‘Tribes’ and the tyranny of language and listening
Family stories are the backbone of the contemporary theatre. And Death of a Salesman, A Long Day’s Journey Into Night and August: Osage County constitute central vertebra on the spine of the canon. They all center on families who talk well enough … they just can’t seem to actually communicate with one another.
Nina Raine’s Tribes takes that irony one step further. Her acclaimed play is about a family that really can’t communicate. And the fact that youngest son Billy was born deaf is just part of the problem.
“This is a family that is fraught with love and miscommunication and hierarchies,” said Stephen Weitz, who is directing Tribes for the Theatre Company’s Oct. 9 opening. “I mean, Death of a Salesman is the same family, in some ways, and August: Osage County. But by adding this extra element of deafness as an obstacle to communication, I think Nina Raine has taken the traditional family drama and spun it on its ear a little bit. ”
The never-named British family in Tribes has been described as an intensely intellectual bunch of dueling narcissists who use (often profane) words as their weapons of choice. The parents are writers with three adrift children, all in their 20s and all living at home. Daniel is writing a thesis about how “language doesn’t determine meaning.” Ruth is a halfhearted opera wannabe. And while Billy may be deaf, his parents didn’t raise him to be different — and they tell him that.
“They essentially pretend he’s not deaf,” Weitz said. “Certainly there is no malice behind that. I think in their minds, they are doing good by him by raising him to be, quote, ‘normal.’ And in the end, that turns out maybe to have been not the best choice.”
Now Billy has met a girl named Sylvia who grew up with deaf parents and is now losing her own hearing. She knows American Sign Language. He does not. Signals are seriously being crossed all over this play.
“Tribes is about how we communicate, and how we don’t communicate,” Weitz said. “And one of the great ironies of this play is that it’s the non-deaf characters who are actually really bad at communication.”
The live theatre was born for the public exchange of ideas, however heightened or artificial. But deafness, of course, makes communication and human connection more difficult, whether on stage or in life. Yet the Tribes playwright, Weitz believes, has taken this obstacle and turned it into a tremendous creative advantage. (Rehearsal photo at right: Interpreter Natalie Austin, left, and actor Kate Finch, who plays Sylvia. Photo by John Moore.)
“This is going to be a visceral experience for people unlike what they normally have at the theatre because they are going to have to be part of the communication exchange,” Weitz said. “This isn’t one of those plays where people can sit back and be passive, because it will fly by.”
That’s where Charlie Miller, the DCPA’s resident multimedia specialist, comes in. Throughout her play, Raine’s script calls for supertitles — projected translations audiences most commonly see as they translate foreign words at the opera. Here, supertitles are used to help the audience understand what the deaf characters are saying. But it’s a tricky and intentionally unreliable device, Miller says.
“Not everything that is signed is translated for the audiences and sometimes the translations take on a life of their own,” Miller said. “So I think it becomes more complex than that in a really good way.”
Photos from the first rehearsal for the DCPA Theatre Company’s ‘Tribes,’ by Nina Raine. All photos by John Moore for the DCPA’s NewsCenter. All photos by John Moore for the DCPA’s NewsCenter.
It’s only fair, after all, that if “hearing” people can use language to obscure and confuse meaning rather than to elucidate — why shouldn’t that tool be available to all of the Tribes characters?
In this family, barriers to communication, real or imagined, might even be seen as a relief or a protection when that family is not asking the tough questions.
“You see that both in the characters who can hear, and in those who can’t,” Weitz said. “These parents have their own marital issues going on. Their other son, Daniel, has mental-illness issues that are not being addressed. The daughter has some self-esteem issues that are not being dealt with. For this family that is so invested in communication and debate, they are not ultimately talking about the central issues of their lives. So in many ways, they are the ones who are cut off from communication, while their deaf son is the one who is learning to communicate fully. That’s the central irony of the play.”
Tribes is one of the first plays in DCPA history that will feature some actors who are hard of hearing. That’s good for the creative team, good for the entire community that is dedicated to issues regarding hearing, and especially good for DCPA audiences, Weitz said.
“I am a big fan of any theatre that makes the audience have to work harder because I feel that theatre is at its most powerful when we are an active participant, and I think this play does that remarkably well,” he said.
But in the end, he believes, Tribes is not that much of a departure from those other classic family stage stories.
“I think people are going to find that underneath that veneer of deafness, the themes and the issues of this play are akin to a lot of plays people have been coming here to see over the years.”
John Moore was theatre critic at The Denver Post for 12 years and was named one of the 12 most influential theater critics in the U.S by American Theatre Magazine in 2011. He has since taken a groundbreaking position as the Denver Center’s Senior Arts Journalist.
Tribes: Ticket information
Performances Oct. 9 through Nov. 15
Performance schedule: Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday performances at 6:30 p.m. Friday and Saturday performances at 7:30 p.m. Saturday and Sunday matinees at 1:30 p.m. (No Saturday matinees during preview performances)
ASL interpreted & Audio described performance: 1:30 p. m. Nov. 7
Call 303-893-4100 or
Groups of 15 or more: 303-446-4829
Also: Purchase in person at The Denver Center Ticket Office, located at the Helen Bonfils Theatre Complex lobby. Buy and print online at Denvercenter.org.
Please be advised that the Denver Center for the Performing Arts – denvercenter.org – is the only authorized online ticket provider for the Denver engagement of ‘Tribes.’
Previous NewsCenter coverage of Tribes:
Go to the official Tribes show page
Tribes: Anytime there is an ‘us,’ there is a ‘them’
Theatre Company giddily going down rabbit hole in 2015-16
Casting announced for Theatre Company’s fall shows
Theatre Company introduces bold new artwork for 2015-16 season
Tribes Sounds Off on the Meaning of Family and BelongingTo paraphrase Tolstoy, all happy families are alike; each dysfunctional family is dysfunctional in its own way. The family at the center of Nina Raine’s Tribes is dysfunctional in a highly verbal, entertaining and also dismaying way. Father Christopher is a writer and critic whose loud carping spills over into all of his relationships. His wife, Beth, has discovered a late-in-life vocation and is writing a mystery about a miserable marriage. (“I don’t know who’s done the murder yet,” she says. “I’m going to decide at the end.”) Son Daniel is working on a doctoral thesis about language and getting himself so messed up on skunk that he hallucinates voices. And his sister, Ruth, laments her single state and wants to be an opera singer. At first we don’t know much about the third sibling, Billy: He’s deaf, enclosed in a cocoon of silence, distorted sound, hearing-aid buzz and incomprehension. Beth has painstakingly taught him to speak, but he was never taught sign language because his family needed to see him as “normal” — and because of Christopher’s profound contempt for those who define themselves by their differences and disabilities.
At a gallery, Billy meets Sylvia, born to deaf parents and slowly losing her own hearing. She grew up in the community of the deaf, however, and signs fluently. Which means that Billy can’t really understand her, either. But he wants to, and she soon draws him out of his isolation.
The second act is a touch less compelling than the first, though still intriguing. Billy gains in confidence and finds employment in the court system, using his lip-reading abilities to decode video speech and help prosecutors in criminal cases. He also finds some independence from his overwhelming family. But Sylvia is beginning to fully experience the fear and loss that come with her increasing deafness. And we in the audience are contemplating the possibility that Christopher, for all his rudeness and seeming lack of empathy, may be partly right: Perhaps there is something lacking in the culture of the deaf; perhaps there are concepts that sign language can’t express.
I wasn’t entirely convinced by the ending, and some of the discussion about the socio-political realities of deafness felt a little flat after the deep feelings aroused by Raine’s inspired use of music. But Tribes remains compelling theater, raising unanswerable questions about communication — verbal, silent, physical, written — and the function of sound in our lives. And also about the meaning of family: After the discordant dynamics at the play’s beginning, Billy finds that something in his family calls to him, and their need for him turns out to be as profound as his for them. They are his tribe, every bit as much as the world of the deaf.
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Director Stephen Weitz has created a strong, intelligent, well-paced production. Tad Cooley, who himself has a partial hearing impairment, plays Billy with conviction. He and Kate Finch’s Sylvia bring a rare warmth and authenticity to the action, and there’s a pleasing fluency to Finch’s signing. Stephen Paul Johnson makes blustering Christopher real, and you sometimes feel a touch sorry for him; Isabel Ellison does well as Ruth. Kathleen McCall’s Beth is too frantic, almost ditzy at times, but Andrew Pastides is terrific as Daniel, arrogant and rude as he desperately fights psychic disintegration.
Tribes, presented by the Denver Center Theatre Company through November 15, Ricketson Theatre, Denver Performing Arts Complex, 303-893-4100, denvercenter.org.
Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site (U.S. National Park Service)Arapaho Spiritual Healing Ceremony and
Courtesy of the National Park Service (Tom Meier)
On November 29, 1864, roughly 700 federal troops attacked a village of 500 Cheyenne and Arapaho on Sand Creek in Colorado. An unprovoked attack on men, women, and children, the massacre at Sand Creek marked a turning point in the relationship between American Indian tribes and the Federal Government. From the day of the attack, US Army actions at Sand Creek have been controversial, because the Cheyenne and Arapaho thought they were at peace with the government and innocent people died. The distrust that grew from what occurred at Sand Creek led to later conflicts at Little Big Horn, Wounded Knee, and Washita. Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site tells the story of that fatal attack and its repercussions.
In the 1800s, life on the Plains was changing. The attack at Sand Creek was part of a series of conflicts between Plains Indian tribes with newly arrived settlers from the East and federal troops. Against the backdrop of the Civil War that divided the country as a whole, Indian tribes of the Great Plains and settlers from the east struggled for land and resources. To provide safe travel and opportunities for settlers spreading west, the Federal Government signed treaties with many of the Plains tribes. but these did not stem the conflict. Leaders of some tribes advocated for peace, including those of the Cheyenne and Arapaho on the lands around Denver.
