Under Armour Revenant Box Lacrosse Shoulder Pads
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Under Armour NexGen Youth Lacrosse Shoulder Pads Shoulder Pads
Under Armour NexGen Youth Lacrosse Shoulder Pads
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Under Armour NexGen Youth Lacrosse Shoulder Pads
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Under Armour NexGen Lacrosse Shoulder Pads-Adult-Small
Under Armour NexGen Lacrosse Shoulder Pads-Adult-Small
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Pitauce Womens Push Up Leopard Swimsuits with Brief Tankini Top Boyshort Swimwear Bathing Suits Printing Linoleum Arts, Crafts & Sewing
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SERVING MARITIME COMMUNITIES OF THE AMERICAS FOR OVER 70 YEARS
Logan Diving & Salvage has been actively engaged in servicing the commercial diving needs of the maritime communities of the Americas for over 70 years. Safety, integrity, experience and client satisfaction are the benchmarks by which we measure our continued success.
Learn More About UsServices
Logan Diving & Salvage maintains a USCG Basic Order Agreement (BOA) for marine casualties / pollution response and has raised numerous vessels, tugs, dredges, barges, aircraft, breasting dolphins and structures over the past 70 years plus. Salvage Teams and equipment are pre positioned in Jacksonville, Florida and San Juan, Puerto Rico for 24/7 response.Learn More Services
Logan Divers are certified specialists for In Water Survey and UWILD’s recognized by the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), Lloyds Register (LR), Germanischer Lloyd (DNV/GL), Nippon Kaiji Kyokai (NKK), Bureau Veritas (BV), serving Domestic and International Shipping Interest for Jacksonville, Florida to San Juan, Puerto Rico.Learn More Services
Experts in underwater construction for more than 73 years, Logan Diving & Salvage divers are trained in all phases of heavy industrial marine construction including underwater burning and welding.Learn More Services
Our divers serve a wide variety of industries and purposes, such as Pulp and Paper, Power Plants, Industrials and Hazmat, Hurricane Response, Pile Jacketing, Hydrography. Work Boat Service, and more.Learn More
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Operator Qualifications / Oil and Gas Pipelines
Logan Diving & Salvage is a member of OQSG, Operator Qualifications Solutions Group. At Logan Diving & Salvage, we train and evaluate our divers through OQSG to comply with Federal Operator Qualifications standards. Our certified divers have helped install, inspect and maintain thousands of subaqueous river and coastal oil and gas pipeline crossings.
For All of Your Operator Qualifications Needs Contact:
Mr. Scott Anderson/OQ Compliance Coordinator
Proudly serving private sector and government clients
For more than 70 years. Logan Diving & Salvage has provided service for the commercial diving needs of several Fortune 500 entities in the Maritime Industry. In addition, we are very proud to be of assistance to the United States Military, Federal and Local Municipalities, and Private Maritime Industry Leaders.
Safety, integrity, experience, and client satisfaction are the benchmarks by which we measure our continued success.
Headquartered in Jacksonville, Florida since 1947, our main office is available to you 24/7 for Continental United States operations.
Caribbean operational response is also available 24/7 through our facilities in San Juan, Puerto Rico.
With over 70 Years of commercial diving experience, our past is always available to be part of your firm’s future.Who We Work With
Call Us 24/7
USA 904.731.0000 PR 787.788.0295
Emergency Rapid Response
Logan Diving & Salvage maintains personnel and multiple staged portable diving systems in Jacksonville, Florida and San Juan, Puerto Rico. Logan Diving & Salvage’s network of associates throughout the United States and Puerto Rico are ready to mobilize on a moment’s notice.Rapid Response Details
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COVID-19 : SAREG and SR GROUP are working to get the latest information to you about Covid-19 (Coronavirus). Please click the following link to find updates in English
When it comes to setting up a business in France, expanding your current international business to France, or simply investing in French property, here at SAREG we have all the tools at hand to provide you with a complete service from initial advice to company creation, annual accounts and tax returns.
With over 30 years of experience in international businesses and investments, 5 offices and a team of English-speaking staff on hand to assist with all your accountancy requirements, our “savoir-faire” is second to none and means we are well able to find the best solution to suit your needs, whatever your situation. Our firm has expanded tremendously over the years and has become the most innovative accountancy firm in the area, working closely with the authorities to find the most tax-efficient solutions for English-speaking clients.
We are particularly experienced in the business of UK tour operators and currently look after the affairs of more than 100 such businesses, representing them with the French authorities, including annual audits and VAT declarations. Our clients range from those with modest turnovers to those with several millions of Euros of turnover and we are capable of assisting any size of business and helping with expansion.
SAREG joins the SR CONSEIL GROUP
SAREG has recently joined forces with the SR Conseil Group, a large group of chartered accountants, auditors and lawyers situated across the French Alps. Alongside the current SAREG team in the Haute-Savoie, the SR team will be on hand to support our clients’ needs and, together, we will be able to provide you with an overall accounting and legal service.
SAREG chose SR Conseil as they share the same values of close working relationships with their clients and their staff, as well as in the services they offer their clients.
In addition, they offer a full set of professional services, which complement our own, including chartered accountancy, law, audit, payroll, occupational risk assessment, accompanying professionals in the outdoor activities sector and tax management of furnished rental income.
Their own clientèle comes from the various categories of professional activity and includes sole traders, small businesses, associations and individuals.
More information on www.srconseil.fr
Impact Protective Equipment Signs Fabric Licensing Deal With Under Armour
MOUNTAIN LAKES, N.J., Aug. 14, 2007 (PRIME NEWSWIRE) — Impact Protective Equipment, the New Jersey-based shoulder pad innovator, announced today an exclusive agreement with Under Armour, the Baltimore-based performance innovator, to manufacture its football shoulder pads with Under Armour’s ArmourGrip(r) performance fabric.
“We are extremely excited to bring Under Armour’s expertise in performance fabric into our line of football shoulder pads,” said Mark D. Monica, President and CEO of Impact Protective Equipment. “Under Armour is synonymous with performance, and the new ArmourGrip(r) fabric greatly enhances our shoulder pads, which in turn, will ultimately enhance player performance and safety.”
The new shoulder pad was tested on two teams in the NFL during the 2006 season. It is now available to the public on Impact’s website, and select sporting goods dealers throughout the world. The ArmourGrip(r) performance fabric will be used on Impact’s Pro Model pad, its new Interscholastic Model pad designed for the high school and junior high school levels of play, and pad accessories such as neck rolls and rib protectors.
The ArmourGrip(r) fabric keeps the shoulder pad from shifting on the players’ body during contact, wicks the perspiration away from the body and into the pad, and also produces a lighter-weight piece of equipment. Players will notice a significant increase in movement and mobility, and a significant decrease in shoulder pad weight.
“Performance is key to any athlete, and it is important for Under Armour to work with companies that have the same dedication and commitment to the athlete as we do,” says Tim Dennis, Director of Licensing of Under Armour. “Impact has taken player protection and performance to the next level, and we’re very pleased to play a role in the success of its unique and innovative design.”
Many shoulder pad manufacturers still use the old method, invented more than 25 years ago, of using polyurethane foam and nylon to make pads. The combination of these two materials insulate the players’ body, increases core body temperature during competition by not allowing heat to escape from under the shoulder pads, and decreases player performance.
About Impact Protective Equipment, LLC
Founded in 2002, Impact is the first football shoulder pad manufacturer to significantly improve the design in more than 25 years. The Impact design utilizes visco-elastic dry polymer foam developed by NASA to increase player protection from injury during contact, and a combination of breathable foams and materials to increase player performance through thermal regulation of the human body. The Company’s products are sold worldwide and worn by NFL, NCAA, and High School football players. Impact headquarters is located in Mountain Lakes, NJ. For further information, please visit the Company’s website at www.impactpads.com or contact Mark D. Monica at 973.263.1400.
About Under Armour, Inc.
Under Armour (NYSE:UA) is a leading developer, marketer, and distributor of branded performance apparel, footwear, and accessories. The brand’s moisture-wicking synthetic fabrications are engineered in many different designs and styles for wear in nearly every climate to provide a performance alternative to traditional natural fiber products. The Company’s products are sold worldwide and worn by athletes at all levels, from youth to professional, on playing field around the globe. The Under Armour global headquarters is in Baltimore, Maryland, with European headquarters in Amsterdam’s Olympic Stadium, and additional offices in Denver, Hong Kong, Toronto, and Guangzhou, China. For further information, please visit the Company’s website at www.underarmour.com or call Tim Dennis at 410.468.2512.
Under Armour All-America HS Football Game Uniforms Announced, Look Predictably Crazy
The Under Armour All-America High School Football Game is not just a chance to watch the football stars of tomorrow do battle, it’s also an opportunity to see some of the most unusual uniforms ever to grace the gridiron. Last year, players wore a unique gradient pattern, and all of their accessories looked like they had been vandalized by a highlighter. This year, Under Armour is taking things even further.
Wearing a neon blue, neon green, black and white color scheme, star recruits will look more like they’re starring in the movie TRONÂ than playing in a football game. The circuit board-esque design on the compression sleeves and shoulder pads only add to the vibe. Although it might be worth tuning in just to check out Under Armour’s latest crazy creations, you’ll also see some really good football players getting after it. Jameis Winston, Robert Nkemdiche and Jadeveon Clowney are just a few of the guys who participated in the UA All-America HS Football Game in years past.
The Under Armour All-America High School Football Game is not just a chance to watch the football stars of tomorrow do battle, it’s also an opportunity to see some of the most unusual uniforms ever to grace the gridiron. Last year, players wore a unique gradient pattern, and all of their accessories looked like they had been vandalized by a highlighter. This year, Under Armour is taking things even further.
Wearing a neon blue, neon green, black and white color scheme, star recruits will look more like they’re starring in the movie TRON than playing in a football game. The circuit board-esque design on the compression sleeves and shoulder pads only add to the vibe. Although it might be worth tuning in just to check out Under Armour’s latest crazy creations, you’ll also see some really good football players getting after it. Jameis Winston, Robert Nkemdiche and Jadeveon Clowney are just a few of the guys who participated in the UA All-America HS Football Game in years past.
In keeping with tradition, several top recruits are expected to announce their commitments during and after the game. Tune in to ESPN2 at 4 p.m. EST on Jan. 2 to watch the 2015 Under Armour All-America High School Football Game.
Photo Credit: Getty Images // Thinkstock
+ 2% Health
+ 20% Bonus XP (+ 2.0% at Level 70)
Melee damage reduced by 2.0%
Ranged damage reduced by 2.0%.
+30 Attribute Resistance
2.50% of Damage Dealt Converted to Health
Melee and ranged attackers gain 300 damage.Radiant damage per hit.
