Trip Taylor Bookseller – Boise, ID
Trip Taylor Bookseller – Boise, ID | Groupon
1607 North 13th Street,
Today 11:00 AM – 6:00 PM
If you’re looking for an easy way to pass the time during a rainy day, pick up a new book from Trip Taylor Bookseller in Boise.
Browse their extensive selection of e-books for an engaging new read on your tablet. Such titles include e-books. Treat yourself to a new book, such as, and enjoy a relaxing night of page turning and adventure.
Skip the hassle of circling the block for parking and park in one of the great options near Trip Taylor Bookseller. Dive into a good read from Trip Taylor Bookseller in Boise and get acquainted with a good story that will keep you on the edge of your seat.
Trip Taylor Bookseller
Boise Bookstore Tour – Boise
Boise is a little lackluster when it comes to bookstores. The economic downturn and switch to e-readers has contributed greatly to this. A short tour of Boise displays the best bookstores that Boise has to offer.
The first, and perhaps best stop, is Trip Taylor Bookseller located at 10th and Bannock in downtown. Trip Taylor is solely a used bookstore but it has a great selection. It has two stories of books stacked high to the ceiling. The books are well-organized and Trip, the owner, knows his selection and can help you find anything. Most of the books are in good condition and very reasonably priced. If you are looking for a particular book, this is the place to start.
The next stop is Hyde Park Books located on 13th St. in the heart of Hyde Park. This bookstore is mostly used books too, but they do carry some new releases. The books are very inexpensive but it is much harder to find what you are looking for. It is not as well-organized as Trip Taylor and the books are not always in as good of condition. Hyde Park Books does have a large seating are with couches and looks like it would be a good hang-out spot for hipsters.
Next is Rediscovered Bookshop located on 8th St. in between Idaho St. and Main. Rediscovered primarily sells new books but does sell some used. It is a great place to start if you cannot find the book you want used. It is locally and independently owned and the staff is very helpful. Their selection is not very big but they will speedily special order books. If you want to avoid the big-box stores for new books, this is the place to go.
The last stop is Barnes and Noble located on Milwaukee St. in West Boise. Barnes and Noble has a huge selection of new books that are reasonably priced. It has a coffee shop in the middle of the store that also sells delicious pastries. It is easy to spend hours in Barnes and Noble. You must remember though that it is a big-box store that puts locally owned bookstores like Rediscovered out of business. So be conscious of that when deciding where to buy your books.
Resolution Series: Read More – Live a Little Local
This post in the Live a Little Local resolution series is to READ MORE!
This is a resolution that I can get behind. I have always been an avid reader and prone to enter any bookstore I see.
This list below will help you support your year of bibliophilia! Hoorah!
Idaho Falls Public Library
If you have a long list of books to read and don’t want the financial/clutter commitments, a library card is for you, my friend. I love the Idaho Falls Public Library. They have a great selection, and it is so easy to go in and check out books yourself. They have a lot of nice places to hang out and read too. No coffee shop yet, but hey The Villa Coffeehouse is within walking distance!
457 W Broadway St. Idaho Falls, ID
Eastern Idaho Book Swap
This is a fantastic outlet to buy and trade books with people in East Idaho. I have made some excellent trades already! You should definitely join. I need more people to trade with… 🙂
Walrus & Carpenter Books
In my opinion there aren’t enough local bookstores around these days! So, I am absolutely enthralled with Walrus and Carpenter. This bookstore is crammed with used books at really great prices. They also have new and popular books at the front of the store. I would have a hard time believing that you can’t find something you need. Perfect for the book-lover on your list!
251 N Main St. Pocatello, ID
Trip Taylor Bookseller
Trip Taylor Bookseller is a bookshop straight out of your favorite indie movie. With two stories of used books assembled in a bit of a maze, it is certainly possible to “get lost in a good book”…store. The upper level of the shop includes a rather cozy couch to browse your stacks of possible purchases. My favorite part of Trip Taylor? The long row filled with leather bound classics, which are great for reading as well as setting on your coffee table for company to admire.
210 N 10th St. Boise, ID
Trip Taylor Bookseller
8th Street in Boise is filled with a lot of great resturaunts, a wonderful yoga studio, and a few cute clothing boutiques. It also has a fantastic bookstore! Rediscovered books has a wide selection of new and used books, and many books from local authors, whom you can read about on their website. They also offer ongoing book clubs for kids and adults, and frequently host book readings/signings with some incredible authors. Also, the staff is top notch at helping find just the right book to suit your interest!
180 N 8th St. Boise, ID
Booked on 25th
This is probs my fave bookstore, and that makes me sad, because I rarely am able to go there! It boasts as being Ogden’s Uncensored Bookstore which appeals to me on so many levels. The shop features interesting reads and has a great selection of both used and new books. They also hold events and book clubs. Once a month they hold a social justice book club that sounds amazing!
147 25th St. Ogden, UT
Join a Book Club!
Being part of a community is a fantastic way of holding yourself accountable in reaching goals! Book Clubs also offer the opportunity to reflect in-depth on the books you read and hear different perspectives. You can start your own through your local library’s Book Club Kit or join one that is already happening! A few of us in the Live a Little Local community are part of a Book Club crew that meets once a month at A Different Cup (amazing coffee) in Pocatello (typically 10:30am on a Saturday)! It is a new group, and we have read Secret Life of Bees and Sold. We are currently reading Kite Runner and have The House on Mango Street and All the Light we Cannot See in line next.
Supporting your 2018 reading goals and supporting local is easy and AWESOME!
Thank you to my fellow writers and Live a Little Local team: Sharece Mecham and Jordan Wixom
Do you live a little local?
If you do and are interested in decals ($4) or beanies ($15). Please email to [email protected] to order. Coming soon an online store!
Make sure to follow Live a Little Local on Facebook and Instagram (livealittlelocal) to keep up with fun things going on in our community!
Campus Store | Taylor University
Stop by The Bishop’s Nook, your one-stop-shop for Taylor University gear, course materials, print shop, and campus post office. The store is conveniently located at the corner of 2nd Avenue and Reade Avenue next to Freimuth Administration Building.
To purchase Taylor-branded gear online, visit our online store.
Hours and Contact Information
The Campus Store is open Monday-Friday, 10:00am – 3:00pm.
Closed during Chapel (Monday/Wednesday/Friday at 10:00am)
236 W. Reade Ave.
Upland, IN 46989
Email: [email protected]
Slingshot (Course Materials Rental Service)
Slingshot (formerly Textbook Butler) is a subscription-based service offered to students that delivers all required books and course materials automatically before classes start. It’s all of the books and none of the hassle! New students will automatically be included in this program.
In what format are course materials provided?
All students automatically receive all required course materials for every course through the program. This includes consumable items like access codes and workbooks or any other supplies such as lab kits, goggles, art kits, etc. By default, students will automatically receive rentals, but have the option to select a course material preference of physical rental, used purchase, new purchase or digital access.
How are course materials delivered to students?
Students living on campus will have their initial package delivered to their campus residence. Any books that arrive after that initial delivery can be picked up in the Campus Store. Students that live off campus will pick up all physical course materials in the Campus Store or can have these items shipped to a preferred address. Digital items will be accessible via the course material portal.
What if I add or drop a course?
If you make a change to your schedule, we will receive any updated enrollment information and automatically process any additional required items. An email notification will be sent as soon as the item(s) is available or shipped. If a course is dropped, you’ll have 21 days from the start of class to return any physical books with no penalty.
What if I need a book for more than one course (continuation)?
If an item is required for a continuing course in a following term(s) based on your enrollment, the system will automatically extend the rental duration for that item and let you know that you can keep the item for the next term without any penalty.
Can students keep rental books?
Absolutely. Students are welcome to keep any rental for their own library if they would like. If a student keeps a rental beyond the return deadline, we will automatically charge the student account for the rental not returned fee. This fee is simply the difference between the rental and purchase price of that item.
Can students write or highlight in rented textbooks?
Yes. Appropriate amounts of highlighting and notes are completely acceptable in rented material. We actually encourage this as it can often improve the experience for future renters.
What students are included in the Slingshot program?
All new undergraduate and graduate students are automatically opted into the program with a rental preference. All existing students will have the option to opt into the program using the Slingshot student site. Registered students already have an account: your school email is the username, and your student ID number is the password. If your password is not working, click the Forgot Password link.
What if I don’t want to use Slingshot?
Nobody is forced to use Slingshot. Simply opt out online. Please bear in mind that we can’t guarantee there will be sufficient stock of course materials on hand in the Campus Store for students who opt out.
Jeff VanderMeer and Lili Taylor Talk Books, Birds, and Beauty ‹ Literary Hub
Booksellers Magers & Quinn and Left Bank Books recently hosted a conversation on rewilding with author Jeff VanderMeer, actor Lili Taylor and author Megan Mayhew-Bergman.
Megan Mayhew-Bergman: It is always a pleasure to come together to talk about books, but it’s an additional pleasure to talk about birds, rewilding, and untamed lawns. I was hoping, Lili and Jeff, to start our conversation tonight by talking about a relationship with beauty because I feel it factors into the art that you two make—on screen, and within books.
Jeff VanderMeer: It’s certainly been fraught during this time. I think I have much more of a connection to individual birds and individual animals in the yard. And the flip side of that, of course, is that I see more of the things that happen that aren’t quite so beautiful, like the raccoon that has some kind of laceration on its paw and walks around with three legs.
MMB: Marilyn Robinson talks about how beauty has always been a terrifying concept and made too small for what it really can be. Could you speak about your conversion moments, when you realized you wanted to pursue the notion of beauty with birds, rewilding and nature?
JVM: I think of it as a series of short, sharp shocks. One of the first was the Gulf oil spill, because it brought it regionally home to me. But when we moved to this new house, that’s when the eureka moment really occurred. I thought we had this amazing backyard, and then I realized it was all invasive plants and a complete food wasteland for wildlife. In a weird way, I was like the narrator of my novel, in terms of not being aware of certain things. I realized: I have to do something, and then I was obsessed. I was between novels and I basically was in the yard 24/7 pulling things out. I think I pulled out a ridiculous number of air potato tubers, like 4000 of them. That was a revelation too. When you’re on your thousandth potato, crawling on your hands and knees in the ravine, you do begin to wonder if you’ve lost perspective on life. But it was important to have that kind of zeal to get the job done.
MMB: I love that thought about conviction and zeal as fuel. Lili, was it a slow gradual dawning for you or something abrupt that changed your vision toward birds, toward the natural world?
I think I pulled out a ridiculous number of air potato tubers, like 4000 of them. That was a revelation too.
Lili Taylor: It’s been a process. It’s like consciousness. I liken it to not noticing falling in love. Waking up one day and noticing, “Oh my god, you’ve been here the whole time. What have I been doing? I love you.” That’s what happened. I fell in love, and it’s really about noticing, paying attention, listening. It’s like when Helen Keller understood water. I feel like I’m running around naming everything. I can find out what something is and discern and learn. And then all these things start opening up and then the zeal happens, which Jeff spoke to, which I completely relate to.
MMB: I do think it’s contagious. Lili, your comments made me think of this line from a Jonathan Franzen interview where he talked about coming to know birds and specificity, and that it was second only to sex in terms of the way it colored the landscape and his awareness of the world. Jeff, would you mind painting a picture of your yard in Florida?
JVM: In Tallahassee, you have a lot of very steep ravines where they built houses across the top—and then you have the wooded ravine. So you have this trough of woodland which extends the half acre, because there’s also an easement that’s a strip that can never be built on. And then you have our house, which hugs the ravine so perfectly, and the windows are such that the inside and the outside are very confused in a way that’s rather marvelous. It’s why I can see so much wildlife. We have a limestone garden on one side, that we put in for erosion, with moss and ferns. That’s one kind of habitat. On the other side, there’s a more manageable wildflower garden that I am very proud of. In the front of the house, there’s a little strip of lawn with these huge azalea bushes that I’ve created into more of a wall. And then the little strip of lawn I pretend to weed whack from time to time. I can make that look presentable if I want to. And then behind that is the front yard, which I’m gradually turning into a bunch of bushes for birds. It’ll be all fruit bushes. This part is just for the birds. So it does look deliberately overrun and unruly in places because that’s what the wildlife needs.
MMB: I think you’re getting to the heart of something that the three of us are probably thinking a lot about, which is this idea that a fastidious lawn aesthetic does not feed or house species as well as something with a little more texture. And Lili, I saw some photos from The Times piece of things that you’re doing in your farm property. Would you mind describing to listeners what that project looks like for you?
LT: Well, it’s cool because I have two kinds of habitats. I’ve got Brooklyn, where I’ve put all natives in the backyard and bird feeders. And then I have Upstate, where I’m on 100 acres that’s also an easement. I’ve got a lot of invasives. I’ve figured out what they are, I’ve done my best to pull them out. It’s like what Jeff was saying about the unruliness and the element of beauty. So many of us have just been miseducated. When I go to a nursery, I go to the plants that have the bees. And really, it’s a small section. I feel like most people don’t know that lawns are a desert for living things. I’ve built a bubbler. I dug a hole and put this bubbler in because water is so important. A lot of trees. Trees that house as many insects as possible. The oak is the number one, I think it houses 524 Lepidoptera insects. I’m just working, like Jeff said, just non-stop.
It’s been a process. It’s like consciousness. I liken it to not noticing falling in love. Waking up one day and noticing, “Oh my god, you’ve been here the whole time. What have I been doing? I love you.”
MMB: It’s vast once you start to think about the scale of what it could be. Jeff, would you speak to how the close observation of the increasing health and vivacity of your yard area or your anti-yard populates your writing?
JVM: It’s so important to me that there’s no element of the natural world that’s not from first-hand observation in any of my books. Even in the ones that are more fantastical, if there’s some element that’s still tied to the real world, it’s from experience. When I’m writing a novel, I’m a receptor for everything. So to be quite frank, during the rewilding process, it’s been fairly intense, because I’m already very open and receiving. In terms of sensory detail, as we enter our third year of rewilding here, it’s actually kind of overwhelming. I’m very protective of the rewilding in terms of turning it into fiction. I’m not ready to do that yet. So there’s something about, knowing from the trail cam, the personalities of the different raccoons, for example, that I think has already begun to enter the fiction. The other day I got the trail cam footage, and I thought there was a snowstorm down in the ravine, but it was just the moths in the third year of rewilding, because we provided so many different plants. I’m still trying to emotionally deal with that moment. So these are the kinds of things that will be fairly far down the road in the fiction because I take a lot of time to really think about them and digest them. It feels like my personal life and my fiction is aligning more and more into the same trajectory. So there’s like no separation, which is kind of an amazing feeling, and also kind of a frightening feeling.
MMB: I appreciate that. We’re living in a moment where a reparative narrative feels like something we all want to amplify in all forms, and I’m thinking about the control of the narrative, and how as artists, you work with your conviction, and how you choose to channel it.
LT: Well, I’ve been working, actually, on a one woman show. And it’s really about birds and acting. It started because I realized the same skills were intersecting. The listening, observation, investigation. One thing I think about is empathy. How would I want to be talked to? What would shut me off? And embodying it. Paying attention. Being very human with it too—it’s so hard to listen. Most of the time, I’m not listening, but the good news is, that listening is a skill, and you can keep getting back up on the horse. I want to spread the good news, and to do it by being a power of example.
MMB: I believe in what you were just alluding to, which is that we’re all sort of allergic to righteousness. Nobody wants to put themselves in the path of that. Jeff, how do you manage tone?
JVM: I try very hard to be very positive. I don’t sugarcoat things, but I try to focus on positive but still fairly complexthings. I write a lot of nonfiction. I just wrote a piece on yard hacks that’s fairly funny. I found out that you can get raccoons to eat yellow jacket nests. I do a “Wild Tallahassee” column that’s kind of like a test run for pushing back against these foundational assumptions we have about certain urban wildlife that a lot of people see as negative. So I provide positive examples. And being very aware also of the fact that I’m new to this. I don’t want to recreate the wheel; I don’t want to step on anyone’s toes. Locally, I’ve been reaching out to a lot of environmental activists in the area to just listen to what they’re doing and see if there are any places where my skill set might fit.
It’s so important to me that there’s no element of the natural world that’s not from first-hand observation in any of my books.
MMB: I appreciate the complexity. I wonder if either of you would be willing to talk about the humility, I think, involved in creating habitat for others and wanting other species to thrive. I would love to hear what your thoughts are on that, and how humility factors into this work?
JVM: Well, I think that I always keep in mind that if we weren’t around, the world would be better off and wildlife would be better off. I keep that in mind in terms of trying to have the least possible footprint. Especially for this half acre where there are a lot of microclimates. There are very large worlds in very small places. I personally find the details of the life cycles of all these animals, the intricacy of it, absolutely something close to spiritual, and I think that is one thing that I think about. I also think about not imposing too much. There are places where we just let the native seed bank recover, and it was humbling and awe inspiring to have lions paw and other things come up that had been lying dormant, maybe for decades, because of the invasives. But they were still there, and all these plants came up, like a kind of miracle that just needed the space.
MMB: Lili, any thoughts about just sort of how you’ve experienced humility, or how it factors into what you’re doing with your properties and with birds?
LT: By going into that world, I get to focus on things that don’t have anything to do with me, that are bigger than me, that I don’t understand. And just that in itself is healthy, just observing something else that’s living and truly observing it, not imposing my ideas. That’s something to pull into acting. It’s the same thing I’m trying to do with a character. I’m trying to not impose on her. Let her tell me who she is, and it’s the same thing with a bird or an animal, to try to really be open and neutral.
MMB: You’ve both spoken to the act of receiving, and also to reverence. People have talked a lot about how environmentalists are too good at dystopia. Jeff, I know you have feelings when people throw that word around at you. You were starting to speak to that balance of pessimism and optimism. We’ve spun a lot of dystopian storytelling. What does “good” look like? If you think in terms of your own properties, what does the healthy vision look.
Well, I think that I always keep in mind that if we weren’t around, the world would be better off and wildlife would be better off.
JVM: That’s a great question. In terms of what this place might look like, there’s again, a practical aspect and the dystopia, utopia thing, is really in the context of fiction. We need to face the actual facts, and the actual facts aren’t depressing, if they lead to policies that make sense. What’s depressing is if we don’t actually have the right facts, or we don’t operate on them. So even with regard to the yard, I’m always kind of updating what I think about certain things, because you kind of adjust to the landscape. What would be good in this yard in five years is if I don’t need bird feeders—that there’s so much food in the yard from the fruit bushes and the fruit trees and everything else that maybe I need just one bird feeder for goldfinches.
MMB: Lili, do you have a vision for your properties or the way that it feels healthy to you? Or, some indication of success in your mind?