The Cheyenne and Arapaho arrived in the area at the beginning of the 1800s. Not long after, treaties between the United States government and the tribes began to limit Indian territory. The 1851 Treaty of Fort Laramie reduced Cheyenne and Arapaho land but promised annual payments to the tribes in exchange for guaranteed passage of settlers through tribal land. The discovery of gold in Colorado in 1858 brought a greater influx of people coming in search of gold. Though some tribes fought with the growing number of settlers, the Cheyenne and Arapaho were largely tolerant of the settlers’ movement onto their land. Designed to encourage the adoption of settled farming, a new treaty in 1861 dramatically reduced the amount of land available to the Cheyenne and Arapaho.
During the Civil War, gold in Colorado was an important financial resource. The governor of the Territory of Colorado, John Evans, wanted to limit the presence of Indians on the land to protect the gold and encourage further settlement in the territory. He felt that white settlers were in danger of attack and that the Indians could disrupt the establishment of white communities in the territory. In addtion, he believed the tribes were an obstacle to routing the transcontinental railroad through Colorado.
In the fall of 1864, Governor Evans ordered all Indians who sought peace to relocate near military posts. Those who didn’t would be considered at war with the government. Under the leadership of Chief Black Kettle, the Cheyenne and Arapaho registered with the military that they were not hostile to the government. The Indians thought they were at peace, having followed the governor’s instructions. Both the governor and Colonel Chivington, leader of the Third Colorado Cavalry, were vague as to where the Cheyenne and Arapaho under Chief Black Kettle stood, however.
Governor Evans issued a proclamation that reversed his previous decision. He had obtained authority from the Federal Government to create the Third Colorado Cavalry of 100-day volunteer soldiers. Having created a force to fight Indians, Evans and Chivington needed some to fight. Even though the Indians under Black Kettle made clear their peaceful intentions, Evans and Chivington were intent on an attack.
On November 20, 1864, Chivington and his troops left Denver for the area around Sand Creek and a little more than a week later attacked the village. Led by Chief Black Kettle, the Indian villagers fled for their lives as federal troops descended upon them. The troops captured the villagers’ horses to prevent an easy escape, surrounded the village and began raining howitzer shells and bullets down on the men, women, and children. Most of the Indians fled to the nearby creek bed where they quickly dug trenches and pits to hide in as the troops continued to shoot at them. After finishing the massacre in the creek bed, the troops hunted for anyone who had escaped, then scalped and mutilated the bodies of the dead Indians, and destroyed the village. In all, roughly 150 Cheyenne and Arapaho died in the massacre.
The citizens of nearby Denver welcomed the troops when they returned as having helped to rid the Plains of hostile Indians, but Chivington’s actions were controversial almost immediately. Some of his own men refused to participate in the massacre. Later, three federal investigations examined the actions at Sand Creek and found that Chivington and his men fabricated a reason for the attack. By then, Chivington and his men were no longer in the military. Despite the lack of a judicial punishment for Chivington, the impact of the massacre was great. The destruction of the village and the death of many leaders fragmented the culture of the Cheyenne and Arapaho. Public outcry at the massacre led eventually to more humane policies relating to Indian tribes following the Civil War.
Visitors to Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site can see the massacre site and learn about the attack along a half-mile walk with wayside exhibits. During the park’s regular season between April and November, rangers lead daily tours. A picnic area and overlook with shelter are located in the park. Much of the rest of the park is a sacred site, preserved as an open landscape with few facilities. Some parts of the park are open only to tribal members. The Sand Creek Spiritual Healing Run is held annually around Thanksgiving. The run follows the route of the Cheyenne and Arapaho to Denver, passing through Eads.
Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site, a unit of the National Park System, is located near Eads, CO. Click here for the National Register of Historic Places registration file: text and photos. The park entrance is approximately 30 miles north and east of Eads, along County Road W a mile east of County Road 54 or several miles west of County Road 59. There is no fee to visit the site which is open daily April to November. The park closes in the winter, but may still be visited between December 1 and March 31 by appointment. For more information, visit the National Park Service Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site website or call 719-438-5916.
Native Americans of Colorado | Denver Metro Media
The First Discoverers of the West
Colorado Native Americans were the very first people to inhabit the area. They lived in the territory for thousands of years being hunting and gathering tribes. The first Native Americans were prehistoric and were called Paleo-Indians.. They lived before the printed word and knowledge of these people come from the archeologists who have excavated known sites.
Excavations have shown the lost tribe, the Anasazi Indians, who vanished without a trace, lived in the four corners region of Colorado. Many other sites have been found that were ceremonial grounds and burial grounds of many different tribes of the area. Pottery, hunting tools, arrowheads, and such have been unearthed all over the state.
I became interested in Native Americans in the area soon after moving to our place in the shadow of Pikes Peak. I soon discovered that our property was part of ceremonial grounds for the Ute Indians hundreds of years ago. This information has set me off in the direction of history that you will read about later on.
For instance, the Utes communicated, prayed, and healed the sick using Native Scarred Trees. The prominent Colorado Native Americans are the Navajo, Ute, and Cheyenne-Arapahoe Indians. We find the Navajo in the southwest corner of Colorado, the Utes in the Pikes Peak area and most of Colorado, and the Cheyenne and Arapahoe on the Colorado plains.
Very proud people and rich in their history, each tribe has brought its own culture to Colorado and you can find it in the areas where they inhabited. And, unfortunately, as with all areas of the old west, Indians were in the way of the western migration and settlement. They had to go. This was a horrible time. These people were the first to settle our country, hence the name Native Americans.
Normally, peaceful people, they would fight for the land that was being taken from them. Wouldn’t you? So many atrocities were committed against these noble people and all they wanted to do was live in peace. The worst crime against Native Americans in Colorado was the Sand Creek Massacre, which we’ll look at later on.
Relegated to reservations and living conditions worse than slums, the Native Americans still survived. Many descendants of these tribes still call Colorado home. And a few times a year they get together and put on re-enactments of happier times in their history.
So, let’s get started on a journey into another time and learn about the original inhabitants of Colorado.
The People Who Vanished
The Anasazi Indians lived in the four corners region of Colorado. Something very strange is connected to them. Let’s start out with the discovery of the ancient ruins of these Native American people in 1882.
A rancher named Benjamin Alfred Wetherill had been talking to other ranchers in the area and was told of native artifacts in the Mancos Canyon in southwestern Colorado.
Mr. Wetherill had always been interested in Native American culture and had found pottery and such on his property, but when he heard about what was found in southwest Colorado, he set out on horseback to see for himself.
Arriving in Mancos Canyon, he didn’t see anything right away. As he moved on, something caught his eye at the rim of a cave. He climbed the slope and entered the “cave”. The walls were man-made and painted. Pottery, flint chips, and clothing were discovered. But where had these people gone? More importantly, why had they gone?courtesy of Mesa Verde National Park
These “caves” were actually apartments that housed 150 rooms. It was the only Native American archeological discovery that produced more than petroglyphs on the walls or arrowheads and tools. The apartments were rock houses built right into the cliffs. More of these cliff dwellings were discovered in the canyons of the mesa. Some were two and three stories high and had been built with exacting precision. It was about 550 AD when the Anasazi Indians started to build their homes. Mr. Wetherill discovered them about 1300 years later.
The Anasazi Built Homes in the Cliffs of Mountains
Let’s look at what is known of these vanishing people. The name Anasazi is Navajo for “the ancient ones.” Mr. Wetherill’s findings were the first archaeological collections but other native tribes in the area had known about the cliff dwellings for centuries. They considered them forbidden and avoided dwellings. The Native Americans of the area have never given a reason why this was.
Positive answers as to why the Anasazi Indians disappeared have been lost due to scavengers looting the cliff dwellings and making off with artifacts after Mr. Wetherill’s discovery.
However, in 1906, the U.S. Government established the Mesa Verde National Park, to protect the dwellings from further vandalism. Just a note: The Mesa Verde National Park is the only national park that has human culture as its main theme. Establishing it allowed scientists to come into the park and continue with their investigation of the native people who once lived here.
My husband and I have visited the national park over the years. It is a very quiet place. So quiet that there are no birds to be seen or heard singing. When you close your eyes, the wind blows over your face and you feel a sense of sorrow coming from the area. Could the wind be carrying the spirits of these people that once were thriving here?
It is beautiful. To see the construction that has lasted for centuries and where native people lived and worked all those many years ago is fascinating.
So over the years, the mystery slowly unraveled. Keep in mind that there is no factual evidence as to the disappearance, just what scientific detectives have pieced together. It seems that the weather, location, and the Anasazi Indians’ lifestyle may have lead to their disappearance. Mesa Verde is thought to be first settled in 1 AD. By 1300 the people vanished from the area.
The earliest Native Americans were nomads, following the herds of deer and buffalo and gathering plants and berries. This took place on the valley floors. Farms were established and crops were raised. About 550 AD the Anasazi moved from the valley to the mesa were it was cooler in the summer. They found that the mesa had better soil for growing their crops. Forests were available for making tools and providing logs for fires.
About 1200 AD, the Anasazi moved into the caves. No one knows why they moved from the mesa into the cliff dwellings. There is speculation. * The mesa was becoming too crowded;
- More land was needed for growing crops;
- The caves offered protection from the elements;
- Maybe another tribe was threatening them and the caves were safe and gave a good vantage point to spot invaders.
They only lived in the cliff dwellings for about 100 years. More speculation occurs when you look at their disappearance. Did they leave because of the changing weather? (Global warming issues in the year 1200). According to scientists, there was a drought in 1276 and for years after, there was little snow or rain. The crops failed. Maybe the population was becoming too large, as evidence by the bigger dwellings that were built.