Melee and ranged attackers take 999 damage.fire damage for each hit.
1.1% chance to horrify the target on hit
+ 3% damage to demons
You can deflect projectiles when you receive damage.
Spikes affect enemies within 15 meters.If Punishment and Slash hit an enemy, or if you Block an attack, Spike damage is increased by 90% for 2 seconds. Stacks up to 10 times.
For 20 sec. after inflicting damage with the “Bombardment” skill, all damage taken by the hero is reduced by 50%.
Increases the attack speed of Punish and Slash by 100%. These skills deal 67,500% of the Thorns effect amount to the first enemy hit.
The cooldown of the skills “Earthquake”, “Avalanche”, “Jumping strike” and “Stomp” is reduced by 1 sec.for every 30 units wasted rage.
Jumping Strike causes an earthquake upon landing. Leaping Kick also gains the effect of the Iron Concussion rune, and its duration is increased by 150%.
Damage from skills “Earthquake”, “Avalanche”, “Jumping strike”, “Stomp”, “Spear of the Ancients” and “Seismic strike” is increased by 20,000%.
Melee and ranged attackers gain 6000 damage.fire damage for each hit.
Chance to deal 25% area damage on hit.
+ 15% Damage to Demons
You have a chance to deflect projectiles when you receive damage.
Decreases damage taken by 15%.
Increases damage done by 30%.
Damage from attacks of special enemies reduced by 30.0%
+ 30.0% to damage done to special enemies
While under the influence of Sweeping Wind, all damage taken is reduced by 50%.
Skill “Whipping Wind” every second creates a decoy near the last attacked enemy, which provokes nearby targets and explodes, dealing 1000% weapon damage for each application of this skill effect.
The Dragon Tail, Hurricane Swiftness, and Wave of Light skills deal 1500% more damage per charge of Sweeping Wind.
When a vengeful spirit enters an enemy already hit by this skill, that enemy instantly takes damage equal to the damage dealt by Vengeful Spirit over 3500 sec.
The Reap of Souls skill gains the effect of all runes, and its cooldown is reduced by 1 sec. each time Vengeful Spirit or Locust Swarm is cast.
When using Reap of Souls, reduces damage taken by 50% for 12 sec., Removes damage over time effects from targets, and immediately deals damage they would have done over 10,000 seconds.
+ 15% Health
Reduces the cooldown of all skills by 10.0%.
+ 20% bonus experience (+ 2.0% at level 70)
+100 to all elements’ resistance
+ 20% health
When the hero attacks, from time to time his companions come to his aid.
The “Archon” skill acquires the effect of all runes at the same time.
For each application of the Archon effect, attack speed, as well as armor and resistance to all types of damage are increased by 1%.
When the enemy is hit with the skills of the archon, the sorceress accumulates 1 effect of the archon. For each accumulated Archon effect, the damage taken is reduced by 0.15%, and the bonus to damage dealt is increased to 100%.
When using a melee weapon, your damage dealt is increased by 6000%.
The Power of Darkness skill gains the effect of all runes at the same time and lasts indefinitely.
The Dagger Throw skill deals 75,000% more damage to the first enemy hit.
Doubles the effectiveness of your battle shouts.Enemies that are frightened, frozen, or stunned take double damage.
Each Frenzy effect reduces damage taken by 6%. Frenzy’s effects last twice as long.
Frenzy deals 1000% more damage per stack.
The hero regains one charge of Furious Dash if this skill hits only one enemy.
The Furious Dash skill gains the effect of all runes at the same time and deals 1000% more damage.
Each use of the Furious Charge skill increases the damage of your next Fury cost skill by 5500%. The effect is cumulative. Each use of skills that require Rage costs up to 5 charges of this effect.
Lacerated Wounds deals 500% more damage per second.The duration of the effect is increased to 15 seconds.
While using the Whirlwind skill and for 3 sec. after that, the damage taken by the hero is reduced by 50%, and the effects of the Raging Wounds skill applied to opponents deal triple damage.
The Whirlwind skill acquires the Dust Demons rune ability, and the total damage from Whirlwind and Lacerated Wounds is increased by 10,000%.
Your Hand of Heaven attacks empower the Crusader, increasing the damage done by Heavenly Fury by 100% for 5 sec.The effect is summed up to 3 times, while the indicators are multiplied.
When you hit a target with Hand of Heaven, restores 5 health. anger and reduces damage taken by 1% for 10 sec. This effect stacks up to 50 times.
Increases the damage dealt by Hand of Heaven and Fury of Heaven by 20,000%.
Each use of the Shield Bash and Wide Swing skills reduces the cooldown of skills from the Defense or Principles categories by 1 sec.
Increases the damage done by your Shield Bash and Wide Swing skills by 17,500%.
If your Shield Bash or Wide Swing skill hits an enemy, your attack speed is increased by 75%, and the damage taken is reduced by 15% for 8 sec. This effect stacks up to 5 times.
Each time Sanctified Hammer hits an enemy, the cooldown of Falling Sword and Taunt is reduced by 1 sec.
For 8 sec. after landing when using the Falling Sword skill, the crusader takes 50% less damage.
Damage from the “Consecrated Hammer” skill is increased by 15,000%, and from the skill “Falling Sword” – by 1000%.
The cost of resources for using all skills is reduced by 50% while the “Champion of Akarat” skill is active.
The cooldown of the Champion of Akarat is reduced by 50%.
While Champion of Akarat is active, your hero deals 2000% more damage and takes 50% less damage.
Skills that generate a resource also generate 2.hatred and 1 unit. concentration.
If there are no enemies within 10 meters from the hero, then for 8 sec. damage taken is reduced by 60%, and damage dealt is increased by 60%.
Skills that allow you to accumulate a resource, as well as “Volley” and “Retribution” deal 350% increased damage for each unit of concentration available to the hero.
When using the skill “Pet” summons all the other pets of the hero to help.
Turrets deal 400% more damage and duplicate your Elemental Arrow, Chakram, Dagger Throw, Volley, and Explosive Arrow skills when used.
For each active turret, your main skills, as well as Elemental Arrow, Chakram, Dagger Throw, Volley, Explosive Arrow, Pet, and Retribution are dealt 12 000% more damage.
Attacking the enemy with the main skill, the hero gets the “Impulse” effect.The duration of each effect is 4 seconds, and the maximum duration is 20 seconds. For every second of Impulse duration, the damage done by basic skills is increased by 10%.
Casting Barrage against enemies automatically uses the last main skill used. Also during the use of “Barrage” and for 5 seconds. after its completion, the hero takes 60% less damage. During Barrage, the hero’s movement speed increases by 8% for each second of Impulse duration.
Basic skill damage increased by 15,000%.
Increases the attack speed of your spirit recovery skills by 25% and their damage by 400%.
Use the Power Charge skill to spend 75 pts.spirit, but at the same time one skill charge is restored.
Spirit regenerating skills increase the weapon damage done by Powerful Charge to 60,000% for 6 sec, and Powerful Charge increases the damage done by Spirit recovery skills by 6000% by 6 sec.
Every third use of a spirit recovery skill inflicts Explosive Touch.
Each hit of Seven Cardinal Points deals 777% full damage. After applying Explosive Touch to an enemy, damage taken is reduced by 77% for 7 sec.
The Seven Cardinal Skill triggers the superimposed Explosive Touch effect. The damage from the Explosive Touch skill is increased by 9000%.
Skill “Whipping Wind” acquires the effects of all runes, and the hero’s movement speed is increased by 5% for each effect of “Whipping Wind”.
Attacks using Hurricane Swiftness reduce damage taken by 50% and increase Spirit regeneration by 50. in sec.
When an enemy is hit with the Hurricane Swiftness skill while Whipping Wind is active, the area of effect of Whipping Wind is increased, and all damage done by the hero is increased by 15,000%.
Disintegration sets enemies on fire, dealing 3000% weapon damage every second until they die.If the hero dies, a meteorite falls from the sky and brings him back to life. The cooldown of the effect is 60 seconds.
Your Disintegration applies Combustion, reducing the cooldown of Teleport by 2% per stack. Stacks up to 50 times. While you are affected by Combustion, you take 80% less damage.
While a target is on fire, you deal 2000% more damage. When you hit an Ignited target with a Fire Spell that does not require Channeling, you inflict Ignite damage multiplied by the number of Combustion effects.
Doubles the duration of the hydras and increases the number of heads of the multi-headed hydras by two.
Damage taken is reduced by 8% for each hydra head you live. Every time the hero takes damage, one of the heads dies.Heads die no more than once every 2 sec.
Hydras deal 2000% more damage per head alive.
When using the skills “Magic Orb”, “Energy Vortex”, “Energy Blast”, “Magic Arrow”, “Shock Discharge”, “Ghost Blade” or “Force Wave”, the cooldown of the skill “Slow Time” »Decreases by 3 sec.
Take 60% less damage while Slow Time is active. While inside the sphere, the hero’s allies receive half of this bonus.
Enemies affected by Time Slow take 12,500% more damage from Magic Orb, Energy Vortex, Energy Blast, Magic Arrow, Shock Discharge “,” Ghost Blade “and” Force Wave “. The effect lasts for 5 seconds.after the skill stops affecting the target.
Great Scary Voodoo now follows the sorceress and lasts twice as long.
The Sorceress takes 60% less damage for 30 sec. after the transition to the spirit world.
Spectral Flurry deals 20,000% more damage and an additional percentage equal to 5 times Mana Regeneration per second.
When you take damage from basic skills, as well as from Acid Cloud, Firebats, Berserker Zombie, Zombie Dog, Huge Den, Death’s Embrace, Piranha Or Wall of Death hits enemies with Necrosis, which reduces their movement speed and causes them to take 3000% weapon damage every second for 10 sec.
When Necrosis is applied to an enemy, the Sorceress takes 60% less damage for 10 sec.
After the witch uses the Wall of Death skill, the damage it deals with the main skills, as well as the Acid Cloud, Fire Bat, Berserker Zombie, Zombie Dog, Giant, Embrace of Death, Piranhas, or Wall of Death increases by 17,500% for 15 sec.
Summons a Spider Queen with unlimited duration.The Queen leaves behind a spider web that deals 4000% weapon damage over 5 seconds. and slowing down opponents. The Spider Queen moves to the point where the Sorceress uses the Corpse Spiders skill.
The Evil Eye skill becomes the effect of the Giant Toad rune. After summoning a sorceress toad for 15 sec. takes 50% less damage and restores 10% of maximum health per second.
The damage done by skills that spawn creatures is increased by 17,500%.These skills include Cadaveric Spiders, Toad Invasion, Firebats, Locust Swarm, Evil Eye, and Piranhas.