LT: Yes. The National Wildlife Federation actually has criterion. And if you check all those boxes, they send you a nice little piece of paper that you’re certified. And I’m certified in both places. Water, habitat food, and shelter, food through the course of the year, like what Jeff was sort of alluding to. It’s actually not that complicated. That’s the second thing I just want to get to. The problem with the dystopian thing is people shut down. Human beings really need things to be manageable, or we just check out. There are actions one can take. And it’s not that complicated. There are organizations, Audubon, National Wildlife Federation, that are giving you all this info to do it. Just follow it, and boom, you’re there. Like me, I had some Joe Pye weed, which is called ugly, but it’s actually so important. It was in Brooklyn, and I saw a monarch floating around looking for food. No food source. I ran down and I planted the Joe Pye weed really fast. And then the monarch settled. It doesn’t take much, and a lot can happen. That’s the good news.
MMB: There’s such an act of generosity in that. I want to ask one craft question before we get to the practical questions of resources. How do you choose your material? Does it find you?
JVM: I think that there has been a kind of feedback loop since Annihilation came out. I was getting invited to talk to environmental science departments and at a lot of interdisciplinary conferences, and that influences the novels. I’m a big believer in letting my subconscious kind of rule on the things that should be organic, and then learning the craft of what should be mechanical. Usually, I get four or five ideas at once and then spend years and years untangling them and thinking about them before I actually begin to write.
MMB: Lili, you started speaking about where birding and acting were overlapping for you. Would you say more about that, or about how you choose your work these days?
LT: I have a great opportunity, because if I show up with my bins on a set, bins attract conversation. They’re weird, and all of a sudden, people are talking. So I have a lot of pretty cool opportunities to get the word out. This older actor said to me, before we started acting for the first time, he put his hand out and he said, “Dear, shall we leap empty-handed into the void?” I try to get into that state, that leaping empty-handed into the void, which is a very difficult state to get in for many reasons.
I’m a big believer in letting my subconscious kind of rule on the things that should be organic, and then learning the craft of what should be mechanical.
MMB: I was wondering if you would speak, in practical terms, about rewilding. What are some resources for people trying to create a healthier environment for birds and other species in their yards?
JVM: I know, it’s old fashioned, but on my website I actually started doing blog posts. If you go to my website at jeffvandermeer.com, you’ll find resources, including an article for The Guardian that Megan wrote and all these articles I’ve been writing. One other thing that I found helpful was finding a native nursery nearby with someone who’s willing to do a walkthrough of your yard. It doesn’t have to be large scale; it can be tiny and still make a difference. I would also say if you’re on Facebook, because that’s where these groups tend to be, find your wildflower organization or state group. There are a lot of them that can really help plug you in with people who can give you some expert information.
MMB: Lili, does anything come to mind?
LT: I think Doug Tallamy’s Bringing Nature Home is an excellent book to start with. I-Naturalist is a great app. That’s how I found out the names of things, the knowledge and keystone species. And as Jeff said, you are doing something by putting that wildflower on your balcony or the hummingbird feeder up. It’s worth it.
MMB: Beautifully said. Thank you, Jeff and Lili.
The Bookseller calls for authors to pen ‘ode to booksellers’
The Bookseller is calling for authors to pen an “ode to booksellers” as part of a celebration of the trade during a time when high-street…
The Bookseller is calling for authors to pen an “ode to booksellers” as part of a celebration of the trade during a time when high-street bookshops are unable to open their doors. The idea came from author Matson Taylor who wrote his own tribute to booksellers, following a book tour he undertook in summer 2020, and his agent Alice Lutyens at Curtis Brown.
A selection of odes will be published on theBookseller.com with authors invited to participate in a national celebration of bookselling at the end of Springboard, the joint online conference being organised by The Bookseller the Booksellers Association in the week beginning 1st March.
Taylor, whose book The Miseducation of Evie Epworth is to be published in paperback in April by Simon & Schuster, said: “Independent bookshops really are Palaces of Pleasure. They are magical creative places staffed by people who are wise, funny, glorious and kind. Places to learn, to laugh, to chat, to smile and to gossip (there’s always lots of top-class gossip). Indie bookshops and indie booksellers are national treasures, the crown jewels of many local communities.”
Booksellers Association m.d. Meryl Halls said: “The relationship between an author and a bookshop can be incredibly special, and we are really pleased to be working with The Bookseller team on this celebration of bookshops by authors. We know all too well how hard booksellers are working during lockdown to keep getting books to customers, and we know how mutually reliant and respectful booksellers and authors are, so it will be wonderful to see these love letters to bookshops take shape—it’ll give a huge shot in the arm to weary (but endlessly cheerful) booksellers.”
Philip Jones editor of The Bookseller added: “There’s never been a more important time for authors to show their love for booksellers and for bookshops, and we encourage one and all to take part in this national celebration of booksellers which, if nothing, else will give a little something back to trade that none of us could do without.”
Odes, of any length, humorous or serious, lyrical or not, may be sent to [email protected], before 5 p.m. on Friday 26th February. Selected authors will be invited to take part in a Zoom videoconference with booksellers as part of Springboard on 5th March at 4 p.m. All rights remain with the authors; with the odes to reproduced only with permission of the writers.
In Taylor’s ode he recounts: “Thank you for saying I look younger in real life than in the publicity photo / Thank you for letting me make a big fuss of your dog / Thank you for giving me a funny-face mini plantpot when I said how nice they were / Thank you for inviting me on your podcast / Thank you for recommending my book to practically everyone who came in your shop / Thank you for being so generous and supportive to an unknown debut novelist who had no idea what he was meant to be doing.“
Springboard is a free conference organised organised by The Bookseller and the Booksellers Association at which booksellers and The Bookseller’s previewers will showcase the seasons big new titles. To secure your place visit: thebookseller.zoom.us/webinar/register.
My Writing Life: Sunday Taylor : Women Writers, Women’s Books
When the idea came to me for my novel, I remember racing to my computer and writing in a sort of frenzy. I wrote a few pages in this exhilarating state of mind, then closed my computer and went on with what I had been doing, probably cooking dinner. Reading what I had written the following day, I realized I was on to something, and that perhaps this could turn into a book. That was an amazing feeling!
But what happened during the years it took me to finish was far from linear or formulaic. In fact, it was probably the messiest, most organic, albeit exciting, experience I have ever lived through. In the beginning, I had no outline, structure or direction. But there was a magic that would occur, with sparks of illumination so insanely thrilling, that I just couldn’t stop writing.
Mostly though, as every writer will tell you, the process was more prosaic and consisted of staring at the computer screen for hours on end and coming up with very little. Putting in the time and not giving up was crucial. Some days were good, some days not so good. But miraculously, those two states of mind, the enchanted and the mundane, merged into a river of creativity, that resulted, to my utter delight, in a book.
My story began to develop and grow in unexpected ways, much like a baby who resembles neither parent at first but occasionally, even eerily, flashes a crooked smile or gives you that soulful gaze that makes you know you are staring at your spiritual twin. If you think about the things that have preoccupied you in life – the people, passions, loves, heartbreaks, milestones, interests, hobbies, books, travels, dreams, regrets — tucked away in the deepest recesses of your memory bank, chances are you will find them in the pages of your book. They may be softly woven throughout your pages, quietly vibrating in the background or take center stage, emerging with crystalline magic.
Humming in the background of my own consciousness was a love of literature, women writers, travel, and England. If I could combine my love of those things with a riveting story about a woman who takes a trip that changes her life, this just might work.
During the writing process, I discovered some faithful companions – habits and tools I could rely on, that became lamposts to light my way during the chaotic, messy, enigmatic business of writing a book. Here are a few of them:
A big fat notebook, bulging with material for my book, was a lifesaver for me. I discovered early on that visual prompts helped my writing process. I had been tearing out articles and photos about literature, travel, and other passions for most of my adult life, so I already had quite a large collection. I purchased a three-ring binder and put a picture of Charlotte Brontë on the cover. Because my novel is about a woman who travels from Los Angles to London to write a book about her favorite author Charlotte Brontë, and whose life is utterly transformed by the experience, Charlotte had to be at the heart of things.
I studied British magazines to learn about English gardens and houses. What flowers would a renowned horticulturist grow in her Wiltshire garden; what would the Notting Hill house of a London-based interior designer look like? I researched British names, manner of dress, looks, food, and speech. An article by a British florist about the love letters her father wrote her mother is included with a photo of those old-fashioned letters tied up with a strand of claret-red satin ribbon. It was the visual prompt for the story of my protagonist Claire Easton finding the love letters written to her mother by a mysterious Englishman.
My dividers had the most enticing labels:
Christmas in London
Whenever I hit a writing block, I would pull out my notebook and flip through it. This would often inspire a new idea, character, or storyline. The notebook became a sort of commonplace book, filled with favorite writers, travel locales, literary heroes and heroines, tips on decorating and gardening, quotes to live by — everything I’ve loved over the years.
Notice your books. What have you been reading all your life? Despite so much information readily available on the internet, I found there was no substitution for doing my research in an actual book. As I looked at the books on my bookshelves I realized that, just as with all my articles and photos, I had been collecting material for my novel for most of my life. I had every book on the Brontës, for example.
And there were books on other relevant topics as well — Virginia Woof, Charles Dickens, E.M. Forster, Thomas Carlyle, London pubs, old London booksellers and publishers, Bloomsbury, Sissinghurst, Vita Sackville-West. Apparently, my novel had been percolating in the recesses of my imagination all these years and I hadn’t realized it. These books were my old friends, the equivalent of a cup of tea by the fireplace on a rainy day. It had all come full circle. I could do my research from my bookshelves and be reminded of my reading life throughout the years. Be sure to study your literary interests. They just may lead you to a topic for a book.
Most writers desire feedback. One of the best pieces of advice I ever received was to seek it from someone who speaks your language, who is a kindred spirit. That way, they are more likely to understand what you are trying to say, share your vision, and help you express it better. Several friends became my readers and early editors. They were my soulmates on this project. I will always be grateful for their generosity, close reading, insights and brilliant suggestions. My book is a better book because of them. Don’t be afraid to ask for feedback from your close friends. It can be so helpful.
ABOUT THE AUTHOR:
Sunday Taylor grew up in Pennsylvania and Connecticut and attended Bates College in Maine. A graduate of the Master of Arts program in English Literature at UCLA, she spent the last four decades in California and currently lives in Los Angeles. Taylor is married with two grown daughters and two granddaughters. She journeys to England every year, reads Jane Eyre every autumn and identifies as an Anglophile. This is her first book.
Find out more about Sunday on her website: sundaytaylor.com
THE ANGLOPHILE’S NOTEBOOK
“How many ways does the past haunt the present? Can it give you the courage to finally follow your heart? Part literary mystery, part how-to-reinvent-your-life, and 100% delicious, Sunday Taylor‘s entrancing novel about Charlotte Brontë will have you captivated from page one. Get ready to put the outside world on hold. You don’t just read this book, you live it.” ~ Lisa Borgnes Giramonti, author of Novel Interiors.
The Anglophile’s Notebook is a literary mystery set in England. Claire Easton travels from Los Angeles to London to research a book on her favorite author, Charlotte Brontë. While seeking Brontë’s secrets, she discovers her own. The Anglophile’s Notebook will transport the reader to literary London and the beautifully wild countryside of Yorkshire, home of the Brontë sisters. It’s filled with writerly ghosts, enchanting bookstores, cozy pubs, English country gardens, secret correspondence, gothic intrigue and memorable characters.
Tags: featured, women writers
Category: How To and Tips
90,000 Read True Love – Reid Taylor Jenkins – Page 14
– Well … – Jess hugged me. – This is our wedding. Everything is allowed to us.
“I’m not sure we can get away with this,” I said.
Jess has already started to unbutton my dress. It didn’t give way, so he pulled the tight skirt over my hips.
We stopped in the kitchen. I jumped onto the kitchen table, and Jess pulled me to him, and I snuggled against his body, feeling completely different from before.
It made more sense.
Half an hour later, as soon as I left the bathroom, adjusting my hair, Marie knocked on the door.
Everyone wanted to know where we were.
It’s time to announce our dance.
“I guess we need to get back,” Jess told me, smiling as he remembered what we were doing, keeping everyone waiting.
“I think so too,” I said, in the same mood.
– Yes, – Marie agreed not too cheerfully, – I think so.
On the way to the hotel, which took several minutes, she walked in front of us.
“We seem to have pissed off the bookseller’s daughter,” Jess whispered.
“I think you’re right,” I said.
“I have to tell you something really important,” he said. – Are you ready? This is really important. Great news.
– I will love you forever.
“I already know that,” I smiled. “And I, too, will love you forever.
– Yes, – I answered. – To love you until old age, when we can hardly move without assistance and we will have to move with a walker, putting cool yellow tennis balls on their legs.In fact, I will love you even longer. I will love you until the end of time.
– Are you sure? He asked, pulling me towards him. Marie, much ahead of us, had already grabbed the door handle, and I heard the rumble of social talk. I imagined a room full of friends and family getting to know each other. I imagined Olivie already befriended half of my father’s many relatives.
When it was over, Jess and I embarked on a ten-day tour of India, kindly given to us by his parents.No backpacking or hostel accommodation. No deadlines or filming while we were there. Just two people in love with each other, and the whole world.
– Are you kidding me? I asked. “You are my only true love. I never even thought that I could love someone else.
The double doors opened and Jess and I entered the reception room just as the DJ announced:
“I present to you… Jess and Emma Lerner!
I shuddered for a second when I heard my new name.They seemed to be talking about someone else. I assumed that over time I would get used to her, that I would like her more, just as I thought in the first few days after I got my haircut.
However, the surname had no meaning. Nothing mattered when the man of my dreams was with me.
It was the happiest day of my life.
Emma and Jess. Forever and ever.
After three hundred and sixty-four days, he disappeared.
The last time I saw Jess was wearing navy blue slacks, slip-ons and a gray and purple T-shirt.This was his favorite. He had washed it the day before, so he put it on.
One day left before our wedding anniversary. As a freelancer, he was assigned an assignment to write an article about a new hotel in Saint Inessa Valley, Southern California. Despite the fact that a business trip is not the best way to celebrate an anniversary, Jess was going to take me with him. We would celebrate our first anniversary by staying at a hotel like tourists, writing notes about food, and then making our way to one vineyard or two.
But Jess was asked to accompany his old boss during an urgent four-day filming in the Aleutian Islands.
And, unlike me, he hasn’t been to Alaska yet.
“I’ll see glaciers,” Jess dreamed. “You have seen them, but I have not yet.
I thought about how you feel when you look at something so white that it seems blue, so huge that you feel small, so calm that you forget about the threat to the environment posed by glaciers.I understood why he wanted to go there. But I also knew that if I were in his place, I would refuse such an opportunity.
Travel fatigue played a part. We’ve spent nearly ten years grabbing every chance to board a plane or train. I worked for a travel blog and wrote as a freelance writer, doing my best to get my articles published in more and more promising publications.
I have become a pro at checkpoints and baggage claim.I had accumulated enough award miles to fly anywhere I dreamed of.
And I’m not saying that the travels weren’t amazing, that our lives weren’t great. Because she was like that.
I visited the Chinese Wall. I climbed a waterfall in Costa Rica. I tried pizza in Naples, strudels in Vienna, sausages and mashed potatoes in London. I saw Mona Lisa . I have been to the Taj Mahal.
More than once, while abroad, I experienced incredible sensations.
But I also experienced a lot of incredible sensations from the comfort of my own home. Jess and I came up with cheap homemade dinners, walked the streets late at night sharing an equal portion of ice cream, and woke up early on Saturdays at sunrise glistening through the sliding glass door.
I built my life proceeding from the fact that I wanted to see everything that is extraordinary, but then I did not realize that extraordinary is everywhere.
And I really wanted to take advantage of some opportunity, to settle somewhere and, perhaps, what the hell is not kidding, to give up the need to rush to the plane and fly somewhere else.
I just found out that Marie is pregnant with her first child. She and Mike bought a house near Acton. Everything seemed to lead to the fact that she would become the owner of the store. The bookseller’s daughter met expectations.
But what amazed me was that I had a slight suspicion that her life was not so bad.
She did not endlessly pack or unpack things. She never suffered from jet lag. She didn’t have to buy the phone charger she already had because she forgot the original one a thousand miles from where she was now.
I told Jess about all this.
– Do you ever want to just go home? I asked.
“We’re home,” he replied.
– No, home. To Acton.
Jess looked at me suspiciously and said:
– You must be an impostor. Because the real Emma would never say that.
I laughed and never returned to this topic.
But I haven’t really forgotten about her. The point was this: if Jess and I were going to have kids, could we still get the next flight and fly to Peru? And perhaps more importantly, will I be able to raise children in Los Angeles?
The very moment these questions popped into my head, I began to realize that my plans for life, in fact, never extended beyond thirty years.I never wondered if I would always like to travel, if I would always want to live so far away from my parents.
I began to suspect that the luxurious lifestyle that Jess and I led seemed temporary to me, it was like a conscious need, but then, one day, everything had to end.
I thought that someday I would like to settle down.
And the only thing that struck me more than realizing it was the thought that I had never understood it before.
Of course, it wasn’t that I knew for certain that Jess wasn’t thinking about something like that. I was pretty sure he wasn’t thinking about it at all.
We built our life as a spontaneous adventure, we saw everything that others only dream of seeing.
10 works where books are in the center .. | Pruzhany Central Regional Library named after M
10 works where books are at the center of the plot
1. “Diary of a bookseller”, Sean Bytell
Today, Wigtown, located in a remote corner of Scotland, is a place where book lovers from all over the world flock.This is due to the fact that in 1998 Wigtown was declared a national book city of Scotland, and in 1999 the Wigtown Book Festival began its work. The witty diary of Sean Bytell, owner of Scotland’s largest second-hand bookstore and an active participant in the festival, describes the everyday life and joys of the bookseller. The ironic and daring narrative of the keen salesperson will appeal to fans of Black’s Bookstore, starring Dylan Moran, one of the best sitcoms ever to appear on television, as well as to all book lovers and book lovers alike. shops.
2. “Camino Island”, John Grisham
The Princeton University Library has been robbed! The priceless manuscripts of Francis Scott Fitzgerald were stolen … The police and the FBI are at an impasse. And then the private detective agency hired by the insurance company, specializing in the search for stolen art objects, begins its own hunt for the kidnappers.
The trail of the disappeared manuscripts stretches to the resort island of Camino off the coast of Florida, where the famous antique dealer and bibliophile Bruce Cable and a group of his fellow writers live.It is there that the detectives send their “mole” – the aspiring writer Mercer Mann.
