master of Science in Information Systems
9 hours ago Master of Science in Information Systems. The Master of Science in Information Systems program at the UW Foster School of Business in Seattle is a one-year, work-compatible, accelerated master’s program designed to train current and future business leaders in information systems management. Featuring courses in data mining and analytics
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Home UW School of Law
3 hours ago The University of Washington School of Law is proud to announce its 2021 Gregoire Fellows: Max Del Real, Samantha Hussey, Chisup Kim, Justine Kim, Trent M. C. McBride, Alysa Mo, Hosanna Negash, Ellie Pakzad and Sophia Sun . News
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University of Washington Biomedical Ph.D. Programs
5 hours ago The University of Washington provides a dynamic and resource-rich environment for graduate study. The Biomedical Ph.D. programs at the University of Washington provide a competitive stipend, tuition waiver, and health insurance for all students. Please visit …
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Washington University of Barbados Caribbean Medical
3 hours ago Washington University of Barbados, School of Medicine is an international medical school located in the Barbados, Caribbean. WUB is one among the medical universities in the Caribbean Islands. Study medicine in WUB, an international medical school which aims at providing the students with a high-quality education in an affordable fee structure.
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Course Packs University of Washington
5 hours ago CPC makes it easy for you by contacting the publishers for permission to copy material, initiating follow-up phone contact to ensure prompt service and performing royalties’ calculations. We then print the Course Pack materials, and sell the Course Packs through the University Book Store.
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Workers’ Compensation at UW Risk Services
2 hours ago University of Washington faculty, staff and volunteers are covered for work-related injuries and illnesses, per Administrative Policy Statement 14. 1). Employees who are injured at work or who believe that their illness is related to their job can file an L&I claim through a physician’s office, clinic, emergency room, hospital, online or by phone.
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9 hours ago Brochures & Forms Glossary of Medical Terms. It is important to understand the terminology which may be used when discussing health insurance and coverage and medical services. Glossary – ENGLISH [PDF] Glossary – ARABIC [PDF] Glossary – HINDI [PDF] Glossary – JAPANESE [PDF] Glossary – KOREAN [PDF] Glossary – SIMPLIFIED CHINESE [PDF]
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Psychology Internship Program depts.
195 206-5433 hours ago Y:\15 Brochure\~ 2022-2023\Brochure-2022-2023.docx Revised 10/27/21 Psychology Internship Program 2022-2023 Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences University of Washington School of Medicine Box 356560 1959 N.E. Pacific St Seattle, WA 98195 206-543-7576 [email protected]
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Engage & Maximize University of Washington
(206) 543-05358 hours ago Contact us: 9a-5p, M-F 134 Mary Gates Hall Seattle, WA 98195 (206) 543-0535 tel (206) 616-4863 fax The Division of Student Life acknowledges the Coast Salish people of this land, the land which touches the shared waters of all tribes and bands within the …
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University of Washington Division of Metabolism
9 hours ago Staff Spotlight: Kelly Uckun. Our July staff spotlight is on Kelly Uckun, division administrator. Learn More.
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University of Kentucky
Just Now Athletics. The University of Kentucky Athletics Department is a 22-sport program dedicated to competing at the highest level nationally and in the Southeastern Conference, while enriching the lives of its nearly 500 student-athletes – both during and after their time at UK – and honoring the deep connections it shares with its fans, the Commonwealth of Kentucky and the university it
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Contact Us Medical Student Admissions
314-362-68452 hours ago Financial Aid. Office of Student Financial Planning Washington University School of Medicine 660 S. Euclid Ave., CB 8059 St. Louis, MO 63110-1093 Phone: 314-362-6845
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ABSN—Accelerated Bachelor of Science in Nursing School
4 hours ago ABSN Program Goals. The Accelerated BSN program prepares graduates to: Integrate concepts and ways of knowing from the arts and sciences in promoting health and managing nursing care across the wellness-illness continuum. Demonstrate value-based professional behaviors that integrate empathy, autonomy, integrity, social justice, equity as well
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Contact us UW Drug Interaction Solutions
9 hours ago Please direct all licensing questions to: Express Licensing Program – UW CoMotion. 4545 Roosevelt Way NE, Suite 400. Seattle, WA 98105. Phone: +1 206 …
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Programs University of the District of Columbia
9 hours ago Programs & Degrees. Click here to download pdf of the program listings.. UDC offers over 81 degree programs encompassing a wide range of education levels and interests. To view and sort the program listing, click on the column headings; filter programs by degree type with the links on the left and/or search for a specific program of interest below.
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Brochures and Resources Washington State University
509-335-66862 hours ago Town Centre Building, 3rd Floor • 255 E. Main Street, Suite 301 PO Box 641925 • Pullman, WA 99164-1925 Phone: 509-335-6686, or 800-GIV-2-WSU (448-2978)
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Home Superfund Research Program University of Washington
3 hours ago The University of Washington Superfund Research Program, titled “Effects-Related Biomarkers of Environmental Neurotoxic Exposures,” is an interdisciplinary program that conducts and communicates research on the impacts of metal neurotoxicity on human and ecological health.. Our research focuses upon metals that commonly occur at Superfund hazardous waste sites for which there are important
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Brand Resources University of Washington
9 hours ago Brand Resources. Communications best practices. COVID-19 and childcare resources. Employment verification. DOM Week. Faculty bios. Forms. Get help. Health Sciences Libraries.
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Jim Pojar BC. 1994. The Natural Way to Grow University of
Just Now University of Washington Press (UW Press), Seattle. 1973. Gardening with Native Plants of the Paciﬁ c Northwest , 2nd Edition. Arthur R. Kruckeberg . UW Press, Seattle. 1996. Landscaping for Wildlife in the Paciﬁ c North-west. Russell Link. UW Press, Seattle. 1999. Native Plants in the Coastal Garden, 2nd Edition. April Pettinger.
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Fulltime MBA Foster School of Business
2 hours ago The Foster School of Business is located in Seattle, which is home to a thriving business community, from Amazon, Microsoft, T-Mobile, and Starbucks, to start-ups.The strong connection between city and school results in a wide range of hands-on learning opportunities like internships and consulting projects.With its dedicated Career Management office, and close ties to iconic companies, the
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Information Management Master’s University of Washington
6 hours ago Early-Career or Mid-Career. The MSIM Early-Career and Early-Career Accelerated options complement a bachelor’s degree in any academic discipline by opening new doors for career possibilities. For working professionals with five years or more of relevant professional experience, the Mid-Career option enables you to keep your current job while you pursue a master’s degree to …
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Master of Science in Computer Science & Software
6 hours ago Master of Science in Computer Science & Software Engineering. The Master of Science in Computer Science and Software Engineering (MSCSSE) at UW Bothell couples theoretical computing concepts with real-world problems, helping students develop the breadth of skills necessary to succeed in today’s competitive software profession.
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NE Specialty Care Clinics University of Washington
206-598-43172 hours ago See detailed map inside brochure for location of . From Highway . Welcome to the specialty care UW Medical Center is located at 1959 NE Pacific St at the south end of the University of Washington campus. From Interstate 5 (I-5) www.chdd.washington.edu . Contact Information . Seattle, WA 98195-7920 . 206-598-4317 . fax: 206-598-7815 . 3
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Sample Course Schedules @WashULaw
2 hours ago Washington University School of Law Elective Courses (choose 21 credits) 1 Course offerings and schedule are subject to change. 2 Immersion/Weekend Intensive Course Electives: There are 1 credit Weekend Intensive courses offered during on-campus Immersions held every spring and fall semester. Additional Weekend Intensive Courses can be taken
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University of Washington: Rankings, Fees, Courses
3 hours ago The University of Washington is regarded amongst the best public universities to study in the Seattle region. The university was found in the year 1861.It offers a large number of bachelor’s, master’s and doctoral degrees through its 140 departments.
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University Of Washington [UW], Seattle Courses, Fees
4 hours ago University of Washington or UW is a research university in USA and offers admission to the students in three yearly intakes, namely summer, winter and spring. The university has a moderately selective admission policy and demonstrates an acceptance rate of 52% .
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Executive MBA EMBA Program Foster School of Business
2 hours ago The Executive MBA (EMBA) program at the University of Washington Foster School of Business is a nationally-ranked, work-compatible program that provides a rigorous yet collaborative learning environment with highly experienced professionals from a variety of industries. In this 21-month program, coursework is immediately relevant—resulting in
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6 hours ago The i School approach. The MLIS program is designed to prepare you for an array of experiences at diverse organizations and companies. Our core curriculum emphasizes our values of diversity, inclusion and social justice. Courses in knowledge organization theory, design thinking, and information ethics create a framework and academic foundation
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University of Washington (UW Seattle): Rankings, Fees, Acceptance Rate & Courses
Seattle, majorly located around the coast, is the largest city in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. Over the last couple of decades, the city has shown tremendous improvement in the technology and internet sector. There are ample places to eat and drink in the university vicinity area and also throughout the city. Downtown Seattle, Pike Place Market, and the Space Needle attract many people; local events like the Bumbershoot Festival and neighborhood parades and fairs make weekends all the more unique. All in all, the location gets a thumbs up despite not as famous as California and New York.
Being an Ivy League and one of the oldest schools in the States, the infrastructure at University of Washington is certainly top notch. The sprawling lush green campus hosts over 500 buildings in a breathtaking 20 million square ft. space. The classic brick buildings give an Ivy League feeling. Libraries are excellently maintained with truckloads of books for all the courses. Apart from the separate departmental library, there is a common colossal library; most of them functioning 24 hours. The campus is equally excellent for non academic stuff. Various restaurants, cafes, pizza parlours and coffee joints followed by recreational facilities like theatre, drama, music room, sports amenities are jam-packed with over 10,000 undergrad and grad students. All in all, an ideal college life.
Seattle’s living expenses are certainly on the higher side, courtesy the real estate prices. University Village, Greek area, and Avenue are the standard places where you find ample graduate students residing. Some rent a two or three bedroom apartment while some stylish students prefer to reside in studio apartments. The staying expenses can go up to as high as $1200 (obviously, the facilities are spell bounding) per month per person but most students manage within $600.
University of Washington, Tacoma – Green River College
Location: Tacoma, Washington
Visit University of Washington, Tacoma Website
Conditions for Admission
- Conditional Guaranteed Admission (CGA)
Admission is guaranteed if the conditions listed are fulfilled.
- Associate Degree
- E101 and E126/7/8 3.0, Math 97 pass
- Minimum Green River Grade Point Average (GPA) is 2.75
NOTE: This conditional guarantee pertains to general University of Washington, Tacoma admission, but not necessarily to all majors at the university. Some colleges or schools have higher admission requirements.
- Transferable credits – These refer to college-level courses which generally transfer to universities. Most but not all academic classes numbered 100 or higher transfer. Read 104 and Engl 100 are two commonly-taken Green River courses numbered 100 or higher that do not transfer. Classes numbered lower than 100 are considered developmental courses and do not transfer. Most college students can earn 90 transferable quarters in two years, although they may need a summer quarter to do so.
- For further explanation see Glossary of Conditions.
Have questions about the University Transfer Pathway program?
Transferred to: Embry-Riddle, Prescott
“When I heard about Green River’s Transfer Pathway agreement with Embry-Riddle, a top Aeronautical University, I applied.”
Transferred to: UCLA
“I chose Green River because the staff were really helpful and because of the University Transfer Pathway Program. The college has pathway relationships with many universities. My mom was happy to see that Green River has a Pathway with UC Irvine.”
Major: Computer Science
Email: [email protected]
Zoom: Virtual Lobby
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Application deadline for students transferring from within the U.S. is by 8 a.m. on the first day of the quarter.
|20 September 2021|
|9 December 2021|
|Preferred Application Deadline:|
|15 November 2021|
|Orientation Student (virtual)|
|15 & 16 December 2021|
|Orientation Parent (virtual)|
|17 December 2021|
|Arrival & Housing Move-in Day|
|28 December 2021|
|In-Person Orientation Day|
|29 December 2021|
|3 January 2022|
|23 March 2022|
Green River College
12401 SE 320th Street
Auburn, WA USA 98092-3699
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Highline College Des Moines Washington » Highline College
Welcome Back, T-Birds!
Whether you’re taking in-person or online classes, or a
combination of both, we welcome you to fall quarter!
View resources and links to help you through the quarter.
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Highline offers more than 100 degrees and certificates
within our eight Degree Pathways.