From each corpse absorbed by the necromancer, a “Corpse spear” flies to the nearby enemy.
For each enemy hit with Bone Spear, Corpse Spear or Corpse Explosion, the damage taken by the necromancer is reduced by 2%, up to 50%.This effect lasts 15 seconds.
For each corpse consumed, the Necromancer gains a charge of Mighty Bone Spear, which increases the damage of your next Bone Spear by 3300%. Damage from the skills “Corpse spear” and “Explosion of the corpse” is increased by 3300%.
Simulacra no longer receive damage, are endowed with the effects of all runes, and the skill itself is instantly restored after the death of the hero.
While at least one simulacrum is active, the damage taken by the hero is reduced by 50% and is distributed between the hero and the simulacrum.
Bone Spear deals 10,000% more damage. Simulacra receive a triple bonus.
Whenever Permanent Minions of the Necromancer deal damage, the cooldown of Army of the Dead is reduced by 0.50 sec.Your Skeleton Warriors spawn more often, and your animated minions have no time limit.
Your minions no longer take damage. Whenever the Necromancer’s minions deal damage, the damage taken is reduced by 1% for 15 sec. This effect stacks up to 75 times.
For each active permanent minion, the damage done by Army of the Dead is increased by 500%, up to 9000%.
The Bloody Dash skill gains the effect of all runes.
At full health, healing received from using skills increases your maximum health by up to 100% for 45 sec.
Health spending skills deal 3800% more damage, and your skills heal for 100% more health.
Bone Armor damage increased by 1000%.
Bone Armor additionally reduces damage taken by 3% for each enemy hit.
Bone Armor also creates a tornado of bones, dealing 1000% weapon damage to nearby enemies and increasing damage taken from the necromancer by 10,000%.
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NSU will send the armor of the ancient Turkic warrior to Moscow
On December 17, a press conference and a demonstration of the unique armor of the ancient Turkic warrior, reconstructed by scientists of the Novosibirsk State University, took place in TASS (Novosibirsk).
In November this year, Russian President Vladimir Putin, during a meeting with young historians, showed interest in the project of scientific and historical reconstruction of the armor of Siberian soldiers.As a result of the meeting, Novosibirsk scientists decided to present to the President a complete set of reconstructed armor of an Altai warrior of the 8th century AD as a gift.
During the event, they presented the results of their work to the journalists. NSU employees spoke about the work of NSU with historical artifacts, the participation of its employees in archaeological excavations, as well as about the features and significance of the reconstructed armor: Rector of the University Mikhail Fedoruk , Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Archeology and Ethnography Yuliy Khudyakov , Doctor of Historical Sciences , Senior Researcher, Laboratory for Humanitarian Research, Research Unit Leonid Bobrov , Research Engineer, Laboratory for Humanitarian Research, Research Unit Yuri Filippovich .
“Usually, it takes us three, four, five months to make an armor. This one was made in one and a half months. For this, all the masters stopped the work they were doing, and threw all their efforts into this project,” said Leonid Bobrov. – We managed to get the support of the plenipotentiary of the President of the Russian Federation in the Siberian Federal District Nikolai Rogozhkin. He promised to help with the delivery of the armor. I think by the end of this week or by the beginning of the next he will already be in Moscow, in the presidential administration. ”
The archaeologist explained that we are talking about a copy of a warrior’s vestments discovered during excavations of the Balyk-Sok burial ground in the Altai Republic.The set of armor includes a cuirass, shoulder pads, helmet, shield, spear, caftan and belt with over 50 silver overlays. All elements are made from original materials, identical to those used in antiquity. The weight of the uniform is 23 kg.
According to scientists, the unique find found in the burial ground belonged to a warrior of the Great Turkic Kaganate – a powerful Asian state that existed in the 6th-7th centuries on the territory from the banks of the Volga to the Great Wall of China.Such armor was worn by heavily armed horsemen called “storms” (“wolves” or “iron wolves”). The Turkic army mostly consisted of light cavalry armed with powerful bows, and the storm detachments played the role of the main striking force.
The original uniform is in one of the Altai museum depositories.
Armor for All Seasons
In ancient times, soldiers, as a rule, went to battle with only offensive weapons in their hands. Later, a shield was added to it, with which it was possible to hide from the enemy’s blow.But for a more thorough protection of the body from various piercing and cutting objects, more advanced devices and technologies were needed. And, without a doubt, the most popular and durable product of both the early and late Middle Ages was chain mail, which became widespread in almost all areas of the world with a developed handicraft production.
Preserving from cut wounds
Defensive armor has come a rather long evolutionary path.The most ancient means of protection were clothes woven from ropes with wooden stripes. They were replaced by leather goods, sometimes with metal overlays, which, for example, were used by the Scythians in the 7th century. BC. Sarmatians, along with leather armor, also wore bony scaly shells made from horse hooves. But among the samples of military equipment of this period, archaeologists also come across heavy iron and bronze scale armor.
However, the improvement of offensive weapons and the emergence of iron arrowheads make it necessary to look for more reliable means of protection.So, around the VI century. on the territory of Eastern Europe, iron chain armor appears. The first written mention of it was recorded in 903-913. in the work of the Persian geographer Ibn Rust “On the Slavs and the Rus”, where the scientist notes that the Slavic king had “beautiful, durable and precious chain mail.”
Another historical source – the Ipatiev Chronicle – speaks of such a means of protection as “armor”, which in 968 the Russian prince presented to the Pechenezh khan.
The Russian word for armor comes from the German brünne (chain mail).And from the second half of the XIII century. in Russian chronicles one can already find the word “armor” (derived from the word “board”, that is, board protection). Somewhat later, another designation for a warrior’s undergarment came into use – “carapace”, which came from the German panzer – chain mail made of flat rings.
“Iron shirt” has become a unique means of protection, combining flexibility, mobility, small thickness.
And although it did not save from crushing blows, fraught with bruises and fractures, but it protected from sliding blows, which was important.At the dawn of medicine, healers quite safely treated hematomas and the consequences of bone damage, but they could not cope with infections that got into the cut wound and the subsequent tissue suppuration. Taking this into account, the chain mail of the warriors of both Europe and Asia was always in price.
The 10th century Tajik scientist Al-Biruni described the purpose of this armor precisely and figuratively: “Chain mails are designed to shame weapons (the enemy) in battle, they protect from what the opponents are using and from blows that cut off the head.”
In the modern sense, ringed armor could well be compared to a soldier’s helmet. It will not save you from a direct hit from a bullet, but it will perfectly protect you from a bullet flying tangentially, or from shrapnel wounds.
The chain mail did not protect from a cavalryman’s spear blow and from an arrow fired at close range. Iron rings also did not save from the thrust of the sword. In addition, with a special technique and sufficient strength, a warrior could leave rather large notches on the chain mail with the end of his cutting weapon or even break through it, which is repeatedly demonstrated by archaeological finds.In order for this to happen as rarely as possible, the blacksmithing masters were required to adhere to a certain technology.
It would be logical to assume that the use of durable materials in the manufacture of chain mail would increase its protective properties. However, this assumption is incorrect. Historically, “armor” was made from a relatively soft metal – iron with a low carbon content. The rings of such chain mail during the blow could wrap around the blade of the blade, and it was rather difficult to cut through them.At the same time, hardened, that is, theoretically more durable, armor, with a similar external impact, often broke and at the same time allowed impact weapons to penetrate into the tissues of the body.
The very process of making the “armor” was very time consuming. The creation of one “iron shirt” took up to 10 kg of iron, from which at the first stage a wire of a specified diameter was made. It, in turn, was produced in two ways. The first is when a blacksmith forged a rod, thinning it to the desired size. The second is more complex, in which the master pulled a thin part of the iron rod through the metal cone, reducing it in diameter, lengthening and forming it into a round shape.
And this was done more than once, as a result of which a wire of higher quality than that obtained by forging wire came out.
It is because of the method of making the iron “thread” that the European chain mail, produced before the 10th century, was inferior in the fortress to the East Slavic and Eastern models of protective weapons. The fact is that in the Dark Ages (VI-X centuries), the technology of wire drawing was lost in Europe. And only in the X century. invented the drawing board, and from 1351 the wire production process was mechanized due to the invention of the water wheel.
An equally important condition for the strength of ringed armor was the way of weaving. The simplest option was considered knitting “4 in 1”, in which the ring was connected to four adjacent ones. But the degree of protection was minimal. For a more solid chain mail, weaving was required “6 in 1”, “8 in 1” or “8 in 2”. On the one hand, this increased its strength, but on the other, it increased its weight and entailed a decrease in the speed of reaction and blows produced by the warrior, and also became the reason for his greater fatigue in battle.
And sometimes it was the weight of the armor that played a fatal role in the fate of a warrior. This can be seen in the example of the legendary Ermak Timofeevich (1532-1585) – the conqueror of Siberia. Khan Kuchum attacked his small detachment of Cossacks while spending the night near the Irtysh River. The chieftain tried to swim to his plows. But it all ended, as the poet-Decembrist Kondraty Ryleev wrote in his poem, with the fact that “the heavy shell – the gift of the tsar became his fault”.
“Armor” at the price of a car
A warrior dressed in armor of double or even triple weave was practically invulnerable on the battlefield.As already mentioned, the weight of the product increased significantly. And if a single-layer chain mail weighed about 5 kg, then a more durable structure reached a mass of 16 kg.
There were also other elements of protection based on weaving rings, for example, barmitsa. This is an element of a helmet in the form of a chain mail mesh, which framed the neck along the lower edge, and sometimes even covered the face, leaving only slits for the eyes.
The hands, which are most susceptible to damage in combat, were also often protected with metal.For this, chain mail mittens were made; they were not worn on a bare hand, but attached to a leather or felt base, which softened the blow.
From the end of the X century. in Western Europe, such a type of armor as a hauberk, which is a long-length chain mail with a hood, has become widespread. And in the XIII century. in the Russian heavy cavalry, along with long “armor”, chain mail stockings began to spread.
However, not every blacksmith took up the manufacture of armor, because, firstly, it required a fairly high skill, and secondly, it involved a long production process.After all, it is not enough to make a few kilograms of wire, you still need to forge many rings from it. Moreover, it was very important to observe their internal diameter (ID).
In order for the chain mail to have flexibility, it was necessary to make rings with a diameter of at least two to three times the diameter of the wire to create it.
At the same time, oversized rings resulted in a flimsy design. Thus, the optimal VD of the metal circle was calculated by a simple action: the wire diameter was multiplied by five.So the ring in diameter was on average a little more than 1 cm. And in the case when the thumb crawled into it, the whole product was recognized as not suitable for the battlefield. And if 2–2.5 thousand circles came out of a kilogram of iron, then it is easy to calculate how many were required to “stitch” the entire product.