But, having never participated in an investigation before, will she be able to track down the mysterious culprit?
3. “The Morning Reader”, Jean-Paul Didieloran
Every morning on the train 6.27 a young man reads aloud excerpts from books put under the knife at a waste paper processing plant. Some passengers even specially get into the same carriage with him – for twenty minutes of the trip, reading takes them far from the dull everyday life.One day he finds under the seat a flash drive with the diary of an unknown girl, and his life takes on a new goal – to find this modern Cinderella.
Jean-Paul Didieloran is known as a brilliant short story writer, crowned with prestigious awards, including twice the Hemingway International Prize. The Morning Reader is his first novel, which immediately became one of the bestsellers. Critics wrote of him as a literary phenomenon: the sixty thousandth circulation sold out in less than four months, and twenty-five countries bought the translation rights.
4. “The Mysterious Flame of Queen Loana” by Umberto Eco
The illustrated novel is a seductive new form of modern literature for the reader, but Umberto Eco is in fact “reinventing” old favorite books. Childhood books are always full of pictures, and these pictures light up a child’s fantasy with a magic flame. This is exactly what the hero, second-hand bookseller Giambattista Bodoni from Milan, needs to return to his own self after a serious illness and loss of memory.
Magazines, comics, great essays, chants, advertisements, records, radio broadcasts.In the attic, as in a fairytale cave, the hero rediscover the well-forgotten, vital sensations. Reminding the hero of his experiences, smells and sounds full of meaning are reborn from the magic of dusty pages. An old school notebook tells Giambattista about his old love and his own young heroism. Collecting himself bit by bit, like a detective from a detective, Bodoni regains self-awareness and returns from an imagined and restored world to the real one. How long? He has a new journey ahead – the famous Italian novelist invites the reader into yet another clever phantasmagoria.
5. “Bookstore”, Craig McLay
If you think that the bookstore can be compared to a sleepy kingdom, you are deeply mistaken. In fact, life in the “Bookstore” is in full swing. The store manager, an imposing Italian Dante, hides a terrible secret from his authoritarian mom. The seller Sebastian goes too far in his quest to get everything out of life. The intellectual Aldous, whose eccentricity is not popular with the fair sex, turns out to be a “dark horse”.Behind the modest appearance of the grumpy old man Ebenezer hides the subtle romantic nature of a knight in love. The unbalanced psyche of the cashier Mina is not so bad, but her husband is literally armed and very dangerous. The author of the story, the assistant manager, dreams of a completely different life, but is afraid to change something. However, after a fateful meeting with an unusual customer, it becomes clear: changes cannot be avoided.
Events are developing at such a speed that the workers of the “Bookstore” can hardly keep up with them.The store is also on the verge of closing. Who will win – the humble “Bookstore” or a huge international corporation that absorbs everything in its path? And can the heroes make their dreams come true? ..
6. “New Life”, Orhan Pamuk
Orhan Pamuk is a famous Turkish writer, winner of numerous national and international prizes, including the Nobel Prize for Literature. At the center of the most mysterious novel of the writer, New Life, is the mysterious Book, which chooses the reader independently and deprives him of all his usual life guidelines, arousing an irresistible passion for travel and the search for another, more true reality.After reading the Book, student Osman sets off on a trip to Turkey. Changing from bus to bus, wandering along deserted dusty roads, resting in cafes abandoned on the edge of the world, he moves forward, “just about waiting to learn the secret of a hidden, unknown geometry, called life.”
7. The Truth About the Harry Quebert Case by Joel Dicker
The Truth About the Harry Quebert Case was published in 2012 and immediately became a bestseller. Having barely appeared on the shelves, the book in France alone sold out in huge circulation and was translated into thirty languages, and its author, twenty-seven-year-old Swiss Joel Dikker, received the Grand Prix of the French Academy for the best novel and the Goncourt Lyceum Prize.
This story is set in the United States with a dizzying plot and an unexpected ending. The young and successful novelist Markus Goldman toils from lack of inspiration and goes for help to his teacher, the famous writer Harry Quebert. However, it suddenly turns out that help is required by Harry himself, accused of a murder that took place in a quiet American town 33 years ago. To save Harry from the electric chair, Marcus takes on his own investigation and tries to unravel the most complex tangle of lies, long-buried secrets and fatal accidents.And he gets thirty-one tips on how to write a bestseller.
8. “Servant”, Catherine Stokett
American South, outside 1960s. Skeeter just graduated from university and returns home to the sleepy town of Jackson, where nothing ever happens. She dreams of becoming a writer, breaking out into the big world. But a decent girl from the South should not indulge in such stupid illusions; a decent girl should get married and fuss around the house.
Wise Aibileen is thirty years older than Skeeter, she has served in the homes of whites all her life, has nurtured seventeen children and has long expected nothing from life, for her heart is broken after the death of her only son.
Minnie is the finest cook in all of Jackson, and she is also the most daring maid in town. And the sharp tongue has already done her a disservice more than once. Minnie never stays in one place for a long time. But even the most arrogant white ladies are better off not messing with Minnie.
Two black maids and an inexperienced white girl are united by one thing – a heightened sense of justice and a desire to somehow change the order of things. Will these three be able to withstand the whole world? Will they be able to survive this struggle?
In 2011, the novel was filmed, and the film “The Servant” became one of the main events of the 2011-2012 film season, was nominated for 4 Oscars and was very warmly received by the audience.The script was written by Catherine Stokett herself, and the film was directed by Tate Taylor.
9. “The Reader”, Bernhard Schlink
The phenomenal success of the novel by the modern German writer Bernhard Schlink “The Reader” (1995) is comparable only to the popularity of Patrick Suskind’s novel “Perfumer”, published twenty years earlier. The Reader has been translated into thirty-nine languages of the world, the book has become an international bestseller and has collected a whole bunch of prestigious literary awards in Europe and America.
A sudden romance between a fifteen-year-old boy from a professorial family and a mature woman ended just as abruptly when she disappeared from the city without warning.Eight years later, now a graduate law student, he saw her again – among the former overseers of the women’s concentration camp at the trial against Nazi criminals. But this is not the only secret that was revealed to the hero of Bernhard Schlink’s novel The Reader.
10. “Misery”, Stephen King
Can salvation from certain death turn into such a nightmare that even death seems like a merciful gift of fate?
Maybe. For it happened to Paul Sheldon, the author of an endless series of books about Misery’s misadventures.The wounded writer ended up in the arms of Annie Wilkes, a woman who lost her mind over his novels. The secluded house of a demon-possessed fury turned into a torture chamber, and Paul’s existence – into a hell full of pain and horror.
Bookseller Girl’s First Morning in Scotland | Azbuka-Atticus
Jessica Fox is a writer and film director. She worked as a consultant for publishing company Harper Collins, corporate training consultant and filmmaker at NASA. Jessica’s films have been featured at both American and foreign film festivals.
Three Things You Need to Know About Rockets. Diary of a Bookseller Girl, ”she shares her amazing experience at a second-hand bookstore in Wigtown.
Having received an invitation from the owner of a famous bookstore in Scotland and far beyond its borders, 26-year-old Jessica finally decides to work with a second-hand bookseller and is confidently getting ready to go. Maybe there, in a fabulously beautiful country, her restless soul will find answers to many questions? Will such downshifting be curative for Jessica?
We publish a short excerpt – Jessica’s first morning in Scotland.
I woke up from deep oblivion when I heard a cow mooing. The body, intoxicated by the change of time zones, seemed heavy and sluggish. I moved my legs, lying under the white starched sheets, and felt the tickling scent of lavender in my nose. Suddenly I realized how unusual everything around was – the air, sounds and smells. I’m not in Los Angeles, I remembered. Actually, I am here. In Wigtown.
The room was plunged into darkness. I think the clock was about 6 or 7 in the morning, I could not determine more precisely: my eyes, clouded with fatigue, had not yet had time to adapt to the darkness and allow me to look around.With an effort of will, I forced myself to sit up and looked over the foot of the bed at the large window, curtained by a long heavy curtain behind which the morning sun was hidden. A beam of bright light shot through a crack in the curtain into the room, hitting the white wall behind me.
Yuan put me in the largest of the guest rooms. Over the past week, he specially saved it, preparing for my arrival, and did not accommodate any of the guests who came to the upcoming book festival. The other two rooms were still empty, but one of them was for a writer, and the other for Yuan’s cousin and her friend, who had promised to come.
– But don’t worry. You will live in a large guest bedroom until you leave, ”Yuan mentioned casually. He said it as if it was nothing special, but I knew: he probably had to turn down many people in order to leave the room for me.
It was quite warm under the blanket, but throwing it back, I felt the cold autumn air embrace me. I immediately pulled the covers back up to my chin, glad that I could soak up my bed a little longer and explore my new home.The bedroom had some fine antique furniture, and a couple of oil paintings adorned the walls. At the far end of the room was a small fireplace with a wood-burning stove, and on the mantelpiece was a vase of dry lavender petals. I felt like the heroine of one of Jane Austen’s novels – either Anna or Elizabeth – when she woke up in an old country estate.
I closed my eyes again. We were able to admire the beautiful views during yesterday’s drive to the castle, but the last leg of the journey was truly impressive as we drove through the Galloway area and approached Wigtown.In Galloway, the most closely guarded secret of Scotland appeared to our eyes – the Machars Peninsula, located between Wigtown Bay and Loose Bay. The pristine beauty of these places conceals smooth ridges of serene, majestic hills, the backdrop for which are grandiose mountain peaks covered with snow caps, virgin forests, or the sea coast.
“My grandmother would say this is Scotland in miniature,” Yuan said suddenly. Noticing the shock on my face, he decided to break the silence in the cabin.- As if all the finest that can only be found in Scotland, gathered in one place. Everything is there: sea, mountains, forests, plateaus.
“This is the most beautiful place I’ve ever seen,” I replied, not exaggerating at all.
– I’m serious. Why are there so few tourists here? After all, anyone will want to visit here.
It seemed to me that I had found the Holy Grail, the most amazing thing on Earth. Green spaces, rocky shores, behind which the endless sea stretches, and not a single house that would disturb the harmony of the landscape – only occasionally we came across stone cottages or mysterious ruins.Empty beaches with caves and grottoes flashed past. A pristine, civilized, breathtaking landscape. If I had not seen all this with my own eyes, I would not have believed that such a Scotland still exists. Not a hint of tour buses, billboards, or age-old greed. Everything here remained untouched either by time or by the hand of man.
– Maybe because it’s not so easy to get here. But the fact that very few people still know about this place only adds to its charm.
Soon, Yuan pointed to a large brown sign on which was written in clear white letters: “Scotland’s Book City of National Significance – Next Left Bend.”
– Almost arrived.
We got to the bookstore when it was getting dark, drove into Wigtown and continued along the main road until we hit a large town square. It was not like any of those squares that I was used to seeing in New England – there their indispensable attribute were wooden colonial houses with large courtyards clinging to the ends, and in the center, as a rule, stood the main beauty and pride of the town – the church …The local square was framed by a row of old wooden cottages in pastel colors – mint green, peach, white – with sparkling window panes that reflected the setting sun. At one end of the square was a red-brick Victorian town hall, and at the other, a winding path began to climb to the top of a hill and disappear from view somewhere at the top.
Bookstores were everywhere, or maybe so it seemed to me because of the surging fatigue and deepening twilight.Signs flashed past with the words “Book Corner”, “Reading Maidens” and “Old Bank Bookstore” – the whole street, as far as the eye could see, was littered with similar shops.
Yuan pulled up his red van in front of a large Georgian house on the ground floor of which was his bookstore. Through the windshield, I saw a green sign with gold letters above the entrance – The Bookshop. On either side of the door were small concrete columns shaped like stacks of books, spiraling upward like DNA strands.
A shiver ran through my body with excitement. Now I will get out of the car and find myself in the very town that I drew in my imagination, sitting in a stuffy Los Angeles apartment … I felt like Neil Armstrong, preparing to take the first step in history on the lunar surface. I was nervous – as Armstrong himself must be – and wondered if the earth would collapse beneath me, turning into dust. Is all this really happening, or is it just an ephemeral illusion, a product of my imagination?
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90,000 treasures in the wall -Places -Additional materials
In 1896, Agnes Smith Lewis and Margaret Dunlop Gibson returned to Cambridge from a trip to the Middle East, from where they brought back several pages of ancient Hebrew manuscripts that they had acquired from a Cairo bookseller. They showed the parchment leaves to a scientist at Cambridge University named Solomon Schechter, who was amazed to find among them a manuscript of the Hebrew Apocrypha of Ben Sira, dated to the 2nd century.BC. Ben Sira’s Wisdom. He wrote the news to his friend Adolph Neubauer, a like-minded librarian at Oxford. Neubauer responded two weeks later, saying that he could not make out Schachter’s postcard, but that he and his assistant, Arthur Cowley, had just “coincidentally” found nine pages of Ben Syrah at Oxford. There were no coincidences, of course. Together with Schechter’s postcard, Neubauer himself went in search of Cairo’s treasures.
The enraged Schechter followed him to Fostat in Old Cairo, where the manuscripts had been found before, and eventually reached the Ben Ezra synagogue – the place, according to legend, where the baby Moses was found in the reeds.In the very depths of the building, in a secret vault called geniza (from the Hebrew word ganaz, meaning to hide or to postpone), Schechter discovered more than seventeen hundred Hebrew and Arabic manuscripts and ephemera (notes, drafts).
In 1897, Neubauer and Cowley persuaded Schechter to publish the discovery of Ben Cyr. But Schechter made them better and returned to England with the ancestor of the geniza. He and his patron Charles Taylor, who was then a master of St John’s College, donated the fragments to Cambridge in 1898.They published their discovery report in 1899 and a facsimile of documents in 1901. Schechter and Neubauer no longer exchanged friendly cards.
According to Jewish law, religious works must be buried if they bear the name of God. However, the Jews of Fostat have preserved not only the sacred texts, but also almost everything that they have ever written down. It’s not entirely clear why, but medieval Jews wrote almost nothing: be it personal letters or shopping lists – without reference to God.(Addressing a person may include blessing him with one of God’s names; the enemy may be cursed by invoking God’s wickedness.) David Kremer, Talmud professor and rabbi at the Jewish Theological Seminary, explained that Fostat’s Jews spoke Arabic but wrote in Hebrew – a holy language – and, perhaps, considered the alphabet itself as sacred.
To this day synagogues collect worn-out prayer books and ritual objects in order to bury their contents every few years.Historians are doubly lucky with the synagogue in Ben Ezra, which not only placed written texts in the geniza, but for some reason never buried its contents. (Instead, they were literally stored in a hole in the wall.) As a result, we have a preserved mailbox of some two hundred and fifty thousand fragments, constituting an unprecedented archive of life in Egypt from the 4th to the 19th centuries. The community around this synagogue was somewhat atypical – many of its Jews were wealthy, lived in the middle of a trading network, and Fostat was safer for Jews than the Land of Israel.However, scholars can extrapolate a large amount of information from the Geniza documents about Jewish life during the Islamic period to cities such as Baghdad, Damascus, and Aleppo. No other records are as long or complete.
For centuries, historians have built their understanding of the limitations of Jewish life on Islamic legal documents that oblige Jews to wear bells, badges, and special clothing. But documents found in the Cairo geniza show that Jews were allowed a much more active lifestyle and were treated much more tolerantly than anticipated.The Fatimid Caliphate, a dynasty that ruled from 909-1171, even provided financial support to the Jerusalem Academy, promoting self-government in the Jewish community and supporting pilgrimages to holy sites. Jewish merchants collaborated with Christians and Muslims; they ran perfume shops and silk factories together. Hundreds of letters buried in the geniza show that Jewish merchant princes sailed from Egypt or Yemen to India and returned along the Red Sea and the Malabar coast unless they married Indian women and stayed in India.The marriage contracts in the collection show that divorce was common. While very few Jews have married Christians and Muslims, there is ample evidence of close relationships with interfaith neighbors, such as letters asking for rabbinical advice to husbands who kept apartments for their Muslim concubines. Domestic anti-Semitism was less common than anticipated.
The Cairo geniza also preserved the narrative of the monuments of Biblical and Hebrew literature, such as the commentaries of Moses Maimonides to the Mishnah with his very characteristic, in other words, simply illegible handwriting.Or unique translations of the Bible created by Saadia Gaon and medieval poems signed by the Jewish poet Joseph ibn Abitur. In the Cairo geniza, Torahs and Talmuds from all over the world were kept. In addition to these canonical texts, the geniza preserved for us many secular and even occult works related to superstition and magic; it contains spells with love and erotic magic, and even for bodily harm.
But it is the social history of the Jews of Fostat that is described in the geniza most colorfully.We see what people bought and ordered, and what was lost in traffic between Alexandria and Italian ports. We find out what kind of clothes they wore: silks and textiles for the middle class from all over the world. Geniza includes marriage agreements and marriage deeds of the 19th century, which list all the information about a woman’s rights in marriage. It also contains the oldest evidence of a Jewish engagement act dating back to 1119, which was invented to provide legal protection to a woman (and her dowry) as the period between engagement and marriage changed in medieval Egypt.
Some of the most living materials add something human to the so-called dry story. There is a letter written by a woman to her husband, who is tired of living under a roof with his relatives (and, even worse, paying them rent). In order not to violate the Jewish laws regarding the husband’s family debt, he returned every Shabbat to her bed, but his wife was not happy. She promised to find a better place to live, but vowed to starve herself until he agreed to return.
Documents in the geniza also revive periods of Christian persecution of Jews. Eyewitness accounts contain memories of the first crusades at the turn of the 11th century and the atrocities committed. One woman who fled from Jerusalem to Tripoli: “I was with them that day when I saw how they were killed in a terrible way…. I am a sick woman on the verge of insanity, when my whole family was starving and the little girl who was with me all this time, and the terrible news that I heard about my son. “
Solomon Schechter may have disapproved of the cries from Oxford about his “skillful” choice of geniza material, ignoring the fact that Cambridge had surpassed him in treasure hunting. (When he found the lost original at Ben Sira, he was unaware of what Neubauer and Cowley were plotting, with the help of an Oxford Assyriologist and a cunning German earl, to buy up all the goodies of the Cairo Geniza.) But he would have had no objection to the university’s joint conservation efforts. his collection, which was of immeasurable importance to scientists.Mediterranean economic historians have developed a “reputation model” based on the activities of the Maghreb Jewish traders recorded in the Geniza, and recent books by scholars, including Marina Rustov, Arnold Franklin and Jessica Goldberg, have explored Geniza to write about the relationship between Jews, Karaites and Muslims in this region.