They may have been threatened by outsiders. Skeletons have been found in the cliff dwellings that had fractures and holes in the skulls. Modern scientists have come to the conclusion that the changing natural conditions of the area led to the disappearance of the Anasazi. It has been speculated that the tribe moved to the south and integrated with the Pueblo people in New Mexico. Whatever the reason, we will never know what really happened to the Mesa Verde cliff dwellers.
The Ute Indians have probably lived in Colorado some 1500 years before the Spanish explorers first arrived in the territory that is now Colorado. There isn’t much known about the inner workings of their culture, but what we do know is that they were a small band of people who were primarily food gatherers and hunters of small animals. The Ute Indians did not live in tribes like other Native Americans, but in what is called extended families. The larger groups of people related to each other would get together in the spring for their annual ceremony.
After the annual meeting, they would split up and go to the mountains for the summer and the plains or high plateaus for the winter. A typical Ute family would consist of a man, wife, their parents, children, married children, and grandchildren. At times there would be a widowed relative, such as a sister or brother of the man or wife living with the family.
It was hard to find food for these many people in a family. The men spent most of their time hunting and fishing. They would clear the land for camp, make tools and hunting weapons. The women would bring in wood and water, make clothes, cook, tan hides, make cooking utensils, put up the tipis, and gather nuts and berries. The older children or grandparents would watch the younger children.
Age is respected in the Native American culture and children would usually pay more attention to a grandparent or older relative than to their parents.
The “Old People” were the wise ones. The grandfather would know when the fish would come in the spring and where the deer trails were.
Grandmother spent years gathering berries and knew when they would be ripe to pick. The old people knew the proper ceremonies so the families would be safe, the game, nuts and berries would be plentiful. Children were so important to the Utes that they had separate names for each growth period in a child’s life. They were a happy bunch of kids while they were growing up.
The children were never spanked or badly punished. A word or scolding was the worst treatment they received. When the children became teenagers, the hard work began. They were considered adults and were expected to do the job of an adult of the family according to their sex. The Ute Indians left their winter camps once a year for a holiday event called the Bear Dance. Usually, mid-March when the spring thunder rumbled, many families came together for several days to celebrate.
The Bear Dance ceremony was in conjunction with the bear waking up from hibernation. This is the explanation from an old Ute man:
“When bear wakes up, he’s weak, he needs food, and he doesn’t see well. But when they hold the dance, it helps him get out, because the helpers say to the dancers, ‘Get out and dance, you, because bear is waking up and that woman wants you to dance with her’.”
The dance lasted several days and ended in a large feast. It was a great time to see other families and visit, get the latest gossip and stories, and a courting time for the young folks.
After the Bear Dance, there was also the Round Dance, that drove out illness and ensures the health of other families for the coming year. The ceremony is one of the few things that did not change after the Utes met the white man. The Ute Indians would walk everywhere. Hunting, traveling, going to ceremonies, etc. The horse wasn’t introduced to them until the Spanish started exploring the region.
The Spanish needed people to work for them so they would trade the Utes horses for children or young adults in their families. The girls would be trained to do housekeeping and the boys would take care of sheep and cattle the Spanish owned.
The horse made all the difference in the world to the Utes. Now they could travel quickly from place to place. They could go hunting further than their immediate area would allow.
Buffalo was discovered by the Utes and changed their lives. Old ways of living were replaced by new ones. They still lived in family groups, but when the buffalo ranged into large herds in the summer, the Utes came together for hunting.
Huge amounts of hides and meat were transported by the horse to camps. The meat was dried for eating during the seasons and the hides were used for clothing and shelter. Along with the increased mobility of the horse came wars with other tribes. This was because of trespassing onto their land during buffalo hunts.
More families were camping close to each other and therefore conflicts would arise. Strong young men would tout themselves as leaders of the camp, the hunt or of war. The women were an important part of the family society. During wars, they stayed a safe distance, packed and ready to take off to safety.
But when raids were made onto their land, then they went into battle like the men. They were armed and wore a full battle dress.
The main job of the women in war was to scalp the dead enemy and take their possessions. Women took part in the war dance after a successful campaign. All possessions that were taken from the battle were shared throughout the band, except scalps. These were sewn onto the shirts of the men who killed them in the battle.
Eventually, the Ute Indians started to take on the traditions of the Plains Indians. But they only integrated those items of the culture that fit into their existing society. The Utes had adapted to many challenges throughout their lives. The coming of the horse, guns, and integration with the Plains Indians.
Through all of this, they remain an integral part of Colorado history.
The Cheyenne-Arapahoe Indians were known as the horsemen of the plains and carved out a niche in the eastern part of Colorado.
Being driven further westward by the expansion of the white man’s interests, these Plains Indians helped the tribes already in Colorado with a new way of life by introducing the horse to others.
These two tribes of Native Americans made a lasting impression on the plains of Colorado. They had a very strong sense of loyalty to all members of their “family”.
Arapahoe and Cheyenne were very similar in their beliefs and way of life but separate from each other. The Cheyenne-Arapahoe Indians developed as a separation of one tribe.
The Arapahoe became a northern band and the Cheyenne were the southern band. Both had lived together, but each band’s life was their own. The Cheyenne and Arapahoe went to war and hunted together.
The pecking order of these two tribes was similar. Both had leaders for war and peace; they raised their children in the same way; sometimes the tribes would intermarry, making a more solid allegiance between the two. With the horse, came freedom of travel. Hunting food, such as buffalo, was much easier with four legs than just two.
All seemed well, but with the coming of the white man, the Indian’s lives began to change. The Cheyenne and Arapahoe got along well with the first white men traveling into the state. These were trappers and were only interested in beaver, not the buffalo. The Plains Indians were very amused by the frantic and excited white men at the time of the gold rush.
Everyone seemed to get along up to a point. When white farmers moved into the plains of Colorado, there was a major problem for the Indians. The white farmers fenced and plowed the land and destroyed buffalo migration patterns. Add to that a clash of cultures and trouble was inevitable. The Sand Creek Massacre was a hostile act of the whites against the Cheyenne, who were trying to live peaceably while the white man took their land.
After the massacre, the Indians began attacking settlers on the high plains of Colorado.
A town called Julesburg on the Platte River was burned over and over; a battle at a place called Beecher’s Island; and the final battle against the Cheyenne and Arapahoe was at Summit Springs near present-day Sterling.
With “Buffalo Bill” Cody as their guide, eight companies of the Fifth Cavalry set out to find and destroy a large group of Cheyenne, Arapahoe and Sioux.
On the morning of July 11, 1869, Captain Luther North came upon a village of about 85 Indian lodges. He and his men charged the camp, killed around 60 Indians, took two dozen prisoners and stole hundreds of horses and belongings of the Indians. So just like the other Native Americans in Colorado, the Cheyenne-Arapahoe Indians were eventually pushed further off their lands until all that was left for them was a tiny reservation on which to live in poverty and captivity.
2018 Sympossium: Enhancing Tribal Water Sovereignty
Denver, Colorado March 30, 2018Enhancing Tribal Water Sovereignty
(Scroll down for full video of panel)
The second panel of the symposium included four attorneys who work with American Indians to secure their water rights. Retired Colorado Supreme Court Justice Gregory Hobbs moderated the panel. Hobbs opened the panel by giving a brief history of the Ute Tribes in Colorado before introducing the first speaker, Ernst House Jr., to talk about what tribal sovereignty means in the context of modern water rights.
Ernst House Jr., the Executive Director of the Colorado Commission of Indian Affairs and member of the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe, works with state agencies to ensure that tribes have a voice in state decision-making. House briefly discussed the history of the Ute Tribes’ reservations and emphasized the importance of water in tribal life. He then covered the Ute Water Right Settlement Act of 1988 (“1988 Act”), which was signed by Chris Baker, President Reagan, and House’s father, Ernst House Sr. Prior to the 1988 Act, no home on the reservation had running water—instead, water was delivered daily to the reservations by trucks. House gave an example of the Ute Mountain Farm and Ranch, a sustainable farm growing alfalfa and corn, to demonstrate how water rights lead to economic development for tribes and allows tribes to have a seat at the table.
House next discussed the difference between wet and paper water rights. For example, on paper the Ute Tribes has water rights in the Lake Nighthorse reservoir, but since the lake is a two-hour drive from the Ute Mountain Reservation, the Tribes might not see any of that water on the Reservation anytime soon. House said that this is hardly uncommon, as only thirty-six tribes have had their federally approved water rights quantified. He noted that collaboration is needed for large federal water projects—such as the huge lobbying effort required to get the Dolores Project passed—and that the involvement of young people is vitally important. House closed by urging listeners to consider tribal perspectives and visit reservations.
Peter Ortego, General Counsel for the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe, worked on the Animas La Plata Project and spoke about tribal sovereignty and federally reserved tribal water rights. When the Ute Mountain Reservation was created, the government understood that the Ute Tribes would need water in order to settle the barren land, so the government implicitly reserved enough water for the Tribes to make those lands hospitable.
However, in the context of the Animas La Plata Project, issues outside of the traditional tenets of tribal reserved water rights became apparent. Lake Nighthorse is located directly over an ancient tribal burial site, which is obviously of large cultural significance to the Tribes. The Bureau of Reclamation allows for four percent of a projects budget to go toward cultural mitigation, but this figure fell well short of the amount needed to repatriate the remains. The Tribes ended up agreeing to leave the remains where they were, and cement over them to protect those remains from disturbance. Additionally, as evidence of the attempted collaboration between the city and the Tribes, when the Tribes objected to planned trails that were to surround the reservoir due to concerns about looting of cultural artifacts, the city listened by moving the trails back from the water’s edge.