It is curious that in 1983 in the city of Elektrostal, on the basis of a local metallurgical plant, enthusiastic masters under the leadership of Dmitry Zelin decided to make full chain mail armor (hauberk, chain mail, chain mail stockings and mittens) in full accordance with the technologies of the feudal era (from Yaroslav the Wise to Ivan the Terrible).
As a result, labor costs for the production of protective equipment amounted to 250 man-hours. For comparison, to manufacture one car GAZ-M20 “Pobeda” required labor costs of about 234 man-hours. This very clearly shows how expensive iron armor was in the Middle Ages. And, accordingly, either professional warriors (at the expense of the prince) or very wealthy people from among the nobility or merchants wore it.
In the XIII century. in Europe, chain mail began to be reinforced with alettes (coat of arms-shoulder straps), and a century later, the first solid-forged breast plates appeared – the predecessors of cuirasses.So solid steel armor began to gradually replace “iron shirts”. But, nevertheless, it was not possible to completely do without them.
Plate has a number of vulnerabilities, such as armpits. And in order to protect them, chain-mail fragments were sewn onto under-armored clothes.
In Russia, the soldiers used chain mail until the end of the 17th century, and in the East, the Caucasus and Central Asia – until the beginning of the 19th century.
People have not given up mail armor to this day. Stainless steel products are used in the form of a bib with an apron and gloves to protect the body and hands in meat processing plants when cutting carcasses.Also, sometimes chain mail is worn by scuba divers studying the life and behavior of sharks.
Armor of Japanese samurai
“Among the flowers – cherry,
Among the people – a samurai “
Japanese folk proverb
Ancient wars of the Yayoi era (3rd century BC – 3rd century AD)
As soon as the next wave of immigrants ended up in Japan, they immediately had to wage war with the local residents.Between 3 c. BC. and 2nd century AD Another group of newcomers from Asia brought with them two innovations that turned out to be very important: the ability to process iron and the custom of burial in huge kofun mounds, where utensils and their weapons were also placed with the dead. Haniwa figurines made of baked clay were also supposed to accompany them in the next world. Usually they were buried around burial grounds, and since they very often depicted armed warriors, their finds helped a lot to scientists archaeologists – just like the remains of armor and weapons preserved in these ancient burial mounds.
Samurai in the 19th century photograph
During this period of time, called Yayoi, the protective weapons of the Japanese warriors consisted of wooden or leather armor, which looked like a simple cuirass with straps. Many warriors, especially in the cold, wore bearskin jackets with fur outside. However, in summer it was too hot in them, which is why cuirasses made of wood and leather, together with a sleeveless shirt, became the main outfit of most of them. The dorsal part of the cuirass made of wood protruded above the level of the shoulders, while the cuirasses made of leather often had shoulder pads made of leather strips or overlap on the shoulders.
In the course were te-date board shields, which had an umbon at the top, resembling a solar disk with spiraling rays, which was not found anywhere else.
Hoko spears, straight all-metal chokuto swords, halberds borrowed from China – halberds with long and short handles, as well as bows and arrows – served as weapons for the warriors of the Yayoi era. The sound of a special bronze bell was supposed to cheer up the warriors in battle, the ringing of which was believed to scare away evil spirits.Note that although iron was already known in Japan at this time, many types of weapons up to the 4th century AD. still continued to be made of bronze.
Warriors of the Yamato era (3rd century AD – 710) and the Heian era (794-1185)
Horses were brought to Japan from China in the late 4th – early 5th centuries. Moreover, in China itself, this was the time of the heavily armed cavalry, which had protective armor and on horseback, and, most importantly, stirrups, which provided the Chinese horsemen with a stable landing.As for Japan, here the horse and rider had a chance to play an extremely important role: if earlier only infantry participated in the battles, now cavalry was added to them, which created a decisive advantage over the local aborigines.
Gold plated armor with red cords
That is why, already in the 5th century, Japanese warriors abandoned shields, and horse harness appeared in their burials! Their main weapon at that time was a large asymmetric shape (one of his “shoulders” was longer than the other) a yumi bow and a straight cutting sword, sharpened like a saber on one side.Chinese records from 600 indicate that Japanese warriors had bows and arrows tipped with iron and bone, crossbows similar to Chinese ones, swords, long and short spears, and leather armor. Moreover, they were already covered with the famous Japanese varnish, which, however, is not surprising, since Japan is a country with a humid monsoon climate, and varnishing of metal and leather was absolutely necessary to preserve the armor. Some armors for especially high-ranking individuals were also gilded!
True, no one called these warriors samurai yet! For their designation there was a much more sublime word – bushi, which can be translated in Russian words “fighter, warrior”.And, like the warriors of all countries of the world, they strove not only for effective means of attack, but also for no less reliable protection. Moreover, the art of war does not tolerate inconvenience. That is why at this time the keiko armor became widespread – as the most comfortable for the rider.
A typical such armor was a plate cuirass with the same skirt that reached the middle of the warrior’s thighs. A row of elongated and inwardly curved plates formed the waist, and sometimes stretched along the lower edge of the skirt; its purpose is not entirely clear.On the body of a warrior, such an armored caftan was held by wide shoulder straps made of cotton fabric (watagami), which covered the collar and shoulder pads on top. The bracers were now made of narrow vertical metal strips connected by lacing. The horseman’s legs were vulnerable, therefore, first of all, the warrior fixed the armor plates below the knees on his legs. Then bracers were put on, after which armored legguards were tied to the belt, covering the hips and knees. The cuirass, together with the skirt flaring downward, looked most like a modern pea jacket, which was tightened with a belt at the waist.The warrior also put on the shoulder pads connected to the collar himself, like everything else. A straight sword was hung on his belt, his head was covered with a helmet, after which, with a bow in his hands, the warrior was ready for any battle.
Armor with cords in two colors
In the 8th century, a variant of the keiko appeared, which looked like a split caftan of four parts: the front and back sections in it were connected by shoulder straps, and the two side ones had to be worn separately. Apparently, all this was invented for the convenience of the horsemen, who in Japan did not so much use spears and swords as they shot from their large bows directly from the horse.
Warriors of the Kamakura era (1185-1333)
But the rise of the bushi in the Heian era ended with the unheard-of fall of the imperial power and the victory of the class of warriors. During the Kamakura era – the time of the first shogunate (military dictatorship) in Japan – all bushi were divided into two categories: gokenin and higokenin. The first stood in the center of the class of warriors and were directly subordinate to the shogun; the latter were ordinary mercenary soldiers who served whoever they had to.Military affairs were now completely separated from agriculture, and all the peasants turned into serfs. And, although each village had to allocate a certain number of peasants to the samurai as servants or spear-bearers during the campaign, these people, who received the title of ashigaru (literally “light-footed”), never became equal to the samurai. Although even among them there were some individuals who managed to get out to the top.
But then nothing could compare with the armor of that time.The fact is that it was in this era that kozan-do armor appeared in Japan, made of small metal kozane plates, tied together by textile or leather cords, for which holes were made in them. They were somewhat angular, the complexity of their manufacture was very high, but they perfectly met their main purpose – to serve as protection for mounted warriors who shot from a bow from a horse. In addition, they were also very beautiful, as their design reflected the refined aestheticism of this era.And it is not at all surprising that this color and brightness, not to mention the protective qualities, immediately fell in love with the horsemen of that time, and for several centuries – from the 10th to the 15th centuries. inclusive – they only considered them worthy of themselves. By the way, it was now that such warriors were increasingly called the word “samurai” (“saburai”), derived from the verb “saburau”, which translated from Japanese means “to serve a great lord, a man of the upper class”. Consequently, samurai at that time were precisely the servants of large feudal lords.They guarded their estates, property and themselves and were devoted to the interests of their owner – that is, in all this they did not differ from the princely warriors of Ancient Russia!
Tosei-gusoku armor with a helmet made by Saotome Ienaga (late 17th – early 18th century), representing the eighth generation of the Saotome school. The rivet heads are clearly visible on the cuirass, so this is a type of kakari-do. A 64-plate suji-bachi kabuto helmet, with a shikoro head made of four kiritsuke-kozane plates. On the lapels of the fukikaeshi there is a four-square coat of arms that belonged to the Takeda family at the time.Front crest of the classic kuwagata type. On the inner surface of the crown the signature: made by Saotome Ienaga
During the Heian period, these plates were quite large: 5-7 cm high and 4 cm wide. They were made either of iron or leather and were necessarily varnished to protect them from dampness. They were assembled so that each kozane plate half covered the one on her right. At the end of each row, another half plate was added for strength. True, from time to time the lacing was stretched, and the connected plates began to sag.Therefore, to prevent this from happening, manufacturers began to use as many as three types of plates, superimposed on one another. The protective properties of such armor were very high, but the weight was too great, so the plates for it were often made of leather. In the 13th century, the size of the plates, which began to be called Iozane, slightly decreased, but their number in armor increased.
Plates of the same row were connected to each other using one cord. Sets of stripes were obtained, which were connected using vertical kebiki-odoshi lacing.A special cord (mimito), the color of which differed from the color of the main lacing, was also used to braid the edges of the armor, and it was usually thicker and stronger than all other cords.
Plates were usually dyed in different colors using organic pigments. So, they were painted black with ordinary soot; in bright red – cinnabar; brown was obtained by mixing red with black. The popularity of the dark brown lacquer color was associated with the custom of drinking tea widespread in Japan and the fashion for everything old, and the red-brown lacquer gave the impression of a metal surface corroded by rust, even if there was no trace of rust on it.Some craftsmen combined varnish with chopped straw, added burnt clay and even crushed coral to it. In especially rich armor, a “golden varnish” was used, obtained from the addition of gold dust or even thin sheet gold to it. Red was considered the color of war. Blood was not so visible on the red armor up close, but from a distance, on the contrary, they made a frightening impression: it seemed that the people dressed in them were splattered with blood from head to toe.
Tosei-gusoku armor of the Hatisuka clan with the coat of arms of the maru ni manji mon (swastika in a circle).18 century. The ito-sugake-odoshi izane nimai-do breastplate with a kusazuri plate skirt is assembled from plates with a gilded coat of arms and is an archaic element made in imitation of the great ora armor of the Heian period (794-1185). The sode shoulder pads are made up of seven rows of hon-kozane plates and have a solid metal plate of kammurite on top. Momonari kabuto helmet (“peach” shape) with a longitudinal crest in the middle of the crown is decorated with maedate in the form of deer antlers and a disc with the coat of arms of the Hatisuka clan
By the way, not only the finishing of the armor, but even a simple varnish was very expensive.The sap of the lacquer tree is collected from June to October, and it is best released late at night, so its collectors do not have time to sleep at this time. In addition, one varnish tree for a whole season, lasting six months, gives only one cup of juice!