In addition to the Dead Sea Scrolls, which are biblical manuscripts, the Geniza documents are some of the oldest records of Jewish life in existence (for example, two of the oldest Haggadahs in the world were found there).Mid-century German-Jewish historian and ethnographer S. D. Goitein made the Cairo geniza a subject of study throughout his life and reinterpreted the Middle Ages in his monumental work A Mediterranean Society. Most recently, in 2011, Adina Hoffman and Peter Cole published Sacred Trash: The Lost and Found World of the Cairo Genizah. Perhaps the most notable recent scientific development is the project “ The Friedberg Genizah, a major international project to catalog, transcribe, translate and digitize the treasures of the genizah.The Friedberg Geniza project “has been the first to put together a cache of the Cairo geniza since its discovery. He will live in a modern age equal to an endless repository: the Internet.
90,000 British Booker: a portrait of the era. Translated from English by E. Lutsenko
The British Booker Prize has existed since 1969. This means that her 50th anniversary is approaching. Over the years, the award has become one of the most significant literary awards in the world. It has been awarded to many outstanding writers, some of them twice.At the same time, “Booker” also opens up new names, strengthens the literary positions of the authors, and most importantly, makes the world talk about literature and read prose. The award is widely discussed in the press, the study of its history is included in the compulsory course of some universities, the books of its laureates are sold in huge editions. The award changes the lives of its finalists, influences reading preferences and is the subject of endless debate – from serious academic controversy to gossip columns. Even the Nobel Prize does not generate as much interest.The Russian Booker would hardly have started so successfully if it had not relied on its British ancestor.
The idea of creating the Booker Prize in Britain belongs to two prominent figures in the business world – Jock Campbell and Michael Kane. They had long been the head of Booker plc, founded by the Booker brothers in 1835. Today Booker plc is the largest supplier of food products in the UK, but initially the company gained a reputation as a sugar magnate in British Guiana.The activities of the Booker brothers had a kind of rebound when, in 1972, one of the first laureates, John Berger, accused the prize of being funded by colonial invaders and donated part of the prize money to the Black Panthers, a revolutionary African American organization.
Of course, both – Jock Campbell, the grandson of the Governor of the Bank of England, and Michael Caine, the son of the economist who headed the London School of Economics, Sidney Kane – could boast a good chance at the beginning of their life careers, but neither of them limited themselves to this: both were distinguished by intelligence, education and the breadth of public interests.The idea to establish the Booker’s Author’s Division, which sold the rights to publish books by famous English writers such as Agatha Christie, Ian Fleming, Harold Pinter, belonged to Campbell. Soon, investments from the project began to bring such profits that Campbell felt the need to use part of the proceeds to develop modern literature. This is how the Booker Prize, the brainchild of Campbell and his protégé, appeared in Great Britain; Kane owes its growth and progression to maturity.After him (from 2001 to 2015) Jonathan Taylor, CEO of Booker plc, was Chairman of the Booker Prize Fund.
From the beginning of its existence, the Booker Prize adopted the quality of the text as a criterion for assessing the quality of the text, which caused considerable surprise. Although first prize-winner P.H. Newby, administrator of the British Broadcasting Corporation, “This Has To Be Resolved” was already the seventeenth in his career, to the general public, this name was compared to other finalists of that year, such as Iris Murdoch and Muriel Spark. said almost nothing.
The premium process procedure, although with some variations, has survived to this day almost unchanged. The Management Committee is responsible for the overall management of the award, the development and interpretation of the rules, and the selection of the jury. No member of the jury may act in this role twice. Each time the jury is headed by a chairman, a prominent public figure or writer. The right to nominate works for the award belongs to the publishers, the number of books is strictly limited in accordance with the regulations.All nominated novels must be written in English by authors from Great Britain, Ireland or the countries of the Commonwealth of Nations (a voluntary interstate association of independent states linked to Great Britain by a common history), headed by Queen Elizabeth II of Great Britain. In 2013, the rules were amended to allow nominations for works written in English anywhere in the world. The winner of the prize receives a check in pounds sterling – over the years of the existence of the prize, this amount has increased from 5,000 to 50,000.The shortlist consists of 6 nominees, each of whom will receive £ 2,500 regardless of which of the six wins the grand prize.
In the first three years of its existence, the Booker Prize strengthened its position through cooperation with the British Publishers Association, which unites the entire UK book industry. It is worth noting that the British book market is one of the three largest in the world, second only to the United States and India in terms of the number of books published annually.Although the Publishers’ Association was successful with the award, in 1971 management issues shifted to the National Book League, which popularized reading. Its director, Martin Goff, a novelist, bookseller and successful negotiator, managed the award for 35 years: Goff attended all jury meetings, reassured authors, and liaised with the press. From the earliest years, the prize has sparked controversy. There is no doubt that Martin Goff contributed to this by cherishing the possibility of free popularization.He was able to utter the innocent “Moi?” With a slight tinge of anger, having heard the assumption that the initiator of the latest rumors was himself, although who, if not he, was him?
When Goff retired in 2006, he was replaced by Ian Trewin, a well-known and respected publisher in literary circles, who also did not miss the opportunity to throw a tidbit of information to journalists from time to time – so the Booker Prize has always been at the center of public debate … Trevin’s death in 2014, shortly after Goff’s death, was a big blow to the award, but was replaced by Geby Wood, head of the review department at one of the nationwide English newspapers, The Daily Telegraph.
Although the Booker Prize has thrown stories for the press year after year, it has never been involved in financial scandals. The leaders of the award have never been accused of ineffective management or deliberate promotion of the author due to his family ties. I remember that we managed to prevent such a situation in 1994 (when I was on the jury for the first time). It was revealed that one of the judges, literary critic and journalist James Wood, was married to Claire Messoud, whose debut novel, When Was the World Stable? was nominated for an award.The scandal was not leaked to the press, and Messud was immediately excluded from the nomination list. And then the chairman of the jury, John Bailey, husband of Iris Murdoch, one of the most talented post-war writers, prudently advised publishers not to nominate her novel for the award, although they were going to do so.
Heated discussions flared up in connection with the overestimated self-esteem of some people. They did not always concern the finalists, even if they had an excuseful reason – stress, because they are constantly in the field of view of the press.Back in 1971, one of the jury members, the renowned journalist Malcolm Muggeridge, resigned from the jury on his own initiative, explaining his decision by “disgust” for the content of the novels nominated for the Booker Prize. Muggeridge’s decision looked eccentric with the shortlisting of the decade’s eminent writers such as Doris Lessing, Mordecai Richler and Elizabeth Taylor. However, this also served as just a prelude for the tireless Martin Goff, who wanted to draw attention to the award.There was a downside to flirting with the press – the risk of tarnishing the award’s reputation. Usually, the quality of the nominated books that came to the attention of the public did not allow Booker to be accused of focusing on mass taste, but weaving intrigues around the award is a dangerous business, and therefore it happened that the award was accused of playing to the public. However, all attempts to establish another competitive prize have not yet been crowned with success.
One way to dispel doubts about the seriousness of the literary award is to make sure that the jury members are impeccably professional.The Booker Prize attracts academics as well as publishers, writers, journalists and, surprisingly, celebrities to judge. When actress Joanna Lumley became a member of the jury in 1985, it was rumored that she and the chairman of the jury of that year, conservative politician Norman St. John Stevas, were responsible for the boldest and most radical decision in Booker’s history. Keri Hume for Skeleton People). A jury capable of choosing such a bold, experimental dystopian novel could not be accused of frivolity or being blinded by fame.The eccentric writer (originally from the Maori tribe) lived by fishing on one of the secluded islands of New Zealand. Unable to attract the attention of a major publisher, she gave the novel to the cooperative company Spiral Collective, which published it. The 1985 jury included, in addition to the aforementioned persons, two eminent writers, Nina Boden and Marina Warner, and the literary editor of the Sunday Times. All members of the jury were well aware of the consequences of their decision and were ready to withstand the pressure of the press.Roman Hume is often considered one of the less prestigious Booker winners, but to this day this text remains a cult work of the Commonwealth countries. The novel, ahead of its time in the treatment of social issues and, in particular, the topic of orphanhood, has come a long way in the book market – from an imperceptible book to a world bestseller.
If the choice of the winner in 1985 was so unexpected thanks to the heterogeneous composition of the jury (from actress to politician-dilettante of the right views), then an even more incredible decision, according to journalists, arose the next year when the winner was Kingsley Amis, who was awarded for the novel “Old devils”.The four members of the jury were women. By the mid-1980s, a decade when feminism flourished, the name of Amis the father (his son, Martin Amis, later became an equally significant author) was steadily associated with male conservatism. “The Old Devils” is a novel about friendship, namely, male friendship; the only heroine meaningful to the story is chatty and annoying. The jury, rejecting preconceived notions about Amis (supposedly a drinking chauvinist), praised the novel for its wit, life-affirming pathos and willingness to discuss ethical issues.
There is no evidence that the Booker Committee has abused its position and ever invited a jury that was unable to properly handle its responsibilities. And although it happened that some judges were invited twice (the author of this article was a member of the jury in 1994 and 2014), it is a special honor to receive such an offer, since there is no shortage of worthy candidates. It is extremely rare that people refuse it.
I would like the jury to be more ethnically diverse.I also see no reason why the prize, claiming to be the world one, cannot invite more representatives of other countries to judge. This has already happened once: in 1971, one of the members of the jury was the American novelist Saul Bellow, who later became a Nobel laureate. The choice of judges may be somewhat limited in order to avoid the high travel costs associated with traveling to the United Kingdom. If a famous American literary critic, or the President of the French Academy, or the Pulitzer Prize winner, or the literary secretary of the Russian Booker Prize received an invitation to serve on the jury for one year, their presence would significantly strengthen and ennoble the reputation of the Prize.Of course, it would require significant adjustments in their work schedule and, in addition, excellent knowledge of English, but for many of them this would not be a problem.
The task presented to the members of the Booker Jury is incredibly difficult. So, in 2014 and 2015, 156 participants were nominated for the competition. Each of the books needs to be carefully evaluated. By the end of July, when the “long list” of 13 novels is formed, a final decision must be made for each work. 13 long-list novels, the so-called “booker’s dozen” (from the English.the phrases “baker’s dozen”, meaning 13 pieces), should be read a second time by mid-September. Then, in a special session, the jury will select six novels to be shortlisted for the award. The judges then read the shortlisted novels again to delve deeply into each text. The last time they meet is on the day of the award. Now they choose a convenient morning time for this meeting, but for many years the meeting was scheduled for 16.00. Since the name of the winner should become known to the press in two hours (but by no means before the chairman of the jury announces it at the gala dinner), and in this interval there should still be a photo shoot of the jury members, there was still time for making the most important decision. not enough.Even though we exceeded the limit by 15 minutes in 1994, we had only two hours at our disposal, and the choice was particularly difficult that year.
Since it is a great honor to be on the jury, it is absolutely impossible that one of the judges will be lazy or dismissive of their duties. In total, given the need to read the novels of both lists twice, the judges will read approximately 175 books each at the conclusion of the award process. In addition, many of the jury members work – either full-time at universities and other organizations, or as freelancers.The only way to cope with the task is to develop the technique of speed reading. The acclaimed television journalist Celina Scott became the object of ridicule in 1983 when, at an awards ceremony, during an interview, she asked the famous writer F. Weldon, the chairman of the jury of that year, if she had actually read all the novels nominated for the award. I have often had to answer this question, and I think it is fair. Weldon’s answer, like my own, was always short: “Of course!”, And after that I uttered a few indignant words – does anyone think otherwise? Of course, there are various strategies for working with so many texts.Reading the novel, each member of the jury keeps in mind the most important question: “Is it possible to give the Booker Prize for this book?” If, after reading 100 pages, it is obvious that the probability is almost zero, there is reason to read the rest of the novel more quickly. I have always stated, in all honesty, that I go through every page of a book that I am asked to review, but I read some pages fluently. I always check myself this way: after reading the text, can I fully retell its content and, if asked, outline its plot, characterize the characters and evaluate its quality?
What criteria are the jury members guided by when choosing the winner? Booker’s mission is to find an outstanding novel written in English over the past year.Some jury members use scoring sheets to improve the process, or ask the chairman of the jury to put forward criteria for judging works, but these requests are only advisory in nature. Each member of the jury decides independently how to evaluate the work.
As for me, I have always tried to find a book that, in a sense, renews the novel genre. Not necessarily an experimental novel – I hope to open to the world a book that will make you feel that the novel genre is in development, offers new ways of perceiving the world, a novel that can convey new information to the reader – be it historical, social, cultural or other information.Of particular importance is the term relevance, which is widely criticized today. The Booker Prize winning book should, in my view, challenge our understanding of contemporary reality and free us from prejudice by offering new interpretations. It is absolutely not required that the action of the novel takes place in our time. There is every reason to believe that a novel, which tells about the events of a thousand years ago, can present modern events in a new light with the same artistic means that it uses to describe the past.Paul Kingnorth’s 2014 long-listed novel The Awakening serves as a good confirmation of my point, helping to understand the reasons for rejection of tyranny and how to resist it.
Despite the fact that the team of judges is chosen very carefully, disputes often arise between the members of the jury.
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Study Group on Eighteenth-Century Russia Newsletter – Volume 2 (NS)
Prince Iusupov’s 1776 Journey to Britain in 1776
[Prince Iusupov’s 1776 Journey to Britain]
‘But London called for your attention.
Your gaze diligently dismantled this dual cathedral
, -Here is a fiery onslaught,
and there is a harsh rebuff -Strong springs
new civic consciousness. Bored, maybe
over the Thames stingy You thought to sail far … ’
A.S. Pushkin ‘To the grandee’
The addressee of this message is the eighty-year-old Prince Nikolai Borisovich Yusupov (1750-1831) – a Russian nobleman, diplomat, dignitary and philanthropist who entered the history of Russian culture, thanks to his art collections and his style of life, which so admired the poet.Both were distinguished by an amazing taste, developed and perfected by an excellent education.
Like many young men from Russian aristocratic families, the prince studied at home, and then, after serving 1.5 years in the College of Foreign Affairs under the leadership and patronage of Count Nikita Ivanovich Panin, he began to prepare himself for a diplomatic career, and in 1774, with the approval of Panin, filed a petition to Empress Catherine II to dismiss him from service ‘for 4 years, both for training in Leiden and for travel’.That is, Yusupov’s educational journey was a necessary part of his study abroad program and was intended to prepare him for the diplomatic field.
After taking a course at Leiden University from 1774 to 1776, where, in addition to studying law, he acquired knowledge in philosophy, history, anatomy, mathematics, chemistry, physics, botany, music, drawing, in ancient and new languages, including took English lessons from a certain Mitchell, Prince Yusupov went on a trip to Europe: he visited Portugal, Spain, France, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Denmark and Sweden.
But the first country he visited was Britain, where he arrived on March 17, 1776. The young prince shared his impressions of the journey with his older friend, professor of the ancient Greek language at Leiden University Lodoveik Valkenar. Thanks to these letters, many details of Prince Yusupov’s stay in England became known. In the first letter dated March 18, he says: “I have been in London since the 17th of this month. I found the pleasures here too noisy, too outlandish, but without being distracted by them in the least, I was introduced to the king and queen: they spoke to me very graciously.Here I only know the house of Admiral Knowles, where I spent the evening. Morals are so spoiled that it shocks me from the first day of my stay in London. Vice is here without a mask ‘. He goes on to write about his hobbies: ‘I started buying some books, including the Baskerville editions of the classics and Homer Barnesius with Greek commentaries. I read, using my notes, Canto X of the Iliad and imagine that I am still near you. All days I was busy making social visits and equipping and remodeling my apartment – that’s why I didn’t see the local scientists.I have very few acquaintances, the sooner I can devote myself to studying science at home. ‘
A month later, on April 19, 1776, the prince writes to the professor: ‘I have met some scientists, and these are the best acquaintances that can be made in this country. Thanks to Professor Alaman’s recommendation, I was patronized by the President of the Royal Society, John Pringle, with whom I visit on Sundays, and I met Dr.Musgrave, who announced the imminent release of several volumes of Euripides in quarto format.He even showed me his work in advance, he treats you with great respect and asks me to convey my good wishes to you. ‘ physician and writer, publisher of the Journal Britannique and, much more important for Yusupov, chief librarian, and in fact, director of the British Museum. It was during this acquaintance that Maty entered into the Album amicorum principis de Youssoupoff, which the prince started in Leiden, his wishes, calling Yusupov the resurrected Anacharsis redivivus for his wanderlust.So, the prince owed his first acquaintances with English scientists to Leiden University – after all, Pringle, and Musgrave, and Maty were its graduates. And Professor Pringle, a mathematician and philosopher, who received a doctorate in physics from the University of Leiden, the title of doctor in Paris, from 1774 – the king’s physician and head of the Royal Society, during the entire stay of the prince in Britain, showed him his friendly affection and patronage …
For rest, the prince undertook a short trip to the British province (as he writes, ‘pour voir lcs campagnes’).He went to Bath, Bristol, Salisbury, saw the family estates of the Earl of Pembroke, visited Oxford, where he ‘saw the famous marble sculptures and inscriptions, very well preserved’, and a large marble slab describing the Battle of Marathon. At Oxford, he spent several hours at the observatory with the ‘very hardworking and amiable scientist astronomer Hornsby’, but was forced to leave him, having received an invitation from London from Priestley to attend new experiments with ‘still air’, which turned out to be ‘just as amazing. as well as electrical experiments. ‘Communication with Joseph Priestley, one of the most educated people of his time: chemist, theologian, philosopher, librarian of the Secretary of State Lord Shelborne, philologist – polyglot, expert in ancient languages, could not but impress Prince Yusupov, who was not only seriously interested in natural sciences, but also perfectly knew the ancient Greek language. Priestley’s books were in Yusupov’s collection: “Discourse on the doctrine of phlogiston and the decomposition of water” and “Experiments and remarks on various branches of physics”.Perhaps under the influence of these unforgettable impressions, the prince will subsequently acquire Van Loo’s paintings “Pneumatic Experience” and “Electric Experience”.
In London, the prince was lucky to see one of the last performances of the famous Garrick, who at that time was leaving the stage of Drury Lane. Yusupov writes to the professor that ‘this is an incomparable person, and it’s impossible to imagine what a great actor he was until I saw him. Yesterday I spent the whole morning with him, he is a very kind and educated person ‘.In the library of Prince Yusupov there was a book about this great actor: ‘Life of David Garrick with the attachment of two letters from Noverre to Voltaire about this famous actor’, collections of plays in which he played, publications on the history of English theater, the first translations of Shakespeare’s tragedies into French , performed by Laplace and also notes on acting: ‘Garrick or English actors, an essay containing notes on the art of drama, the art of performance and acting’, the book that was the reason for writing ‘Paradox of the Actor’ by Denis Diderot.It must be admitted that thanks to such actors as Garrick, the prince became so seriously carried away by the theater that he was later able to take the post of director of the imperial theaters in St. Petersburg.