However, not every issue surrounding Lake Nighthorse has been resolved regarding the tribes and the use of Lake Nighthorse., however. When the non-Indian community around the reservoir applied for permits to use the water for recreation, the Tribes warned that such activity would disturb their ancestors. Ortego pointed out—in an echo of House—that if we look at this issue from the Tribes’ perspective, we would not allow recreation on the lake. According to Ortego, we would never build Disneyland over the World Trade Center and would not have to tell our children not to do so or put a law in place to prevent such action because the tragedy of the World Trade Center is part of our cultural story and identity. If we viewed Lake Nighthorse through the Tribes’ perspective, the same understanding would apply and the site would clearly be protected. Ortego closed by saying that while he is not a tribal member, he does his best to present their concerns in a way that adequately conveys the Tribe’s perspective and respects tribal interest.
Scott McElroy, an attorney at McElroy, Meyer, Walker & Condon, P.C., who represents the Southern Utes and Ute Mountain Utes on natural resources issues, spoke about the Colorado Ute Indian Water Rights Settlements. McElroy noted that the settlement of tribal water rights is often a long, drawn out process. He used, as an example, another settlement he is working on in New Mexico which was started in 1966 and should be settling the final issue this year. McElroy further stated that negotiated settlements have not historically worked out well for tribes. While McElroy advocates for settlements over litigation, tribes may meet such a suggestion with skepticism.
McElroy next discussed the amendments made to the 2000 Colorado Ute Indian Water Rights Settlement Act (“2000 Settlement”). The 2000 Settlement amendments eliminated some irrigation components of the Animas La Plata Project, limited depletions, and added an additional pipeline to deliver water to the Navajo Nation. McElroy also mentioned that there are two big planning efforts relating to tribal water rights pending—the Bureau of Reclamation’s Tribal Water Study, and the Water Reservation Planning Document being spearheaded by the Ute Tribes that aims to determine how the Tribes can best maximize the use of their water rights.
The final speaker was Steve Moore, a senior staff attorney at the Native American Rights Fund who represented the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians (“Agua Caliente Tribe”) in the Ninth Circuit case aimed at resolving the question of whether federal reserved tribal water rights extend to groundwater. Moore gave a presentation about the exercise of tribal sovereignty in the context of groundwater and groundwater management. Tribes have survived for millennia in the deserts around what is now Palm Springs, California by being stewards of the natural resources in the area. The Agua Caliente Tribe, who have inhabited Coachella Valley from time immemorial, dug walk-in wells to access groundwater long before the tribe encountered white settlers in the area. However, once the settlers moved into the area they filled in these wells and by 1900, the wells were gone.
There were eighteen treaties made with tribes in this area of California, mainly during the California Goldrush of 1849, but none of them were ever ratified. However, Presidential Executive Orders issued in 1876 and 1877 officially created the Agua Caliente Reservation, which originally consisted of over 30,000 acres. However, as is the case with nearly all Indian reservations, the acreage has since been greatly reduced. In this case, land grants given to the railroads resulted in a checkerboard patterned reservation.
When the reservation was created, the United States understood that access to water would be an absolute necessity for the reservation’s establishment. Due to the arid climate of the Coachella Valley, those living in the region are highly dependent on water from the Coachella Valley Groundwater Basin aquifer. However, the quality and depth of that aquifer, part of which is below the Agua Caliente Reservation, has been steadily declining due to water mismanagement by Coachella Valley Water District and Desert Water Agency (collectively “Water Agencies”).
After two decades of complaining about the over-drafting and degradation of the water quality in the Coachella Valley, the Tribes brought suit against the Water Agencies in 2013 to establish and quantify their federally reserved rights to groundwater. In order to establish federally reserved tribal water rights, it must be proven that water was considered a necessary component for the purpose of the reservation. By demonstrating that water was thought of as needed for the reservation, and by providing evidence of the historical use of walk-in wells by the Tribe, the Agua Caliente Tribe successful argued before the Ninth Circuit that it had a federally reserved right to the groundwater below their reservation. This holding is significant because it was the first time a circuit court has extended federally reserved tribal water rights to groundwater resources. The parties are currently undertaking court-ordered mediation, but the next phase of the case is scheduled oral arguments and will decide on issues like pore space, water quality, and what standard shall be used to quantify the Agua Caliente Tribe’s water rights.
The panel concluded by taking questions from the audience. Ortego responded to a question about how to maintain momentum in face of worsening water problems by reiterating the importance of cooperation among tribes, state actors, and local governance. He emphasized the importance of the tribes having a seat at the table to ensure that projects executed around tribes and projects on reservations work together, rather than working at odds with each other.
Another audience member stated that an EPA Administer had accused the Animas La Plata project of “riding an Indian pony” to gain approval and wondered what the panel’s response to that might be. McElroy handled that question by pointing out that contrary to what might be said, the Tribes had input on the Animas La Plata project from the start. He stated that the tunnel planned from the lake to the Ute Tribes was removed from the project due to opposition to the project as a whole. McElroy also noted that the Tribes were willing to compromise by downsizing the project’s benefits to the Tribe in return for increased storage and avoiding additional litigation.
Fort Peck Tribes (Mont.) receive $200K for cleanup of Old Poplar Airport site
Fort Peck Tribes (Mont.) receive $200K for cleanup of Old Poplar Airport site
Release Date: 05/08/2013
Contact Information: U.S. EPA: Richard Mylott, 303-312-6654; Fort Peck Tribes: Wilfred Lambert, 406-768-2322
(Denver. Colorado—May 8, 2013) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has selected the Fort Peck Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes as the recipients of a $200,000 Brownfields cleanup grant to remove contaminants at the Old Poplar Airport site located at 128 Airport Road in the City of Poplar. Today’s announcement is part of $62 million in EPA Brownfields funds awarded to 240 grant recipients across the nation to assess, clean up and redevelop contaminated properties.
“EPA Brownfields grants open doors by helping communities transform blighted properties into public and economic assets,” said EPA acting regional administrator, Howard Cantor. “These investments will address contamination and create new opportunities for people to live, play, and do business.”
The Old Poplar Airport was used for crop dusting operations and is contaminated with pesticides and metals. Once cleanup is complete, the Tribes plan to redevelop the land into commercial space, tribal housing, and green space.
There are an estimated 450,000 abandoned and contaminated sites in the United States. Under EPA’s Brownfields program, more than 20,000 properties have been assessed, and more than 850 properties have been cleaned up. EPA’s Brownfields investments have also leveraged more than $19 billion in overall cleanup and redevelopment funding from public and private sources. On average $17.79 is leveraged for every EPA Brownfields grant dollar spent. These investments resulted in approximately 87,000 jobs nationwide. When Brownfields are addressed, nearby property values can increase 2-3 percent.
More information on Brownfields grants by state: https://cfpub.epa.gov/bf_factsheets/
More Brownfields information:
Success Stories https://www.epa.gov/brownfields/success/index.htm
Denver Returns 14 Bison To Tribal Land In Reparations, Conservation Effort
Fourteen American bison headed to their new homes on native land this month. Indigenous tribes received the bison from Denver Parks and Recreation as a form of reparations, the first gift in a 10-year ordinance to donate surplus bison that will also go toward tribal conservation efforts.
The bison came from the department’s two conservation herds that descended from a handful of historic Yellowstone bison. Denver typically auctions off its surplus bison to avoid overgrazing, but there was still an excess after this year’s auction in March.
“We just decided we couldn’t have another auction,” says Scott Gilmore, DPR’s deputy executive director. “We could have, but that wasn’t something we really wanted to do.”
Instead, the city decided to return bison to their native habitats — the culmination of what Gilmore says involved 10 years of talks and trust-building with tribal partners who have long advocated for bison restoration.
“It just really made a lot of sense to possibly look and see how we could work with other tribes to maybe donate bison to the establishment of these herds that are starting all over the place,” he says.
Thirteen bison went to the Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes in Oklahoma and one went to the Tall Bull Memorial Council in Colorado. All 14 were adult females.
“Probably half of the bison that we donated were pregnant,” Gilmore says. “So, not only did the Cheyenne Arapaho tribe in Oklahoma get 13 bison, they will have, six or seven calves, probably in the next three or four weeks.”
City officials say the gift is a form of reparations for the mass slaughter of bison across Native American prairies and grasslands in the late 1800s.
“I don’t think it’s ever too late to acknowledge the challenges and the wrongs of the past,” says Denver Mayor Michael Hancock. “We got a chance to simply apologize, acknowledge the challenges of the past and to forge a relationship going forward that allows us to exercise our common objectives around the conservation of the tribal lands and of these animals.”
White explorers, professional hunters and frontiersmen like Kit Carson killed bison for sport and as a starvation tactic. A population of 30 million American bison was whittled down to about 1,000 by the turn of the 20th century.
“You can see pictures of bison skulls, just stacks and stacks of bison skulls, people sitting on them,” Gilmore says. “Bison were killed off to actually negatively impact the tribes on the Great Plains. You remove their food source, and then basically you’ve taken away a way that they sustain themselves.”
Since then, tribes have worked to regrow their own populations, as well as their bison herds.
“It just demonstrates the resiliency of both the American Indian and the bison animal itself,” says Nathan Hart, executive director of the Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes’ business department.
Hart oversees the tribes’ record-high number of 530 bison. He says this addition will help the tribes achieve food sovereignty, improve the herd’s genetic diversity and move toward a goal of sustaining a herd of 800 bison.
“Everybody’s really excited to grow the herd with this addition,” Hart says. “The bison was very significant to our well-being in the past — we have still have a lot of respect for the animal.”
Although this gift has fostered a relationship with Denver’s government, Hart says the focus should stay on the bison.
“We’re developing these relationships because of the bison,” he says. “That’s what brought us together … it all came from the bison themselves.” [Copyright 2021 NPR]90,000 Denver – basketball club, 2021/2022, team statuses Purchased out by Joe Johnson, Brandan Wright and Marco Belinelli have already chosen new teams for themselves, but this does not change the interest in what opportunities in the bounce market the #NBA teams have.