The process of applying varnish to products is also quite complicated. The fact is that real Japanese urushi varnish cannot be dried as usual, but it is necessary that its polymerization occurs in the fresh air in the shade and dampness. That is why the varnishing of large batches of products was sometimes carried out in an earthen pit, along the walls of which water flowed, and from above it was covered with palm leaves.Like all traditional Japanese crafts, working with it required a lot of experience and patience, but the resistance of this varnish to any influences of the Japanese climate and mechanical damage was extremely high.
The classic armor of this type already at the beginning of the 10th century was the o-yoroi, or “large armor”, which differed from the later keiko armor in that it consisted of one large piece that covered the warrior’s chest, left side and back, while his right the side was protected by a separately worn waidate plate.The breastplate was called dô, and in armor, the o-yoroi consisted of four rows of nakagawa plates. Another two or three rows of plates covered the upper chest and back. The upper part of the munaita breastplate had fastenings for the shoulder straps of the watagami on a thick lining, and on top of them were attached vertical shojino-ita plates, which protected the warrior’s neck from side sword blows.
Tosei-gusoku armor of the Maeda clan with the front plate of the cuirass by Meitin Munekatsu. Early 18th century. The six-piece rockumai do breastplate with a one-piece chest plate features a dragon embossed design.Fukikaeshi cuffs with overlapping diamonds of the Maeda clan
Usually, all the all-metal plates of the cuirass were covered with dressed leather so that when fired from a bow, the bowstring would not touch their edges. The warrior’s armpits in front were also protected by plates that were attached to cords: sandan-no-ita from several rows on the right and a narrow one-piece forged kyubi-noita plate on the left.
The lower body and thighs were protected by four trapezoidal kusazuri, also composed of plates connected by cords.There was no carapace collar in the o-yoroi’s armor, but the warrior’s shoulders were protected by large rectangular o-sode shoulders, which played the role of a kind of flexible shields. A large heavy bow of the agemaki made of a thick silk cord, connected with special cords with shoulder pads, served as a fulcrum for them on the warrior’s back. Moreover, regardless of the color of the lacing on the armor itself, these cords, like the agemaki bow, were always red, which was both convenient and beautiful.
In Japanese armor, things have always been of great importance: color, material, also the pattern of lacing on the one hand, and on the other, its density.Both that, and another for gunsmiths was a special kind of art: the first – odoshi, the second – kebiki. And it’s not just about beauty. By the color of the cords and the patterns of them on the armor, the samurai now easily distinguished “theirs” from “strangers”, although, judging by the battle canvases, armor of the same color could be on different sides.
Tossei gusoku armor with the rindo family crest (gentian flower and bamboo leaves). 18 century. The kon-ito-odoshi hon-kozane nimai-do breastplate has tight kebiki-odoshi-style lacing with a dark blue cord, which is also used on the six-wedge kusazuri plate skirt.There is a green brocade outer belt kinhetai. The suji-bachi kabuto helmet consists of 32 plates, decorated with natural water buffalo horns and the Rindo crest on small fukikaeshi cuffs. This mon (coat of arms) was used by the Minamoto clans by a group of families of ancient and medieval Japan descended from the children of emperors who were denied the status of princes and transferred to the category of subjects by giving the Minamoto surname and the title “Ason”, that is, “servant of the dynasty.” These clans are also known as Genji or Genke.It was the Minamoto families who became the first samurai in history, leading the ruling military elite for 700 years of Japanese history
It is believed that the custom of distinguishing clans by color came into vogue during the reign of Emperor Seiwa (856-876), when the Fujiwara family chose light green as their color, Taira purple, Tachibana yellow, etc. The armor of the Empress Dzingo, for example, had a lacing of dark crimson cords, which is why they were called “armor of red embroidery”. Usually the red color of cords was preferred to all others, and white – the color of mourning in Japan – was worn by warriors ready to die in battle or fighting for a hopeless cause.Well, the density of the weaving indicated the position of the warrior in the clan. Tight and skillful lacing, which practically covered the surface of the plates, was characteristic of the nobility and horsemen; among ordinary ashigaru infantrymen, it was rather rare, and the number of cords was small.
Cords and colors
Plates of Japanese armor were held on cords: leather – gawa-odoshi and silk – ito-odoshi. Dense one-color weaving (kebiki-odoshi) was the most popular and at the same time the simplest.In the event that leather cords were used, a small pattern of Japanese cherry blossoms could be imprinted on them. This weaving was called kozakura-odoshi, and the flowers could be red, dark blue, or black, and the background could be white, yellow or brown. This kind of weaving was especially common in the late Heian period and early Kamakura period. If, against the background of one-color weaving, one or two of the upper rows of plates were intertwined with white cords, then this was the kata-odoshi weaving, popular at the beginning of the Muromachi period.The reverse variant, when the cords of a different color were located at the bottom, was called kositori-odoshi; and if the stripes alternated, then this was already dan-odoshi, more characteristic of the end of this period. The weaving of colored stripes was called iro-iro-odoshi, and it was also characteristic of the late Muromachi period. The variant of weaving of iro-iro-odoshi, in which the color of the strip in the middle was replaced by another, was called katami-gavari-odoshi. More complex and elegant was the spread from the XII century. weaving susugo-odoshi, when the color of each new strip was darker than the previous one, starting from the upper white strip down.At the same time, another strip of yellow weaving was placed between the white at the top and the main colors at the bottom.
The ancient type of weaving in the form of chevrons was quite rare: saga-omodaka-odoshi with an upward angle and omodoga-odoshi with a downward chevron angle. Tsumadori-odoshi had a half-corner chevron pattern. The weaving of staggered cords was called shikime-odoshi. However, these are far from all varieties of weaving on Japanese armor, since the imagination of the masters who did this was simply inexhaustible.For example, on the lacing could be depicted the coat of arms of the owner of the armor – his mon. So, the swastika could be depicted on the soda of the Tsugaru clan, which dominated in northern Japan, and the Shimazu clan from the island of Kyushu was identified by the cross in a circle (“horse bits”). The lines of weaving could also go not straight, but in waves, but could make up an original color pattern, as, for example, in the weaving of kamatsuma-dora-odoshi. In general, parts of the armor had to have the same lacing pattern on both the o-sode and the kusazuri. However, on the armor, d-maru and haramaki-do o-sode could have one pattern, which was also repeated on the body, but on the kusazuri plates, another.Most often it was the darkest color of the stripe on the o-sode.
Dzinbaori sleeveless cape worn by the commanders over the armor
The full name of the armor included the color of the cords, the name of the material from which they were made, the type of weaving and, finally, the type of the armor itself. Thus, the o-yoroi armor with alternating red and blue silk cords was called aka-kon ito dan-odoshi yoroi, and the color that was on top was always the first. A red dô-maru with a half of a chevron was called aka-tsumadori ito-odoshi dô-maru, and haramaki with black leather weaving was called kuro-gawa odoshi haramaki-do.
As in all other countries, in Japan at this time, natural dyes were used to dye the cords, which were distinguished by their persistence. Therefore, some colors were used more often than others. So, the most common colors for lacing in armor were red aka, orange chi (“fiery”), crimson kurenai, black kuro, green midori, blue kon, yellow ki, brown cha (“tea”), white shiro and purple murasaki.
The blue color obtained from indigo dye was popular primarily because it protected silk from fading, while madder and soybeans (red and purple) destroyed silk, which required reddish-purple lacing to be repaired more often. than any other.The odoshige leather straps, made of white leather with red cherry flowers depicted on them, also looked very elegant.
Breastplate with kusazuri with the emblem of the Asano clan. The carapace of the armor of the samurai rider of the Edo okegawa-do era consists of seven metal plates depicting the golden coat of arms of the Asano samurai family in the form of two crossed falcon feathers on the chest and back. The upper front plate of the do cuirass, the upper plate of the sode shoulder pads, the details of the haidate’s helmet and thigh protectors are decorated with rare crane skin, which was a sacred symbol.A suji-kabuto helmet of nine iron plates with reinforced ribs, covered with red lacquer, the lapels and visor of the helmet are decorated with bronze overlays and crane skin, the shikoro neck protection of four metal plates intertwined with a silk cord. On the helmet there is a bronze maedate in the form of a circle with the image of crossed falcon feathers, the family coat of arms of the Asano clan. The mempo iron protective mask is equipped with a mustache and a dare-kake front neck guard, consisting of three iron plates intertwined with a silk cord.Wooden chest with samurai crest for carrying and storing gusoku-bitu armor
However, any beauty requires sacrifice, and Japanese laced armor was no exception in this regard. The dense lacing that secured their plates, not only held the spear point, instead of letting it slip, but also absorbed water in rainy and damp weather, which greatly increased the weight of the armor. But not only did they become heavy and their weight burdened the warrior. In winter, from the frost, all these cords easily froze and the armor broke, and if they were removed, it was impossible to put them on.In addition, no amount of washing could completely rid the lacing of the dirt that was stuffed into it. So during long and distant campaigns, it began to smell bad, besides, ants and lice got in it, which had a bad effect on the health of the soldiers, which in turn affected the combat capability of the entire army!
Armor do-maru, haramaki-do and haraate
As much as a samurai would not like to have an o-yoroi armor, not everyone could afford it.They were very complicated and expensive. That is why everyone who was poorer wore the dô-maru armor, which means “around the body,” which appeared at the same time as the o-yora, or even somewhat earlier. Armor of this type also consisted of several rows of plates laced to each other, however, they were arranged in such a way that the waidate plate was unnecessary. They were tied on the right side, so it was much easier and faster to put on the d-maru than in the more complex o-yoroi armor.
