Defeat of the Iroquois at Lake Champlain
Wallach Division Picture Collection
American History — 1601s-1610s
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Honoring Native Americans who built skyscrapers, bridges – The Daily Gazette
The next time you’re in Manhattan, a place where skyscrapers poke at the clouds, look up and think about this:
The men who built those giants were perched hundreds of feet above the ground and walked on girders less than 12 inches wide.
The Empire State Building, Rockefeller Center, the Chrysler Building, the Time Warner Building. Haudenosaunee ironworkers from the Six Nations of the Iroquois, most of them Mohawks, raised and riveted the beams of New York’s iconic buildings.
From 1968 to 1972, the World Trade Center was built by 500 men, 200 of whom were Mohawks.
At the Iroquois Indian Museum, a new exhibit, “Walking the Steel: From Girder to Ground Zero,” honors the Native Americans who proudly chose jobs in structural ironworking, one of the most dangerous occupations in construction.
“The structures are larger than life, the stories are larger than life,” says Colette Lemmon, curator of exhibitions.
“We hope this will pull in guys that are in construction, women in construction, young people who are interested in construction.”
Tools, work clothes, historic photos, artwork and many other objects borrowed from ironworkers were brought together to tell their stories.
The exhibit “resonates with family values, community values, things we forget,” says Lemmon.
“The ideas are about teamwork, responsibility for actions, standing up to fear.”
The story begins in the 1880s with Mohawks on Kahnawake Indian lands in Quebec.
When the Dominion Bridge Company of Canada wanted to build a bridge from Montreal through the Kahnawake, the contract to obtain land rights required that they hire Mohawks. The Native Americans proved to be skilled climbers and were trained to do structural ironwork.
A photo of Turhan Clause, an Algonquin and Mohawk ironworker, on a fake beam in the exhibit.
But then, in 1907, tragedy struck, when another span over the Saint Lawrence, the Quebec Bridge, collapsed while under construction.
Ninety-six men were killed, 33 of them Mohawks. Twenty-four women were widowed, 56 children lost their fathers.
In the exhibit, we see the murderous pile of rumble and a news clipping about the disaster from The New York Times that lists the names of the white Americans and Canadians but not the Native Americans.
But the Mohawk ironworkers from Kahnawake and Akwesasne, on the border of the U.S. and Canada, were undaunted. There was a building boom in New York City and skilled men were needed.
“It was a 12 ½ hour drive to the city and coming back on weekends,” says Lemmon.
In the 1920s and 1930s, Mohawk ironworkers and their families also lived in a community of 800 in the North Gowanus section of Brooklyn.
Lemmon says it’s a myth that Native Americans have an in-born ability to work at great heights.
“People think that they are fearless and have supernatural powers. That’s not true. Enough of them have died to prove that they don’t have superpowers. Almost everyone has stories of family members who have been injured or killed. It’s the ability to control that fear. And yes, it’s high-paying but there’s more to it. It’s become a rite of passage. They are very proud of that heritage.”
Photos of Iroquois ironworkers, past and present, appear throughout the gallery.
Joseph Thomas Snow from Kahnawake was captured high above the East River, working on the Throgs Neck Bridge in the 1950s. Turhan Clause, Algonquin and Mohawk, from the Niagara Falls area, shows up in a life-size cut-out that stands on a fake girder 10 feet above the gallery floor.
Remember “Lunch Atop a Skyscraper,” the famous 1932 photo of 11 men sitting on a steel beam high above Manhattan?
“As many as four of these men are Mohawks,” Lemmon says.
“Tool belts are handed down in families,” she says.
A tool belt from the 1950s has a release pin. If a worker fell, he could pull the pin and the belt would drop off so he wouldn’t be impaled by his tools.
Near the tools, one can listen to the recorded voices of more than a dozen ironworkers who are on the job today.
Among the artworks are six photos of ironworkers that were transferred onto canvas painted in the fluorescent colors of construction safety vests. The artist, Lindsay Delaronde, had women in her Mohawk community do the beadwork that frames the images.
Barry Printup, a Tuscarora, from a family that boasts 20 ironworkers over four generations, offers “Beading Your Tools,” in which a spud wrench and a scabber, which holds the wrench, is encased in blue and white beadwork. Printup, a member of Union Ironworkers Local 9, has worked the steel from Albany to Alaska.