Earn Your Bachelor’s at Highline
Did you know Highline College offers seven applied bachelor’s
degrees? Want to learn more? Attend our Nov. 30 Open House.
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Talk face-to-face with many student services across
campus with Zoom. Chat, ask questions and feel confident
as you plan for fall quarter.
On-Campus Student Services
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support services on campus.
Live Where You Learn
Campus View student housing is available to all students
attending Highline College. Even as we face the challenges
of COVID-19, we are accepting new residents.
UMW falsely advertises the diversity of its student body – The Blue & Gray Press
The University of Mary Washington continues to promote that it is a diverse college, even though that could not be further from the truth. In doing this, the administration poorly reflects their stated values by falsely marketing themselves as a diverse or inclusive institution.
Upon looking at the UMW homepage, one can find the slideshow of featured stories and topics that the campus promotes. Currently, one of the slides reads “Dedicated to Diversity” and shows Desmoné Logan, a student who is being honored for her work. The article focuses on her contributions to the campus’s diversity and inclusion. However, if someone were to only read the title of the slide and see the picture of the student, it would seem like UMW is the one that’s “Dedicated to Diversity.”
For anyone that goes here, it is clear that ethnic groups on campus are small in population. According to a statistic from College Simply, the percentage of students on the UMW campus who identify as white is about 70 percent, while the percentage of any other ethnic group is below 10 percent with a couple of them actually being 0 percent.
UMW promotes this false narrative through the pictures they post. I have personally witnessed the University staging photos for their social media, website and brochures. I remember being outside on the fourth floor of the University Center, witnessing a UMW photographer stage a photo of mostly ethnic individuals, along with three or four students who appeared to be white. The photo ended up on the homepage of the university’s website, where the title was trying to convey a message of diversity and inclusiveness. This photo and post is an exaggeration of diversity on campus.
“It is honestly sad that this campus feels the need to lie,” said senior communication and digital studies major William Moore, who is a member of the Black Student Association on campus. “Why would I trust a liar with securing my safety, especially as a Black student?”
Anyone who knows anything about this university knows that it is a predominantly white institution, and giving students the illusion of diversity and inclusion on top of that is inappropriate. Students of color should not have to be persuaded or tricked into believing that there is diversity at this institution.
“Do they expect us to not notice anything amiss as soon as we arrive on campus?” said Collin Chinn, a senior business administration major. “Like, do they expect me not to notice the lack of other Black students on campus?”
According to an article published by NPR called “A Campus More Colorful Than Reality: Beware That College Brochure,” colleges try to sell this idea of diversity like it is something you can buy at a store instead of being honest about what actually occurs on campus.
When UMW came to visit my high school, which was very diverse and historically Black, the only African-American admissions counselor at UMW was the one who presented and promoted this school as a diverse campus. The presentation included brochures that seemed to back up the claim of diversity, but once I arrived, it was not what was advertised.
Due to the false advertising, I was not prepared for the huge culture shock that I experienced on campus, since the presentation I received in high school did not reflect the same level of diversity the university actually has. Having a diverse population was an important factor when I was deciding which colleges I was going to apply to.
College can be a big next step for many people, including myself, and being able to find a community I could associate myself with would make it easier to settle in a place where I may not know many people.
It is honestly disgusting that UMW feels like falsely advertising themselves is the only way to get students of color on their campus. If they have to fake their image to attract ethnically diverse students, they clearly aren’t doing enough, if anything, to create a campus where non-white students feel welcome.
Administration and faculty obviously see that there is an issue of the lack of diversity of this campus, so what would be the next step? A good place to start would be removing the white professors who currently teach classes heavily involving race because they can not relate to the experiences that the material is based on. A student should not have to accept a white professor inappropriately using the N-word just because the literature used in class uses that type of term.
I agree that it is not easy to increase the diversity of a university that is frequently labeled as a predominantly white institution, and it may seem that the administration has to lie in order to increase those numbers. However, lying does not leave current and future students with a good impression of UMW.
The University is also ignorant about topics such as the white supremacy advertising that occurs multiple times throughout the year. White supremacist groups have spread propaganda so frequently that it is considered “old news” on campus, and administrators do nothing but remove the propaganda and send an email about it. Additionally, the school’s rebranding was butchered by appropriating the “matters” concept that was first coined by the Black Lives Matter movement. These actions only amplify the argument that UMW does not have respect for its students of color who can find it hard to succeed in such a hostile environment.
I also had a friend who left UMW for a Historically Black College or University due to her not being able to adapt to the lack of diversity on campus, which was opposite of what UMW promised through their advertising.
The UMW Student Transition Program that occurs over the summer reflects a diverse campus. However, once those students return for the fall semester, the “diverse” environment is not even close to what the program implies.
One thing is certain: the University of Mary Washington is not diverse. Until the faculty and staff actually want to incite real change to encourage more ethnic students to attend this school, diversity and inclusion will continue to be false advertisements perpetuated to people on and off campus.
American University | American University, Washington
American University American University is one of the best universities in the United States for training specialists in the field of Business, Management, Law, Politics and International Relations. The university is conveniently located in the prestigious area of the capital of the United States – in the city of Washington. The educational institution was founded in 1893 for the first time it opened its doors to the first students. Today, the university teaches about 7000 students in the bachelor’s program, among which more than 1300 students are foreigners from 129 countries of the world.
The biggest advantage of American University is its location . The American University is at the very center of US political events. The city of Washington, DC is the center of the country’s political and social life, known for its countless museums, historical and architectural monuments, restaurants, clubs and many cultural and political events. The university covers an area of 85 acres and is located 15 minutes by metro from the city center.
The favorable location of the university influenced the activity of students. Since , American University students have been recognized as the most politically active in the country. On the campus of the educational institution there are 200 student clubs and organizations, about 30 fraternities and women’s communities.
American University consists of seven schools: School of Arts and Sciences (CAS), Kogod School of Business (KSB), School of Communications (SOC), School of International Service (SIS), School of Public Relations (SPA) , School of Professional and Extensive Studies (SPExS), Washington School of Law (WCL).
The university includes the renowned Washington College of Law. Students from Ukraine can study at the law school only after receiving a bachelor’s degree at American University or any other US university from the list of our partners (List of suitable universities). The American University has the largest School of International Relations in the United States. Dozens of US politicians and public figures have become university graduates. Among them are such big names of the US House of Representatives – Loretta Sanchez and Donald Manzullo, Betsy Marquet and Bill Schuster.The School of Business – Kogod School of Business – is recognized as the best business school in Washington and ranks high in the ranking of US business schools.
The most popular specialties of American University – International Relations, Business Administration and Management, Political Science, Mass Media and Communication.
Studying at American University prepares students for successful careers. During the training, students undergo practical training in well-known companies.Business sharks like Pepsico, YouTube, the World Bank, the United Nations and the International Monetary Fund are happy to hire AU alumni. The University has a long and fruitful history of collaboration with both US and Washington DC officials. Most of the graduate students enter the government service or find work in international companies and representative offices. 89% of graduates from universities undergo compulsory internships during their studies, and 85% find work in the United States in the first six months after graduating from an American university.
Students from Ukraine can study at the American University on the bachelor’s and master’s program . Depending on the level of academic background and knowledge of the English language, the university offers one of several programs adapted for international students. Students can enter American University after graduating from school or university in Ukraine.
The equipment of the university, in addition to academic buildings and student residences, includes the Arts Center and the Greenberg Theater.The American University campus has been designated an arboretum and boasts magnificent gardens and parks.
On the participation of specialists of the Russian National Public Library for Science and Technology in the annual
professional library and information events
“Librarianship, Information Systems and Education in the USA”
October 7-22, 2012
A group of specialists from the State Public Library for Science and Technology of Russia consisting of General Director Shreiberg Ya.L. (head of the delegation), Deputy General Director for General Affairs Lekomtsev V.S., Director of the Center for Development and Support of Internet Technologies of the State Public Library for Science and Technology of Russia M.V. Goncharova, Chief Specialist, Assistant General Director for International Cooperation Volkova K.Yu., Director of the CEC Panycheva M.V. was sent to the United States to participate in the annual professional library and information events “Library Science, Information Systems and Education in the United States”, held October 7-22, 2012.within the framework of the Annual Professional Events of the International Library Information and Analytical Center (MBIAC) and the plan of foreign business trips of the Russian National Public Library for Science and Technology. 2012 events coordinator – Volkova K.Yu.
The State Public Scientific and Technical Library of Russia (RNSTL of Russia) and MBIAC are organizing this professional library and information program for the fourteenth time, in which specialists and heads of organizations and departments of science, culture and education of Russia and the CIS countries take part.The scientific supervisor of the program is Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor Ya.L. Schreiberg.
The program of events in 2012 consisted of three thematic sessions of the annual international seminar “Electronic Resources and International Information Exchange: East – West”, special programs in major libraries, universities and companies in the United States, as well as meetings and conversations with leading specialists in information and educational profile, heads of libraries and educational institutions.
Organization of professional events at a high level, a good international reputation earned by the State Public Library for Science and Technology of Russia, constant professional contacts with foreign partners allow us to develop and conduct a new program each time, saturated with the most advanced and innovative ideas, trends and technologies, thanks to which the activities of libraries are enriched with new approaches, solutions and directions of development.
From 7 to 9 October specialists of the Russian National Public Library for Science and Technology worked in New York.
Professional Program at Columbia University
Columbia University is one of the best universities in the United States, the first university in New York and one of the eight oldest American universities in the prestigious Ivy League. Ivy League is the collective name for eight private American universities located in the northeastern United States. These are Harvard, Yale, Columbia, Princeton, Cornell and Pennsylvania universities, Brown University and Dartmouth College.Seven of the eight universities were founded by royal charters during the British colonial period, before the American Revolution, and the name (derived from the ivy sprouts that twined the old buildings at these universities) emphasizes their age. The name Ivy League is a symbol of high quality education, rigorous student selection and prestige. Ivy League universities are regularly featured in the rankings of the best universities in the world. All eight universities are doing serious research.
Nicholas Butler was one of the presidents of Columbia University. During his leadership (1902 1945), the university became a national center for innovation in education and organization of the educational process, and great success was achieved in the teaching of both the humanities and the natural sciences. The main library of the university is named after Nicholas Butler – one of the conferences of Columbia University, organized jointly with the Russian National Public Library for Science and Technology, was held there.After World War II, in 1946, the School of International Relations (now the School of International and Public Affairs) appeared. It hosted three other joint conferences of Columbia University and Russian National Public Library for Science and Technology.
Our staff visit program for this year was organized by Columbia University Vice President, Director of Libraries Mr. James Neal, and led by Mr. Robert Davis , Russian, Eurasian and Eastern European Collections Specialist, Columbia and Cornell Universities.
The university library has 10.4 million volumes, which is a lot for a library of an educational institution, more than 100,000 current periodicals, a huge collection of electronic resources, as well as manuscripts, rare books, it is visited by more than 3 million people a year. The university actually has 22 libraries serving various faculties and research centers, but all are integrated into a high-level scientific library, one of the top five in the United States.
The library is positioned as a unifying space where employees and students can conduct scientific work, get acquainted with information technologies and use them, study, using the library’s rich resources.
This is a new trend in American libraries that has evolved over the last one or two years and is supported by technological, ergonomic, architectural and aesthetic solutions. Interestingly, although the libraries of such a powerful university like Columbia have all the best and latest printed and electronic resources for study and research, they are successfully integrated into the traditional architectural and interior environment of the university Gothic, without conflict, but enriching it.
The library is the scientific, cultural and architectural center of the university. In its main building, according to tradition, the literary Pulitzer Prizes are awarded annually. The library houses the Bakhmetyev archive – one of the largest Russian and Eastern European collections on history and culture in the United States.
On the premises of the Columbia University Science Library.
Boxes for individual and group work of students are visible on the second floor
The group was given the opportunity to get acquainted with a number of university libraries: the library named afterButler in social and human sciences, natural sciences, chemistry, biology and life sciences, architecture.
Issues of coordination of acquisition of university libraries, use of aggregated access to electronic resources, issues of resource preservation, incl. ensuring their safety. Mr. Robert Davis, one of the best librarians in the United States, has received an invitation to participate in the Crimea Conference. Columbia University received information materials covering the activities of the Russian National Public Library for Science and Technology.