# Golden State has only minimum wages, there is no place in the roster (which means that one must be deducted before signing a new player), for every dollar of the new player’s salary, another $ 3 25 centsluxury tax will need to be paid.
# Houston still needs to vacate one place in the squad under the Johnson / Wright minimum wages – Troy Williams will probably be expelled, who has not played since November, only in the D-League. They won’t get to the tax.
# Cleveland has two places in the application (Perkins has not yet been signed), there are only minimum wages, for each dollar you will have to pay $ 4.25 in tax (and in total, more than 50 million luxury goods will be paid at the end of the year). Cavs have trade exceptions of up to 5.8 million, for which you can take a player from the bounce market for the full cost of his salary, but because of the tax, they will not do this and will just wait for the player to pass the bounce market and can go as free agent for the minimum salary until the end of the season (about 600 thousand).They do not have the right to sign Rose and Kay Felder, as well as – in the event of a sudden ransom – Fry / Champ / Isaiah / Richard Jefferson (as well as Crowder, Wade, Kyrie, but no one will buy them out for sure).
# Toronto has an advantage – the “bi-annual” exception was not used for about 2.5 million (it “melts” every day by ~ 20 thousand) and there is one place in the lineup. Just the amount up to the tax line. Demarre Carroll or Bruno Caboclo are not allowed to sign, even if they were expelled.
# San Antonio also has the same bi-annual and up-to-tax space, but there is no free squad room without a deduction of one of the players – and it’s hard to know who they could kick out.
# Boston has only minimal wages, there is no place in the roster, the tax is far away, it is impossible to sign in case of redemption only Zizhic (Isaiah or Bradley is now possible according to the rules, although this will not happen).
# Oklahoma City with a place in the roster, only minimal wages, $ 2.50 in tax for every dollar of a new player’s salary, Canter, Oladipo and Sabonis cannot return to the club this season, even in theory (McDermott can, but only in theory).
# Washington – there are about one and a half million midlevel, two places in the roster, tax – x1.5 for the first 700 thousand, x1.75 for the next.Sheldon Mack cannot be returned.
# Milwaukee, # Miami and # Denver – there are no places on the roster, but there are about 3-4 million midlevels.
# Indiana has one seat in the lineup and nearly 6 million under the salary cap.
# Portland and # New Orleans in the same situation – there are two places in the roster each, but the tax is so close that you need to drag out a few more days before filling them with minimum contracts (during this time, minimum wages will become cheaper and fit under the line luxury). A bunch of exceptions that cannot be taken advantage of due to the proximity of the tax.
# Philadelphia seems to have already finished its work in the market by inviting Marco. By the way, they have a middle-level exception (about 3 million), but they’ll probably sign an Italian for a minimum.
# Detroit – no roster room, no pre-tax space. # Minnesota – one place on the roster, only minimums.
The #Clippers will expire on March 15 the exclusion of an injured player for 2.7 million, but they will not use it to fill the last place in the application – only the minimum wage will fit to the tax line.Most likely, it will be spent on converting Tyrone Wallace’s bilateral contract into a full-fledged one.
Buyout Candidates: All players with expiring contracts in teams with negative win-lose difference.90,000 Six Messiahs read online by Mark Frost (Page 15)
Her family is probably on the reservation where this savage fled from, so Dante decided that there was no hurry. That’s good, he generally liked to act slowly. On one occasion he followed a woman halfway to Springfield, keeping behind until the right moment came; waiting gave the hunt a special taste, because days and even weeks could pass from start to finish, but as soon as he set a goal, he no longer gave up and certainly brought the matter to the end.
She climbed the stairs to the boarding house he knew was on Division Street – Ladies Only, Weekly Accommodation. Okay, she decided to stop for a while. Dante has observed this pattern of behavior many times: a woman comes to town, finds a hard and low-paying job, such as a waitress or a seamstress. Time passes, and work grinds her, turning her into a nameless, faceless figure, to which no one pays attention. Every evening she wanders into her room alone, quickly losing the rest of her attractiveness.Eats at a common table with the same colorless persons like her; maybe he will make a girlfriend with whom he will discuss his dreams, which boil down to the fact that there will be a guy who will not treat her too badly and provide at least some kind of existence. He will go out onto the back porch to smoke, wash dishes in the common sink on the lower floor, sleep, never completely undressing. And to see in a dream the same colorless dreams as her life.
Women … Drifting through life, waiting for something to happen.Now he is here, and the wait is over. Her life will take on meaning. She will see the “green river”.
There she is in the window. On the second floor, at the back of the room. The voices told him that it was safe to leave now. Now he knows where to find her.
But, focusing all his attention on the Indian woman, Dante Scrooges did not realize that someone was watching and watching him. A swarthy, calm man with a distinctly circular tattoo – a circle pierced by lightning – on the crook of his left arm. He waited for Dante to walk past him, and slowly walked after him, merging with the crowd.
No one in the workers’ camp could remember seeing this wandering Chinese before, and in the philosophical manner common to these kings of the road, they reasoned that this was the true harbinger of harsh times. The rejection of the indispensable attributes of capitalism – work and money – did not allow to erase from consciousness curiosity and interest in abstract world problems; benevolence gave them time and the opportunity, without being confined to everyday life, to reflect on the high.The free wanderers kept their ears open and caught the winds of social change from wherever they blew; at every place of their gatherings there were people who specially studied the abandoned newspapers and discussed topics that were so obviously burning for them, such as, for example, disapproval of the activities of archaeologists. Some of the inhabitants of such camps, much more than the bulk of respectable citizens, were aware of the fact that over the past year six hundred banks went bankrupt, two hundred railways went bankrupt, and more than two and a half million people in America were left without work.It was precisely this kind of numbers that forced respected vagabonds to join such camps and made the life of respected professional idlers more thorny. Their ranks were filled with people with sad faces, tediously talking about their family problems or how they lost their jobs; their self-pitying chatter became almost the main content of the conversation.
The same could not be said of the Chinese, people who for the most part kept themselves apart and did not tend to chatter.The very fact of the appearance of the narrow-eyed in their midst could be considered as stunning news.
Now, Slokum Haney told me that when he got on the freight train in Sacramento, this Chinaman was already sitting in the boxcar. True, until Yuma, he did not talk to anyone in a human way, even though they addressed him: he was sitting in the corner, well, exactly a cat, guarding at the mouse’s mink. Haney didn’t even know if he knew English. And in general, there was something in him, from which I was dumbfounded, although he did not cling to anyone.Here and now: he sits quietly by the fire, and you look – goosebumps.
“Denver, would you like to mess with him,” Slokam suggested. “You’ve had occasion to deal with the Chinese, you know these guys.
The deep respect that Bob Hobbes enjoyed among his fellow Denver was based on his long experience of vagrancy and the habit of being blunt. Among the wanderers, although they did not recognize any superiors, he was listed as something of an unofficial elder.Once he also had a chance to work hard, he came to the West from Ohio back in the sixties, to lay a transcontinental highway, but twenty years ago, while harvesting potatoes in Pocatello, Idaho, he had an insight and he promised himself never to hunch back. on someone.
Denver Bob kept his word and became a great expert on the problems of exploitation of the working person. He marched to Washington with the Industrial Army in 1993 in defense of the plight of industrial workers, and still believed there was nothing better than a political demonstration.The food is free, and the company is what you need.
Bob claimed that he had met Walt Whitman once, always carried a tattered, folded-up collection of Leaves of Grass with him and could endlessly talk about noble poverty and life on the open road with a complete stranger as long as he had the patience … Naturally, if the presence of this Chinese upset the harmony of the camp, Denver Bob considered it his duty to fix matters.
“It happens that in October it gets colder in this desert,” said Denver Bob, lowering his tight ass on an empty coil of copper wire next to the Chinese.- People, for the most part, just at this time begin to move to California, but it seems to me that you have just come from there.
He offered his interlocutor a sip of homemade raisin mash, but he just shook his head, looking straight ahead. Denver Bob, who looks like a Santa Claus, big, round, with a thick gray beard and apple cheeks, was not used to someone rejecting his generosity, but he was not particularly discouraged.
– This camp has been here for ten years, ever since they laid the line from Los Angeles.Hundreds of people pass through these huts every season.
The shack was in Yuma, the main staging post on the banks of the Colorado River.
– Do you speak English, buddy?
The Chinese man looked at him for the first time, and Denver Bob felt a chill run down his spine. Not to say that there was some kind of open threat lurking in those matte black eyes. They just … there was nothing. No personality, no humility, no feigned good nature. No narrow-eyed person he knew looked or behaved like that.
“I’m looking for a job,” said the strange Asian.
– Work! Well, such a feeling comes to a person from time to time, – said Denver Bob in his usual good-natured manner. – It’s like a fever: disgusting, but not so scary; the best thing is to lie down, have a drink and wait until it passes by itself.
“I work with explosives,” the man said, ignoring Denver’s gay creed of laziness.
– Is it true?
– Yes, I understand you. So you are a hard worker.
Well, whoever this guy is, he’s not a vagabond. It’s another matter that he doesn’t look like a worker bending his back while laying highways, he is too self-confident, independent. Maybe a miner who recently lost his earnings. Does not matter. Everything about this man made Denver Bob jittery, and in truth, he would have been glad to get such a strange guy out of the camp. But how to do it?
– Where can I find such a job?
– Actually, brother, I can tell you for sure.They continue to pull the line between Phoenix and Prescott through Pia Vine. They talk, they are going to punch and fix tunnels there. Work goes on around the clock and will continue for another year.