In one corner of the exhibit, there’s a solemn remembrance of 9/11 and the Twin Towers.
“A lot of Mohawks were on the ground when the planes hit,” says Lemmon.
For weeks after the terrorist attacks, Mohawks worked at Ground Zero, clearing wreckage.
“They feel very connected to their buildings. Their grandfathers and fathers built these buildings.”
Two small pieces from the World Trade Center, one shiny, the other rusty, were borrowed from the New York State Museum.
The rusty one is “part of the staircase that allowed people to get out,” Lemmon says, and visitors are allowed to touch it.
Twelve years after 9/11, Mohawk ironworkers were part of the crew that raised the 758-ton spire atop the new Freedom Tower, also called One World Trade Center, which at 1,776 feet is now the tallest structure in New York City. A photo of that crew is mounted near the fragments from the Twin Towers.
“We tell the story and leave it as something positive,” says Lemmon.
‘Walking the Steel: From Girder to Ground Zero’
WHERE: Iroquois Indian Museum, 324 Caverns Road, Howes Cave
WHEN: Through Nov. 30. In April, museum is open 10 a.m.-4 p.m. Thursday through Saturday, 12-4 p.m. Sunday. Starting May 1, hours are 10 a.m.-5 p.m.Tuesday through Saturday, 12-5 p.m. Sunday.
COST: $8 for adults, $6.50 for seniors and students age 12-17, $5 for children 5-12, free for younger kids
MORE INFO: iroquoismuseum.org, 296-8949, Facebook
‘Walking the Steel’ events
- Saturday, May 6: Meet artists and ironworkers at a reception for “Walking the Steel: From Girder to Ground Zero,” 1 to 4 p.
- Sunday, July 2 and Sunday, Aug. 13: Hardhat Design Workshop for ages 6 to adult, 1 to 3 p.m. Decorate your own personalized ironworking hard hat.
- Saturday, July 15: “Tales From the Top,” Ironworking Skills Demo Day, 1 to 4 p.m. Illustrated informal talk about working in the high steel industry by third generation ironworker Barry Printup, Cayuga from Tuscarora.
- Saturday, Aug. 12: “Tales from the Top,” Ironworking Skills Demo Day. Rivet toss, competitive suitcase packing and other participatory activities developed and overseen by retired ironworker Mike Swamp and his son. Swamp is Mohawk and the organizer of the annual ironworking competition at Akwesasne which raises funds for families of those who were killed or injured on the steel.
Send your pictures
The Iroquois Indian Museum is looking for photos of ironworkers, both Native Americans and non-Native Americans, who live in the Capital Region.
The pictures will be hung on a wall as part of the exhibit “Walking the Steel: From Girder to Ground Zero.”
Please include some information with photos, such as name or names, approximate date, what kind of job the person was doing, union membership and name of bridge, building or other construction site.
Email your digital photos to [email protected].
Copies of original photos can be mailed to Iroquois Indian Museum, 324 Caverns Road, Howes Cave, N.Y. 12092. Original photos cannot be returned.
Reach Gazette Reporter Karen Bjornland at 395-3197, [email protected] or on Twitter @bjorngazette.
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Established in either 1142 or 1451, the Five Nations Iroquois confederacy consisted of the Mohawks, the Oneidas, the Onondagas, the Cayugas, and the Senecas. When the Tuscaroras joined in 1712 the union adapted the name Haudenosaunee, which translates to mean “six separate Indian nations”. In treaties and other colonial documents they were known as the “Six Nations.” While each tribe controlled its own domestic affairs, the council at Onondaga controlled matters that referred to the nation as a whole. Similarly, despite the fact that all spoke the same language, each tribe had a distinct dialect of its own. Thus not only did the Iroquois provide a strong government and military base to protect their farmland, they also formed one of the nation’s earliest and strongest diplomacies.