Program activities at Seaton Hall University
South Orange, NJ
On October 10, the delegation visited Seaton Hall University, which is associated with the Russian National Public Library for Science and Technology by a long-term bilateral project “Russian Library in America”. This university is known for its strong Russian language program, and its library serves not only students, faculty and staff, but also the large Russian-speaking diaspora of New Jersey.Interest in literature in Russian is increasing due to the presence of a diplomatic faculty at the university. Fulfilling the task of promoting Russian science and culture, the State Public Library for Science and Technology of Russia provides the university library with its printed publications, partner publications, as well as CD-ROMs with information resources reflecting the history and achievements of Russian science.
Our delegation was welcomed by the new Dean of Libraries at Seaton Hall Dr. John Buschman , Head of the Department of History Professor Nathaniel Knight and Head of the Slavic Collections of the Library Professor Marta Deyrup .In his speech, Dr. Bushman thanked J.L. Schreiberg and his colleagues for their invaluable contribution to the replenishment and development of the Russian collection of books at Seaton Hall University, and also expressed hope for continued cooperation with the State Public Library for Science and Technology of Russia and MBIAC.
“Russian Library in America” is a unique library for the United States, created on the initiative and funds of MBIAC with the support of the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation. The publications included in the Russian Library fund are of undeniable interest not only for the Russian diaspora in the United States, but also for the American public interested in the problems of Russian regions.The work on the creation of the library began in 1999.
The basis of the library stock is made up of publications characterizing the modern appearance of Russian regions, which fundamentally distinguish the Russian Library in America from most American libraries with Russian-language collections. This library is a collection of Russian regional publications on legislation, historical and cultural heritage, local history, ethnography, religion and other aspects that can give a complete and comprehensive picture of the Russian regions.
In fact, the Russian Library in America was the first such library abroad. The functioning of the Russian Library in America was planned as the work of an independent library or an independent subdivision within an existing library or information center. The search began for an organization that could preserve the Russian Library in America as a separate collection, and of course, the State Public Library for Science and Technology turned to Russian organizations representing Russian culture and literature abroad, but, unfortunately, they did not express their willingness to host the collection.In 2005, the Seaton Hall University Walsh Library, South Orange, New Jersey showed interest. The Walsh Library already had Italian and French collections and had long wanted to open a Russian library, since the university has developed and popular “Russian programs” for students, and in South Orange there is a large Russian-speaking diaspora, which can also use the Russian Library in Seaton Hall University.
The Russian Library in America was officially opened at the Walsh Library at Seaton Hall University in March 2007.during a traditional seminar. More than 1,100 copies of books and CDs have been donated to the Walsh Library, which formed the basis of the Russian Library at Seaton Hall University. The State Public Library for Science and Technology of Russia and MBIAC continue to replenish the funds of the specialized library of Russian regional publications in the USA on the basis of the library of the Seaton Hall University. During the last visit, more than 40 titles of books on the profile and CD-ROMs with information resources on Russian science were donated to the library fund.At the end of the meeting with the management of the library, the head of the department of history, Mr. Knight and Ms. Deyrup, introduced the members of the Russian delegation to the library’s holdings and the collection of the “Russian Library”.
N. Knight, K. Volkova, J. Schreiberg and J. Bushman during a working meeting
Program activities at Princeton Public Library and Princeton University Libraries
As part of the fourteenth international seminar “Electronic Resources and International Information Exchange”, a program was held that brought together specialists from the Princeton Public Library and Princeton University Libraries.The morning was devoted to problems and solutions for public libraries and included a roundtable discussion, discussion and a detailed tour of the Princeton Public Library. The program was organized by the Russian National Public Library for Science and Technology and ILIAC in cooperation with the Director of the Princeton Public Library Ms. Leslie Burger and the Director of the Niak Public Library Dr. Maurice Freedman . Both specialists are former presidents of the American Library Association, with which the Russian National Public Library for Science and Technology has maintained professional ties for many years.The Princeton Public Library has been recommended to us as a special library, whose director, with incredible energy and bold practical approach, has provided the highest level of service that keeps pace with the times, the use of all the best and most advanced technologies, an up-to-date and relevant collection, skillful organization of space and a combination of various functions: informational, educational, developmental and entertaining.
One of Princeton Public Library Roundtable Leaders Dr. Maurice Friedman
Our group was hosted and led by Library Director Ms. Leslie Burger (President of ALA 2006-2007.) and her deputy Mr Peter Bromberg . The round table discussed the role of public libraries in Russia and the United States in our high-tech time, when huge amounts of information are available on the Internet and users, as it seems on the surface, do not need to come to the library, as well as the concept and implementation of a modern library. There was a transition from the traditional approach to service (transactional, when the library processed a specific information request of the user) to a collaborative approach, when the search for information occurs in cooperation between the reader and the librarian.The high intellectual level, mobility and activity of readers prompted the library to change its technology park – Macintosh laptops were purchased, modern technology consultants were hired, there is wireless access throughout the library, and readers who prefer to sit with a laptop on their laps rather than at a table, got this opportunity. Digital resources are in high demand, and fundraising focuses on them while reducing paper sources.It should be recalled here that this is a public city library, and it does not have the obligation to preserve the entirety of information, like scientific, research or national libraries. Digital resources include electronic databases and other online sources for research, e-book collections, audiobooks, digital music, film, language learning systems. Most of the resources are available not only within the walls of the library, but also at home with a library card. An interesting point when serving readers with e-books: you can either download them to your PC or Mac computers, or translate them into a format for common readers and tablets – Kindle, Nook, Sony, iPad and iPod Touch.Interaction between readers and librarians is possible in person, by phone, by email, by instant messaging, through the Ask a Librarian service, which has become an integral part of many American libraries. The library holds a huge number of educational programs, classes for children and schoolchildren, classes for adults, readings, lectures, writers’ seminars, discussions of issues important for the local population. The library hosts concerts and film screenings, and has a high-quality collection of music and film recordings.Many of Princeton’s public library solutions later became the model for the country’s libraries. In particular, these are film festivals. Princeton Library has two of them – the Environmental Film Festival and the Film and Video Festival of Princeton University students. The library has become the living room of the city. The library is a member of several upscale museums and art galleries, allowing readers to obtain a pass to them. The activity of the local population and their desire to help the library were noted.Local writers and scholars speak for free, the Friends of the Library volunteer movement is very widespread, and private donations are not uncommon. Despite the fact that the library is mainly funded by the city, its management has complete freedom in the acquisition of funds, the main thing is that it must fulfill its mission of serving the population.
Princeton Public Library Director Ms. Leslie Burger talks about her library at the end of the first part of the roundtable
The afternoon was devoted to problems and solutions for research libraries and was held at Princeton University libraries.
Princeton University is a private university, one of the oldest and most famous universities in the United States. It is included in the Ivy League and is one of the most prestigious universities in the country. From 2001 to 2010, Princeton University took either first or second place in national university rankings, in 2010 it shared first place with Harvard. In various world rankings, Princeton is given fifth to eighth place.
Princeton University consists of Princeton College, graduate and research centers.Prepares students in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences and engineering. Has close ties with the Institute for Advanced Study. The structure of the university includes The Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, the Museum of Art and Natural History, and The Harvey S. Firestone Memorial Library, one from the largest libraries in the world.
Although there are 2,500 graduate students at Princeton University, the university’s top priority is student education. Education at Princeton is a unique combination of arts and sciences, focused on developing research skills. At Princeton, every student receives a truly versatile education. Princeton students can earn a Bachelor of Arts (A.B.) degree or a Bachelor of Science in Engineering (B.S.E.). Despite the fact that each faculty has its own requirements, all students must take a certain number of courses that go beyond their narrow specialization and provide universal knowledge and skills. Thus, all students must take a minimum number of courses in the following areas: literature and art, history, sociology, epistemology and cognition, ethics and morality, natural science, science and technology. Students must also study a foreign language for three or four semesters and attend a writing workshop.
Princeton University Libraries. The university library complex holds over eleven million titles, including over seven million books. The main library of the university is The Harvey S. Firestone Memorial Library. The Firestone Library and ten specialized libraries at Princeton University contain 7.2 million books in 2010, making it one of the largest university libraries in the world and one of the largest open access libraries.In addition to the Firestone Library, there are a number of individual libraries dedicated to many distinct disciplines, including architecture, art history, East Asian studies, mechanical engineering, geology, international relations and public policy, Middle Eastern studies, and psychology. Students from a number of faculties in their fourth, final, year and graduate work can reserve boxes for individual research work in the main library. In February 2007, Princeton University Library became the twelfth leading library complex to join Google’s ambitious Google Books project to make the world’s greatest literary masterpieces available to Internet users by scanning and uploading them to the Internet.
Our group was hosted and led by the Deputy Director of University Libraries Mr Marvin Bielawski , Director of Science and Technology Library Ms Anne Langley, Assistant Director of University Libraries Ms Patricia Gaspari-Bridges (Patricia Gaspari-Bridges), Senior Humanities and Social Sciences Bibliographer Mary George .
Deputy Director of Libraries of Princeton University Mr. Marvin Belavsky and Director General of the Russian National Public Library for Science and Technology Ya.L. Schreiberg before the meeting.
The issues of the role of scientific and university libraries in Russia and the USA, the peculiarities of library services in the conduct of scientific work by teachers, researchers and students, the role of technology in supporting scientific work, changes in the acquisition of funds and the ratio of printed and electronic resources, the importance of traditional libraries in the university environment, as well as copyright and fair use issues in libraries.It was noted that in order to help in finding information in conducting scientific research, the library employs specialist consultants in 87 areas. Teacher and student preferences for printed / electronic materials are factored into recruiting. In particular, it was revealed that students and specialists in the humanities prefer printed materials, and specialists in technical fields prefer electronic ones, with the exception of mathematicians, who turned out to be similar in tastes to the humanities.
The University Card – an electronic student card with a barcode – also serves as a library card that allows you to use libraries on the university campus, borrow books, and use all types of electronic library services. The constantly improving search engine of the university gives access to the main electronic catalog, various databases of articles and digital repositories. The main electronic catalog contains bibliographic records for books, magazines, newspapers, video and audio recordings, regardless of format.Most of the electronic resources are available directly from the catalog.
After graduation, we were given the opportunity to visit all the libraries of the university, which aroused the special interest of the delegation, first of all, the library. Firestone and Science and Technology Library.
Acquaintance with the collections of the library. Firestone
Library of Congress Program Activities
On October 11, Washington DC hosted a special program for the group at the Library of Congress and a workshop titled “New Digital Projects and the Library of Congress Web Site Renewal” .Library of Congress events are a long tradition in American seminars, but the program is new every time.
At the beginning of the program, an orientation tour of the main building of the US Library of Congress took place. The library is housed in three buildings located at a distance of several hundred meters. The first is named after President Thomas Jefferson (1892). Here you can discover genuine treasures such as Gutenberg’s “Bible”. The main reading room has 236 reading seats; computer catalog center – 58 terminals with printers.In the library, one after another, exhibitions of the most interesting exhibits are held. The funds contain about 140 million storage units in 470 living and dead languages, including more than 30 million books, 61 million manuscripts, 5 million maps and atlases. The Library of Congress holds recorded motion pictures, radio and television broadcasts. The Historical Memory of America collection alone contains over 13 million digital files. The Library of Congress has a permanent staff of 3,700.
The delegation was able to get acquainted with the updated exposition “Memory of America” , first a physical exhibition, and then its virtual, digital version.Recently, a map with the first mention of America is on display in the permanent exhibition of the Library of Congress. It is called “America’s birth certificate.” The map, created by Martin Waldseemueller in 1507, shows for the first time the West Coast, separated by the ocean from the East Coast. Historians are surprised by the accuracy of the 500-year-old map: 80% of the information on the map is correct and accurate. This is due to the fact that Waldseemüller used information obtained during the sea voyages of Christopher Columbus and Amerigo Vespucci.Although the circulation of the card was 500 copies, however, only one copy survived to our times, preserved in the library of the German principality and bought by the US Congress at the insistence of the Director of the US Library of Congress Dr. James Billington.
Another innovation by the Library of Congress is the Knowledge Passport. Constructed in a compact and attractive form, the passport integrates physical visits to the library with the online experience of using its resources. Each passport has a unique barcode that links it to a personalized account on the interactive myLOC website.gov, a companion to the library site. The stations located within the walls of the library make it possible to form and record in your passport your personal collection from the richest funds of the Library of Congress for further use at home or in the classroom. Recorded digital files are of high resolution, often higher than currently supported on the site, especially for collections digitized many years or even decades ago. The Library of Congress has an enormous wealth of cultural and educational value, and the use of such innovations increases the utilization of resources.