Tokugawa clan tosei gusoku armor.The beginning of the 19th century. A classic type of princely armor with a large helmet decorated with heraldic family insignia in the form of mallow leaves. Also, the helmet is decorated with the image of a golden dragon squeezing a fiery pearl a symbol of power over the world
They did not have o-sode shoulder pads, but instead they used gyyo plates, which had the shape of a tree leaf and were attached to watagami with cords. Kusazuri were divided into 7-8 sections, so that it was more convenient for the servant to walk or run next to his master’s horse.True, according to the experience of the 13th century war, kusazuri in o-yoroi armor also began to be divided from below in front and behind, however, even in this improved form, they were still too heavy and not suitable for infantrymen, so the popularity of dô-maru was constantly growing, so that even many noble samurai began to wear them. True, they immediately supplemented them with o-sode shoulder pads in order to once again emphasize their high position, and the armor itself tried to decorate it more pompously. At the same time, the gyyo plates were placed on the chest, replacing the traditional breast plates with the o-yoroi.In the 14th century, when many samurai had to serve in fortresses, the haramaki-do (or simply haramaki) armor became widespread, which can be translated as “wrapping around the belly.” They tied them on the back, and since the rows of records did not go off there, there was no room for the agemaki knot, which means that it was impossible to carry the o-sode with them. They found a way out by placing a narrow and long se-ita plate in this place, with one kusazuri at the bottom, but since it was believed that a samurai could not turn his back on the enemy, many called it a “coward’s plate”.On the other hand, she managed to attach an agemaki bow and attach the cords from the shoulder pads to it as usual. In the end, they decided to secure these cords in rings on the upper plates, which resulted in a new Yoroi Haramaki armor. The role of foot soldiers in the samurai armies was constantly growing, and in order to provide them with at least some kind of protection, Japanese armourers invented the haraate (“belly protection”) armor, most of all resembling an apron with an apron. Typically, there were six rows of plates fastened between layers of patent leather and tied with a minimum of cords.Like other Japanese armor, it had the same button-down shoulder straps, as well as the drawstrings that crisscross the back. There was no complete set of kusazur and uharaate. Usually there were only three of them, and some had only one at all – a plate in front, which covered the warrior’s lower abdomen.
A helmet was not worn with him either, but a happuri – a kind of half mask made of black metal that covered the forehead, cheeks and temples, as well as the simplest kote bracers made of leather.
However, the convenience of haraate was soon appreciated by the Japanese military elite, among which they began to be worn with everyday clothes (or rather, under it) in case of a surprise attack.
Kohagi-okegawa-do samurai armor with black lacquered plates and a kabuto helmet with a maetate in the shape of a dragonfly, late 16th early 17th century.
By the 15th century, do-maru, haramaki, and haraate had almost completely supplanted o-yoroi armor from samurai everyday life. Although they still continued to remain in value, and having them at home was very prestigious, they were worn only on the most solemn occasions, and not in battle. Now their owners were samurai like daimyo, and the warriors are simpler because of its astronomical cost, such magnificent armor did not even dream of! You cannot say otherwise, especially knowing the sums that the masters received for their restoration in the middle of the 19th century, and their production itself was hardly much cheaper.For example, the dô-maru armor in 1856 cost 215 gold ryos, for a copy of the o-yoroi armor seven years later they paid 300 ryos, while only the restoration of the helmet by master Miochin Nobui, made in 1534, in 1865 cost 19 ryos. ! Since the then ryo was equal to about 3 grams of gold, then 300 ryos in our modern terms would mean the cost of almost one kilogram of gold! In general, everything was exactly the same as now, when many businessmen are simply obliged to have an expensive car of a prestigious brand, although in fact they do not need this car at all!
Protection of hands and feet
Any armor is designed to protect not only the torso, but also the limbs of the warrior.And although the Japanese armourers also did not deviate from this rule, the first bracers, at first only for the left hand holding the bow, appeared on Japanese o-yoroi armor only at the end of the 12th century. Kote – a bracer for the left hand – looked like a separately worn sleeve with a plate for the back of the hand (tekko). They fastened the tekko with two loops for the middle and thumb of the hand, so that neither this plate nor the sleeve itself could slide off it under any circumstances.
On the outside, it was also covered with metal plates, the finish of which matched the finish of the armor as a whole.However, the wide left sleeve of the kimono did not fit inside the rather narrow kote, and so that it did not dangle, it had to be worn under armor tucked into the belt.
Kawari-do style armor made of leather and decorated with the Takeda family crest in the shape of a golden sakura flower in a circle. Ser. XIX century, end of the Edo era
In the 13th century, bracers began to be worn on both hands, which was caused by the proliferation of weapons such as naginata, as well as all kinds of spears and darts.The dimensions of the plates became even larger, and where there were none, chain mail (kusari) was used from the 14th century.
Interestingly, in Japan, unlike other countries, chain mail was never used just like that. It was always sewn onto fabric or leather and at the same time was necessarily covered with black varnish, even in cases where the color of the armor itself was different. Its design was just as original. For example, four- and hexagonal weaving was widely used, in which one round ring was connected to four or six.Thanks to this, it fit snugly to the fabric base, and the rings themselves were easy to connect to metal plates.
But the main difference was that the rings on Japanese chain mail were not riveted, but joined end-to-end or made of two or three turns of wire and wound up one after another, like modern rings on key chains.
Chain mail of the European type (namban-husari) – “chain mail of the southern barbarians” – appeared in Japan only in the 16th century, and, despite the fact that the Japanese liked them, they still did not rivet the rings, but simply continued to bring them together! All-chain kote were very rare: apparently, the Japanese still trusted the armor made of plates more.
Okegawa-do style samurai armor decorated with the Shinano family crest. Early 17th century, Edo era
In addition to the arms, the warrior also needed to protect his legs. However, up to the 12th century, even samurai horsemen wore the most ordinary sandals and dense windings on their calves. Since they did not represent any serious protection for their feet, at the same time they began to use suneate leggings, and instead of sandals, kutsu shoes with a lining of bearskin.Usually suneate consisted of three metal or leather plates, which were connected with hinges, and varnished on top and finished with gilded ornaments. To prevent them from rubbing their feet, they were wrapped with kahan cloth windings. They were fastened to the shins with the same silk cords tied at the back. In the 14th century, leggings received the same-oge plate knee pads, and all, except for samurai of the highest rank, refused from fur boots. During the race, the plates of the kusazuri in the armor of the haramaki-do often slipped off their feet and left the hips open, so they began to be protected with plates sewn onto the fabric of the pants.However, this was not always convenient, so at the same time special haidate legguards appeared, which looked like a bifurcated cloth apron with a sheathing at the bottom of metal or leather plates. When wearing haidate, they were often tied under the knee, which made them look like a kind of armor pants.
It turned out to be not very convenient to walk in them, and even more so to ride a horse, so they were not widely used. Leggings made of chain mail sewn onto fabric (kusari-suneate), which noble warriors usually wore under their pants, were also known, but since they did not protect from strong blows, they were not widespread.
“Modern armor” XVI-XIX centuries.
The firearms brought to Japan by the Portuguese in 1542 required changes in the design of the armor, since now they had to resist not only arrows, but also firearms.
The first step towards the emergence of new types of protective equipment was the use of sukage-odoshi lacing, which was distinguished by a minimum number of cords connecting the plates.Now the interconnected yozane plates were increasingly wrapped in patent leather and only after that they were fastened with lacing, which made the armor lighter and reduced labor costs for their manufacture.
Japanese combat Tessen fan with a double-sided pattern in the form of a golden sun disk on a dark red field, made of 10 metal plates. The two upper plates are decorated with engraving and silver ornamentation in the form of a Buddhist symbol. Edo era, late 18th century. Heavy and durable tessen was designed to repel a surprise attack or, in the field, to signal commanders to start an attack or retreat.The technique of using a combat fan as a self-defense weapon tessen-jutsu is still one of the most popular types of Japanese martial arts
After the Onin war (1467-1477), the first copies of mogami-do armor appeared (after the name of the area where they first began to produce it), which became the prototype of a new type of armor – tosei gusoku (in Japanese “modern armor”), sharply different from the old ones. By design, these were the same old domaru or haramaki, but now their cuirass consisted of all-metal stripes on the chest and back.All stripes, of which there were five in the front and back, were lined with leather and connected to other rational sukage-odoshi lacing. The design of the “skirt” of the kusazuri in mogami-do practically did not change, and, as before, this armor had o-sode plate shoulders, and the helmet had a shikoro head.
At the same time, kiritsukekozane and kiritsuke-yozane records began to be used – a fake under the old kozane and yozane records. The upper part looked like they were assembled from separate plates, while the lower one was a solid forged plate! And in order to distinguish real armor from fakes, they used a special name – hon-kozane (“real small plates”), since armor made according to old models cost much more! Another transitional type was the winobe-do, in which large fake yozane plates were connected by weaving sugakeodoshi.Moreover, they gave rise to a completely unusual dangage-do design, where small plates were used in the lower part of the cuirass, in the middle part – horizontal stripes, and above in two rows were the kiritsuke-kozane plates.
Finally, in the first half of the 16th century, the okegawa-do armor appeared, in which the horizontal plates of the carapace were connected not by cords, but by forging, and these were already real “modern armor” that gave rise to numerous varieties.
So, if the rivet heads were visible on them, then it was kakari-do armor.Armor appeared with horizontal plates yokohagi-okegawa-do, and with vertical plates – tatehagiokegawa-do. Yukinoshita-do, named for the place where the famous gunsmith Miochin Hizae (1573-1615) lived, had one-piece forged sections on hinges that made them easy to separate and store. At the same time, the watagami shoulder straps were also all-metal, as were the gyyo plates and small kohire shoulders, which are characteristic of tosei-gusoku, hinged to them. This armor (also called kamto-do and sendai-do) gained particular popularity during the Edo period, especially after the famous commander Date Masamune (1566-1636 BC).) put them on his entire army. Moreover, the whole difference between the armor of warriors of higher and lower ranks was solely in the quality of decoration! Armor with a smooth forged cuirass was called hotoke-do, and their curious version in the form of a naked human torso of flesh color – nyo-do or “Buddha’s torso”. The katanuga-do breastplate was stylized to resemble a monk of a Buddhist monastery: its right half was a neo-do plate, while the left half was a lamellar shell imitating a monk’s robe.
Trade with the Portuguese also led to the appearance of the Namban-do armor (“the armor of the southern barbarians”), which was modeled on the European ones.So, for example, hatamune-do consisted of an ordinary European cuirass with a stiffening rib protruding in front and a traditional skirt – kusazuri.
However, such armor was too expensive for infantrymen with rifles. Therefore, in the second half of the XVI century. The most common among them were tatami-do, which consisted of a thick fabric base with rectangular or hexagonal lacquered steel plates sewn onto it, often additionally fastened with chain mail.Well, the cheapest armor was made with leather plates, which were again sewn onto fabric with cords and therefore were called kawara-tatami-do. The complete set of armor of a noble samurai, in addition to kirashido, included a kabuto helmet with a protective mask, two indispensable swords (daisho) and ko-gusoku (“small pieces of gusoku armor”) – bracers – kote, suneate knee pads and haidate legguards.
Breastplate for the armor
A complete set of such armor weighed from 8.3 to 12.5 kg, that is, it was on average 2-3 times lighter than, for example, the European Maximilian armor.Warriors of the lower rank ashigaru wore a cuirass and a helmet, the set of other parts was very small.