Their military victories were due in a large part to their strong intertribal relationships with one another and to their association with European allies. The Dutch began to sell firearms to the Five Nations in 1640 and this new fire power enabled them to begin conquering neighboring tribes. The Onondaga chief, Canasatego often encouraged colonists to follow the Five Nations’ example. He urged creating union and friendship both internally, amongst themselves, and externally, between themselves and the Indians. He claimed that the unity established by the Five Nations and the good relations they’d formed with white explorers had made them “formidable” and had given them “great weight and authority” over people and lands (Everts and Stewart, 28). Due to their practice of adopting prisoners of war, any racial distinction between each tribe or between themselves and the Algonquins was virtually nonexistent. It was the strong sense of identity that was provided through wampum belts, ceremonial chants, daily customs, and oral historical tradition, that made the Iroquois unique.
Their religion also contributed to their deep sense of brotherhood. Social grades did not exist because the tribe shared everything. Leaders were respected, but considered equals with their lowest members. Words for “your highness”, “your majesty” and “your excellency”, were nonexistent; the English governor was called “Brother” and Shikellamy, the “great pro-council at Shamokin”, died in rags. This sense of brotherhood examplefies further that in their minds the true strength of the Iroquois was not exhibited through military victories, but rather through the large number of allies they had.
Homes of the Past: The Archaeology of an Iroquoian Longhouse
Ontario Iroquoians are made up of three groups: the Huron, the Petun and the Neutral. The Iroquoian peoples lived in the southern part of Ontario, and had a culture similar to the Iroquois of New York state.
French Explorers and Missionaries (such as the Jesuits), spent many years living with the Huron peoples. They kept diaries and wrote letters that were sent back home to France every year. It is from these letters that we know about Iroquoian life in the 1600s.
The Iroquoians built villages that were surrounded by palisades. Palisades protected the people living in the village from attacks by other peoples. Palisades also protected the village from blowing snow in the winter and stopped wild animals from wandering in.
The Iroquoians were agriculturalists, or farmers. Corn or maize was the most important agricultural crop grown by the Iroquoians. Corn was domesticated in Mexico, and traded into southern Ontario by about 1000 AD. (See The Story of Corn by Betty Fussell for more information about the origins and the mythology of corn).
Archaeologists know they have found an Iroquoian site when their surface collections of artifacts contain Iroquoian ceramics and worked bone and stone artifacts. Clay pots and smoking pipes are decorated with designs used by Iroquoian peoples. When archaeologists find a piece of a pot (called a sherd) with these decorations, they can often tell which Iroquoian group made it and how old it is.
The Iroquoian peoples of Ontario and New York built and lived in longhouses. Their houses are called longhouses because they were longer than they were wide. Longhouses have door openings at both ends. During the winter, these openings would have been covered with skins. There were no windows on the longhouse walls. We know this because the explorers and missionaries wrote that the insides of the houses were dark due to lack of windows.
The longhouses were built by the men in the village. The wood for the houses was cut down in the spring when it was still flexible and brought to the village. The ends of the posts were sharpened into points using stone axes, and some were charred or burned to make it last longer in the ground. The walls of the longhouse were made from elm bark that was cut into rectangular slabs to be used for roof shingles and wall siding.
A post mould is the decayed remains of the posts placed into the ground, hundreds of years ago, by the Iroquoians when they were building their longhouses. Large posts made of cedar were used to support the roofs of the houses and the benches along the sides of the houses. The posts look like dark round circles in the soil when they are found by an archaeologist’s trowel. In a cross-section, the post mould’s straight sides and pointed end can still be seen many centimetres into the subsoil.
A hearth is the remains of a fire pit. You might have noticed that there are no chimneys in the drawings of the longhouses. Iroquoians did not build stone fireplaces. Instead, they dug shallow pits down the centre of the house. Above the fire pit, there was a hole in the roof to let the smoke escape. The roof holes also acted like small skylights, letting a little bit of light into the dark, windowless longhouse.
Although the roof holes helped to let some smoke from the fires out of the longhouse, it did not let it all out. We know this because the missionaries and explorers complained of eye problems due to the amount of smoke inside the longhouses.
Hearths are identified archaeologically by soil which has turned reddish by repeated use during the occupation of the house. When cross sectioned, hearths usually look thin and shallow in the soil. The area around the hearth is usually crowded with hundreds of tiny post moulds. These post moulds were made by posts used to hang meat near the fire for cooking, or to hang food or skins near the fire for drying.