The seminar was dedicated to new projects and initiatives in the field of digital resources. The Library of Congress has digitized its resources so long ago that it is time to modernize them. There is a need to upgrade the website to provide access to its content from mobile devices, post new applications, use new graphical capabilities, incl. higher resolution or other quality settings for the scanned materials.
Presentation by Mr. Steve Puglia during a seminar at the Library of Congress
The workshop was attended by: Jim Karamanis , Web Service Manager, Bill Kellum , Strategic Initiatives Office IT Supervisor and Steve Puglia , Project Conversion Service Manager digitization.Experts told our delegation about the role of the US Library of Congress in the Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiative (FADGI, 2007) – an initiative of US federal organizations to develop common principles, methods and practical steps for the sustainable digitization of materials of historical value. Within the framework of this project, two working groups have been established: on still images and on audiovisual materials. A manual has been developed for scanning and digitizing materials of various types and software for checking the quality of the result obtained.The guide provides guidance from leading US institutions for libraries of various sizes, museums, and other organizations undertaking digitization projects. The aim of creating the guide is to preserve the cultural and historical heritage of the world, and in the highest quality and most efficient way, which would not require re-scanning and image processing with the advent of new technologies and new needs. The software allows you to test digitized images for compliance with the guidelines set out in the manual.Such automation opens the way to not just mass, but high-quality mass digitization.
Modern Professional Education: The Role of Libraries
Session 2 of the Seminar “Electronic Resources and International Exchange: East – West” was held on October 12, 2012 on the basis and with the organizational participation of the American Councils for International Education. Welcome addresses were delivered by Ms Lisa Choate , Vice President of the American Councils for International Education, Washington DC, USA, and I.L. Shraiberg , General Director of the Russian National Public Library for Science and Technology. The specialists of the Russian National Public Library for Science and Technology took the most direct part in the preparation and conduct of this session.
Lisa Chote gave a detailed presentation on American Councils for International Education exchange programs. The “FLEX” program provides Russian high school students with the opportunity to live in the United States and study in an American high school during the academic year. Participants in the program will be able to get acquainted with all the variety of aspects of the cultural life of the United States, as well as acquaint Americans with Russia.The main goal of the EUREKA program is to assist Russian national research universities in the integration of academic programs with research and business activities, in the organization of applied research and the subsequent commercialization of intellectual property created or modified at the university.
The program “Open World” provides an opportunity for Russian specialists in various fields of activity (management, economics, education, healthcare, culture, etc.)) to visit the United States on a short-term visit to establish professional contacts and exchange experience and ideas with American colleagues on topical issues of the development of society. Ya.L. Schreiberg. Elena Luckert, Head of Humanities and Social Sciences at the University of Maryland Library, shared her experience of running the first exchange program for library students. A group of university students went to St. Petersburg in the summer to study librarianship in Russia, and the program was designed, prepared and executed with great care.The University was assisted in organizing this program by the International Library, Information and Analytical Center and the Russian National Public Library for Science and Technology. We hope that the program will be extended to Moscow and other Russian cities.
An extremely interesting, theoretical rather than practical report was made by the President of the Library to them. Ferguson (Stamford, CT) Ernest Di Mattia Ernest Di Mattia. He examined the impact of e-books on traditional library services and touched on issues such as e-book business models, availability of books in libraries, the transition of users to electronic versions, restrictions on the issuance of e-books in libraries by manufacturing companies, the issue of accounting for e-books in policy development. development of library funds, licensing problems.
It should be borne in mind that e-book companies monitor the habits and behavior of users, collecting information about how quickly, when and what people read, what keywords they use to search for books, whether they read the selected book to the end, read the introduction, etc. .NS.
Reading e-books, as opposed to paper books, is becoming a quasi-public act, and we can say that not only we read e-books, but they also read us.
Director of the “Gogol House” V.P. Vikulova told about new and interesting forms of work with readers and specialists in the memorial museum and scientific library “Gogol’s House”.
Practically the entire audience took part in the discussion that followed the presentations. The seminar was attended by representatives of the Russian Embassy in Washington, the Russian Cultural Center, organizations working in the field of Russian-American cooperation, such as the American Councils for International Education, the Russian World Center, specialists in the field of scientific and technical information, representatives of the Russian-speaking diaspora of the Bolshoi Washington.All of them took part in a professional discussion that always starts at the conclusion of the Washington session of our seminar.
Program activities at the University of California at Los Angeles
One of the largest universities in the state was established in 1919 by the Governor of California William Stephenson and on September 15, 1919 opened its doors to the first one and a half thousand students. Currently, over 38 thousand undergraduate and graduate students study at the university, the campus consists of 174 buildings located on 419 acres of land (Westwood Village in Los Angeles) and is located 5 miles from the Pacific coast.University College of Arts, Journalism and Sciences and 11 vocational schools (including School of Arts and Architecture, School of Dentistry, School of Education and Informatics, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, School of Law, School of Management, School of Medicine, School of Public Health and others) offer a wide range of educational and research programs. There are nine Nobel laureates among the alumni of the university.
Gary Strong, Director of Libraries at the University of California at Los Angeles, talks about new developments in the library
At the University of California, we had an extensive and eventful program.A full-day seminar “Digital resources in modern educational technologies” , as well as an acquaintance with the scientific library named after Ch. Young and the Center for European and Eurasian Studies. We were greeted by Gary Strong , Director of Libraries at the University of California at Los Angeles, who himself introduced us to his library system and his latest ideas and projects. The university’s libraries are spread across the campus and serve all of the university’s teaching and research programs.The university library network unites 12 faculty and a number of other university libraries, the total book fund is over 9 million books and several thousand periodicals. Students, teachers and researchers of the university have the opportunity to use university catalogs, books, magazines, archives, audiovisual materials, corporate reports, government publications, manuscripts, maps, microcarriers, materials of the so-called “oral history”, photographs, technical reports, full-text databases articles and electronic journals.The university provides access to the WorldCat Catalog (OCLC), an extensive collection of reference materials. The network of university libraries includes the library for arts, biomedical, legal, music, management, resources for East Asia, research, scientific and technical and others.
Obviously, it would take months to get to know them, but during this visit we focused on the Research Commons project carried out at the Research Library.Ch. Young. Research Commons is a common open space for students to work, both individually and in groups, in the most comfortable environment for them, seemingly home and relaxed, but at the same time equipped with the latest in all the necessary computing, presentation, audio and visual technique.
The open space contains twenty pods equipped with large LCD screens with synchronous input for laptops and mobile devices and an audio system.Pods are designed for interdisciplinary research activities such as science groups, meetings, seminars, classrooms, and are also ideal for open discussion of projects in which not only group members can participate, but everyone can participate. Each pod can accommodate six to twelve people, depending on the configuration, and in addition to functionality, they have an attractive design.
The first floor of the library is given over for group classes of students
The library also has fifteen isolated group rooms, each accommodating two to six people.Some of them are designed for quiet operation, and ten are equipped with LCD screens with inputs from laptops and mobile devices. They can be reserved by teachers, students of the last and penultimate year of study, and employees. They can also borrow laptops from the library, with Mac or Windows boot options of choice and software that is ready to work with the university’s wireless network. University students work part-time in the library and can help organize work and equipment in the pods and group rooms.
The meeting room, also located on the first floor of the library, is equipped with movable furniture, 24 laptops, ceiling-mounted projector and screen, interactive whiteboard, Blu-ray DVD player, document viewer, teacher / trainer workstation with microphone. There is a separate laboratory for digital cultural heritage – an open space dedicated to visualization projects using maps and video images and a central high-resolution screen.Another feature of the library is a digital hub that includes four powerful workstations with large screens and other equipment. University teachers are happy to use the library’s facilities for conducting classes, and students use them when working on projects.
The UCLA Center for European and Eurasian Studies is one of the national resource centers of the Department of Education. It provides scholars and students with information resources for the European region and a wide range of disciplines.The center contributes to improving the quality of teaching and research by attracting leading experts from Western, Central and Eastern Europe, including Russia, educational institutions and libraries, and encouraging cross-country and interdisciplinary research in the social sciences and humanities.
But the most important event of the program at the University of California at Los Angeles was seminar “Digital resources in modern educational technologies” , which was the third session of the annual international seminar “Electronic resources and international information exchange: East-West”. Gary Strong , Director of Libraries and Zoe Borovsky , Librarian of Digital Collections, spoke about the theory and practical implementation of the Research Commons idea. Administrative issues for the development of library digital assets were raised during conversations with Deputy Director of Libraries Susan Parker and Assistant Director Todd Grappone .
Director of the Center for Humanitarian Research in Digital Format Annelle Rugg (Annelle Rugg) spoke about a new type of teaching using exclusively digital resources – three-dimensional worlds, graphic environments that visualize the subject of study in teaching history, culture, incl.including architecture and other disciplines. The digital age, which, among others, is characterized by web-based media, massive data archiving, social media, digital mapping and visualization environments, and cloud-based programming, has brought transformations far beyond the often-cited revolution brought about by the invention of print. machine tool. The possibilities of creating, analyzing and disseminating knowledge in our era have become almost limitless.The Center studies the cultural and social aspect of new media and information technologies and their application to address cultural, social, historical and philological issues, both traditionally asked and emerged only with the advent of these technologies.
During the seminar, we also got acquainted with some projects of digitization of rare and valuable collections of the university libraries. Heather Briston and Jennifer Weintraub talked about digitizing old maps and city views – a project of great historical value. David MacFadyen, Professor of Comparative Literature and Musicology at the University of California, presented the wonderful project Far from Moscow (Far from Moscow) – a resource for promoting, cataloging and discovering new music from Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and the Baltic countries, i.e. ten time zones. The resource was created and maintained solely thanks to the enthusiasm of Professor McFadien, who works on it almost 24/7, constantly updating and adding records of the best musical groups and writing reviews.The University of California has provided its server for storing audio recordings. The address of the resource “Far from Moscow” is http://www.farfrommoscow.com/.
Marcus Levitt , Professor of Slavic Languages and Literature at the University of Southern California, who specially came to our seminar, spoke about the digitized resource of Russian satirical pre-revolutionary magazines , by the will of fate, ended up in the funds of his university. They were created during the burst of revolutionary sentiments in 1905-1907.The collection of journals is digitized, available online and is accompanied by a database containing detailed information on the content of the journals, their authors and publishers, as well as the cultural and historical context of the era. The magazines are the result of collaboration between the best artists, writers and illustrators of the era, such as Leonid Andreev, Leon Bakst, Alexander Benois, Ivan Bilibin, Ivan Bunin, Maxim Gorky, Boris Kustodiev, Leonid Pasternak, Fedor Sologub, Konstantin Somov, Kornei Chukovsky and others.The interest of foreign experts in Russian culture and history is striking, deep and evokes a feeling of gratitude.
Stanford University Program Activities
Employees of the State Public Library for Science and Technology of Russia Ya.L. Shreiberg, V.S. Lekomtsev and M.V. Goncharov visited Stanford University, got acquainted with its library and took part in negotiations with its employee Nathan Birman (Nathan Birman).In 2006, Stanford University’s long-term transformation program was announced, based on the achievement of the goals of high quality health care, the environment, sustainability, international peace and stability, interdisciplinary research, and the improvement of education at all levels (Stanford Challenge). Of course, the declared program should also transform the activities of the university library, which is viewed as a library itself, as a computing center for the educational process and a center for publishing.The pace of innovation and intellectual growth taking place on and off the university campus, i.e. in Silicon Valley, motivates the library to achieve the most advanced professional level. The library funds are expanding. Electronic Journal Publisher HighWire Press , a division of Stanford University Libraries, hosts five of the top six online medical journals in the world, as well as a thousand other critical research journals.Stanford University Press publishes pedagogical literature and educational research conducted at the university’s education center.
In parallel with important digitization projects such as Google Books, the library is giving serious attention to collecting and building other forms of digital collections that serve the interests of students and teachers. In particular, a photographic collection on the history of Silicon Valley has recently become publicly available.
One of the many activities of the Stanford University Library is to clarify copyright law, which has become a pressing issue in our time as private companies and libraries seek to make public domain works available.In April 2013, Stanford University Libraries released a copyright update database dubbed Determinator of Law . The database brings together all the copyright renewal records for books in the United States for the period 1923-1963. and implemented the ability to search for records that were previously available only in print format. The database can be integrated into larger systems and used to analyze copyright status.