In the next letter from London (dated April 31, 1776), Prince Nikolai Borisovich continues his description of his new acquaintances. He spends a lot of time with Professor Pringle and other scientists, attends meetings of the Royal Society, visits the Greenwich Observatory, where he meets the astronomer and ‘first-class scientist’ Maskeline.The prince does not forget about his mentor either. Upon learning that Valkenard wants to present his work to him – the publication of the bucolic of Theocritus, Yusupov, at the request of the professor, orders an engraving of his coat of arms in London, about which he writes to him on April 19, 1776: ‘I order to engrave with the greatest diligence heraldic figures on my coat of arms the most skillful man of this country [England] ‘. The signature under the engraving indicates that this engraver was John Kees Sherwin, a young but very talented student of Bartolozzi. On April 31, Yusupov reports: ‘I know, my dear teacher, that you will be pleased with the engraving with my coat of arms.In 8 days I will try to send you an engraving for the first sheet of your composition. ‘ In the next letter dated May 6, the prince, sending the finished engraving, the prince makes the following reservation: “I find that the French show much more taste in the engraving than the English.” And if with regard to incisive engraving, the prince gave preference to the French, then in the mezzotinto technique the British engravers had no equal, and later it was the Englishman James Walker that the prince entrusted to engrave his portrait from the original by I.B. Lam pi.
The prince has compiled a small collection of Greek philosophers and is going to send them along with the ‘little Baskervilles’, who, as he writes to the professor, ‘will serve as a reminder to you of someone who respects and loves you from the bottom of his heart.” In his last letter from London, dated May 6, 1776, the prince informs: “I am leaving for Falmouth tomorrow, and from there I am going to Portugal.” He once again emphasizes that thanks to the friendly disposition of Professor Pringle, he met many English scientists, “although the professor himself is a celebrity,” he also writes that “he acquired the life of Plutarch in 5 volumes, a London edition in a quarter of a sheet”, and also the books ‘Xenophon, Euripides, Aeschylus, published by Etienne and Plato’s translations,’ and promises the professor to send the ‘little Baskervilles’ at the first opportunity.The publications of the outstanding printer John Baskerville, which Prince Yusupov began to acquire on the second day of his stay in London, he then sent to Valkenard in Leiden, and from there they were sent to Russia. Among them was the polygraphic masterpiece of the atheist Baskerville – the Bible, printed in 1763 on vellum paper invented by him in special fonts and special paint, and its reprint in 1772 with engravings by Legrand, Westwood, Taylor, Hicks and Caldwell based on drawings by F. Hayman, Moreau – Jr. , Vanloo and Juvenet, as well as Virgil’s Bucolics, the story of Sallust, Addison’s ode, Milton’s poem Paradise Lost and Paradise Returned.
Shortly before leaving England, on May 4, 1776, Prince N.B. Yusupov visited the Gothic castle of Strawberry Hill, where he examined the famous collection of paintings by the former British Prime Minister Sir Robert Walpole. The Prime Minister’s son, the writer Horace Walpole, reported this in his letter to W. Mason: ‘I must seal the letter and leave my blue room so that Prince Yusupov, who ordered the entrance ticket, could examine it. We have a stream of foreigners in England and, unfortunately, all of them are sent here, but here they do not understand anything and leave in half an hour.I read the description of Strawberry in a book called London, in it my name is Robert, my house is located in Putney, the bookcases in the library are made of inlaid wood, and I have not a window, but an entirely painted glass, this is called – what I see, then and I describe. ‘ Giving a similar description to all foreigners, Walpole mistakenly extended it to the visiting Russian prince. Meanwhile, Yusupov and Horace Wahl had a lot in common: both of them were aristocrats, educated in the spirit of the Enlightenment, university educated, distinguished by a special interest in fine art and had the energy to translate their artistic ideas.Walter Scott’s characterization given to Walpole is applicable to both of them: “The way of thinking and the nature of feelings to a large extent determined the circle of interests in which the activity of his vivid imagination and sharp mobile discerning mind, enriched with a variety of knowledge, developed.” Both of them on their travels developed their taste and knowledge, both of them were lovers and connoisseurs of antiquity and collectors of book rarities, Walpole, moreover, was the owner of his own printing house, which could not but interest Prince Yusupov, who himself collected a wonderful library.Both of them realized their artistic idea – Walpole built his gothic castle Strawberry Hill, and Yusupov – the Versailles near Moscow – the ‘Arkhangelskoye’ estate. Both of them were ahead of their time in their aesthetic experiments. Just as Walpole seemed insane, having written the absurdist ‘Hieroglyphic Tales’, which became the forerunner of surrealism, so Prince Yusupov was not understood when he staged a musical performance (‘music for the eyes’) in his theater in Arkhangelsk, consisting only of changes in scenery written by the famous Pietro Gonzaga.Prince Yusupov was undoubtedly interested in Horace Walpole. In his collection was the publication of H. Walpole’s letters to a member of the British Parliament, George Montagu, his historical essay “The Reign of Richard III”, was an essay dedicated to his father: “The history of the cabinet of ministers Robert Walpole.”
After leaving Britain, Prince Nikolai Borisovich Yusupov did not forget about her. Until the end of his long life, he continued to be interested in her language (for example, he acquired Johnson’s Lexicon) , customs, monuments, nature, its politics and economics, history, literature and art, he even continued to buy guidebooks to England, starting from the map of the British capital from the famous Great Atlas of the bookseller and printer Christopher Brown, compiled by Frederick de Wit.For example, he had guidebooks published in 1727, 1776-77, 1804, 1811, 1817, 1819, 1823, 1824, 1825. He continued to be interested in achievements in the field of natural sciences and continued to acquire scientific journals: in his collection there were all 36 volumes of the Journal of Natural Philosophy, Chemistry and Arts, edited by W. Nicholson, many issues of Philosophical Works for 1719-1778, published Royal Society, issues of the ‘Botanical Journal’ published by the pharmacologist and botanist W. Curtis in 1787-1800, several volumes of the British Library.
There was no special section on Britain in the prince’s library, but English books were included in many of its parts. Thus, the prince’s interest in ancient history and philology, in ancient monuments was reflected in the corresponding sections of his library. It contains editions of ancient authors with commentary by prominent English philologists such as John Davis, Zachary Pearce, Thomas Johnson, as a poet, author of texts for Handel’s oratorios, organist, amateur singer and typographer Thomas Morell, already mentioned by Joshua Barnes, Thomas Gale, was a series of classic authors, printed by John Brindley, edited by Asher Gagan.
An art connoisseur, the prince collected engraved albums with views and descriptions of ancient monuments; in his collection there were, among other things, books by English authors, such as, for example, views of the ruins of Palmyra and Baalbek, made according to drawings by Robert Wood, ‘Antiquities and Views in Greece and Egypt ‘draftsman, engraver, antiquary, librarian and curator of antiquities King George III, Richard Dalton, the ruins of Paestum in Posidonia, captured by the engraver of His Majesty Thomas Major, as well as a description of the ruins of the palace of Emperor Diocletian in Split in Dalmatia, compiled by the Scottish architect R …Adam, with engravings by Bartolozzi, who gave birth to the neoclassical style. An example of English engraving can be considered the illustrations made by Richard Earlom in the mezzotinto technique for an album of reproductions from drawings by Claude Lorrain, kept in the collection of the Duke of Devonshire. Another masterpiece in Yusupov’s collection is a Selected Collection of Drawings from Rare Antique Gems, engraved by Wallidge and printed on golden silk, as well as illustrations by John Flaxman for Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey and Dante’s Divine Comedy.
The prince’s particular interest in landscape architecture was reflected in the composition of his library. There are many books on architecture and gardening. And since Britain was a trendsetter in this regard, the largest number of English books were concentrated in this section. It should be noted that most authors of books on architecture gravitated towards Palladianism. This is, for example, the book of such famous architects as D. Wolfe and J. Gendon ‘British Vitruvius’, the project of the Brighton pavilion by Thomas Repton, projects of private and public buildings by James Leoni, plans and drawings of the original architectural projects of the author of the construction of Bedlam James Lewis , a book about grotesque architecture or country amusement by William Wright, ‘The Country Gentleman Architect’ by D.Miller, ‘Comfortable and embellishing architecture’ by John Crandon, ‘Simple architecture’ by Thomas Rawlins, ‘Chosen architecture’ by Robert Morris.
In the prince’s collection were classic English works on gardening and botany, such as the catalog of plants from the Royal Botanic Gardens in Kew, compiled by its director William Anton, his Essay on Exotic Plants Grown in the Royal Gardens Kew, London Flora the publisher of the Botanical Journal, William Curtis, The British Herbalist, the 26-volume Plant System and Exotic Illustrated Botany, by John Hill; ‘Botanical storeroom for new and rare plants’ and a book about the types of roses by botanist, artist and engraver G.Andrews. Prince Yusupov’s eye was delighted by a hundred amazing engravings depicting ‘the most beautiful, exotic and British flowers that bloom in our English gardens’, published by John Edwards, as well as a collection of ‘beautiful, useful and unusual plants described in the gardener’s dictionary’ by Philip Miller, the main gardener of a garden in Chelsea, a member of the Royal Society, whom K. Linnaeus called “the greatest gardener of his time.”
Numerous books on agriculture, agriculture, manufacturing, breeding birds and animals, as well as medicine and even alchemy met Yusupov’s practical needs.
As for fiction and philosophy, the prince’s collection included mainly French translations of novels by Richardson, Fielding, Radcliffe, Stern, W. Irving, Walter Scott, Goldsmith, Shakespeare’s plays, works by F. Bacon, Hobbes, Hume, Shaftesbury.
The pride of the prince was the pearl of the English part of the book collection, which is listed in the catalog as belles editions – excellent editions – printed in Edinburgh by the Apollo printing house of the works of English poets in 105 books in 18 shares of a sheet, for which Yusupov made the corresponding frame – two wooden cases in the form of huge tomes, where these books are kept like jewels in boxes.
In addition to books, Prince Yusupov’s collection contained several paintings by English masters, and he acquired them after his trip to Britain. These were the canvases: ‘The Abduction of Helena’ by G. Hamilton, ‘Landscape under the Moon’ by J. Mora, ‘Venus Consoles Cupid Stung by a Bee’ by B. West, ‘Girl in a Straw Hat’ by D. Gardner, as well as two works by the famous D. Reynolds: ‘Baby Hercules Choking a Serpent’ and ‘Girl with a Bird’. All paintings, except for the last one, are kept in Russian museums today. The fate of the ‘Girl with a Bird’ remains a mystery.In the manuscript catalog of the collection of paintings by Prince Yusupov, only a drawing from this painting, made in 1827, as well as a plate of the Yusupov porcelain establishment with its image, have been preserved. It is known that the painting was first in the ‘Caprice’ palace in Arkhangelsk, then in the St. Petersburg house on the Moika, in 1932 it was transferred from the Yusupov collection to the Pushkin Museum in Moscow, and immediately issued to antiques for sale. Her whereabouts are now unknown.
Paying tribute to fashion, Yusupov also collected carved stones, in his collection there were cameos made by British craftsmen, for example, the cornelian ‘Sappho’s Head’ by Edward Birch and the 17th century cameo from the sardonyx ‘Saint George Slaying the Dragon’ with the motto of the Order of the Garter.
In conclusion, it can be said that Nikolai Borisovich Yusupov’s short trip to Britain did not end with his departure from the country, but the prince, thanks to books, thanks to a small island of England – a landscape park and gardens arranged by him in Arkhangelsk, thanks to works of art created by English masters, until the end of his life he continued his journey through the foggy Albion.
– Elizaveta Druzhinina, Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts
 Samuel Johnson’s Dictionary of the English Language (1709-1784): Samuel Johnson, Dictionary of the English Language , 5th Edition (London, 1784): RGADA, Ibid., Shk 34 No. 920.
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90,000 David Urquart, “The Portfolio” and the beginning of the end of St. Petersburg’s secret diplomacy. Secret diplomatic documents of the Russian Empire in the British press (1835-1837)
Harutyun Akopovich ULUNYAN
David Urquart, “The Portfolio” and the beginning of the end of St. Petersburg’s secret diplomacy.Secret diplomatic documents of the Russian Empire in the British press (1835-1837)
One of the important phenomena conditioned by the peculiarities of the political culture of Great Britain is the high degree of influence of the press on its social and political life. In the historical tradition of this state, political journalism not only attracted the attention of representatives of the middle and upper strata of society, but also contributed to the formation of public opinion, as well as national discourse on specific issues of the internal political life and foreign policy of the empire, “in which the sun never sets.”British socio-political journalism of the 19th century, both on the islands themselves and in the colonies, continues to retain its significance to this day as an important historical source. Discussions on foreign policy that took place in the periodicals of Great Britain were distinguished by a wide range of topics covered, one of which, and often dominating, was the relationship, or rather rivalry, between the British and Russian empires in the context of the so-called. Eastern question. The latter, in the British historiographic tradition, despite the common “eastern” vector, had a different geographic location: from Central Asia, the Near (in accordance with modern Russian-speaking practice)
of the East, the Crimean-Black Sea (period of the Crimean War) theater of military operations and, finally, to the Balkans and Asia Minor, i.e.e. regions that were part of the Ottoman Empire or associated with it and had a direct relationship to the fate of European politics. In the current foreign and domestic historiography of international or bilateral British-Russian relations, despite the similarities and differences, the topic of the disclosure of confidential diplomatic documents in periodicals and the degree of influence of such publications on the formation of foreign policy, the struggle over foreign policy in the highest echelons of power and the impact on the political class has not yet become a special area of historical research.Nevertheless, the appeal to these subjects is of certain historical interest. This is evidenced by relevant studies devoted to the publication of diplomatic documents (both genuine and artificially “constructed”, that is, falsified) and the internal political struggle in Britain, a number of Balkan countries, as well as Russia1. Of particular interest are both the sources of obtaining such documentary materials, which were subsequently transmitted to the press, and their publishers.
One of the figures who continue to retain their significance for researchers of this topic is the personality of David Urquart (1.07.1805-16.05.1877), known in the Russian-speaking tradition, and David Arquart in the British-Scottish tradition. Throughout his more than half a century of social and political activity from the end of the 20s and up to the end of the 50s of the XIX century. this representative of the ancient Scottish clan Arkarth was a diplomat, publicist and the first in the history of European states to create a network of public organizations that were the prototype of structures of “people’s diplomacy” independent of the government, and political parties that sought to influence on foreign policy issues both on the government and and social and political circles 2.D. Urquart’s acquaintance with Jeremy
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Bentem, a famous philosopher, lawyer, public figure, and founder of the British Secret Service, played an important role in his life. It was on the recommendation of Bentem that he became interested in the East.
The beginning of Urquart’s political biography was marked by his participation in the winter of 1827.until late autumn 1828 in the war of liberation of the Greeks against the Ottoman Empire. His older brother, Charles Gordon Urquhart, who received the rank of colonel and died in March 1828, also showed himself in it. After being seriously wounded during a military operation during the siege of Fr. Chios, David continued to remain in Greece until the end of the main battles and left it only in November 1829. In March 1830 he returned to the country, which, after the end of the war, was to determine the border with the Ottoman Empire in accordance with international treaties.D. Urquart, practically on his own initiative, was studying this issue and through his mother, who was familiar with the Deputy Secretary of State for Defense (Minister) Lieutenant General Herbert Taylor – personal secretary of King William IV, conveyed his report to the British monarch. The young man’s abilities were noticed, and he was officially appointed a member of the delimitation commission. From 1831 to 1832 he accompanied Charles Stratford-Canning to the Ottoman Empire, where the latter served as ambassador.After returning to London, Urquart was soon again sent to Istanbul with a secret mission to find out the possibilities of expanding British trade in the East. It was at this time that he became more and more interested in the East, its culture and customs, and established contacts with high-ranking officials of the Ottoman Empire4. The war of the Ottoman vassal – the Egyptian ruler Muhammad Ali Pasha against his suzerain Sultan Mahmud II forced the latter to seek allies from among the great powers.Britain and France refrained from being involved in this conflict and observed neutrality in the current situation, so the sultan turned to Russia in exchange for serious concessions, including
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was the actual closure of the Straits for foreign ships in case of war, which was reflected in the Unkar-Iskelesi Treaty, concluded on June 26 (July 8), 1833.Ottoman officials informed D. Urquart who was in Istanbul about the preparations for it. Palmerston, then Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, expressed concern about his close contacts with the Ottoman authorities. According to the head of the British Foreign Office, this could damage the relationship between Britain and Russia and weaken the British position both in Europe and in the East, and under certain circumstances even lead to a military conflict on a European scale.The return of Urquart to the British Embassy in Istanbul was marked by the emergence of a new direction of his activity – the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, where the Adyghe peoples lived. During a secret visit to Circassia, Urquart not only collected military-political information, but also acted as a coordinator in the unification of the Circassian peoples (Adygs, Ubykhs, etc.), becoming known as the author of the idea of their flag. In fact, his activities were aimed at creating conditions that could limit the advance of the Russian Empire into this region5.It is noteworthy that the British ambassador, Lord Ponsonby, noted in one of the dispatches sent to London that it is the expansion of the possessions of the Russian Empire in the Caucasus, meaning its plans to take control of the Straits, and not the strengthening of its control over Poland after the suppression of the uprising, that can increase its influence St. Petersburg in the international arena 6. However, Palmerston sharply demanded that plans to support the independence of Circassia be abandoned, as he believed that this would cause irreparable damage to British-Russian relations, and the very movement of the Circassians against the advance of tsarist Russia was doomed and would not last long7.Therefore, he urgently turned to Lord Ponsonby with a demand to immediately remove Urquart from Istanbul. Upon his return to London, the disgraced diplomat published a political pamphlet entitled “England, France, Russia and Turkey.” In it, he harshly accused Russian
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empire for its policy of constant conquest. The subsequent short diplomatic career of the Scotsman, which lasted until 1838., was associated with the Ottoman Empire, the North Caucasus (where he counted on the unification of local peoples in the struggle against the advancement of the Russian Empire) and the foreign policy of Tsarist Russia.