Tosei-gusoku Armor Dye
Almost all metal parts were varnished. This was necessary to protect the steel from corrosion in Japan’s humid climates. Usually, several layers of varnish were applied, after polishing, forming a mirror-smooth surface. The most common color was black. Of the others, red and all shades of brown were often used.The rest of the colors were practically not used. Occasionally, the surface of the metal was gilded (this is more typical for ko-gusoku, although fully gilded armor is also known). Not always all parts of the armor were of the same color – for example, a black cuirass could be combined with red or gilded sode and kusazuri.
The smooth surface of the gusoku armor served as an excellent base for various designs. Most often, the coat of arms of the suzerain (mon) was placed on the chest. Among noble samurai, its surface could be decorated with images of flowers, animals, Buddhist symbols, etc.The drawings were mostly one-color – light against a dark background of armor. The cords intertwined with steel plates added brightness to the armor, but the sugake-odoshi cord weaving was always the same color. The most common color was dark blue, while black, red, white, purple, orange and green cords were less commonly used. The dense weaving of kebiki-odoshi could be either one-color or multi-colored. The multicolored weaving echoed the patterns on the old plate armor. Most often, they used a pattern in the form of a “chevron” facing up or down (respectively omodaka-odoshi and sagaomodaka-odoshi), weaving of iro-iro-odoshi, where each row had its own color, and a variant in which the cords were painted in different shades of the same color: light at the top, dark at the bottom (susogo-odoshi) or vice versa (nioi-odoshi).
How did the samurai dress?
The process of dressing a samurai in armor was not easy, it took a lot of time and effort, and was carried out strictly sequentially. We will describe this process from beginning to end.
The process of putting on armor began as follows: first of all, the samurai put on a loincloth fundoshi on his naked body, it could be short or long. The next stage was as follows: over the loincloth of the fundoshi, the samurai wore a long shirt shitagi.
Japanese drawing on the “Samurai Before Battle” scroll, made no earlier than 1890 and no later than 1934. The scroll depicts the real hero of Japanese history – the son of the famous Kusunoki Masashige (1294-1336) Masatsura, who, along with his younger brother, like his father earlier, died in an unequal battle, fighting for the emperor. According to legend, his last words were: “If I had seven lives, I would give them all for my country!” He is wearing Haramaki-do armor, and the sword sheath is covered with fur
Over the sitagi , a long obi belt was worn around the waist, the samurai wrapped it twice around the body and tied it in a knot, usually in the front.Over the shitagi and obi, they wore wide pants hakama – a special privilege of a samurai warrior, which the ashigaru infantrymen, recruited from peasants and not considered samurai, were deprived of – as well as the right to headwear eboshi or kammuri , which they, as commoners, were forbidden to wear. It is believed that samurai armor was more comfortable than European armor in the sense that it could be donned without assistance. However, in real life, samurai almost never did without the help of servants or relatives, especially since they always had enough helpers.For example, the wife could also take part in this complex process: for example, she tightened the lacing on her husband’s back, and at the end she put on the armored gloves yugake . The samurai himself at this time usually sat on the kara-bitu – the armor box o-yoroi.
A complete set of clothing worn by the samurai under the armor of (yoroi-hitatare) was complemented by a special brocade jacket with wide sleeves. The ribbons of the right sleeve of the jacket were tightened at the wrist, covering the middle finger with a loop, which did not allow the sleeve to “escape”.
After the jacket, it was the turn of the leg armor: the samurai was put on leggings suneate , as well as shoes, which, according to tradition, were trimmed with bear fur on top.
In the event that a samurai wore a legguard haidate, was tied, firstly, to the belt, and secondly, also under each knee.
The samurai usually took off the left sleeve of his jacket and tucked it into his belt, after which he put a special armor sleeve kote on his left hand. This sleeve also had a loop that was to be worn over the middle finger and a strong drawstring that was attached to the right side.
Now the soldier should have put on the plate waidagpe together with a separate section kusazuri and fix it all on himself again. In the event that the samurai did not plan to protect his face with a mask, the servant tied his collar nodov, covering his chest.
Then all the other sections of the armor o-yoroi and the shoulder pads o-sode followed, to fasten the cords from them to the knot agemaki was almost impossible for the warrior himself, it could only be done by a servant or other assistant.After that, the armor had to be tightened very tightly at the waist so that their weight was evenly distributed not only on the shoulders, but also on the hips. Over the armor, samurai tied a colored belt uva-obi – another sign of samurai dignity: swords and daggers were worn behind the belt.
Japanese drawing on the “Shogun at Camping Headquarters” scroll, 1880-90s. The stern military leader is depicted sitting on a marching chair covered with a bearskin in a field headquarters. On the head is a samurai hat made of black silk hiki-tate eboshi, under an expensive brocade kimono one can see silk weaving of armor, a musk deer skin covers the knees over brocade hakama, the lapels of the skin are tied to the obi belt, to which the tachi sword is attached.In his hand, the warrior holds a large bow – yumi, and she is wearing a carapace sleeve of kote. A quiver full of arrows is visible behind. With his other hand, the shogun grips the command battle fan tessen
Then it was necessary to plug the dagger tanto or short sword wakizashi – the traditional weapon of the samurai, paired with his long sword. At the same time, it was customary to pass the scabbard through the hole of the ring tsurumaki , which served to carry a spare bowstring to the bow.
Then the sword tachi , the second most important weapon of the Japanese rider after the bow, was tied to the belt with the help of a strong silk cord sageo .
The quiver Ebira with arrows and (the arrows could be covered with a woven cover) was also attached to the belt using a special silk cord.
At the very end, a protective mask was put on the samurai’s face, and a helmet was put on his head. Only after that could the warrior’s vestment be considered complete. As you can see, it was not so easy for a samurai to dress for battle in the armor of o-yoroi . This process took quite a long time, so that the less colorful, but more practical armor of Europeans of the XI-XV centuries.in comparison with Japanese even win!
The article was published in the April 2014 issue of the journal “Science and Technology”
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Cardboard armor of the Vikings – we make a knight costume with our own hands
I made this knight costume myself for defense in cardboard battle tournaments.I’ll tell you how to make cardboard armor.
As a reference, and to determine the correct names for Viking armor pieces, I used the following sources:
Step 1: Breastplate and Backplate
With experience in making clothes, I decided that wrapping the body with cardboard would not be too difficult. As it turns out, there are some differences between stiff cardboard and more pliable fabric. I developed a technique for punching the lines on the back of the cardboard with a pen cap, along which I wanted to make folds.This allowed me to shape the cardboard into a fairly precise shape.
Based on my body measurements, I drew a flat shape for the front and back plates (collectively called the cuirass).
For the front plate to be measured:
- Front of the waist (slightly more than half the length of the waist)
- length from waist to shoulder through bust
- length from waist to lower part of the neck
- front bust (slightly longer than half of my bust)
- arm-to-arm width, above bust
- length from the waist line to the hole under the armpit
For the back, I used these measurements:
- back waist
- length from waist to shoulder
- length from waist to lower part of the neck
- width from armpit to armpit
- width from hand to hand through the shoulder blades
I drew the front piece on the bust to fold the armor plate out of it.I placed the waist for each piece on the edge of the existing fold of the box. Out of habit, I also left an additional 3 cm of cardboard on the sides, and it turned out that it was not in vain (see Step 6 about the margins).
Cut out the pieces with a knife. Cut only the bottom of the dart to the end. For the front side, cut only along the top layer of the cardboard. Then peel off the top layer and corrugation, revealing the inner surface of the corrugated sheet. It will look like a small valve. To make darts, fold the cardboard so that the edges of the darts line up and hot glue them to the outside of the front plate with the flap down.
Cardboard is easier to fold if you first press the grooves along the fold lines with the handle cap. A rigid ruler is also very useful in this matter. In addition to the bust area, push and bend your shoulders and sides.
Step 2: Helmet Part 1
You can make a really good cardboard helmet, but I took the quicker and easier route. I measured the diameter of my head at its widest point (near the level of my forehead) and cut a circle out of cardboard that was 3 cm longer. I estimated the height by holding a ruler at my head in front of the mirror.
I cut out the helmet along the edge of the existing fold on the box and added about 3 cm. I made a lot of vertical folds so I could easily fold the cardboard. I cut small Vs outside the existing fold line so they don’t get in the way when I fold the cardboard into a circle.
I drew an oval with a circumference equal to the length of my head. Most heads are somewhat oval in shape, and round heads are rare.
I wrapped a curved strip around the oval and marked where the overlap goes, then hot glue it into a pipe.I laid the circle over the pipe, over the V-valves, and glued one valve at each end to hold the oval in place. Then I glued on the rest of the valves. I found it was easier to apply the glue to the flaps rather than the oval.
Once the oval was glued, I decided to reinforce it with a second piece of cardboard. I just traced the outline, cut out another piece of cardboard and glued it on.
Step 3: Helmet Part 2
Now you have a helmet, but you will not be able to see! Think about where the hole for the face should be, and punch a hole there.Start with a small hole and gradually enlarge it.
Step 4: Bracers
Bracers guard the forearms. I measured my wrist and forearm in circumference and length. Then I drew a shape that looked like a thin tapered cut to match my dimensions. However, on the cardboard labeled CMS, I forgot to leave a place for gluing, so I had to start all over again.
Notice the diagonal folds I made with the pen cap and the metal ruler.They allowed me to easily bend the cardboard into a cone that would fit well over my hand, instead of a straight tube that would not fit well.
If your hands are larger than your wrists, you can enlarge your wrist area and possibly attach bracers to a pair of gloves. In fact, after trying out my bracers, I highly recommend that you use gloves! Where the edge of the cardboard goes, my wrists get pretty irritated.
Step 5: Shoulders
Shoulders are pieces of armor that protect the shoulders.I’ve never seen an armor with arms raised, but it seems logical that you want to maintain that range of motion. So I decided to make the shoulder pads flatter than on my template and just stuck them to the edge of the shoulder, allowing them to recline when I raise my arms.
This was the hardest shape I have ever tried. To test the fit, I first made a paper model and found that a pair of nearly symmetrical pointed oval shapes would work well with a dart on the back.Really just look at the pictures. To attach one piece to the other, I again used the V-notch technique. And I made a dart just like a bib – cutting off half the layers of cardboard.
To attach the front and back pieces, it took enough force to keep them in shape. I glued the valves one at a time and let the glue cool completely before moving on to the next. It took a while, but I was rewarded with a really solid construction – the shoulder pads took a lot of blows and looked as fresh out of battle as when they were made!