Libraries operate computer clusters providing a wide range of software, while IT students provide advice.As the profile of libraries becomes more digital, the Academic Computing Department is responsible for the generation and operation of the library’s digital assets, including digitization, metadata design, specification and generation, digital preservation, online search access, and general digital content management.
The Research Library and Map Department provide assistance in the use of Geographic Distributed Systems (GIS). GIS is widely used on campus by staff and students in fields such as epidemiology, earth sciences, archeology, anthropology, business, urban planning, engineering, and conservation biology.
Art plays a central role in teaching creative thinking to students, and in line with this vision, the library is expanding its resources to illustrate the richness of human culture, from book sketches to jazz.
Program events in the library. Suzzalo-Allen University of Washington
Washington State University in Seattle is both similar and different from other leading US universities.The proximity of the power of high-tech companies Microsoft and Amazon has a great influence on its formation and development. According to Bloomberg, the most innovative state in the US is not California with Stanford University and Google, but Washington, where other IT giants are based, most notably Microsoft and Amazon, but also Aldus Corp. (maker of PageMaker typesetting software), Internet companies Zillow and Expedia, and many others. It was in the state of Washington, famous for its rains and clouds, that the modern computer concept of “cloud” was born.
The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation sponsors the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at the University of Washington. Library named after Suzzalo, which needed expansion, got a new wing thanks to Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen, and at the request of the sponsor, it was named after Paul’s father, librarian Kenneth Allen.
Washington Public University was founded in Seattle in 1861 with the support of the Washington State Administration. By the number of students (about 43 thousand) and the operating expenses and budget for research (7,200 million dollars, 2012).) is the largest in the northwestern United States. The budget is replenished with private donations, state funding, and the university is also the largest recipient of federal funding among public universities and the second among public and private universities. As of 2008, eight graduates of the University of Washington have been awarded the Nobel Prize. In the academic ranking of universities in the world, it takes 16th place (2008) and the level of education in it is comparable to the best universities from the prestigious “Ivy League”.The university’s medical school is one of the leading in the world. The library system is the 18th largest in the United States and contains 7.5 million items, including more than 2 million prints. The Research Libraries Association assigns it high ratings year after year, from fifth to fifteenth nationwide. With regard to electronic publications, due to their high cost, the university joined the consortium along with 37 other university libraries, so that all members of the consortium receive the right to share electronic books.The University of Washington hosts the Research Channel, which aims to disseminate research findings from educational and scientific institutions. Teachers speak to students in the library every day, talking about the subject and method of scientific research. The idea of Research Commons from the University of California at Los Angeles extended to the University of Washington and was embodied as Digital Commons – an open space, comfortable and high-tech, with convenient access to all library resources and stimulating scientific thought.
Library named after Suzzalo and Allen were visited by employees of the State Public Library for Science and Technology of Russia Ya.L. Shreiberg, V.S. Lekomtsev, K.Yu. Volkova and M.V. Goncharov. A meeting was held with Michael Biggins (Michael Biggins), head of the Slavic and East European department of the library, professor of Slavic languages and Slavic literature. Surprisingly, at the University of Washington, in such a seemingly remote corner of the United States, the Slavic languages (Russian, Ukrainian, Croatian, Serbian, Bulgarian, Czech, Polish, Romanian and Slovenian) and the languages of the Baltic peoples are being actively studied.
The diploma of language proficiency improves the qualifications of specialists who plan to work in the field of jurisprudence, international relations, administrative law and public policy, medicine, education, journalism, fine arts and cinema. The Slavic section of the library is correspondingly strong. The university has a center for Slavic, East European and Eurasian Studies, whose specialists have the highest professional level, participate in the work of the Association for Slavic, East European and Eurasian Studies (Association for Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Studies, formerly American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies).It was very important to visit the University of Washington in order to establish new contacts and tell about the achievements of Russian libraries.
We look forward to the participation of representatives of the Slavic department of the university in our international conferences and other events.
During the participation of the delegation of the Russian National Public Library for Science and Technology in the annual professional library and information events “Librarianship, Information Systems and Education in the USA”, all participants of this program improved their qualifications, established new professional contacts, exchanged experiences with their American colleagues, -information technologies in our countries.
One of the main results of the trip can be considered the successful presentation of the report “New projects of Russian libraries to support modern education” by Director General of the Russian National Public Library for Science and Technology Y.L. Shreiberg. at the second session of the workshop. Leading American universities and libraries gained insight into Russian library projects and their successes. New professional contacts were established. All participants who successfully completed the continuing education program as part of Library Information Systems and Education in the United States of America received educational certificates from the American Councils for International Education and the International Library, Information and Analysis Center, indicating advanced training.A number of information materials were received covering the activities of the largest libraries, universities, institutions and companies in the United States. During meetings, conversations, negotiations with leading specialists of the library, information and educational profile, the possibilities of joint organization of round tables, seminars at the Conference “Crimea” and other events held by the State Public Library for Science and Technology of Russia were discussed. Information letters and invitations to the international conference “Crimea-2013”, discs with materials from the conference “Crimea-2012”, brochures and other printed and electronic publications of the Russian National Public Library for Science and Technology, materials reflecting the history and development of Russian science were distributed.The results of the trip were reported by the Director General of the Russian National Public Library for Science and Technology at the Academic Council.
The Alliance of the Universities of the New Silk Road (UASR)
The Alliance of the Universities of the New Silk Road (UASR) is a non-governmental and non-profit organization dedicated to openness and international cooperation in the field of higher education. UASR brings together higher education institutions from countries located on the historical path of the Great Silk Road.
As part of the strategy of the Government of the People’s Republic of China “One Belt, One Road”, in January 2015, the Xi’an Transport University (PRC) initiated the “Academic Belt of the Silk Road” to create an Alliance together with domestic and foreign universities from Asia, Europe and America …
The Alliance aims to promote cooperation in the field of higher education, student exchange, enrichment of their educational experience, intercultural communication, as well as the development of joint projects and research, increase mutual understanding and friendship between students, develop their all-round talents and promote economic the growth of countries located along the historical route of the Silk Road and in the modern Eurasian region.
Membership in the Alliance
Currently, 150 universities from 38 countries and regions are members of the Alliance, including Xi’an University of Transport, Liverpool University, National University of Singapore, Harbin Institute of Technology, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Technical University of Milan, Moscow Power Engineering Institute, Nazarbayev University, Kazakh National University.al-Farabi, Washington University in St. Louis, California State University Northridge and others.
Members of the Executive Council of the UASR Alliance
- Xi’an Transport University (PRC)
- Harbin Institute of Technology (PRC)
- Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PRC)
- National Research University “Moscow Power Engineering Institute”
- (Russia) State Technical University named afterN.E. Bauman (Russia)
- Kazakh National University. Al-Farabi (Kazakhstan)
- Nazarbayev University (Kazakhstan)
- University of New South Wales (Australia)
- Centrale Supelec University (France)
- University of Liverpool (UK)
- Technical University of Milan (Italy)
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- Kyrgyz State University of Construction, Transport and Architecture named afterN. Isanova (Kyrgyzstan)
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Infection Control ｜ NSK-Nakanishi Russia
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Raising contra-angle handpieces with patented spray switch
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The George Washington University hosted a presentation of the book “The Nagorno-Karabakh conflict: the legal analysis “- AZERTAC
Washington, February 18 (AZERTAC).At the School of International Relations of the prestigious George Washington University in the United States, with the organizational support of the Washington Center for Azerbaijan Research, the presentation of the book by the German scientist Heiko Kruger “The Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict: Legal Analysis” was held.
Speaking at the presentation, which was attended by the faculty and students of the university, as well as representatives of the diplomatic corps and the media, Heiko Kruger informed about the main issues raised by him in his 164-page scientific work.The German scientist stressed that in the context of the uncertainty of the legal aspects of separatist conflicts, it became necessary to study the international legal framework in this area. The contradictions associated with the recognition of Kosovo’s independence in 2008, and then the issues generated by the recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia by Russia, again actualize a deep study of the legal side of conflicts, causing the need to take into account the legal aspect in the process of resolving conflicts. Kruger’s book focuses on two points related to the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict: the existence of a legitimate basis for the separation of Nagorno-Karabakh under Soviet law and international law, and the compliance with international law of the steps taken by Armenia in this regard.On the basis of the study and the collected facts, the scientist came to the conclusion that the belonging of Nagorno-Karabakh to Azerbaijan cannot be questioned within the framework of either Soviet or international law. The long-term occupation of this region of Azerbaijan and seven regions around it was carried out as a result of direct military intervention by Armenia, its political and financial support. Nagorno-Karabakh, which calls itself a de facto sovereign entity, is still entirely dependent on the Republic of Armenia.In this case, the functioning of Nagorno-Karabakh as an independent state is out of the question. Both conditions give Azerbaijan the priority right to take only the principle of territorial integrity as a basis for resolving the conflict. According to Kruger, although the OSCE Minsk Group co-chairs say that the legal status of Nagorno-Karabakh will be determined as a result of negotiations, international law proves that this status will be determined within Azerbaijan.
In his report, Heiko Kruger also touched upon the issue of the historical legal status of Nagorno-Karabakh.He noted that Nagorno-Karabakh, as a part of the Caucasus, has been a place of residence for various ethnic groups for centuries and, as a result, a space of collision of various interests. The scientist stressed that until the middle of the last millennium, the territory was ruled by Azerbaijanis. However, beginning in the 19th century, tensions between Russia, Iran and the Ottoman Empire led to the massive resettlement of other ethnic minorities to Nagorno-Karabakh. By flocking here in this way, the Armenians made up the majority in Nagorno-Karabakh.But from a legal point of view, Nagorno-Karabakh has always been under the control of Azerbaijan. In 1921, a decision was made to preserve Nagorno-Karabakh as part of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, and this territory became part of the Soviet Union.
The report of the German scientist caused a sharply negative reaction from the representatives of Armenia and the so-called “Nagorno-Karabakh Republic” who participated in the event. Unable to curb emotions, the Armenian participants in the event accused the scientist of falsifying facts.
Researcher at George Mason University in the USA, Professor Rovshan Ibragimov told AZERTAC: “The scientific work of Heiko Kruger is the first book written by Western scholars that analyzes the legal aspects of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. The research results prove once again that the independence of Nagorno-Karabakh cannot be recognized within the framework of neither Soviet nor international legal principles. Interestingly, the response of the Armenian colleagues who participated here to clear legal facts consisted only of willful interpretations of history.In the legal world, of course, this cannot be considered an argument. ”
staff correspondent AZERTAC
AZERTAG.AZ : Presentation of the book “The Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict: Legal Analysis” was held at the George Washington University
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African American educator, writer, orator and advisor
Booker Taliaferro Washington (April 18, 1856 – November 14, 1915) was an American educator, writer, speaker, and advisor to several presidents of the United States. Between 1890 and 1915, Washington was the dominant leader in the African American community and the modern black elite.  Washington was the last generation of black American leaders born into slavery and became the main voice of former slaves and their descendants.In the South they were recently oppressed by the disenfranchisement and Jim Crow discriminatory laws passed in the post-Reconstruction Southern states in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Washington was a key supporter of African American businesses and a founding member of the National Black Business League. His base was the Tuskegee Institute, and he founded a historically black college in Tuskegee, Alabama. As the lynching of the South peaked in 1895, Washington gave a speech known as the “Atlanta Compromise” that earned him national fame.He urged blacks to make progress through education and entrepreneurship rather than trying to directly challenge Jim Crow’s segregation and disenfranchisement of black voters in the South.
Washington has mobilized a nationwide coalition of middle-class blacks, church leaders, white philanthropists, and politicians with the long-term goal of building economic strength and community pride by focusing on self-help and learning. With its own contributions to the black community, Washington was a proponent of racial uprising, but secretly also supported judicial challenges to segregation and restrictions on voter registration. 
Black activists in the North, led by W.E.B.Dubois, initially supported the Atlanta compromise but later disagreed and decided to form the National Association for the Advancement of People of Colored People (NAACP) to work for political change. They tried, with limited success, to challenge Washington’s political machine for leadership in the black community, but built wider networks among white allies in the North.  Decades after Washington’s death in 1915.The civil rights movement of the 1950s took a more proactive and progressive approach that also built on new grassroots organizations based in the South, such as the Congress for Racial Equality (CORE), the Student Nonviolent Action Coordinating Committee (SNCC), and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. (SCLC).