Gradually, but steadily, the growing conflict between D. Urquart and Lord Palmerston contributed to the intensification of political activity and the articulation of Urquart’s “public appeal”, who became known in political and public circles as an implacable opponent of Palmerston’s policies.The former diplomat’s public activity consisted of two interrelated directions. The first was his involvement in politics at the institutional level, which found expression in his election to the British Parliament, of which he was a member during 1847-1852, and organization throughout the country in 1857-1858. so called. public “Foreign affairs committees” 8. They were called upon to put pressure on the government on foreign policy issues and had supporters abroad, including even the Ottoman Empire.
The second part of David Urquart’s activity, probably no less, but even more important, was his journalistic activity, quite controversial and brought him fame not only in Britain, but also abroad. Her first experience was the publication, which began in English and French in the fall of 1835, of a magazine that bore a rather long title – “Portfolio or collection of state documents, etc., etc., illustrating the history of our time” (“The Portfolio or a Collection of State Papers etc.etc. illustrative of the History of our Times “; “Le Portfolio ou Collection de documens politiques relatifs à l’histoire contemporaine”). The French-language edition was carried out by August Kampé (1773-1836), who came from a family of Brunswick book publishers and booksellers, who established a publishing house in Hamburg in the early 1800s, which became famous thanks to one of the first publications – the translation into German of “Egyptian days-
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nicknames »Napoleon. After renaming and changing business partners, receiving the name “Hoffmann & Campe”, the publishing house was transferred by August to his brother Julius10. At the same time, a number of publications published in it under the patronage of A. Campe personally were called “August Campe”. The social and political activities of A. Kampe were associated with the Hamburg Masonic lodge “Loge Ferdinand zum Felsen” in 1805 11.
The popularity of the magazine “The Portfolio” in British and European political circles, despite the most varied assessments of the materials published in it, did not minimize and, moreover, did not eliminate the hostility between Urquhart and Palmerston, which, in accordance with the logic of what was happening, should have be satisfied with the results of the ongoing project.In fact, the relationship between the newspaper’s informal editor and the head of the Foreign Office continued to deteriorate. Urquart was already increasingly harshly resorted to publicly targeted criticism of Palmerston for inconsistency in relation to the foreign policy of the Russian Empire, especially in the North Caucasian, Turkish and Central Asian directions, considering the actions of the British Foreign Minister as encouraging the expansionist plans of St. Petersburg. It is not excluded that Palmerston, not wishing to become more and more involved in the “The Portfolio” affair as foreign minister, already at the official level, refused to pay the magazine’s debts from the funds of the British Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which reached by June 1836.£ 900, which Urquart hoped for when he turned to the deputy head of the Foreign Office, William Fox-Strangeways, for help. In 1838, D. Urk-wart was forced to personally pay off the debt.
Both the appearance of “The Portfolio” and its further destiny turned out to be closely connected with British foreign and domestic policy, with the “Russian factor”. The existence of the journal was one of the first practices in the established tradition of the British press, which had previously resorted to the publication of domestic diplomatic documents.However, this time the materials released to the public were of foreign origin, in particular, of Russian origin and wore a secret –
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character. Their appearance in the hands of the British side was largely accidental, but the consequences of their publication could seriously affect British-Russian relations.
In the first half of the 30s of the XIX century.Polish emigrants – participants and leaders of the national liberation uprising November 29, 1830 – October 21, 1831, who arrived first in France and then in Britain, brought with them the archives captured in 1830 at the residence of the governor of the Kingdom of the Grand Duke of Poland Konstantin Pavlovich. A large volume of these documents consisted of secret correspondence between Russian ambassadors abroad and the Russian Foreign Ministry on a wide range of issues from the beginning of the 19th century. and until the end of the 1820s. The diplomatic dispatches ended up in the possession of Vladislav Zamoyski, the nephew and adviser of Prince Adam Jerzy Czartoryski, who was, during the uprising, first a member of the Administrative Council, and then, successively, chairman of the Provisional and National Governments.Zamoyski handed over the documents to Lord Palmerston, which was confirmed by the corresponding letter from Zamoyski himself12. For two years, Palmerston kept the documents and did not consult them. The appearance of these materials in the press could seriously worsen the relationship between Great Britain and Russia, and also affect the whole of European diplomacy, since the information contained in them concerned a large number of countries and politicians. However, the importance of publishing dispatches in already existing British newspapers and magazines would be incomparably small compared to a special media outlet that could release classified documents as a separate publication.The magazine “The Portfolio” was to become such.
The circumstances of its appearance were described in sufficient detail, more than 40 pages, in 1844 in an editorial (the author of which was probably D. Urquhart himself) of the sixth issue of the second volume of “The Portfolio”, which received in 1843, after resumption of its publication, the title “Portfolio. Diplomatic Review. New Series “(” The Portfolio: Diplomatic Review. New Series “). In fact, the article recognizes –
David Urquart, “The Portfolio” and the beginning of the end of St. Petersburg’s secret diplomacy… 65
it was stated that the publication of Russian diplomatic documents was largely sanctioned, with the active role of the late King William, the head of the Foreign Office, Palmerston, as well as high-ranking officials of the British Foreign Office. At the same time, the British Foreign Secretary himself tried to minimize for himself personally the consequences of the publication of diplomatic documents received from Czartoryski13.
The publication of the secret correspondence of Russian diplomats became a sensation and seriously influenced the situation in the political circles of the British Empire, as it touched upon a fundamental issue that was constantly discussed both at the government level and in the country’s parliament.It was based on a dispute between supporters and opponents of a tough reaction to the actions of the Russian Empire in the East and Asia. Regarding D. Urquart himself, after the first issue of The Portfolio, Prime Minister Lord Melbourne wrote in a letter dated January 7, 1836 to Lord Palmerston: “I think it would be good to send him to his duty station. Such active personalities are most needed in the Levant ”14. The assessment of the Russian secret diplomatic correspondence published in The Portfolio was quite unambiguous in British diplomatic circles.The English envoy to the Ottoman Empire, Lord Ponsonby, wrote to Urquart on March 23, 1836 about receiving the twelfth issue of the magazine and about getting to know some of its earlier issues. Despite differences of opinion with Urquart on certain issues, Ponsonby noted: “The dispatches from Pozzo di Borgo * are valuable. I should value them most of all, because they confirm everything that I have said in previous years, and [they] justify all the policies that I have recommended to carry out and, as far as possible for me, to act in this direction as well.I am glad that Prince Metternich will know how the Russians evaluate him. I am a huge Metternich fan and a
* Karl Osipovich (Charles-André) Pozzo di Borgo (March 8, 1764 – February 15, 1842) – a diplomat and military officer of Corsican origin, who was in the Russian service since the fall of 1805. He was in different years ambassador to Vienna and London.
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friend of Austria, believing that England and Austria should be close allies in the common interest.I am not afraid of Russia in the least, I am also not afraid of its future strength, bearing in mind that we have both smart heads and determined hearts in the UK in order to identify and use the most common ways for our own security and interests. I know that Russia belongs to the Titan breed, but its limbs are not formed and clumsy like an overgrown child. If Titan’s blood had been depleted in childhood, Jupiter would not have had to fight for Olympus, but Jupiter was successful, just as we will be, let Russia do what it always does, even if it captures Constantinople.I believe that you are not going to leave London. You are invaluable there, and there is no need for you [here] ”15. It is noteworthy that Metternich himself believed that Russophobia16 had spread in British political circles, 16 based on fears about the so-called. Eastern question. D. Urquart was forced to write a letter at the end of August 1835 to Metternich (to which the latter did not respond due to his unwillingness to maintain any relations with him), with an apology for the content contained in his popular brochure “England, France, Russia and Turkey “Passage about Metternich, as” the only person who understood Europe, and the only one whom Russia was forced to fear “17.
For his part, the British envoy warned Urquart that, in his opinion, Ponsonby, Chairman of the Chamber of Commerce, Pullett Thomson, “treats you and The Portfolio with equal disrespect. I figured he was smart enough to act like that. But I know him too little or not at all, except that he was a Russian entrepreneur and he could naturally have feelings about the country where he makes a profit.There are several more of those who maintain or have maintained such ties with Russia and who may have prejudices in its favor ”18. The relationship between Britain and Russia in the late 30s – early 40s of the XIX century. were seriously influenced by a wide range of contradictions
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between the two empires in both European and Asian directions of international politics, so any small conflict could play a negative role19.
Repeatedly and in a more expanded version, the details of the mechanism for preparing the release of the new magazine became known to the general public in February 1848, when Thomas Anstee, a famous British lawyer, future Attorney General of Hong Kong and a judge of the Supreme Court in Bombay, spoke to the House of Commons of the British Parliament. In fact, this was a parliamentary inquiry about Palmerston’s activities with the aim of impeaching him20, and in many ways it was initiated not only by Ansti himself, but also by Urquart, who convinced him of the need for such a step21.To a certain extent, the appearance of “The Portfolio” was a combination of a number of factors, including the events of the fall of 1835, which contributed to the intensification of British diplomacy in the Russian direction. A special role in this was played by the speech of Nicholas I before the deputation of the city of Warsaw on October 10, 1835. Without giving a demonstratively rude speech to any of the Poles present, the Russian emperor, firstly, threatened to destroy Warsaw if the Poles rebelled against tsarist Russia, and and secondly, he warned that Poland would never be independent.The emperor’s speech, delivered in French and bearing the unofficial title “Belonging to Russia is True Happiness”, caused a serious resonance in Europe, including Britain. King William IV and some government circles viewed what the Russian emperor said as a refusal to comply with the agreements, conventions and agreements concluded during the Congress of Vienna, part of which was the preservation of the Kingdom of Poland, albeit under the rule of the Russian emperor. The division of its territory and its inclusion as separate provinces in the Russian Empire, as well as the statement that the Poles “belonged to the emperor” left no doubt about the further policy of Nicholas.After his Warsaw speech, King William demanded from Palmerston the
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disposal of Russian secret diplomatic documents transferred to him by Polish emigrants. They have been studied and recommended for public release. The royal personal secretary, Herbert Taylor, contacted Palmerstone about how they would be published. The latter informed Taylor about the documents received from Count Zamoyski, and also that he himself was familiar with the content of only a few of them.However, it soon became clear that Palmerston was aware of the contents of all the correspondence. Already at this stage of the operation, the head of the Foreign Office wanted to distance himself from direct participation in it, in order to deprive his opponents in the future of the opportunity to declare his involvement in an obviously scandalous enterprise and to prevent his compromise to the detriment of the state career of the foreign minister. Subsequent events only confirmed this.
As Thomas Anstee, editor (his name, however, was not mentioned by him, although many by that time already knew that it was Ur-Quart), noted in his speech in Parliament in 1848, Thomas Ansti, editor, busy with their preparation for publication, “ did not publish a single document without being certified by the initials or signature of the Right Honorable Lord [Palmerston]. “Anstee also stated that he was referring to this fact, since he himself saw the evidence confirming what was said, while Palmerston rejected this fact. According to Ansti, Palmerston was forced, probably under pressure from Wilhelm, to hand over the documents to Urquart for publication. The latter was appointed two months before the appearance of the magazine, in September 1835, secretary of the British embassy in Constantinople, a decree of which was signed by the king on October 3, 1835. Urquart’s mission was associated with the conclusion of a British-Turkish trade agreement, however, was delayed due to for the insistent demand of Urquart himself, who wished to obtain the final consent of the Chamber of Commerce and the Foreign Office for the text of the document he had drawn up.As a result, he was able to go to Turkey only in July 1836. At the same time, Palmerston could not force Urquart to leave without the agreed text of the treaty, since the latter used, according to admission,
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to Ansti, by the favor of the Crown. Many of the issues related to the conflict between Urquart and Palmerston, Anstee said, were contained in the papers of the late Herbert Taylor, who, shortly before his death, ordered the destruction of most of them, “with one significant exception” – documents relating to Palmerston’s cover-up of the actual blockade The Russian Empire on the Black Sea coast of Circassia, as reported directly to Taylor after his trip there Urquart.
According to Anstie, Palmerston actually authorized the appearance of the first issue of “The Portfolio” in November 1835. One of the first researchers of D. Urquart’s political activities, the British historian J. Gleason, noted that “Urquart’s documents prove that he used constant advice from the very beginning. Fox Strangweiss, assistant political secretary to Palmerston, and Sir Herbert Taylor. The first of them was so energetic that Urquart believed: his newspaper (as the author called the magazine “The Portfolio”.- Ar. U.) received the support of Palmerston, and also thought that his expenses would be reimbursed by the Foreign Office ”22. Moreover, the very name of the magazine was suggested by Strang-Weiss. One of the indirect confirmations of the active participation of the head of the Foreign Office in the creation of The Portfolio magazine can be considered his letter to Prime Minister Lord Melbourne dated October 31, 1835 about the need to conduct a propaganda campaign against the actions of the Russian Empire: “Expand her plans, and you will be half victorious her.Arouse public opinion against her, and you will double her difficulties. I am totally in favor of making a fuss about her ”23.
In his speech, Anstee stated that it was considered desirable to avoid publicizing the participation of both Urquart himself and to hide information about his ties with the British Foreign Office in the undertaken operation. This course of action was recommended by the British King William and was actively implemented through his personal secretary G.Taylor – the closest advisor to the monarch. Seymour Westmakkot was found to be the nominee editor of the publication, which first called
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received a negative reaction from Palmerston, as he believed it was Charles Westmaccot, editor of the infamous Sunday newspaper The Age, but then agreed, after receiving explanations: the editor of The Portfolio was just a namesake.The real editor was actually D. Urquhart. Soon Seymour Westmackot was replaced by a more famous figure – the former secretary of the British Embassy in Athens, Henry Headley Parish, who was recalled from his post due to a violation of the chain of command: he personally began to actively get involved in Greek domestic political affairs, without even putting to the knowledge of Ambassador Edward James Dawkins, as he considered him too pro-Russian24. In published by him later, in 1838., the book “The Diplomatic History of the Greek Monarchy: Beginning in 1830, and Demonstrating the Transfer of Mortgages to Russia from Their Holders – British Entrepreneurs, With regard to Greek Property and Income” 25, the policy of the British Cabinet, which led, as Parish believed, to the strengthening of the position of Russia in Greece. After some time, the fate of D. Urquart became, to a certain extent, a repetition of the fate of Parish, who in 1836 took over the post of “title”, in fact, the editor.
Already the first issue of The Portfolio, published in November 1835.when its founder and editor-in-chief D. Urquart was still in the diplomatic service, he became known in the public, political and diplomatic circles of Great Britain, influencing their moods, and was also taken quite seriously abroad and, first of all, in Russia. As Ansti testified, who, most likely, learned the details of what was happening from Urquart, the inclusion of Nicholas I’s Warsaw speech in the first issue of the magazine was made at the personal suggestion of Palmerston. The above facts, as Ansti believed, gave reason to believe that throughout its existence from November 1835.through June 1837, The Portfolio was the “exponent and wish-fulfilling agent” of the late King William’s government. The publication ceased on the eve of his death. Himself
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, the monarch attached particular importance to it as an important means of familiarizing the British and European public with the true designs of Russian diplomacy and the threats posed to a number of European states.In fact, it expressed his views, as well as the opinion of the Foreign Office. It became clear that there was no reason to believe that “The Portfolio” did not reflect the views of Palmerston, who accused D. Urquhart of his involvement in publications in this edition. One of the confirmation of this was the promulgation of the above-mentioned Warsaw speech of Nicholas I. Its appearance on the pages of “The Portfolio” was not accidental and could not have happened without the consent of Palmerston, who, according to Ansti, actually endorsed the text of the Russian secret dispatches published in these issues magazine.The text officially published in the Russian press turned out to be significantly different from the texts published in the foreign press, primarily the German, French and British ones. A passage from the speech of the Russian autocrat, which did not appear in print, that “on the whole, I [Nicholas I] are satisfied with the fact of how events developed to the extent that only I am the Emperor of Russia and it is in this connection that you [Poles] belong to me.” , appeared in the second issue of “The Portfolio” 26. At the same time, various versions of the speech were presented, published in the German and French press.An analytical article in The Portfolio, published in its third issue, openly stated that “[Nicholas I’s] Warsaw speech refers to the Dardanelles.” For their part, the tsarist authorities began to conduct their own investigation in order to find out who recorded the speech of Nicholas I and handed it over to the newspapers.
The bulk of the documents published in “The Portfolio” in his so-called. the old series (1835-1837), and in smaller quantities in the new (1843-1845.), was a copy of the dispatches of the ambassadors of tsarist Russia in Paris (K.O. Poz-tso di Borgo), Vienna (D.P. Tatishchev) and London (H.A. Matushevich, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Empire K.V. Nesselrode rus –
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Russian ambassadors abroad. In fact, they demonstrated a clear contradiction between the goals of the Russian Empire officially declared by Russian diplomacy and its true actions in Europe and the East.The published materials testified to the far-reaching plans of the Russian Empire in relation to Constantinople and the Straits, its desire to expand its military and political presence in the East, especially in the territories and countries bordering on British possessions in Asia. The frank reasoning of the diplomats contained in the published correspondence contributed to the emergence of suspicions about the future plans of St. Petersburg in the Persian and Indian directions, which are sensitive for Britain.Among the analytical and documentary materials, an important place was occupied by articles on the foreign policy of the Russian Empire in the Caucasus and in the Danube principalities. Particular importance in the coverage of the latter direction was given to the Russian plans to take control of these territories and navigation on the Danube28.
The dispatches of Prince Lieven and Count Matusevich, sent to Nesselrode and dated June 1 (13), 1829, published by The Portfolio magazine in 1835, were called upon to prove the true intentions of Russia in the international arena.They described in detail how the two diplomats managed to mislead the Foreign Minister, Earl of Aberdeen and the head of the Wellington government, which led to the expansion of the Russian military presence in the Mediterranean, Balkan and Black Sea regions important to Britain and gaining control over the Dardanelles. Lieven’s dispatch of January 4 (16), 1829 was also published, in which its author reported to St. influential members of both houses [parliament].The favorable position taken by our government in relation to England would require them, if the need arose, a powerful weapon with
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in order to fight the government, and it would be easier for them to prove the unreasonableness of the policy of encouraging the press, which misleads the people about the as if the position of the two [Ottoman and Russian empires] in a state of war is about the true and true position of the two [Ottoman and Russian empires] states ”30 …At the same time, the message contained an extremely impartial characterization of Wellington, when Lieven wrote that “not being able to hide from himself his lack of talents as a statesman and speaker and to win over the majority of both houses of parliament, he [Wellington] sought to ensure would be a certain number of votes in simpler ways and which are no less effective in this country than in others ”31.