– In the northwest. You can take a freight train to Phoenix over there, near the drawbridge. The train passes around midnight, and by morning you will be there. You will find their office right there at the train station. Of course, they can suit you perfectly – in our time in most jobs there is not enough work, but a guy with a profession like yours is always in demand.I wish you and your worthy ancestors good luck.
Denver Bob lifted a tin can of liquor, thinking: “You want to get into bondage, buddy, well, go ahead. The main thing is that such a creepy guy like you get away somewhere far away. ”
The Chinese man, without showing gratitude, without even showing that he understood the explanation, stared at the fire again. But then something made him startled: he was alert, like a hunting dog, making a stand on the smell.
Before Denver Bob had time to react, the night air around them burst into many shrill whistles.This could only mean one thing, and a cry of alarm sounded over the cluster of shacks:
Railroad police and Pinkerton mercenaries have been pogroming vagrant camps since the Pullman Railroad strike in Chicago last May. Hired thugs set fire to shacks and beat up those vagabonds whom the police did not throw in jail. Throughout the summer, “bulls” ravaged camps from St. Louis and farther west, and ahead of them, carried by frightened fugitives, stories spread about how viciously and indiscriminately their brethren were dealt with.The bosses of the railways seem determined to put an end to the stowaway nomadic tribe, to clear their stations and trains of those who caused disgust among the sophisticated representatives of the middle class who had migrated to the West. After all, the future welfare of the railway depended on their dollars left at the station box offices.
Fifty tramps who were in a blissful alcoholic fog were taken by surprise: the “bulls” pounced from behind the boxcars so swiftly that no one even had time to jump to their feet.Two dozen thugs crept up silently, like thieves, attacked the ragamuffins who did not expect trouble with police truncheons and baseball bats, and without warning began to harass them. Most tramps were no stranger to cuffs and bumps, but this time the game took on a new twist. These guys were serious.
The shacks burst into flames, and policemen who burst in from opposite sides chased the panicked tramps into the center, like a small fish caught in a net. Those who were more experienced and more intelligent fell to the ground, covered their heads with their hands and took most of the blows on the hindquarters and backs.Anyone who tried to run was cut under the knees and viciously tied with anything. Skulls broke, ribs and collarbones broke, blood flowed into puddles.
Denver Bob fell at the first whistle, ducked under the reel on which he was sitting, and waited for a hail of blows to fall on him. He looked back at the Chinese, ready to shout and warn him to fall to the ground, but he disappeared.
A hefty “bull”, having overtaken a narrow-eyed tramp near the trolley, swung his baton, intending to smack him heartily, but the Chinese made some elusive gesture, as a result of which the blow did not reach the target, and only the handle of the baton remained in the attacker’s hands.When he raised his eyes, the Chinatown swung again, and the policeman’s leg was burned, and when he tried to step, this leg simply fell off, chopped off above the knee. A moment later, he collapsed to the ground. He did not feel pain, but for some reason he could not breathe and raised his head a fraction of an instant before the narrow-eyed man pressed the sole into his face.
Kanazuchi did not have time to read a prayer on the deceased. From behind, swinging a club, another enemy bumped into him. He dived, kicked back, threw the attacker over him, and when he fell heavily to the ground, he twisted his arm, twisting his shoulder out of the joint.The case ended with a blow to the bridge of the nose with the same weapon that the thug had recently brandished: the bone was driven into the brain, and the shrill screams instantly died down.
The Japanese looked around, instantly analyzing the situation. Although the campers were vastly outnumbered, they offered no resistance. None of the other attackers, too busy with the reprisal, had yet noticed him or the damage he had inflicted. More guards could be seen to the right, between the carriages on the siding; camp huts blazed ahead, a cold, treacherous river flowed behind us.
He was cornered. In such a situation, with the overwhelming numerical superiority of the attackers, there was a very high probability of being captured. Kanazuchi evened his breathing, staying alert, letting go of desires and banishing fear from his body with each measured exhalation.
Concentration has borne fruit: in the area of the water tower between the groups of the attackers, a gap has been outlined, slipping through which you can escape to the railway bridge leading to the east. He would have to rely on the darkness and chaos of the camp and remove his sword to cross the fifty most dangerous yards.
When another “bull” rushed at him, Kanazuchi crouched down, abruptly straightened up under him and, using the inertia of his running, threw him onto the burning roof; a moment later, with screams, waving his arms, he jumped out of the blazing shack. This distracted the attention of the attackers, and Kanazuchi, sheathed the “mower” and kept them on the line of his feet, headed towards the water tower.
Denver Bob cringed under the reel so that the bulls did not catch him, and therefore turned out to be the only person in the camp who watched the entire epic with the Chinese from beginning to end.Subsequently, he repeatedly told this story to drinking companions. She seemed incredible, and he would probably have been called to his face a noteworthy liar, despite his authority, but in confirmation of his words, the bodies of seven police officers and the heads of two mercenaries remained at the scene of the massacre.
– This Chinatown moved as if it were liquid, – Denver Bob liked to repeat, but these were just words that did not fully reflect what he saw, and the tramp himself, I confess, did not understand exactly what he had witnessed.
The Chinese man moved calmly, with surprising grace and deliberation, as if on a walk in the park, while all the participants in this vicious attack made sharp, awkward, jerky movements, and it was in contrast to them that the lightness and smoothness of his easy steps were striking. The “bulls” noticed this calmly walking man when he was a foot away from them, but barely had time to swing a club when they found themselves on the ground with broken faces and broken limbs.The impression was as if he was carelessly brushing them off like annoying flies, making intricate passes with his hands and feet, but they did not cost him any effort, and sometimes, it seemed, even hovering in the air. And only when he was already on the opposite edge of the courtyard and two mercenaries blocking his path took up revolvers, something terrible and incredible happened.
With an imperceptible, smooth movement, the Chinese drew the sword from its scabbard, drew a loop in the air (reflections of the flame flashed on the blade) – and the heads of both “bulls” almost simultaneously fell to the ground like ripe melons.
The Chinese man ran. Has turned into a blurry shadow. Disappeared.
When the thugs saw what mark he left behind, all the fighting spirit came out of these “bulls” like water from a leaky wineskin.
While the raiders were busy with their dead, those tramps who were still dragging their feet crawled in all directions, carrying their bundles and fragmentary memories of the nightmare they witnessed – a story that, over time, mainly thanks to Denver Bob, is destined was to become the legend of the entire tribe of railway tramps, the legend of the man with the sword who saved the camp in Yuma.
As for the injured party, by the morning of the next day, after assessing what had happened, all the necessary orders were given and the search for the mortally dangerous Chinese began.
Bright electric lights illuminated the length of the boulevard and illuminated the bustling carnival of a large street, bustling with a crowd of theaters, bars, exhibition halls, and especially near the latest urban sensation – the five-cent kinetoscope showrooms, which opened on both sides of Broadway.Sellers of cheap goods scurried about; knife grinders carved sparks by turning the sharpening stones; the bells clanged on the junk carts; the strolling public was treated to baked apples, hot buns, steamed shellfish from the stalls. Attractive young girls were offering cobs of hot corn, which Innes could not resist.
Some lured the audience by blowing their horns, others walked, sandwiched like sandwiches, between large advertising posters, but most of the merchants and barkers relied on the power of their lungs.
Electric trams clinkingly moved among the sea of carriages, frightening horses that were not yet accustomed to this modern, accessible and convenient mode of transport. Double-decker omnibuses carried tourists looking for impressions in the maze of city streets, where something interesting awaited at every turn. And what an amazing variety of human types! Gypsies in berets and brightly colored neckerchiefs, cheaters and crooks looking for opportunities to empty the pockets of simpletons, local thugs swimming in striped sweaters and wide-brimmed hats.Preppy dandies in tartan suits, pearl gray bowlers and matching leggings strolled arm in arm with flirty beauties, idle prostitutes treated themselves to gin or beer, Irish patrol cops tapped their truncheons on the sidewalk. The Salvation Army drums rumbled invitingly. Pimps, drunkards, newspaper boys, street magicians, Chinese cigar sellers … whoever was here!
– Can you imagine, Arthur? Innes exclaimed enthusiastically. – Ten o’clock in the evening, and the streets are full of life! Have you seen anything like this?
Doyle looked at Innes staring at the parade, feeling a surge of patronizing love for his brother’s wonderful innocence and optimism.Does he have the right to subject these wondrous qualities to a test, drawing the young man further along the dangerous path on which he himself stepped? Until now, he hadn’t said a word to Innes about Jack Sparks or what they had experienced together, even after Jack had reappeared on the ship. Is it right to put Innes at risk, which Jack treated like a routine? Moreover, having serious responsibilities, family and professional, Doyle could not help but wonder if he himself had the right to do so.
Sparks, cold and indifferent, sat on the box; Looking at his face, Doyle wondered if his friend was in his mind. Serious concerns about this arose in him ten years ago, in connection with Jack’s inherent obsessions, sudden mood swings, addiction to drugs. One can only guess what horrors he had to endure since then; perhaps now he was already completely mad. Can you trust him?
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Casinos, tribal governors, for a long time limited to Indian reservations, in California, now ready for expansion.A single casino, shut down for shrinking, a veche approved, and many other tribes will cheat and move into another often on the screen. Expansion is officially reserved for a week, sometime from the djrzhavat, the legislator approve the dispute between the ranchoto on the Indiana Fortress Dzhevernat Dzhevernat Mono in Severinat Mono. Tosi treaty allow the tribe for the citizens of the casino from 2000 to play automatically in the Madera area. extreme savvy, fruitful negotiations between the tribe, other tribes and the government.Tazi stpka did not give to another tribe with the hope that you would like to use traditional si on the reservation. At the moment, other tribes are eating casinos in the Yuba district, San Bernardino district and the Imperial district did not want. The group, because of the casino, I will crush the casinotos, they are sitting on the edge, and then the voter and blocking the project Mono Indian, which is acceptable, but the voter is trying to get out of the way and veto the project through a referendum denver duck slot machine free online.”As a matter of fact, only one person will take a decision for a commodity, then you can put a casino, whatever you want, a trace, a consignment, citizens of California will deserve and imat a voice … in regardless of the commodity, they are looking for those and then to expand the tribes whether it plays in Gradsky and Gradsky districts or not “, – casa Cheryl Schmitt, head of the group for the fight against casinos, is named” Don’t let casinos in style Vegas in the districts “denver casino in the mountains.