Washington mastered the nuances of the political arena in the late 19th century, allowing it to manipulate the media, raise money, strategize, connect, nudge, reward friends, and disburse funds, while punishing those who opposed his plans to raise blacks.Its long-term goal was to end the disenfranchisement of the vast majority of African Americans who were still living in the South at the time.  His legacy was highly controversial for the civil rights community, of which he was an important leader until 1915. After his death, he was heavily criticized for adapting to white supremacy. However, since the end of the 20th century, a more balanced view of its very wide range of activities has appeared. As of 2010, the most recent research “protects and celebrates his achievements, legacy and leadership.”
In 1856, Washington was born into slavery in Virginia as the son of Jane, an African American slave.  After emancipation, she moved the family to West Virginia to join her husband Washington Ferguson. West Virginia seceded from Virginia and joined the Union as a free state during the Civil War. In his youth, Booker T. Washington went from the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute (historically black college, now Hampton University) and attended college at Wayland Seminary (now the University of Virginia Union). 
In 1881, young Washington was named the first leader of the new Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, founded for black higher education. He developed the college from the ground up, involving students in the construction of buildings, from classrooms to dorms. College work was considered fundamental to the broader education of students. They kept a large farm to be self-sustaining, raising animals and growing the necessary products. Washington continued to expand the school.He achieved national prominence for his Atlanta Address, 1895, which attracted the attention of politicians and the public. He became a popular spokesman for African American citizens. He built a nationwide network of supporters in many black communities, with black ministers, educators, and businessmen making up his main supporters. Washington played a dominant role in black politics, gaining widespread support in the black community of the South and among more liberal whites (especially wealthy whites in the North).He gained access to leading national leaders in politics, philanthropy and education. Washington’s efforts included working with white people and enlisting the support of wealthy philanthropists. Washington argued that the surest way for blacks to gain equal social rights is to demonstrate “hard work, frugality, intelligence, and property.”
Starting in 1912, he built a relationship with a philanthropist. Julius Rosenwald, owner of Sears Roebuck, who served on the board of trustees for the rest of his life and made significant donations to Tuskegee.They also collaborated on a pilot program for Tuskegee Architects to design six model schools that could be built for African American students in rural areas of the South. Historically, they have been underfunded by the state and local authorities. Given their success in 1913 and 1914, Rosenwald founded the Rosenwald Foundation in 1917 to support the schools’ efforts. It has expanded opportunities to improve or provide rural schools by providing appropriate funds to communities that have committed to operating schools and providing funds for construction and maintenance, as needed, in collaboration with white councils in public schools.About 5,000 new small rural schools were built to improve education for blacks throughout the South, most after Washington’s death in 1915. 
Northern critics have called Washington’s widespread and powerful organization “the Tuskegee machine.” After 1909, Washington was criticized by leaders of the new NAACP, especially W.E.B.Dubois, who demanded stronger protest to advance the civil rights agenda. Washington responded that confrontation would be a disaster for the black minority in society, and that working with fellow whites is the only way to overcome pervasive racism in the long run.At the same time, he secretly funded civil rights litigation, such as challenging southern constitutions and laws that have disenfranchised blacks in the South since the turn of the century.  African Americans continued to be closely associated with the Republican Party, and Washington was on close terms with the leaders of the National Republican Party. Presidents often turned to him for political advice. Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft.
In addition to his contributions to education, Washington has written 14 books; his autobiography, Coming Out of Slavery, first published in 1901, is still widely read today.During a difficult transition period, he did a lot to improve the working relationship between races. His work has greatly helped blacks gain education, financial strength, and understanding of the US legal system. This helped blacks acquire the skills to create and support the Civil Rights Movement, leading to important federal civil rights laws in the late 20th century.
Washington early in his career
Booker was born into slavery to Jane, an enslaved African American woman on the James Burroughs plantation in southwest Virginia, near Ford Hale in Franklin County.He never knew the day, month or year of his birth, but the year on his tombstone is 1856.  And he never knew his father, who was said to be a white man who lived on a nearby plantation. The man did not play any financial or emotional role in the life of Washington.
From an early age, Washington was known simply as “Booker”, without the last name and surname, in the practice of the time. His mother, her relatives and his brothers and sisters fought against the demands of slavery. Later he wrote:
I cannot recall a single incident in my childhood or early adolescence, when our whole family sat down at the table together and asked for God’s blessing, and the family ate in a civilized manner.On a plantation in Virginia and even later, children were given food very much like stupid animals. Here was a piece of bread, and there was a piece of meat. At one time it was a cup of milk, and the other a potato.
When he was nine years old, Booker and his family in Virginia were freed under the Emancipation Proclamation as US troops occupied their region. Booker was delighted with the official day of their emancipation in early 1865:
As the great day approached, more than usual sang in the slave quarters.It was bolder, more sonorous and lasted until late at night. Most of the verses in the plantation songs had something to do with freedom … Someone who seemed to be an outsider (a United States officer, I suppose) gave a short speech and then read a rather long article – the Emancipation Proclamation, I Count. After reading, we were told that we are all free and can go wherever and whenever we want. My mother, who was standing next to me, bent down and kissed her children while tears of joy streamed down her cheeks.She explained to us what all this means, that this was the day she had been praying for for so long, but she was afraid that she would never live to see it.
After her emancipation, Jane took her family to the free state of West Virginia to join her husband Washington Ferguson, who fled slavery during the war and settled there. The illiterate boy Booker began to painstakingly teach himself to read and went to school for the first time.
At the school, Booker was asked to give his last name for registration.He took the surname Washington after his stepfather. Still later, he learned from his mother that she originally gave him the name Booker. Taliaferro “at the time of his birth, but his middle name was not used by the master. Upon learning of his original name, Washington immediately adopted it as his own and became known for the rest of his life as Booker Taliaferro Washington.
Washington worked for several years in salt furnaces and coal mines in West Virginia to make money.He headed east to the Hampton Institute, a school set up in Virginia to teach freedmen and their descendants, where he also worked to pay tuition.  He later attended Wayland Seminary in Washington, DC in 1878. 
History class held at the Tuskegee Institute in 1902.
In 1881, the president of the Hampton Institution, Samuel S. Armstrong, recommended that Washington, then 25, become the first leader of the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute (later the Tuskegee Institute, now Tuskegee University), the new Normal School (College of Education) in Alabama.The new school opened on July 4, 1881, initially using the room he had donated. Chapel Butler A.M.E. Zion Church. 
The following year, Washington acquired the former plantation to be used as a permanent campus. Under his leadership, his students literally built their own school: they made bricks, built classrooms, sheds and outbuildings; growing their own crops and raising livestock; both for teaching and for providing most of the essentials.  Both men and women had to not only learn, but also to learn crafts. Tuskegee teachers used all the activities to teach students basic skills that they could transfer to their largely rural black communities throughout the South. The main goal was not to produce farmers and traders, but to produce agriculture and handicraft teachers to teach in new lower schools and colleges for blacks throughout the South. The school has expanded over the decades, adding programs and faculties to become a modern Tuskegee University. [ page needs ]
Oaks, a “large comfortable home,” was built on campus for Washington and his family.  They moved into the house in 1900. Washington lived there until his death in 1915. His widow, Margaret, lived in Oaks until her death in 1925. 
Washington led Tuskegee for over 30 years after becoming its leader. As he developed it, adding both curriculum and campus facilities, he became a prominent national leader among African Americans, influencing wealthy white philanthropists and politicians.
Washington expressed its vision of the race at school. He believed that by providing society with the necessary skills, African Americans would play a role that would lead to their acceptance by white Americans. He believed that blacks would eventually gain full participation in society by acting as responsible and reliable American citizens. Shortly after the Spanish-American War, President William McKinley and much of his cabinet visited Booker Washington. By the time of his death in 1915, Tuskegee had grown to include over 100 well-equipped buildings, approximately 1,500 students, 200 teachers teaching 38 trades and professions, and a donation of approximately $ 2 million. 
Washington has helped develop other schools and colleges. In 1891, he lobbied the West Virginia Legislature to locate the newly commissioned West Virginia Color Institute (today West Virginia State University) in West Virginia’s Kanawha Valley near Charleston. He often visited campus and spoke at the first exercises. 
Washington was the dominant figure in the African American community, then the vast majority in the South, from 1890 until his death in 1915.The 1895 Atlanta address received national attention. He was considered a popular representative of African American citizens. Representing the last generation of black leaders born into slavery, Washington was generally perceived as an advocate of education for freedmen and their descendants in the post-Reconstruction period. Jim Crow-era South. He emphasized basic education and training in manual and domestic labor trade because he thought they represented the skills required for what was still a rural economy. [ citation needed ]
During the last twenty years of his life, he maintained his reputation through a nationwide network of supporters, including black educators, ministers, editors, and business people, especially those who supported his views on black social and educational issues. He also gained access to top national white leaders in politics, philanthropy, and education, raised large sums, received advice on racial issues, and was awarded honorary degrees from Harvard University in 1896.and Dartmouth College in 1901. 
Towards the end of his career, Washington was criticized by civil rights leader and NAACP founder WB Dubois. Dubois and his supporters opposed the Atlanta Treatment as an “Atlanta Compromise” because it suggested that African Americans work for and obey white political rule.  Dubois insisted on full civil rights, due process, and increased political representation for African Americans, which he believed could only be achieved through active engagement and higher education for African Americans.  He believed that “the talented Tenth” would lead the race. Dubois called Washington “The Great Master.”  Washington responded that confrontation could be disastrous for the black minority and that working with fellow whites is the only way to overcome racism in the long term. [ citation needed ]
By advocating moderation, Washington has secretly and largely contributed to the growing number of legal concerns that African American activists have raised against the segregation and disenfranchisement of blacks. [ page needed ] In his public role, he believed that he could achieve more by skillfully adapting to the social realities of the era. segregation.
Washington’s educational work has helped him secure both the moral and substantial financial support of many major white philanthropists. He became friends with self-made men such as Standard Butter tycoon Henry Huttleston Rogers; Sears, Roebuck and Company President Julius Rosenwald; and George Eastman, inventor of roll film, founder of Eastman Kodak, and developer of the mainstream of the photography industry.These people and many other wealthy men and women funded his affairs, including the Hampton and Tuskegee Institutions. [ citation needed ]
He also lectured to raise money for the school. On January 23, 1906, he lectured at Carnegie Hall in New York in the Silver Anniversary Lecture of the Tuskegee Institute. He spoke alongside great speakers of the day, including Mark Twain, Joseph Hodges Choat, and Robert Curtis Ogden; this was the start of a major fundraising campaign of $ 1,800,000 for the school. 
The schools that Washington supported were founded primarily to train teachers, as education was critical to the black community after emancipation. Freedmen strongly supported literacy and education as keys to their future. When graduates returned to their largely impoverished rural southern communities, they still found few schools and educational resources as white-dominated state legislatures consistently underfunded black schools in their segregated system. [ citation needed ]
To meet these needs, in the 20th century, Washington engaged its philanthropic network to create fundraising programs to stimulate the construction of numerous rural public schools for black children in the South. Particularly working with Julius Rosenwald of Chicago, Washington commissioned the Tuskegee architects to design standard school designs. The Rosenwald Foundation helped support the construction and operation of over 5,000 schools and related resources to educate blacks throughout the south in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.Local schools were a matter of public pride; African American families gave them labor, land and money to give their children a better chance in poverty and segregation. Model rural schools, which make up the bulk of Washington’s legacy, continued to be built until the 1930s, with matching community funds from the Rosenwald Foundation.  [ page needed ]
Washington also contributed to the progressive era by forming the National League of Black Business.He encouraged entrepreneurship among black businessmen by creating a national network.  [ page needed ]
His Autobiography, Coming Out of Slavery, first published in 1901, is still widely read in the early 21st century.
Marriages and children
Booker T. Washington with his third wife Margaret and two sons Ernest (left) and Booker T. Jr. (right)
Washington was married three times. In his autobiography Coming Out of Slavery , he paid tribute to all three of his wives for their contributions to Tuskegee.His first wife Fanny N. Smith was from Malden, West Virginia, an identical River Kanava Valley City where Washington lived from nine to sixteen years old. He kept in touch there all his life, and Smith was his student when he taught at Malden. He helped her enroll at the Hampton Institute. Washington and Smith married in the summer of 1882, a year after he became director there. They had one child, Portia M. Washington, born in 1883. Fanny died in May 1884.