The reaction on the part of Matushevich and Lieven to the appearance of these materials in “The Portfolio” testified to the apparent confusion of both diplomats.The first of them denied his participation in the Wellington deception, and the wife of the second, Princess D.Kh. Lieven, who herself was involved in many European diplomatic affairs32, said that Matushevich forced her husband to sign this dispatch, which contained information about how British politicians were deliberately deceived, as well as their extremely unflattering characteristic 33.
Of no less importance was the publication in The Portfolio of a number of documents concerning relations between Russia and Austria, the closest ally of St. Petersburg.They testified to the clear desire of the Russian side to act in spite of this alliance. As early as September 22, 1835, that is, a month before the publication of the first issue of “The Portfolio”, the royal secretary Herbert Taylor informed Lord Palmerston that in the near future there would be material about the true attitude of the “St. Petersburg cabinet” to Austria and on possible reactions to the publication of these materials34. At the same time, despite the well-known and proven fact of the transfer of secret diplomatic documents by representatives of the Polish emigration to the British side, there was evidence that some of the materials could
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whether to have a different origin. Soon the publishers of “The Portfolio” resorted to disclosing a secret document, obviously obtained not from Polish emigrants, but unofficially obtained by British diplomats. It was a secret note by the Prussian Foreign Minister, Count Christian von Bernstorff, to the King of Prussia, Frederick Wilhelm III, on countering “subversive elements.” It touched upon the relationship between Prussia, Austria and Russia, although there was no mention of the latter in the document.However, it became clear from the text that Prussia hoped that its policy in the German direction, where it competed with Austria, would be supported by Russia, although it was an ally of the latter35. According to Herbert Taylor himself, the material was transferred to David Urquart for translation into English for the purpose of further publication. The “Austrian direction” was continued by the editorial staff of “The Portfolio”, and she published a dispatch from the Russian ambassador in Vienna, D.P. Tatishchev dated June 29, 1827. In it, he rather impartially described Austria’s policy in Galicia and the likely prospects for the development of the situation36.The publication was rather painfully perceived by both the Austrian and Russian sides, as it became clear that the Russian-Austrian alliance was not as sincere in the second half of the 1920s as they were trying to show in Vienna and St. Petersburg.
In January 1836, H. Taylor wrote to Palmerston about the publication of Pozzo di Borgo’s dispatch, beneficial to Britain, which would arouse Metternich’s suspicions about the true interests of Russia.About the origin of a number of messages of the Russian diplomat in a number of British newspapers of that time it was reported (already without references to Polish emigrants) that copies of the dispatches were made by the secretary of the Russian ambassador and fell into the hands of Urquhart (The Times, 16.1.1836; The Morning Herald, 13.2 .1836) 37.
Of particular interest were the conclusions of the Russian ambassador to France, Pozzo di Borgo, published in the journal, on the situation in the host country in September 1826, when he noted in a dispatch sent to Nesselrode that “the law on freedom of the press, as I fear, would become another sign of discord
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(political crisis. – Ar. U.). Your Excellency knows how strongly I have always believed that the possibilities of its [the press’s] unlimited use are incompatible with the regime in France. The Duke of Richelieu38 and his colleagues, although accused of moderation, have always supported this [freedom of the press] theory, and their persistence in this matter was one of the weapons that the so-called. royalists, uniting together with the liberals and revolutionaries, ensuring their [Richelieu and his associates] fall ”39.
From a wide range of issues of world diplomacy, the policy of the Russian Empire in the Turkish direction was of particular interest to many European states, since it concerned the strategically important Black Sea-Mediterranean region. It was this circumstance that influenced the choice made by The Portfolio in favor of publishing the secret dispatch of Pozzo di Borgo dated November 28, 1828, which touched upon this topic and demonstrated the way of thinking of the official representatives of Russia.The message, in particular, described the motives behind the actions of St. Petersburg in the war with the Ottoman Empire and their goals. The ambassador wrote that “in deciding to achieve justice by force of arms, the emperor resorted to using the number and deployment of his forces in a spirit of restraint and humanity, which are inseparable from the motives and goals that forced His Majesty to resort to arms in the hope, on the one hand, that the enemy was less of all, he would show stubbornness, risking himself beaten, would try to protect himself by peaceful means, and, on the other hand, that the cabinets [governments] interested in such a result, and especially the Viennese cabinet, would consider themselves sincerely concerned about the recommendation of the Ottoman Porte to accept so prudent and necessary behavior.This expectation, although based on credible data, was frustrated, and we were forced to accept this fact because of the Sultan’s thoughtless stubbornness, as well as the hostile and treacherous policies of the Austrian cabinet. ”40 The comment made by the editorial staff of “The Portfolio” was rather symptomatic, most likely
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in total by D. Urquart personally, to that part of Pozzo di Borgo’s dispatch, which contained the words “restraint and humanity.”In this regard, it was noted that “General Valentini41 in his analysis of the campaign does not refuse the opportunity and does not neglect to abandon the pretexts of justifying Russia’s failure in the first campaign, but he completely ignores such considerations as the restraint and humanity of the emperor. Russia failed due to the fact that all its funds at that time were insufficient. This lie (referring to the words of Pozzo di Borgo. – Ar. U.), intended by the author [of the dispatch] for his own government, demonstrates the degree of secrecy and distortion used even in “top secret” messages in Russia, probably for practical purposes …This example should be extended to the rest of the views and arguments [contained in the message] ”42.
Against the background of the sensational disclosures of Russian secret diplomacy undertaken by The Portfolio, notable was the publication in 1836 by the same publishing house that published this magazine – James Ridgway and Sons, a collection of articles titled Opinions of the European Press on the Eastern Question, edited by David Ross of Bladensburg43, a student and follower of D.Urquart. Symptomatic was the use of the very addition to the author’s name “Bladensburg”, which was a connotation of the events of 1812, when the British colonial forces inflicted a crushing defeat on the Americans and defeated them in the battle of Bladensburg. The collection itself included articles and selected excerpts from books by European and predominantly British authors, including D. Urquhart44.
The end of The Portfolio, which published secret diplomatic documents and analytical articles on international politics, did not remove from the agenda of national discourse, as well as parliamentary discussions, the problem of using materials of diplomatic origin for political purposes.For Palmerston, this theme by the spring of 1838 began to acquire a completely unexpected sound. His activity as
David Urquart, “The Portfolio” and the beginning of the end of secret diplomacy in St. Petersburg … 77
foreign ministers have come under increasing criticism in connection with Afghan affairs. He was accused both from the pages of British newspapers and from the parliamentary rostrum of forging diplomatic correspondence on the Afghan issue, when the recommendations and conclusions of one of the key figures of British foreign policy in Afghanistan were completely distorted in materials specially published for parliamentary readings with the help of selective citation of documents direction – A.Burns, which ultimately contributed to misleading members of parliament about the events in Afghanistan and served to justify the actions of a narrow circle of people pursuing their own interests in “Afghan affairs” 45. Despite the widespread opinion in historiography that D. Urquart’s views did not have wide support in British society, nevertheless, they were quite popular and, first of all, not so much because of the harsh criticism of the policy of the Russian Empire, but because of – for exposing the actions of Lord Palmerston on foreign policy issues, especially in the Afghan direction, made by Urquart.Two popular publications played a special role in this struggle – The Edinburgh Review, which supported the Whigs and liberal reforms, and The Quarterly Review, which spoke from a Tory perspective.
The activity that Urquart developed in connection with the “Circassian issue”, and his desire at all costs to get Palmerston to pursue a tougher policy towards the Russian Empire, intensified the dissatisfaction of the British Foreign Minister. Seeing Urquart’s actions as likely to exacerbate British-Russian relations, Palmerston decided to remove him from the British embassy in the Ottoman Empire.In this case, the British ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, Lord Ponsonby, was to play a leading role, who, according to Ansti, was used by Palmerston as a tool to get rid of Ur-quart. The withdrawal of the latter from Constantinople marked the actual breakdown of the trade agreement beneficial to Britain –
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ras with the Ottoman Empire. As it was announced ten years after these events within the same parliamentary walls, the Foreign Minister generally acted quite freely with official documents and had a tendency to “edit” them in accordance with his own vision of the situation.So, in particular, the text of the agreement, developed by Urquart, was subjected to serious changes, and according to Ansti, was falsified by Palmerston. It removed the provisions on clearly favorable terms of trade with the Ottoman Empire for Britain, when the British side received the most favored nation status, they were absent in the Palmerston version of the text48. One of the most serious, along with accusations of falsification of documents, was Urquart’s accusation of the head of the Foreign Office of receiving funds from Russia, in connection with which a corresponding conclusion was made about Palmerston’s secret ties with St. Petersburg.For the first time and already at the official level, this was stated on August 6, 1839, when discussing the issue of a trade agreement between Great Britain and the Ottoman Empire, as well as the need for English recognition of the independence of Circassia, in his speech in the House of Commons of the British Parliament, the deputy from Birmingham Thomas At-twood – banker , one of the prominent representatives of the Birmingham School of Economics, theorists of the concept of underconsumption, according to which the reasons for the economic recession and stagnation are insufficient consumer demand for manufactured products49.Bearing in mind that initially the British-Ottoman trade agreement was formulated by D. Urquart in a form favorable to the British side, and then changed by Palmerston, as well as the latter’s refusal to recognize the independence of Circassia from the Russian Empire, which, as was believed in British political circles, was going to bring the Straits under control, Et-Twood said: “It was believed and declared that Russian gold had found its way into this chamber. I do not mean to accuse the noble lord of receiving Russian gold, but the idea came from outside that Russian gold had found its way into this chamber.Fortunately –
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The native lord must know that charges of a serious crime have also been brought against him in print, not only in the daily and weekly press, but also in brochures and works, some of which I now hold in my hands. and are not the product of dark and unknown persons, but respected gentlemen; who held their high posts – secretaries of embassies – employees and protégés of the noble lord – Messrs. Urquhart and Parish, put forward these accusations and confirmed them with documentary evidence.God forbid, I must say, if they are correct, but they are not refuted and spread throughout the country, and why the Honorable Lord did not bring legal proceedings against these gentlemen? I think it would be correct to tell the Honorable Lord that the country expected him to take such actions as a means of self-justification. ”50 Despite Attwood’s harsh statements, Palmerston found it possible to remain silent. The accusations were repeated, with specific details, by George Richardson Porter in the mid-1940s.But the whole picture, as it was published in the press, became known thanks to the efforts of Urquart in 1855. Porter, who was a famous British statistician and head of the department of the Chamber of Commerce, accused Lord Palmerston of receiving money from the Russian government in the form of gambling debt. The intermediary in this operation was a certain Jacob James Hart, the owner of a gambling house located in the privileged area of St. James (where the main aristocratic clubs were located) and which was part of Westminster and West End in central London.Hart was allegedly hired by Princess D.H. Lieven was the wife of the Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Russian Empire to Great Britain during 1812-1834. Prince H.A. Li-wen – just for the transfer of money. The amount received by Palmerston (most likely in 1825, when he was experiencing serious financial difficulties) in the form of two “tranches” of 10 thousand pounds sterling was huge for that time, even taking into account the stock market crisis of 1825.51 There was a version about the fact that the princess entrusted a certain foreigner
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lose 30 thousand pounds 52. Suspicion was caused both by the amount of money won in the unnamed game, and the very method of transferring the money. Notable was the subsequent appointment of Hart from 1837 to 1841 at the direction of Palmerston as British Consul in Leipzig, where his activities became notorious, which became the subject of an investigation by the British government.
J.J. Hart came from a family of well-known British merchants who supplied Jamaican rum to the country’s naval forces. According to one version, it was the supply of rum by the Hart family and to London clubs, including The Reform Club founded in 1836 and attended by Lord Palmerston, that facilitated their acquaintance53. However, this version is in clear contradiction with references to earlier events of 1825-1826, which were discussed in Urquart’s investigation.
The first attempts of the government of R.Peel to remove Hart from his post, according to eyewitnesses, “met with such a fierce and harsh reaction from Lord Palmerston that we had to abandon it” 54. However, the case ended with the subsequent annulment of the appointment. Moreover, there were already suspicions that the head of the British Foreign Office owed money personally to Khart55. It should be noted that Palmerston was a frequent visitor of the famous London El-Mex Club (known as Almack’s Assembly Rooms), the only one where women were allowed and whose patrons in different years were representatives of the British aristocracy, as well as the above-mentioned Princess Lee-wen. with whom he had an affair.Here the Lord also met with his future wife Emilia Cooper. The theme of the mysterious “Russian trace” in the life and political career of Palmerston was developed later, in a series of articles published during May-November 1865 in the journal “The Free Press” published by D. Urquart. They were republished in 1866 as a separate pamphlet entitled “Materials on the True History of Lord Palmerston” 56, which included a lot of hard-hitting provable facts from the biography of Bree.
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Tang politicians, which gave grounds for certain conclusions. However, the British public’s perception of the accusations against Palmerston was largely influenced by the fact that D. Urquart was involved in this case, whose figure was perceived ambiguously, which diminished the significance of the investigation conducted by Urquart. As for most of the representatives of the British political class, then, most likely, proceeding from the desire not to compromise the political system as a whole and themselves with possible discoveries, they refused to publicly address the topic of Palmerston’s dubious behavior and the so-called.”Russian trace”. In addition, David Urquart himself was increasingly perceived by various politicians and public figures with a certain degree of skepticism. An example of this is the words of Karl Marx, who knew him personally and refused to cooperate with him shortly after the very first publications in The Free Press for this very reason. In a special note entitled “David Urquhart,” Marx noted that “Urquart systematically exploits the idea of a fix. For 20 years he has unsuccessfully denounced Palmerston, as well as Russian tricks and gimmicks, and therefore, naturally, is considered half-crazy, as if someone had some idea that was correct, but which he could not convince the world. “The activities of Urquart received a very peculiar assessment of the Russian political emigrant in England, Alexander Herzen, who, being largely influenced by the socio-political atmosphere of that time, wrote about him: David Urquard, a man of talent and energy. An eccentric radical of conservatism, he became obsessed with two ideas: first, that Turkey is an excellent country with a great future, which is why he got himself Turkish cuisine, Turkish baths, Turkish sofas… secondly – that Russian diplomacy, the most cunning and dexterous in all of Europe, bribes and deceives all statesmen, in all states of this world and mainly in
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England. Urquard worked for years to find evidence that Palmerston was buying out the Petersburg cabinet. He published articles and brochures about this, made proposals in parliament, preached at rallies.At first they were angry with him, answered him, scolded him, then they got used to it, the accused and the listeners began to smile, did not pay attention … at last they burst into general laughter. ”58
All these characteristics refer to a later time, and then, at the end of the 30s of the XIX century, Urquart played a rather serious socio-political role. In 1839, public accusations against the government by prominent politicians who claimed to have deliberately falsified documents related to the Afghan direction of British politics and influenced the adoption of improper decisions took on a rather harsh tone.It was David Ur-Quart who was the first to define the “agenda” in public discourse on this issue, who made a thorough structural and textual analysis of the collections of materials published for parliament. For several months (December 1839 – April 1840) the Glasgow Herald published a series of articles containing a detailed analysis of the materials. D. Urquhart’s criticism of the government’s decisions to start the war, in addition to the accusations of Lord Palmerston and Prime Minister W.Melbourne, included a rather important element, namely: accusations that the dispatch of the expeditionary force was recommended by the Foreign Office and by decision of the Control Council of the East India Company, sent to the Governor-General bypassing the Board of Directors of the company and in violation of the Parliamentary Act on the powers of the Control Council59 …
The theme of Central Asia, British India and Afghanistan was constantly present in British-Russian relations, and, as noted in October 1838,Pozzo di Borgo, who had been appointed Ambassador to Great Britain three years earlier, referring to the fears that existed in British political circles about a possible attack by the Russian Empire on the Indian possessions of Britain, “this project
David Urquart, “The Portfolio” and the beginning of the end of secret diplomacy in St. Petersburg … 83
settled here in all heads, in spite of its natural improbability and positive falsehood ”60.In turn, practically responding to the dispatch of Pozzo di Borgo, Nesselrode, who clearly counted on the transmission of his words to the British side, which saw in the actions of the Russian Empire in Central Asia a desire to seize it in order to get closer to India, tried to hide these plans, referred to the desire the imperial government “to strengthen the silence in these countries; not pit them against one another by pandering to their mutual hatred; confine ourselves to competition in the arena of industry, but not to enter into a struggle because of political influence, and, finally – and most important of all – respect the independence of the intermediate countries that separate us – this, in our opinion, is the system that both governments should invariably follow in view of their common benefit and in order to prevent the possibility of a clash between the two great powers, which, in order to remain friends, must not have any contact or clash in Central Asia ”61.To a certain extent, such statements, being voiced by the Russian ambassador to the British side, were intended to calm down the political and public circles in London, which had evidence of completely opposite intentions of the Russian side.
In addition to the publication of the diplomatic correspondence of the Russian Foreign Ministry, the content of which left no doubt about the true plans of St.Urquart, who by 1837 became the main figure who determined the magazine’s publishing policy, resorted to publishing documents, no less sensitive for the tsarist authorities, on the internal policy of the Russian Empire. In the fortieth issue of “The Portfolio”, the text of the “State Charter of the Russian Empire” was published in English translation (the name of the French-language original –
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ka – “Charte constitutionnelle de l’Empire de Russie”).The document fell into the hands of the Polish rebels in 1830 from the archives of N.I. Novosiltsev in the form of two copies – in French and Russian. This draft constitution of the Russian Empire, dating back to 1820, was the result of the work not only of Novosiltsev himself, but also of the French lawyer P.I. Peshar-Deschan, who was his secretary. The translation into Russian and the edition was made at one time by Prince P.A. Vyazemsky.Both copies, after their discovery, were made public in the form of a separate brochure by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the rebel government A. Grodynsky in August 1831 and have already ceased to be secret. However, the fate of this publication was sad, since after the suppression of the uprising, “printed copies were requisitioned by I.F. Paskevich, as well as handwritten clerical copies of the Russian and French texts of the Charter, which were delivered to Moscow simultaneously with the publication of Grodynsky. Printed copies were burned, and clerks’ copies were transferred to the Secret State Archives… Part of the printed copies sold before the storming of Warsaw (1831), became widespread in Russia and Europe. However, since through the efforts of the government, the printed copy of the book was a bibliographic rarity, Grodynsky’s publication was distributed among the educated part of Russian society, primarily in manuscript copies ”62. Thus, the appeal of “The Portfolio” to the draft constitution of the Russian Empire, which was probably initiated by D. Urquart personally, was not accidental.On the one hand, the task was to make the document available not only for the Western European audience, but also for the Russian one, meaning the distribution of the magazine in Russia, where it came virtually illegally, albeit in limited quantities. On the other hand, maintaining close relations with the Polish emigration and being a supporter of the ideas put forward by it, Urquart once again tried to prove its proximity to the European ideals of enlightenment and democracy, as well as
David Urquart, “The Portfolio” and the beginning of the end of St. Petersburg’s secret diplomacy… 85
the establishment of forces in the Russian Empire that set the goal of carrying out social and political reforms. The publication, carried out by “The Portfolio”, was a literal translation of a brochure published in Warsaw on the initiative of A. Grodynsky, who preceded the main text with his own preface. In it, the author noted in 1831 the positive nature of the measures proposed in the draft constitution to limit the autocracy and wrote: “In the midst of the bloody battles that the Polish people are waging for independence against the army of the emperor of Russia, who wants to deprive us of it, the most valuable of all advantages, The Poles did not for a moment forget the noble and humane feelings that are called upon to unite all other peoples.They did not stop for a single moment in their prayers that the Russian people could one day receive national guarantees and enjoy happier conditions. The current government of Poland, sharing the feelings of the entire Polish nation on this matter, is sincerely satisfied to discover that a happy moment has arrived when the voice of truth, having penetrated the threshold of the palace in which the absolute monarch resides, ordered him to grant a constitutional charter, and that even Russia began to engage in this work, so important and no doubt so eagerly awaited by all the inhabitants of this huge empire ”63.At the same time, both in 1831 for the Polish insurgent government and for the British magazine that published the document and its editors, many details related to the appearance of the draft constitution continued to remain unknown, namely: the authorship and reaction to it of the Russian emperor64.