“Role for the governor at California, there are many restrictions,” added Schmitt denver.”[The manager] nyama is very well-served and yes dava sglasyeto si for hazartni games from indianskite zemi” co to black hawk casino. In the meantime, it will be agreed that this is exactly such a rag and se formirate takiva plombi. In accordance with the CC of the Law for the regulation of Hazart in India, the Indian tribes may receive permission for a federal government to be granted a federal government for management. on the shield, of course, from its own country, rattle and bde approved by law to gather on the shield.Spored Schmitt, often from donations, going from the group to the group, the citizen was identified two from the group. In spite of the tova, kato this ima foreseen, the referendum is the initiative itself on drzhavata, the committee pulls you and every congress, which allows you to send donations to everything. Tovah has brought to the premium in the amount of 515,000 dollars, but not all those who get from the “group of citizens” can go to the casino. About half of the tazi suma sa dareni to the ranchto tribe on the planinata table is close to Fresno, which runs its own casino.But until now, the nyakoi tribes can and still worry about the new competition, so from the teahs sevlnuv from the opportunity, koito can and will play out of the reserve. Mogu can isolate their casinos far from the technical reserve. Usually, in spite of the idea of comprehension, the length of the face of the tribes is still aware of what they have to do with the cue ball.
“Realnostta e, like the tribes do not eat on the land for the construction of the novata zemya, so they are imposing and the candidate for novata zemya,” – casa Charles Banks-Altekruz, representative at Enterprise Rancheria. “Te sa sent the tova to tozi begin and gi all still sebye for tova.” We can also pay at the casino.
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Each spin is accompanied by an authentic Aztec melody that changes with a successful combination.The importance of retro slots in modern gaming can be judged by their presence among leading manufacturers. Apart from Playtech, they are produced by Novomatic, Microgaming, Net Entertainment, very reputable companies.
Why should online casinos and gambling clubs allow paid machines to play for free? And online casinos show potential future players the advantages and capabilities of their platforms. The most remarkable thing is that the games in both the free version and the paid version are absolutely identical. Recoil rates, bonus games, symbol denomination settings, respins, everything works with exactly the same settings and does not depend on the selected game mode.Until the 70s of the last century, all slot machines had three reels.
- The golden statuette, embodying an ancient deity, guarantees high productivity of the game, as it performs the duties of a wild sign.
- One of the important attributes in the Aztec culture was the pyramid.
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On the reels there are images of a tiger, frog, eagle, golden dragon, llama, as well as tomatoes, maize.The golden statuette, personifying the ancient deity, guarantees high productivity of the game, as it acts as the Huffpost of the wild sign. Wild is able to replace game symbols that are missing to complete the winning combination. In order to make it more interesting to play, the manufacturer used high-quality musical content.
First, you need to determine how these 777 slot machines differ from all the others, except for the number of reels. More than 90% of the symbols represent fruits, bar signs, stars, bells and, of course, sevens.All this is in full accordance with the style of old slot machines.
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On average, 777 slot machines have a much higher payout rate than other types of slots. This means that the combinations are relatively rare, but their cost is very high. It happens that ten or more spins are not combinations, but the same three sevens come, and all the problems are behind, and the account is replenished with a round sum. You will not get such a gambling feeling on any modern poker slots.Modern online slots are a great opportunity to spend a pleasant evening and get excellent prospects that will relate to earning money. At the same time, the atmosphere that develops during the game is characterized by the maximum level of comfort, because the players do not have to leave their home for their own hobby.
There is a risk game in the Aztec Gold slot, which will help the user to become a little richer or leave him without a jackpot. According to its terms, the player must outplay the dealer by revealing a card of the highest Novomatic Gaminator of dignity.If he succeeds, then the winnings that will be put on the line are doubled. Themed symbols of the slot will help you learn the culture and traditions of the ancient tribe.
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The reels can be rotated in automatic mode, while the player simply watches what is happening on the screen. The land-based gambling halls that existed in the old days attracted the attention of many players, and made up their own reeting already in those days. The “one-armed bandits” were huge mechanical machines, and the coils that were located on them were activated using a special lever.Players had to put money into a special hole, after which they could spin the reels.
By choosing at random, the participant receives prizes, but if he opens the sign with a snake, then the round will be completed. Online slots without money are visually no different from their paid versions. Card games, including blackjack, poker, baccarat. Gameplay in a company with a live dealer is also possible.
A combination of 3 pyramids activates the bonus game, which consists of several stages.First you need to find the hidden pyramids, for which a reward will be paid, in accordance with the value of these objects. The second stage is already inside the monumental building. The player will see stone blocks, behind which are hidden various images, which have their own value.
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Online slot Aztec Gold (Pyramids) is the most popular slot among similar machines. Every player who chooses a slot for their leisure can be convinced of its advantages by slot machines Gold Lotto.The game will be played on 5 reels that spin a set of 21 credit lines.
Although slot machines were conceived as machines where you can both lose and win money in land-based casinos, in today’s reality everything has changed a lot. Sites where you can play slot machines online without registration and SMS are very popular. Cash-free bets on slot machines usually do not require any registration or SMS confirmation, all slot machines are available to play immediately and completely free of charge.
Before starting the machine, you need to decide on some of the necessary parameters. For this, function keys are provided, which are located at the bottom of the screen. Using the Line button, the participant sets the number of lines that will be involved in the process. They are the basis for winning combinations, so the maximum score will provide more successful combinations.
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Modern slots have a lot in common with those slot machines that had a mechanical structure.
Players can play for free and without registration in the best online slots without any fears and not worry about the safety of money or personal data. To date, researchers have not been able to fully distribute the secrets of the ancient Aztec tribe. Every gambler can help in this matter by choosing the Aztec Gold slot machine. He will have to experience the image of a researcher, and receive a large prize for this, and his size will pleasantly surprise. A free game on the Pyramid slot will allow you to get acquainted with the Aztec Gold slot and feel the real excitement of the game.
After the invention of free online slot machines, their number has grown to 5 in the most common case. But there are slots with 4 reels, and there are also slots with 6, and even more, but this is exotic. Despite the removal of technological restrictions on the number of reels, 777 slot machines are still in demand and there are good reasons for that.
You are not tied to online casinos and can choose and change gaming clubs every day. Modern slots can be used absolutely free of charge, and at the same time they are distinguished by excellent graphics and the most realistic plot.Many emulators are characterized by rather impressive coefficient sizes, which provides the maximum generosity of the selected video slots. One of the important attributes in the Aztec culture was the pyramid. It is also present in the free slot machine Aztec Gold and acts as a bonus symbol.
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Description Paper House Season 1 Episode 1:
Episode Title: “Episode 1” / “Episode 1”
In episode 1 of season 1 of the series “The Paper House”, the viewer gets acquainted with the story of one of the loudest, most daring and daring robberies in the history of Spain.A team assembled by a mysterious thief, whom everyone knows under the pseudonym Professor, is planning to rob the Spanish Mint. When planning such an adventurous and risky event, they pursue one single goal – to forget about financial difficulties forever.
Criminals carefully prepare the upcoming operation and think over their every action to the smallest detail, since everything is at stake. In order not to reveal their names, the participants in the robbery picked up special nicknames for themselves – the names of various cities around the world.So a team of robbers was formed by Moscow, Rio, Tokyo, Helsinki, Oslo, Denver, Nairobi and Berlin.
Despite the large amount of time spent and taking into account all possible moments immediately at the moment of the robbery, everything is out of the gang’s control. As a result of such a failure, in addition to the robbers, another 67 hostages appear in the bank’s premises.
People who have become unwitting participants in a loud robbery try to fulfill all their requirements in order to save their lives.What is on the mind of the invaders no one can guess. Will there be victims among them …
The building is quickly surrounded by a huge number of police, and some of their captives decide to take desperate actions and make attempts to repel the invaders …
The situation is heating up every minute … the robbers understand that in order to bring the business to the end, an urgent need to change the plan and look for new reliable escape routes.
The gang will have to spend a lot of time in the building of a financial institution … Will the bandits be able to complete the business they have begun and get the desired loot … At stake is not only a huge jackpot of 2.4 billion euros, but also the lives and freedom of the robbery participants.
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Colorado State History | US Encyclopedia
As a result of archaeological research, it was established that in the territory of the modern state of Colorado, people already lived about eleven thousand years ago.
Before the arrival of the Europeans, the Indians of the ancient people lived here Pueblo (Anasazi) – in the south and southwest, Comanches – on in the east, Shoshone in the north and Utah in the west.
A unique historical monument has survived to this day – rock dwellings created by the Pueblo Indians, known like Mesa Verde.
Under pressure from the expanding westward North American state in the 18th – 19th centuries, Indians moved here Arapaho and Cheyenne .They settled in the eastern valleys and at the foot of Rocky Mountains. Resettlement was difficult, indigenous tribes and aliens from the east fought among themselves for living space.
Later, as a result of wars and genocide, almost all Indians were driven out of Colorado, mainly to the south (in the states Texas, New Mexico and Arizona) and west (to Utah). Longest lived here Utah Indians, until the eighties of the XIX century, they controlled almost the entire territory of the state of Colorado to the west from the continental divide.