In 1885, the widower Washington married Olivia A.Davidson (1854-1889). Born free in Virginia to a free woman of color and a father who was freed from slavery, she moved with her family to free Ohio, where she attended regular schools. Davidson later attended the Hampton Institute and traveled north to attend Massachusetts State Teachers’ Training School in Framingham. She taught in Mississippi and Tennessee before traveling to Tuskegee to work as a teacher. Washington hired Davidson in Tuskegee and promoted her to Deputy Director.They had two sons, Booker T. Washington, Jr. and Ernest Davidson Washington, before she died in 1889. [ citation needed ]
In 1893, Washington married Margaret James Murray. She was from Mississippi and graduated from Fisk University, a historically black college. They did not have children together, but she helped raise three Washington children. Murray survived Washington and died in 1925. [ citation needed ]
Atlanta Politics and Compromise
Washington 1895The Atlanta exhibition address was seen as a “revolutionary moment” by both African Americans and whites across the country. At the time, W.E.B.Dubois supported him, but they drifted apart as Dubois pushed for further action to remedy disenfranchisement and improve educational opportunities for blacks. In the aftermath of their quarrel, Dubois and his supporters called Washington’s speech the “Atlanta Compromise” to express their criticism of Washington being too inferior to whites. [ citation needed ]
Washington was in favor of “taking your time” to avoid a harsh White reaction.He was criticized for encouraging many young people in the South to sacrifice potential political power, civil rights, and higher education. Washington believed that African Americans should “concentrate all their energies on industrial education, wealth accumulation and the reconciliation of the South.” He valued “industrial” education, as it provided important skills for the job, then available to most African Americans at the time, since most of them lived in the South, which was predominantly rural and agricultural.He thought these skills would lay the foundation for creating the stability the African American community needs to move forward. In the long term, he believed, “blacks will eventually gain full participation in society, proving themselves to be responsible and reliable American citizens.” His approach advocated the first step towards equality, not full equality before the law, for gaining economic power to support black demands for political equality in the future. He believed that such accomplishments would prove to deeply prejudiced white America that African Americans are not “naturally” stupid and incompetent.
Well-educated blacks in the North lived in a different society and advocated a different approach, in part because they perceived greater opportunities. Dubois wanted Black to have the same “classic”. liberal arts education, like that of upper-class whites,  along with voting rights and civic equality. The latter two were allegedly granted from 1870 by constitutional amendments following the Civil War. He believed that the elite, which he called the Talented Tenth, would move forward to move into a wider range of pursuits.Dubois and Washington were partly separated by differences in the treatment of African Americans in the North and in the South; Although both groups suffered from discrimination, the black masses in the South were much more constrained by legal segregation and disenfranchisement, which completely excluded most from the political process and system. Many in the North objected to being “led” and authoritatively supported by the South’s adjustment strategy, which they saw as “imposed on them [black southerners] primarily by white southerners.”
Historian Clarence Earl Walker wrote this for white southerners,
Free black people were “irrelevant.” Their release was an affront to the freedom of white southerners. Booker T. Washington did not understand that his program was perceived as subversive to the natural order, in which black people were forever subordinate or not free. 
Both Washington and Dubois sought to identify the best post-Civil War remedies to improve conditions for the African American community through education. [ citation needed ]
Blacks were solidly Republicans during this period, gaining emancipation and suffrage with President Lincoln and his party. Fellow Republican President Ulysses S. Grant defended the recently won African-American freedom and civil rights in the South by passing laws and using federal force to suppress the Ku Klux Klan, which has been abusing blacks for years to suppress votes and thwart education.After the withdrawal of federal troops in 1877 Reconstruction era, many paramilitary groups tried to suppress black voting with violence. From 1890 to 1908, the Southern states disenfranchised most blacks and many poor whites – through constitutional amendments and laws that created barriers to voter registration and voting. Devices such as poll taxes and subjective literacy tests have dramatically reduced the number of blacks on the voting list. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, southern white democrats had defeated some biracial populist-republican coalitions and restored power in the legislatures of the states of the former Confederation; they passed laws establishing racial segregation and Jim Crow.In the border states and in the North, blacks continued to vote; Maryland’s well-established African American community thwarted attempts to strip them of their voting rights. [ citation needed ]
Washington has worked and communicated with many national white politicians and industry leaders. He has developed the ability to convince rich whites, many of whom have made their own way, to donate money to blacks by appealing to their values. He argued that the surest way for blacks to gain equal social rights is to demonstrate “hard work, thrift, intelligence and property.”He believed this was the key to improving the lives of African Americans in the United States. Since African Americans had recently been emancipated and most of them lived in a hostile environment, Washington felt they could not expect too much at once. He said: “I realized that success is measured not so much by the position that a person has achieved in life, but by the obstacles that he had to overcome in trying to achieve success.” [ page needed ]
Together with Dubois, Washington partly organized a “Negro Exhibition” at the 1900 Exposition Universelle in Paris, where photographs of black students at the Hampton Institute were exhibited.This was done by his friend Francis Benjamin Johnston.  The exhibition showcased the positive contributions of African Americans to United States society. 
Washington has privately contributed heavily to lawsuits for segregation and disenfranchisement, such as in the case of Giles v. Harris , which was heard before the US Supreme Court in 1903. Even when such calls were won in the Supreme Court, southern states quickly responded with new laws to achieve the same goals, such as adding “grandfather clauses” that covered whites, not blacks, to prevent blacks from voting. [ citation needed ]
Wealthy friends and benefactors
State and local governments have historically underfunded black schools even though they allegedly provided “separate but equal” separate facilities. White philanthropists supported education in every possible way financially. Washington encouraged them and channeled millions of their money to projects across the South that Washington felt best reflected its philosophy of self-help. Washington was associated with the richest and most influential businessmen and politicians of the era.He was considered a representative of African Americans and became a conduit for funding educational programs. [ citation needed ]
His contacts included such diverse and well-known entrepreneurs and philanthropists as Andrew Carnegie, William Howard Taft, John D. Rockefeller, Henry Huttleston Rogers, George Eastman, Julius Rosenwaldden, Robert Curlis Oglie Huntington, and William Henry Baldwin Jr. The latter donated large sums of money to agencies such as Jeanes and Slater Funds.As a result, countless small rural schools have been established through Washington’s efforts through programs that have continued many years after his death. Along with wealthy white men, black communities have directly helped their communities by donating time, money and labor to schools to meet the required funds.
Henry Huttleston Rogers
Washington’s friendship with a millionaire industrialist and financier was a prime example of an exceptional relationship. Henry H.Rogers (1840-1909). Henry Rogers was a self-made man who grew up from a humble working-class family to become the chief officer of Standard Butter, and one of the richest men in the United States. Around 1894, Rogers heard Washington perform at Madison Square Garden. The next day, he contacted Washington and asked for a meeting, during which Washington later revealed that he was told that Rogers “was surprised that no one” handed over their hat “after the speech.” [ citation needed ] The meeting marked the beginning of a close relationship that lasted 15 years.Although Washington and the highly withdrawn Rogers were considered friends, the true depth and scope of their relationship was not publicly disclosed until Rogers’ sudden death from a stroke in May 1909. Washington was a frequent visitor to Rogers’ New York office. his Fairhaven, Massachusetts summer home; and his steam yacht Kanawha . [ citation needed ]
A few weeks later, Washington embarked on an earlier scheduled lecture tour of the newly built Virginia Railroad, a $ 40 million facility built almost entirely on Rogers’ personal fortune.When Washington drove into the late financier’s office a private car, Dixie , he stopped and gave speeches in many places. His comrades later said that at every stop he was warmly greeted by both black and white citizens. [ citation needed ]
Washington reported that Rogers covertly funded 65 small rural African American schools and allocated substantial sums of money to support the Tuskegee and Hampton Institutions. He also noted that Rogers encouraged programs with matching funds requirements so that recipients were interested in the result. [ citation needed ]
Anna T. Jean
In 1907, the Philadelphia Quaker Anna T. Jean (1822–1907) donated a million dollars to Washington for primary schools for black children in the South. Her contributions, as well as those of Henry Rogers and others, have funded schools in many poor communities. [ citation needed ]
Julius Rosenwald (1862–1932) was another successful self-made wealthy man with whom Washington found a common language.By 1908, Rosenwald, the son of an immigrant clothier, was co-owner and president of Sears, Roebuck and Company in Chicago. Rosenwald was a philanthropist who was deeply concerned about the poor state of African American education, especially in the segregated southern states, where their schools were underfunded. 
In 1912, Rosenwald was invited to serve on the board of directors of the Tuskegee Institute, and he held that position for the rest of his life. Rosenwald donated Tuskegee so that Washington could spend less time raising funds and more time running the school.Later in 1912, Rosenwald donated funds to Tuskegee for a pilot program to build six new small schools in rural Alabama. They were designed, built and opened in 1913 and 1914 under the supervision of Tuskegee’s architects and staff; the model turned out to be successful. [ citation needed ]
Following the death of Washington in 1915, Rosenwald established the Rosenwald Foundation in 1917, primarily to educate African American students in rural areas of the South.The school building program was one of the largest. Using architectural model plans developed by Tuskegee Institute professors, the Rosenwald Foundation spent more than $ 4 million to build 4,977 schools, 217 teachers’ homes and 163 retail buildings in 883 counties in 15 states, from Maryland to Texas.  The Rosenwald Foundation has made related grants requiring community support, collaboration from white school boards, and community fundraising. Black communities raised over $ 4.7 million for construction and occasionally donated land and labor; in fact, they taxed themselves twice.  These schools became informally known as the Rosenwald Schools. But the philanthropist did not want to be named after him, since they belonged to their communities. By the time of his death in 1932, these new premises could accommodate a third of all African American children in schools in the southern states of the United States. [ citation needed ]
Get out of slavery to the White House
Washington DC’s long-term advisor, Timothy Thomas Fortune (1856–1928), was a respected African American economist and editor of New York Age , the most widely read newspaper in the black community of the United States.He was the ghost writer and editor of Washington’s first autobiography, The Story of My Life and Work.  Washington published five books in its lifetime with the help of ghost writers Timothy Fortuna, Max Bennett Thrasher, and Robert E. Park.
These included collections of speeches and essays: 
- Story of my life and work (1900)
- Coming out of slavery (1901)
- History of blacks: the rebellion of the race from slavery volume 1909)
- My college education (1911)
- Farthest Man Down (1912)
Seeking to inspire African Americans for “commercial, agricultural, educational and industrial progress,” Washington founded the National Negro Business League (NNBL) in 1900. 
When Washington’s second autobiography, Coming Out of Slavery , was published in 1901, became a bestseller and greatly influenced the African American community, its friends and allies.In October 1901, Theodore Roosevelt invited Washington to dine with him and his family at the White House.  Although Republican presidents met privately with black leaders, it was the first highly publicized public event that an African American was invited there on an equal footing by the president. Democratic politicians from the South, including future Mississippi Governor James K. Vardaman and Senator Benjamin Tillman of South Carolina, were personally racist attacked when they learned of the invitation.Both used a derogatory term for African Americans in their statements.
Vardaman described the White House as
so saturated with the smell of a nigga that the rats took refuge in the barn,   and stated: “I am just as much against Booker T. Washington as a voter as well as against the typical little coconut-headed chocolate-colored raccoon that blackens my shoes every morning. Neither one nor the other is suitable for fulfilling the supreme function of citizenship. “ 
Tillman said,” President Roosevelt’s actions to entertain this nigga will require us to kill a thousand niggas in the South before they know their place again. “ 
Ladislav Hengelmüller von Hengervar, the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador to the United States who visited the White House on the same day, said he found a rabbit’s foot in Washington’s coat pocket when he mistakenly put on his coat. The Washington Post described it as “the left hind paw of a graveyard rabbit killed in the dark of the moon.”  B Detroit Magazine The next day caustically remarked: “The Austrian ambassador may have fled with Booker T. Washington’s coat in the White House, but he would not like trying to replace him.”  
The coffin of Booker T. Washington is carried to the burial site.
Despite his extensive travels and extensive work, Washington continued to lead Tuskegee. In 1915, Washington’s health deteriorated rapidly; he passed out in New York and was diagnosed by two different doctors: Bright’s disease associated with kidney disease. Saying that he had only a few days left to live, Washington expressed a desire to die in Tuskegee. He boarded the train and arrived in Tuskegee shortly after midnight on November 14, 1915.He died a few hours later at the age of 59.  His funeral took place on November 17, 1915 at the Tuskegee Institute chapel, and was attended by nearly 8,000 people.  He was buried nearby in the cemetery of the Tuskegee University campus. 