The renewal of the publication of “The Portfolio” undertaken by D. Urquart in 1843, despite its similarity with the prototype of 1835-1837, differed from it in the practically absence of documentary publications from the number of secret diplomatic documents (with the exception of a few that probably remained from the first edition).The aim of the new series was to create a publication that has an impact on both British and European political circles and in general
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active part of society. However, this project turned out to be less successful than the previous one, which, however, did not stop D. Urquart. A notable fact of his political biography was his persistent desire to have at his disposal a periodical printed publication specializing in international politics and actually serving to actualize his views on the most controversial issues in national discourse.In 1856, already with the support of the well-known metal industrialist George Crows, 65 Urquart bought and became its owner the magazine The Free Press, which was renamed the Diplomatic Review in 1866 and enjoyed a high reputation in European socialist circles at first, as evidenced by short-term cooperation with this edition of K. Marx. The Portfolio tried to repeat the experience, albeit unsuccessfully, in 1859-1860. in German conditions under the name “New Portfo-lio. A collection of important documents and selected passages of modern history ”(“ Das neue Portfolio.Eine Sammlung wichtiger Dokumente und Actenstücke zur Zeitgeschichte “) the famous German publicist Eduard Fischel, famous for his numerous political pamphlets and polemics with Lord Palmerston, whom he accused of a bias towards Prussia and its mission in general German affairs66.
Thus, it existed during 1835-1837. The Portfolio was one of the first to use the practice of disclosing secret diplomatic documents of foreign states for political purposes and using the technology of indirect participation of state institutions in operations of this kind.The time had come for the active involvement of public and political circles in international politics, which indicated a clear reduction in the power of the methods of “secret diplomacy”. At the same time, the main problem emerged, the existence of which the governments resorting to such practice had to reckon with, namely: despite attempts to keep secret their participation in the implementation of such public projects, it still became known.
David Urquart, “The Portfolio” and the beginning of the end of St. Petersburg’s secret diplomacy… 87
1 On the subject of this article, an article by Jean Marchand was published in 1961 entitled “Portfolio” by David Urquart: An English Campaign to Uncover Russian Secret Documents. 1835-1845 “- Marchand J.” The Portfolio “de David Urquhart: une entreprise anglaise de divulgation de documents secrets russes, 18351845 // Revue d’histoire diplomatique. 1961. No. 2. See.See also research on similar and related issues: Alder G. J. The “Grabled” Blue Books of 1839 – Myth or Reality // The Historical Journal. 1972. V. XV. N2; AnsariS. The Sind Blue Books of 1843 and 1844: The Political “Laundering” of Historical Evidence // English Historical Review. 2005. V. CXX. N 485; Newcastle Foreign Affairs Association, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Falsification of diplomatic documents: The Affghan papers. Report and petition of the Newcastle Foreign Affairs Association. Newcastle-upon-Tyne.1860; Urquhart D. Diplomatic transactions in Central Asia, from 1834 to 1839. London, 1841; Ulunyan Ar. A. Alexander Burns’ Afghan Buffer for Central Asia. From strategic plans to forged letters // Historical space. Problems of the history of the CIS countries. M., 2012; he is. Diplomatic documents in the political dimension of historical eras. (The case of “1893” and “1935”) // Slavic studies. 2014. N3.
2 More about D.Urquhart in the context of the social and political conditions of Britain, see: Robinson G. David Urquhart: Some Chapters in the Life of a Victorian Knight-Errant of Justice and Liberty. Oxford, 1920; idem. Some Account of David Urquhart. Oxford, 1921; Taylor M. The old radicalism and the new: David Urquhart and the politics of opposition, 1832-1867 // Currents of Radicalism: Popular Radicalism, Organized Labor and Party Politics in Britain, 1850-1914. Edited by Biagini E. F., Reid A. J. New York, 1991.
3 Nash G.From Empire to Orient: Travelers to the Middle East, 1830-1926. London, 2005.
4 Bolsover G. H. David Urquhart and the Eastern Question, 1833-37: A Study in Publicity and Diplomacy // The Journal of Modern History. 1936. V. 8. N. 4.
5 More details: King Ch. Imagining Circassia: David Urquhart and the Making of North Caucasus Nationalism // Russian Review. 2007. V. LXVI. N. 2.
6 Luxembourg N.Ruslarin Kafkasya’yi ijgalinde ingiliz Politikasi ve imam Jamil. istanbul, 1998. S. 100.
7 Ibid. S. 101.
8 According to the updated data from the archival materials of both D. Urquart himself and on the basis of the publication of the minutes of their meetings and information gleaned from the reports of the Special Committee on Appeals of the House of Commons of the British Parliament, the beginning of the activities of the committees does not date back to 1854-1855., as is often stated in existing historiography, and by 1857-1858. – Currents of Radicalism: Popular Radicalism. P. 24. See also: Briggs A. David Urquhart and the West Riding foreign affairs committees // Bradford Historical and Antiquarian Society. 1958. No. 39; Salt J. Local Manifestations of the Urquhartite Movement // International Review of Social History. 1968. V. XIII. N 3; Shannon R. David Urquhart and the Foreign Affairs Committees // Pressure from Without in early Victorian England Ed by Hollis P.London, 1974.
9 £ elik H. Osmanli yanlisi ingiliz dij ijler komiteleri. istanbul, 1994.
10 About Julius Kamp and his publishing activities: Schmidt R. Deutsche Buchhändler. Deutsche Buchdrucker. Berlin / Eberswalde. 1902. Band 1. S. 129-134.
11 More about him in: Voigt B. F. Neuer Nekrolog der Deutschen.1836. Weimar, 1838. V. 2. S. 628-635.
12 About D. Urquart’s connections with the Polish emigration not only in Britain, but also in Istanbul, see: Temizkan A. Lehistanlilarin istanbul’da Lobi Faaliyetleri ve Katasya’ya Lejyon Gönder-me Girijimleri // Türklük Bilimi Arajtirmalari. 2010. Cilt XXVIII.
13 The Connection of Lord Palmerston with the Portfolio // The Portfolio. Diplomatic Review. New Series.London, 1844. V. 2. No. 6. P. 147-180.
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14 Norris J. A. First Afghan War: 1838-42. New York, 1967. P. 81, 82.
15 Hansard. House of Commons (HC) Debates (Deb.) 23 February 1848. V. 96. C. 1174.
16 For more on this see: Lamb M. The Making of a Russophobe: David Urquhart: The Formative Years, 1825-1835 // The International History Review.1981. V. III. No. 3; MacFie A. L. Opinions of the European Press on the Eastern Question, 1836 // Middle Eastern Stu-dies. 1991 V. XXVII, N. 1; Miliori M. Ambiguous partisanships. Philhellenism, turkophilia and balkanology in XIXth century Britain // Balkanologie. 2002. V. VI. N 1-2.
17 Sedivy M. Metternich, the Great Powers and the Eastern Question. Pilsen, 2013. P. 571.
18 Hansard.House of Commons (HC) Debates (Deb.) 23 February 1848. V. 96. C. 1174.
19 For details, see: Ingle H. Nesselrode and the Russian Rapprochement with Britain, 1836-1844. Berkeley, Los Angeles, 1976.
20 The Debates on motion for papers, with a view to the impeachment of the right hon. Henry J. Temple Viscount Palmerston: House of commons, Feb. 8th, 23rd, March 1st, 17th 1848. London, 1860.
21 Brown D. Palmerston and the Politics of Foreign Policy, 1846-55. New York, 2002. P. 81.
22 Gleason J. The Genesis of Russophobia in Great Britain: A Study of the Interaction of Pol-icy and Opinion. Cambridge, 1950. P. 177.
23 Bourne K. Palmerston: The Early Years, 1784-1841. London, 1982. P. 561.
24 More on this: Webster Ch.K. The foreign policy of Palmerston, 1830-1841: Britain, the liberal movement, and the Eastern question. London, 1969. V. 1.P. 497.
25 Parish H. H. The Diplomatic History of the Monarchy of Greece: From the Year 1830, Showing the Transfer to Russia of the Mortgage Held by British Capitalists Over Its Property and Revenues. London, 1838. P. 417-421.
26 Hereinafter, footnotes to the Portfolio numbers are given according to the folio edition, which combined the individual numbers in the form of separate books, in this case, printed in 1836.- Suppressed Passage of the Speech of the Emperor Nicolas at Warsaw; with Observations on the Practical results of that Speech // The Portfolio; or a collection of state papers, etc., illustrative of the history of our own times. London, 1836. V.1. N 2.P. 39.
27 Remarks on the Speech of the Emperor Nicolas to the Polish Deputation // The Portfolio. 1836. V.1. N 3.P. 97.
28 For more information on this topic, see: Ardeleanu C.Gurile Dunarii – o problema europeana. Comert ji navigatie la Dunarea de Jos? N surse contemporane (1829-1853). Braila 2012. P. 133-142; idem. Evolutia intereselor economice ji politice britanice la gurile Dunarii (1829-1914). Braila, 2008; Ardeleanu C. The Lower Danube, Circassia and the Commercial Dimensions of the British-Russian Diplomatic Rivalry in the Black Sea Basin (1836-37) // The Balkans and Caucasus: Parallel Processes on the Opposite Sides of the Black Sea, Ed … by BiliarskyI, Cristea O., Oroveanu A. Newcastle upon Tyne, 2012.
29 Copy of a Dispatch from Prince Lieven, and Count Matuszevich, addressed to Count Nesselrode, dated London, 1st (13th) June, 1829 // The Portfolio. 1836. V. I. No. 4. P. 171-186.
30 Copy of a Despatch from Prince Lieven. Dated London, 4th (16th) January, 1829 // The Port-folio. 1836. V. I. N 5. P. 208, 209.
31 Ibid.P. 206.
32 More about her in: Cromwell J. L. Dorothea Lieven: A Russian Princess in London and Paris, 1785-1857. London, 2007
33 For more on this: Jenks M. H. The activities and influence of David Urquhart, 18331856, with special reference to the affairs of the Near East, PhD diss., University of London. London, 1964. P. 100, 101.
34 Ibid.R. 113.
35 Mamoir on the means of maintaining Tranquility in the Interior of Germany in the event of War with the Exterior, drawn up at the desire of the King of Prussia, by Count Bernstorff,
David Urquart, “The Portfolio” and the beginning of the end of secret diplomacy in St. Petersburg … 89
Jan. 20, 1831 // The Portfolio. V. I.No. 1. P. 3-39, No. 2. P. 57-92, No. 3. P. 115-157. More on this in: Robert D. Billinger, Jr. The War Scare of 1831 and Prussian-South German Plans for the End of Austrian Dominance in Germany // Central European History. 1976. V. IX. N. 3; Billinger Robert D. Metternich and the German Question: States’ Rights and Federal Duties, 1820-1834. Delaware, 1991.
36 Copy of a Despatch from M. De Tatistcheff. Dated Vienna, the 29th June, 1827 // The Port-folio.1836. Vol. II. No. 11.P. 69-76.
37 Jenks M. H. Op. cit. R. 102.
38 Armand Emmanuel Sophia-Septimani de Vignero du Plessis, Comte de Chinon, 5th Duke of Richelieu, in the Russian tradition – Emmanuel Osipovich de Richelieu (1766-1822), during his last premiership (February 12 – December 21, 1821. ) was forced to resign because of the fierce opposition of the radicals who actually united against him, both on the left and on the right.
39 Copy of a Dispatch from Count Pozzo Di Borgo, Addressed to Count Nesselrode. Dated paris, 10th (22nd) December, 1826 // The Portfolio. 1936. V. I. N 5. P. 219, 220.
40 Copy of a very secret dispatch from Count Pozzo Di Borgo, Dated Paris, the 28th November, 1828 // The Portfolio. V. I. N 7. P. 342, 343.
41 Georg Wilhelm von Valentini – Lieutenant General of the Prussian army.During the years 1810-1811. was in the Russian service, took an active part in the Russian-Turkish war of 1806-1812. at its final stage (the Battle of Batinsk, August 26, 1810 near the Bulgarian village of Batin, and the capture of Ruschuk, June 22, 1811). For his courage he was promoted to lieutenant colonel. After returning to Prussian service in 1811 and until his death in 1834, he held various command and military administrative posts. In European military science, Valentini was widely known as one of the outstanding theorists, the author of a four-volume work under the general title “The Doctrine of Wars”, which included the volumes “Doctrine of Small Wars”, “Doctrine of Big Wars”, “War against the Turks”, “History the campaigns of 1828 and 1829.”And” The doctrine of serf war. ” In Russian, his work on the Russo-Turkish War was published in 1836: Valentini Georg Wilhelm, von. Review of the main actions of General-Field Marshal Prince of Warsaw, Count Paskevich-Eri-vansky, against the Turks in AzY. Type of. Nikolay Grech. SPb, 1836.
42 Copy of a very secret dispatch from Count Pozzo Di Borgo, Dated Paris, the 28th November, 1828. P. 342, 343. This dispatch, in view of its large volume, since in addition to the English translation, the French original of the text was also reproduced, it was published “ The Portfolio ”in two issues.- Copy of a very secret dispatch from Count Pozzo Di Borgo, Dated Paris, the 28th November, 1828 // The Portfolio. 1836. V. I. No. 7. P. 341-367. Copy of a very secret dispatch from Count Pozzo Di Borgo, Dated Paris, the 28th November, 1828 // The Portfolio. 1836. V. I. No. 8. P. 407-477.
43 Opinions of the European press on the Eastern question. Tr. and extracted from Turkish, German, French and English papers and reviews. Edited by David Ross of Bladensburg.James Ridgway and Sons. London, 1836.
44 For more details: MacFie A. L. Opinions of the European Press on the Eastern Question, 1836 // Middle Eastern Studies, 1991. V. XXVII, N 1.
45 Ulunyan Ar. A. “Afghan buffer”.
46 In 1835, the first of them was distributed in the amount of 6 thousand 250 copies, and the second – 10 thousand, which was for that time a significant circulation for newspapers.- Jenks M. H. Op. cit. R. 97.
47 Hansard. House of Commons (HC) Debates (Deb.) 23 February 1848. V. 96. C. 1175. For the relationship between Palmerston, Ponsonby, and Urquart, see Webster Ch. Urquhart, Ponsonby, and Palmerston // The English Historical Review. 1974. V. LXII. No. 244.
48 Hansard. House of Commons (HC) Debates (Deb.) 23 February 1848. V. 96. C. 1175.
49 More about him in: Moss D.J. Thomas Attwood, the biography of a radical. Montreal, 1990.
50 Hansard. House of Commons. Debates. 06 August 1839. V. 49. C. 1397.
51 Materials for a True History of Lord Palmerston. London, 1866. P. 7. In 2013, this amount was equivalent to 1 million 940 thousand pounds. sterling.
52 Materials for a True History. R. 8.
53 Cf.: Cowan R. Relish: The Extraordinary Life of Alexis Soyer, Victorian Celebrity Chef. London, 2006.
54 Materials for a True History. R. 8.
55 Ibid. R. 7.
57 Marx K. David Urquhart // Marx / Engels Collected Works. Progress Publishers Lawrence & Wishart (London) and International Publishers (New York).1979. V. 12. P. 477.
58 Herzen A. I. Past and thoughts. Ch. 4-8. M., 2001.S. 127.
59 Urquhart D. Diplomatic transactions in Central Asia, from 1834 to 1839. London, 1841. P. xii; Falsification of Diplomatic Documents; The Affghan Papers. Report and Petition of the Newcastle Foreign Affairs Association. London, 1860.
60 Nesselrode, (11) 23 X 1838 / // Marten F.Collection of treatises and conventions concluded by Russia with foreign powers. St. Petersburg, 1898.Vol. XII (treatises with England 1832-1895). P. 74.
61 Nesselrode – Pozzo di Borgo, 20.X 1838 // Ibid. P. 77.
62 Chernov KS “State Statutory Charter of the Russian Empire” (on the issue of Russian constitutionalism). Abstract of dissertation for the degree of candidate of historical sciences.M., 2007. S. 13. More about the document itself in: Vernadsky G.V. State Charter of the Russian Empire in 1820. Prague, 1925; Donnert E. Liberal constitutionalism and constitutional projects of the time of Alexander I for Finland, Poland and Russia // Slavic peoples: common history and culture. M., 2000; Constitutional projects in Russia. XVIII – early XX century M., 2000; Tsimbaev NI Ideas of federalism and federal structure of Russia in public thought “// Essays on Russian culture of the XIX century.Public thought. T. 4.M., 2003.
63 The Portfolio. London, 1837. V. 5.N. 40. P. 513.
65 George Crows, a graduate of Trinity College, Cambridge University, in addition to being a major representative of the steel business, went down in history as an active public and political figure, a member of the Chartist movement, as well as a member of organizations related to lobbying foreign policy issues.The 5 volumes of documents from the Crows Foundation held at the National Wells Library are a valuable source: National Library of Wales, Crawshay MSS, GB 0210 MSCRAWSHAY.
66 E. Fishel became known in Britain for his anonymous pamphlet, the authorship of which was not later denied by him, entitled “Despots as Revolutionaries. To the German people ”, allegedly written by the Duke of Coburg.