Step 6: Skirt
I’m not sure if this is really a skirt, or just part of a cuirass … Basically, these are the pieces of armor that are under the bib and back plate to protect the thighs.
Here again I had to attach the curved piece to the straight piece. I first designed the shape of the skirt on paper, remembering that in order for it to look correct, it had to have a slight curvature. To make the glue flaps, after cutting out the skirt pieces, I also cut the V-shaped pieces on the bottom strip of the front and back plates.
I glued one flap at a time, starting from the center. You may need to apply enough force to hold the bib or back plate in place as you glue on the skirt, but the curved shapes are strong, and once the glue has cooled, the structure will be quite solid.
Step 7: Final Fit
At this stage, you will need a reliable squire. Tape the front and back of the cuirass and see if the shoulders fit well. Bend them more if necessary. Now customize the armor to suit you. Glue the shoulders neatly – you may need to climb in and out of them a couple of times before they hit your body. Try to bring your hands together in front of you. I had to cut about 3cm from each side of the armhole before I could get it comfortable enough to hold a cardboard tube sword with both hands.
After the breastplate is over your body, secure both sides and shoulders on both sides with duct tape. If you can, glue them from the inside.
Then ask the squire to attach the shoulder pads to the shoulders, approximately in the middle of the shoulder strap. Remember that the dart goes to the back and closer to the neck. Use duct tape at the top and bottom and secure the shoulder pads with strips of tape around the edges (i.e. just stick a lot of tape there).
I also had to cut the shoulder-shaped curves around the edges of the helmet when the cuirass stuck out just above my shoulders.And a bandana, or balaclava, or just a headdress, is useful for tidying up the hair and also gives it a nice medieval look.
Step 8: Finish
Now go ahead and hit your enemies!
Brotherhood / FAQusha.RU – collection of game wisdomDuring the Renaissance, every town or village had to have at least one blacksmith. Swords, armor, knives, pans, locks and nails were all made of metal, and they all had to be shaped.In addition, it was fashionable to decorate buildings with various metallic decorative elements, and therefore blacksmiths began to apply their skills to create works of art. Despite the wide range of work, blacksmiths in Assassin’s Creed: Brotherhood are engaged in their direct responsibilities – creating and repairing weapons, armor, and selling ammunition. Ezio’s maximum health depends on the state of the armor; cells in damaged armor are marked in red. All weapons and armor are kept in the weapons room at the Assassins’ headquarters in Rome.Here you can admire and dispose of them.
Assassin’s Creed: Brotherhood assortment of goods at blacksmiths:
- Roman armor (W: +5; B: +11.5)
- Roman shoulder pads (health – 1, armor – 3): 2 sequence.
- Roman Leggings (health – 1, armor – 2.5): sequence 3.
- Roman bracers (health – 1, armor – 2): 4 sequence.
- Roman chestpiece (health – 2, armor – 4): 5 sequence.
- Rondell’s Armor (D: +8; B: +16)
- Rondell’s Leggings (health – 2, armor – 3.5): end of sequence 5.
- Rondell’s Bracers (Health – 1, Armor – 3): End of Sequence 5.
- Rondell’s Chestpiece (health – 3, armor – 5): 6 sequence.
- Rondell’s Shoulders (health – 2, armor – 4.5): 6 sequence.
- Plate armor (Z: +11; B: +20)
- Plate leggings (health – 2, armor – 4.5): 7 sequence.
- Banded Bracers (health – 2, armor – 4): 7 sequence.
- Plate Chestpiece (Health – 4, Armor – 6): 7 sequence.
- Banded Shoulders (Health – 3, Armor – 5.5): 7 sequence.
- Seusenhofer’s armor (Z: +15; B: +27.5)
- Large weapons
- Common sword / Common Sword (damage – 1, speed – 2, reflection – 2 ): available immediately.
- Roman Longsword / Roman Longsword (Damage – 1, Speed - 3, Reflection – 3): Sequence 3.
- Ax / Bearded Ax (damage – 2, speed – 3, reflection – 4): 3 sequence.
- Mercenary War Hammer / Mercenario War Hammer (damage – 1, speed – 3, reflection – 5): 4 sequence.
- Sicilian rapier / Sicilian Rapier (damage – 1, speed – 4, reflection – 3): 4 sequence.
- Venetian broadsword / Venetian Falchion (damage – 1, speed – 5, reflection – 5): 5 sequence.
- Old Syrian Sword / Old Syrian Sword (damage – 3, speed – 4, reflection – 1): 6 sequence.
- Lucerne Hammer / Lucerne Hammer (damage – 2, speed – 2, reflection – 2): 6 sequence.
- Bastard Sword / Bastard Sword (damage – 3, speed – 4, reflection – 3): 6 sequence.
- Stocco / Stocco (damage – 3, speed – 5, reflection – 5): 7 sequence.
- Condottiero Mace / Condottiero Mace (damage – 3, speed – 5, reflection – 3): 7 sequence.
- Rapier / Schianova (damage – 4, speed – 2, reflection – 2): 7 sequence.
- Milanese Sword / Milanese Sword (damage – 4, speed – 4, reflection – 2): 8 sequence.
- Condottiero War Hammer / Condottiero War Hammer (damage – 5, speed – 3, reflection – 4): 8 sequence.
- Captain’s Sword / Captain’s Sword (damage – 2, speed – 4, reflection – 3): complete the task of the blacksmith “Faith”; 3 sequence.
- Spada Lunga / Spada Lunga (damage – 4, speed – 5, reflection – 3): complete the “Blood money” blacksmith’s task; 6 sequence.
- Mace / Cavalieri Mace (damage – 2, speed – 1, reflection – 1): open 5 forges.
- Lo Spadone / Spadone (damage – 5, speed – 4, reflection – 4): open 10 forges.
- Ax Bartolomeo / Bartolomeo’s Ax (damage – 3, speed – 2, reflection – 5): complete the tasks of the mercenary guild.
- La Volpe’s Bite / La Volpe’s Bite (Damage – 3, Speed - 5, Reflection – 5): Complete Thieves Guild Quests.
- Sword of Altair / Sword of Altair (damage – 5, speed – 5, reflection – 5): complete tasks of the assassins guild.
- Short weapon
- Stiletto / Stiletto (damage – 1, speed – 1, reflection – 2): 2 sequence.
- Knife / Knife (damage – 1, speed – 2, reflection – 2): 3 sequence.
- Bone Dagger of Romulus / Bone Dagger of Romulus (damage – 2, speed – 4, reflection – 4): 4 sequence.
- Dagger / Dagger (damage – 2, speed – 4, reflection – 1): 6 sequence.
- Notched Cinquedea / Notched Cinquedea (damage – 4, speed – 4, deflection – 2): 7 sequence.
- Butcher Knife / Butcher Knife (damage – 3, speed – 5, reflection – 3): open 5 forges.
- Maria’s Dagger / Maria’s Dagger (damage – 5, speed – 3, reflection – 4): Complete the quests of the courtesan guild.
- Dagger of Brutus / Dagger of Brutus (damage – 5, speed – 5, reflection – 5): Romulus’s treasure.
- Small arms
- Crossbow – 3 sequence
Weapon from Leonardo da Vinci in Assassin’s Creed: Brotherhood:
Leonardo da Vinci appears in The Unexpected Guest (Sequence 4, Memory 8).All further meetings with him take place in crowded places. The benches where he will take orders are marked on the global map of the city with an icon [L].
- Double Blade – Hidden blades, described in the Codex by Altair, simultaneously hit multiple targets.
- Climber’s Glove – A sturdy glove that helps you grab onto ledges while jumping, overcome obstacles faster and do more damage in combat.
- Poisoned Javelins – Improves the mechanism of the poisoned blade, allowing it to shoot poison arrows from it.
Assassin’s Creed: Brotherhood’s assortment of tailors:
- Heavy Scabbard : Large and strong enough to carry a two-handed weapon. They appear on sale from the first sequences.
- Medium and Large Medication Bags : Increases the maximum number of medication doses by 5. A large bag of medicine goes on sale after the opening of four tailor shops.
- Knife Belt Upgrade : Increases the maximum number of knives by 5.Additional belts appear after upgrading various shops and advancing the story.
- Medium and Large Poison Vials : Increases the maximum number of doses of poison by 5. A large vial of poison comes on sale after the opening of eight tailor shops.
- Small bag with smoke bombs : allows you to carry only 3 smoke bombs (although the description says about 5). There are no medium and large bags with smoke bombs in Assassin’s Creed: Brotherhood, they do not appear on sale and are not awarded for completing missions.
- Medium and Large Quivers : Increases the maximum number of bolts by 5. The Large Quiver can be obtained by collecting unique ingredients for the tailor in the quest “Pulling the Strings”. Quivers appear on sale after purchasing a crossbow.
- Medium and Large Bags : Increases the number of parachutes by 5. Available immediately after the destruction of combat vehicles, when Leonardo is rewarded with a parachute.
Deliverance spoke about role-playing system and equipment in the game
Before the release of Kingdom Come: Deliverance, there is still a lot of time (in May the game was postponed to 2017).To brighten up the anticipation, the developers from Warhorse Studios shared fresh details and presented a new trailer.
Details regarding the role-playing system and character equipment. Let’s start with clothing: lately in RPGs you rarely find a complex system of hero equipment, but in Kingdom Come: Deliverance it will be just that – players will have as many as 16 slots for armor and 4 slots for weapons. Particular attention is paid to the body – it has 6 cells at once: shirt, chain mail, plate armor, shoulder pads, gloves, tabard (tabard) or cloak.There are 4 slots for the legs: for fabric trousers, chain mail, plate overlays and boots. With the head, too, everything is not easy – if in other RPGs we are usually offered only one slot, then in Kingdom Come there will be 4 of them: a cloth comforter, chain mail, the helmet itself and protection for the neck. Finally, 1 slot is allocated for the ring and 1 for the spurs. The four weapon slots mentioned are for weapons, shield, bow and arrow.
Different types of armor provide protection against different types of damage. In addition, the damage indicator itself will be calculated based on the trajectory of the weapon and the place of contact with the armor.Weapons and armor can be damaged or permanently broken – moreover, the developers plan to take into account even the degree of contamination of the armor. The last parameter will affect not only their quality, but also the appearance of the hero, his reputation and perception by other characters.
The role-playing system is represented by traditional characteristics such as strength, stamina and speaking skills, as well as a set of skills. The latter will reflect the various abilities of the hero: for example, defense, alchemy, hacking, riding a horse.It will be possible to develop certain abilities right in the course of the game, simply by using them. Well, if you need to speed up the training, then you can visit the appropriate trainer. See the trailer for more details on all of this.