The first Europeans to explore the region of what is now Colorado were the Spanish conquistadors. Back at the end of the 16th century, the Spaniards included land in southern Colorado in the province of Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico City of its American colony, Viceroyalty New Spain.However, this was more of a formal step, since the Spaniards, despite repeated attempts, failed to create permanent settlements. However, they did an active trade with the Native Americans who inhabited Colorado. From the Spaniards came and the name of the state of Colorado. “Colorado” in Spanish means “red”, namely landscapes seemed to be red to the first explorers state.
In 1803, the United States bought Louisiana from France, which included Colorado.The western boundaries of the acquired lands are precisely known were not, and the result was a border dispute between the United States and the Spaniards.
In 1806, a US Army reconnaissance expedition explored the disputed area. The expedition was led by Zebulon Pike, in whose honor later Mount Pikes Peak (Pike Peak) was named. Pike’s expedition was arrested by the Spanish authorities and its materials were confiscated. After the US protest Pike and his men were released and returned to the United States.
In 1819, an agreement was signed between the United States and Spain, according to which the United States acquired Florida, but the lands in the southwest, including the southern part of Colorado, withdrew to the Spaniards.
In practice, these lands were controlled by the Indians, the Europeans only created trading posts here. Among the most famous American outposts of that time on the territory of Colorado – which today has the status of the US National Monument “Old Fort Bent”.
The fort was built in 1833 by brothers William and Charles Bent, it served as a base for trade with Indian tribes and was the only at that time, the permanent settlement of Americans in Colorado.
In 1848, after the US victory in the war with Mexico, Colorado becomes American again.Colorado lands became part of the territory New Mexico and the Utah Territories, created in 1850, and See also the Kansas Territory and the Nebraska Territory created by in 1854.
American settlers moving west did not attract Colorado lands, most traveled further to the Pacific coast Oregon and California. First permanent settlement of Europeans in Colorado, which exists to this day – the city of San Luis, founded in 1851.
That all changed in the late 1850s when gold was discovered in Colorado.
Colorado’s first gold was found in the South Platte Valley back in 1849. However, at this time, the gold rush raged in California, and the relatively poor gold reserves found in The Rocky Mountains have not attracted much attention. But after a few years, when gold mining in California began to decline, they remembered the find.
In 1858, prospector William Russell, a native of Georgia, who previously mined gold in California, organized an expedition to find gold in the Rocky Mountains.Russell was married to a Cherokee woman and through his connections with the Indians knew about the gold found several years ago in the South Platte River area.
Russell’s expedition moved from the territory of present-day Oklahoma and further to the northwest from Fort Bent. Initially, there were only nine participants, but their number grew, quickly exceeding one hundred people.
The search for gold did not bring success, many members of the expedition were disappointed and returned home, but Russell did not give up.Early july 1858, near the mouth of Little Dry Creek (in the Englewood suburb of modern Denver), William Russell and his partner Sam Bates found about six hundred grams of native gold. This was the first significant gold discovery in Colorado.
The Colorado gold rush has begun. In pursuit of gold, a wave of prospectors and settlers rushed here (about one hundred thousand people for three years).Digging settlements were founded, some of which grew into cities. So, in particular, the capital of the state of Colorado appeared Denver, the city of Golden (which translates as “golden”) and others.
The Colorado Gold Rush is also called Pikes Peak Fever. The fact is that most of the migrant miners moved to Colorado from the east, and the last settlement on their way was the town of Manhattan in Kansas, from which still had hundreds of kilometers to go to the Rocky Mountains. There were no roads, no signs of any kind, except for natural landmarks.In the vast expanses, one could not only lose the road, but also meet with unfriendly Indian tribes. The main the target on the long journey across the Great Plains was a visible from afar Mount Pikes Peak. The participants in the Colorado gold race, known in the United States as “Fifty Nines,” even had a motto: “Pikes Peak or the End!” ( Pike’s Peak or Bust! ).
The huge influx of people into Colorado made it necessary to organize local government.October 24, 1859 The Jefferson Territory was announced by delegates to the Rocky Mountain Convention. The Jefferson Territory was named in honor of Thomas Jefferson, third President of the United States of America and one of the authors of the United States Declaration of Independence. Part the newly formed Jefferson Territory included part of the Territories of Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Utah and Washington, remote from their governments.
Jefferson Territory has not been formally recognized by the US government, but the interim government of the territory nonetheless successfully operated prior to the creation of the Colorado Territory.
On February 28, 1861, the fifteenth President of the United States, James Buchanan, signed the Colorado Territory Act passed by the United States Congress. The boundaries of the newly created territory coincided with the boundaries of the modern state of Colorado. Colorado Territory Creation Helped Government US to assert control over the extremely mineral-rich Rocky Mountain region.
The capital of the Colorado territory was from 1861 to 1862 Colorado City (today it is one of the Colorado Springs districts), from 1862 to 1867 – Golden City, since 1867 – Denver, which later became the capital of Colorado.
From 1863 to 1865, a war was fought in the lands of the Colorado Territory, known as the “War of Colorado”.
The war was fought between white Americans on the one hand and Indian tribes on the other. Armed formations of white settlers consisted mainly of volunteer militias, parts of the US army almost did not participate in the conflict. They were opposed by the united Indian Arapaho tribes , Cheyenne , Sioux , Kiowa and Comanche .The hostilities mainly took place on territory of the Eastern Plains of Colorado.
The cause of the war was the pressure of the white Americans on the Indian tribes in order to drive them out of the plains of eastern Colorado and reluctance of Indians to leave their hunting grounds.
Back in 1851, an agreement was signed between the US government and the Indian peoples living on the Great Plains ( arapaho , Cheyenne , Sioux , Shoshone and others).Indians guaranteed free and safe movement white settlers to the west in exchange for a clear delineation of territories belonging to the tribes, and cash payments. Also Indians agreed to the construction of roads and forts on their lands.
Under this treaty, known as the “Fort Laramie Treaty,” the Eastern Plains of Colorado, over which huge herds migrated bison, the main hunting trophy of the Indians, belonged to the Native American tribes. This situation suited everyone before the start. the gold rush in Colorado, when Indian lands suddenly became very valuable to white Americans.
As a result of new negotiations in 1860, the Indians agreed to move to their assigned reservations and change their usual way life of nomad hunters for farming. In exchange, the US government promised the Indians monetary compensation, construction schools, mills and sawmills. On behalf of the Indians, the treaty was signed by the leader of the tribe Cheyenne Black Cauldron.
The US government has failed to fulfill its obligations to the Indians in full. Some of the federal agents required to supply Indians in various goods, plundered and resold them. Indignation was growing among the Indians. In addition, several small groups of Indians did not accept the new treaty and continued to hunt in the Eastern Plains of Colorado, being very hostile towards to white.
In 1861, a civil war broke out in the United States. Armed militias were formed in Colorado and successfully fought commanded by Colonel John Chewington with the Confederate Army.Militia Leader John Chivington and Governor of Colorado Territory John Evans took a tough stance against the Indians. The tension grew.
In the spring of 1864, white militias attacked Indian settlements, and the Indians retaliated. The war has begun.
The attitude of many white Americans towards the native people of America at that time can be judged by the statements of John Chivington: “I came to kill Indians and I believe that it is correct and honorable to use any means to kill Indians” .
Many Indian leaders, including the Black Cauldron, tried to stop the bloodshed, sought to negotiate peace. As a result In a series of talks, US government officials have pledged to stop hostilities.
Encouraged by the peace agreement reached, the Indians under the leadership of the Black Cauldron camped in the Sand Creek area.On November 29, 1864, despite the peace agreements reached, troops led by John Chivington attacked the Indian camp. Most of the Indian men were out hunting, and the camp was mostly occupied by the elderly, women and children. The soldiers continued to shoot even when the Indians, not expecting such treachery, raised the white flag.
Chivington’s men finished off the wounded, scalped and dismembered the dead. According to various estimates, about one hundred and fifty Indians were killed, of which more than a hundred women and children.
This episode of the war went down in US history as the “Sand Creek Massacre”.
The Sand Creek Massacre, initially presented by the US government as a major military victory, was later investigated US Congress. However, none of the participants in the Sand Creek genocide was punished.
The Sand Creek Massacre received a lot of publicity in the United States, and after this unfortunate incident in the United States, the attitude towards the wars with the Indians has changed.
The area where the Sand Creek Massacre took place is now designated a US National Historic Site.
The result of the “War of Colorado” was the resettlement of remnants of tribes Arapaho , Cheyenne , Kiowa and Comanche from Colorado to a reservation in Oklahoma.
In the late 1860s, the first railways were built in Colorado, connecting Denver with Cheyenne and Kansas.
On August 1, 1876, 28 days after the US centenary, the eighteenth US President Ulysses Grant signed the law by which Colorado was proclaimed the thirty-eighth state of the United States.
After the gold rush subsided in Colorado, development of the state slowed down. The discovery of silver deposits gave it a new impetus in the Leadville area in 1879 – the next decade is called the “silver boom in Colorado.” But after a sharp decline in prices for silver in the nineties of the XIX century, the economy of Colorado went into decline again.
The state continued to mine hard coal, which had been in progress since the sixties, but the working conditions of the miners were terrible, Colorado coal mine mortality was one of the highest in the United States. Strikes broke out constantly, for the suppression of which even units of the National Guard were used. The confrontation between miners and mine owners at the beginning of the 20th century was so fierce, which went down in history as the “Labor Wars of Colorado.”It was a cruel and bloody period in the history of the state. Only in 1933 federal law confirmed the right of miners to organize trade unions.
In the thirties of the XX century, the first ski resorts appeared in Colorado, the development of the tourism industry began.
The beginning of the Second World War greatly influenced the development of the state of Colorado. New industries began to develop in the state, focused on the needs of the US Armed Forces, military facilities were created.In 1942, one of the camps was organized in Colorado, in which Japanese Americans were interned.