At that time it was believed that he died of chronic heart failure, aggravated by overwork. In March 2006, his descendants were allowed to study medical records: they showed that he had hypertension, with blood pressure more than double the norm, confirming what had long been suspected. 
At the time of Washington’s death, Tuskegee’s donations were close to $ 2 million.  Washington’s greatest cause, the education of blacks in the South, was in full swing and expanding. [ citation needed ]
Honors and commemoratives
For his contributions to American society, Washington was awarded an honorary master’s degree from Harvard University in 1896 and an honorary doctorate from Dartmouth College in 1901. [ citation needed ]
In the center of Tuskegee University, the Booker T. Washington monument was unveiled in 1922. Lifting the veil , the monument bears the inscription:
He lifted the curtain of ignorance from his people and showed the way to progress through education and industry.
In 1934 Robert Russa Moton, Washington’s successor as president of Tuskegee University, organized an air tour for two African American aviators.The aircraft was later renamed Booker T. Washington . 
Booker T. Washington was featured on a 1940 US commemorative postage stamp.
On April 7, 1940, Washington became the first African American to be featured on a United States postage stamp. 
In 1942, Liberty Ship Booker T. Washington was named after him, the first large ocean-going ship to be named after an African American. The ship was christened by the famous singer Marian Anderson. 
In 1946, it was honored on the first African American coin, the Booker T. Washington Memorial Half Dollar, which was minted in the United States until 1951. 
April 5, 1956, the centenary of the birth of Washington, home in which he was born. Franklin County, Virginia, has been designated Booker T. Washington National Monument. [ citation needed ]
A state park in Chattanooga, Tennessee, was named after him, as was the bridge over the Hampton River next to its alma mater , Hampton University. [ citation needed ]
In 1984, Hampton University dedicated a memorial to Booker T. Washington on campus near the historic Emancipation Oak, establishing, in the University’s words, “the relationship between one of America’s great educators and community activists and a symbol of achievement blacks in education. ” 
Numerous high schools, high schools, and elementary schools  across the United States were named after Booker T.Washington.
In 2000, West Virginia State University (WVSU; then West Virginia State College), in collaboration with other organizations including the Booker T. Washington Association, established the Booker T. Washington Institute to honor the Washington Childhood Home, Old Town Malden, and the ideals Washington. 
On October 19, 2009, the WVSU dedicated a monument to Booker T. Washington. The event took place at the WVSU Booker T. Washington Park in Malden, West Virginia.The monument also honors families of African descent who lived in Old Malden in the early 20th century and knew and supported Washington. The special guest speakers for the event were West Virginia. Governor Joe Manchin III, Malden Attorney Larry L. Rowe and President of the WVSU. Musical excerpts provided by ZVGU “Marching Swarm”. 
At the end of the 2008 presidential election, defeated Republican candidate Senator John McCain recalled that President Theodore Roosevelt had invited Booker T.Washington to the White House. McCain noted the obvious progress in the country with the election of a Democratic Senator. Barack Obama as the first African American President of the United States. 
Booker T. Washington’s historiography has changed a lot. After his death, he was heavily criticized in the civil rights community for adapting to white supremacy. However, since the end of the 20th century, a more balanced view of a very wide range of his activities has appeared. As of 2010, the most recent research “protects and celebrates his achievements, legacy and leadership.”
Washington was highly respected among business-oriented conservatives, whites and blacks alike. Historian Eric Foner argues that the freedom movement in the late nineteenth century changed direction to fit America’s new economic and intellectual framework. Black leaders emphasized economic self-help and personal advancement into the middle class as a more fruitful strategy than political agitation. Throughout the post-Civil War period, the emphasis was on education and literacy.Washington’s famous speech in Atlanta in 1895 marked this transitional period as it encouraged blacks to develop their farms, their manufacturing skills, and their entrepreneurship as the next step out of slavery.
By this time, a new constitution was passed in Mississippi, and other southern states followed suit or used electoral laws to raise barriers to voter registration; They completed the disenfranchisement of blacks at the turn of the 20th century to maintain white supremacy.But at the same time, Washington secretly organized funding for numerous legal challenges to such voting restrictions and segregation, which it believed was a way of attacking them. 
Washington rejected the historic abolitionist emphasis on unrelenting agitation for full equality, telling blacks that it was counterproductive to fight segregation at the time. Foner concludes that Washington’s strong support in the black community is rooted in its widespread awareness that, given their legal and political realities, head-on attacks on white supremacy were impossible, and the best way forward is to focus on building their own economic and social structures within the country.isolated communities.  Historian K. Vann Woodward wrote about Washington in 1951: “The gospel of the entrepreneur, free enterprise, competition, and laissez faire has never had a more loyal representative.” 
Historians from the late 20’s to The first century was divided in its characteristics of Washington: some describe it as a visionary, capable of “reading minds with the skill of a professional psychologist” who skillfully played the political game in Washington in the 19th century thanks to its rules.  Others say that he was a self-serving, cunning narcissist who threatened and punished those who interfered with his personal interests, traveled accompanied by his retinue and spent a lot of time collecting funds, signing autographs and delivering floral patriotic speeches with great waving flags – actions that are more indicative of a skillful political boss than an altruistic civil rights leader. 
People called Washington “the Tuskegee wizard” because of his highly developed political skills and creation of a nationwide political machine based on the black middle class, white philanthropy and support of the Republican Party.Opponents called this network “Tuskegee’s Machine.” Washington has maintained control through its ability to enlist the support of numerous groups, including powerful white and black business people, educational and religious communities across the country. He advised the use of financial donations from philanthropists and avoided hostility towards white southerners by adapting to the political realities of the era. Jim Crow segregation.
Tuskegee’s car quickly collapsed after Washington’s death.He was a charismatic leader who kept it all together with the help of Emmet Jay Scott. But the trustees replaced Scott, and the complex system fell apart.   Critics in the 1920s and 1960s, especially those associated with the NAACP, ridiculed Tuskegee as the producer of a class of submissive black workers. Since the late 20th century, historians have given a much more favorable look, highlighting the school’s illustrious ability and the progressive black movements, institutions and leaders in education, politics, architecture, medicine, and other professions it produced, who labored in communities throughout the United States. and all over the world the African diaspora.  Deborah Morowski notes that Tuskegee’s curriculum helped students gain a sense of personal and collective effectiveness. She concludes:
- The social studies curriculum provided an opportunity to cheer up African Americans at a time when such opportunities were scarce for black youth. The curriculum inspired African Americans to advance their position in society, to change the views of southern whites about the value of blacks, and ultimately to advance racial equality.  At a time when most blacks were poor farmers in the South and ignored by the national black leadership, Washington-based Tuskegee made their needs the top priority. They lobbied for public funds, and especially charities, which allowed the Institute to provide model farming practices, training and organizational skills. This included annual black conferences, the Tuskegee experimental station, a short agricultural course, farm institutes, farm district fairs, a traveling school, and numerous pamphlets and feature articles sent free to black newspapers in the South. 
Washington has taken the lead in promoting education for the African diaspora, often with financial support from the Phelps Stokes Foundation or in collaboration with foreign sources such as the German government.  
Washington’s first daughter by Fanny, Portia Marshall Washington (1883–1978), was a trained pianist, married to Tuskegee teacher and architect William Sidney Pittman in 1900.They had three children. Pittman faced several difficulties trying to build his practice while his wife was building her music profession. After he attacked their daughter Fanny in the midst of an argument, Portia took Fanny away and left Pittman. 
She settled in Tuskegee. She was suspended from the faculty in 1939 because she did not have a degree, but she opened her own practice of teaching piano for several years. Retiring in 1944 at the age of 61, she devoted her efforts in the 1940s to perpetuating the memory of her father.She managed to place a bust of her father in the New York City Hall of Fame, a 50-cent coin minted with his image, and his birthplace in Virginia was declared a National Monument. Portia Washington Pittman died on February 26, 1978 in Washington DC. 
Booker Jr. (1887-1945) married Nettie Blair Hancock (1887-1972). Their daughter, Nettie Hancock Washington (1917–1982), became a teacher and taught at a high school in Washington, DC for twenty years. Deborah L. Morowski, “Public Perception, Personal Plans: Washington, Moton, and the Tuskegee Institute’s Secondary Curriculum 1910-1926.” American Journal of Educational History 40.1 / 2 (2013): 1-20, cited p. 17 “PUBLIC + PERCEPTIONS, + PRIVATE + PROGRAMS.” & Ots = fZLOzcMrho & sig = W5Pc7Mrx_nKzsOLlYuwbst1DXZM # v = onepage & q = “PUBLIC% 20PERCEPTIONS% 2C% 20AGENDAS on the web” & ots = fZLOzcMrho 20% & vigrstLx1DXC7Pec7 The Internet “. Ray Argyle (2009). Scott Joplin and the era of ragtime . McFarland, pp. 56ff.
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- ——— (February 1911). “Chapters from My Experience V”. Worldwork: A History of Our Time . XXI : 14032–39. Retrieved July 10, 2009.
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- Pole, JR (1974), “Review: Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others; Children of Pride,” History Journal , 17 (4): 883–893, Doi: 10.1017 / S0018246X00007962, JSTOR 2638562 .
- Boston, Michael B. (2010), Booker T. Washington Business Strategy: Designing and Implementing it , Florida University Press ; 243 s. Examines the content and impact of his philosophy of entrepreneurship.
- Hamilton, Kenneth M. Booker T. Washington in American Memory (U of Illinois Press, 2017), 250 pp.
- Harlan, Louis R. (1988), Booker T.Washington Perspective (essay), University Press of Mississippi .
- McMurry, Linda O. (1982), George Washington Carver, scientist and symbol .
- Smith, David L. (1997), Commanding Work: Booker T. Washington’s Compromise Appeal in Atlanta, in Gerster, Patrick; Cords, Nicholas (ed.), Myth America: A Historical Anthology , II , St. James, NY: Brandywine Press, ISBN 978-1-881089-97-1 .
- Smoke, Raymond (2009), Booker T. Washington: Black Leadership in the Age of Jim Crow , Chicago: Ivan R. Dee .
- Winz, Carey D. (1996), African American Political Thought, 1890–1930: Washington, Dubois, Garvey & Randolph .
- Zimmerman, Andrew (2012), Alabama in Africa: Booker T. Washington, The German Empire and the Globalization of the New South , Princeton: Princeton University Press .
- Site Bulletin Buker T.Washington, 2016.
- Biz, Michael Scott and Marybeth Gasman, eds. Booker T. Washington Rediscovered (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012), 265 pp., Scientific Essays
- Brandage, W. Fitzhugh, ed. (2003), Booker T. Washington and Black Progress: 100 Years Later Rise from Slavery .
- Dagbowy, Pero Gaglo (2007), A Study of a Century of Historical Science about Booker T. Washington, Journal of African American History , 92 (2): 239-264, JSTOR 20064182
- Friedman, Lawrence …(October 1974), Life in the Mouth of a Lion: Another Look at Booker T. Washington, Journal of Black History , 59 (4): 337–351, Doi: 10.2307 / 2717315, JSTOR 2717315 , S2CID 150075964 .
- Harlan, Louis R. (Oct 1970), Booker T. Washington in a Biographical Perspective, American Historical Review , 75 (6): 1581–99, Doi: 10.2307 / 1850756, JSTOR 1850756
- Strickland, Arvar E. (December 1973), Booker T.Washington: Myth and Man, Reviews in American History (Consideration), 1 (4): 559-564, Doi: 10.2307 / 2701723, JSTOR 2701723 .
- Zringu, Joshua Thomas. Booker T. Washington and Historians: How Changed Views on Race Relations, Economics, and Education Influenced the Historiography of Washington, 1915–2010 (Master’s Thesis, Leningrad State University, 2015) online.
- Works by Booker T. Washington for Project Gutenberg
- Works by Booker T.Or about him in the Internet Archive
- Works of Booker T. Washington at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
- “Booker T. Washington: Return to Man and Myth.” (2007) PowerPoint presentation by Dana Chandler
- Booker T. Washington (Online) Library of Congress
- Booker T. Washington Society Library (Online) Booker T. Washington Society
- Booker T.Washington, 1853–1946 (Seeking Help) , Library of Congress , an index for over 300,000 Washington-related materials available in the Library of Congress and on microfilm.
- Booker T. Washington. Educator and social reformer . Find a grave. January 1, 2001. Retrieved August 18, 2011.
- The Writings of B. Washington and Dubois from C-SPANs American Writers: A Journey Through History
- Booker T.