A storage pit is a hole that was dug inside the longhouse and used to store food. When a pit was used for storing food, we think that it was lined with bark and grass and covered with bark mats for lids. This was done to keep the food inside of the pit dry and to keep mice out. It was also done to stop people from falling into the pits since some of them were quite large and deep.
The pits could have been used for more than one year, but were abandoned once they were infected with mould or mildew. Once a pit was no longer in use, it was filled in so that people walking around in the house would not fall into it. Garbage and ash from hearths are often found by archaeologists when they excavate filled-in pits.
Early Images of the Iroquois Confederacy in North America
Canada celebrated its 150th birthday as a country this past Saturday, and tomorrow the United States will celebrate the 241st year since the adoption of the Declaration of Independence. Up here in Canada, 150 years is being made a big deal of, with every corporation and brand jumping on the bandwagon to celebrate the “meaning” of being Canadian. In 2017, it’s de rigueur to celebrate the diversity of the population up north. But in all our smug glory of being a benevolent host to every race, ethnicity, gender and religion, let’s not forget what confederation meant for the original populations of the land we now call Canada. The Iroquois Confederacy was made up of five of the nations that first settled the lands that were a part of the original Canada during confederation in 1867 (modern day Canada with 10 provinces and 3 territories was only formalized in 1999, with the formation of Nunavut Territory). The oral history of the Iroquois Confederacy, known as the Haudenosaunee, goes back to its formation in 1142 as a joining of the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga and Seneca nations by Great Peacemaker, Jigonhsasee and Hiawatha. The actual history of the nations that make up the Iroquois Confederacy goes back much further, with current estimates putting settlement of this land at the very least 12,000 years ago. When Europeans first landed on Canada’s shores, the Iroquois Confederacy had already existed for over 350 years. The Iroquois, whose population was already decimated by the plagues brought over by Europeans, supported the British during the Revolutionary war in the hopes that their support would be reciprocated after the war. Instead the British set “Canada” on a campaign of cultural genocide in the form of legislation that stole the land from underneath them, forced the nations onto reservations and kidnapped their children – a story shared by all of the First Nations who survived the European colonization of modern day Canada. Here are some striking images from the Native North American-Indian Old Photos facebook page of the Iroquois Confederacy as they were in the late 1800s, early 1900s. There are literally thousands of photos on this page of almost every nation that settled North America – I highly recommend looking through them to see the true history of the lands we inhabit.
Happy birthday to the country that squats on the unceded territories of all the First Peoples. Happy independence to the country that was still enslaving human beings when the Declaration was signed by slave owners.
- Esther Louise Georgette Deer (daughter of James Deer and Georgette Osborne-Deer) Iroquois (Mohawk) – circa 1921
- Ah-Weh-Eyu (aka Pretty Flower, aka Goldie Jamison-Conklin) the daughter of Jacob J. Jamison and Eliza D. Jamison, and the wife of Charles Conklin – Iroquois (Seneca) – 1914
- Iroquois (Mohawk) man – circa 1870
- Ah-Weh-Eyu (aka Pretty Flower, aka Goldie Jamison-Conklin) the daughter of Jacob J. Jamison and Eliza D. Jamison, and the wife of Charles Conklin – Iroquois (Seneca) – 1909
- Ah-Weh-Eyu (aka Pretty Flower, aka Goldie Jamison-Conklin) the daughter of Jacob J. Jamison and Eliza D. Jamison, and the wife of Charles Conklin – Iroquois (Seneca) – circa 1910
- Iroquois (Mohawk) man from Kahnawake Reserve near Montreal, Quebec – circa 1910
- Iroquois (Onondaga) girl near Lake George, New York – circa 1870
- Big Bear from Kahnawake Reserve near Montreal, Quebec – Iroquois (Mohawk) – circa 1910
- Iroquois (Onondaga) children near Lake George, New York – circa 1870
- Iroquois (Seneca) woman – circa 1860
- Iroquois (Tuscarora) women selling beadwork on Luna Island near Niagra Falls – circa 1870
- Iroquois (Tuscarora) women selling beadwork on Luna Island near Niagra Falls – circa 1870
- Iroquois (Tuscarora) women (two women to the right) selling beadwork to tourists (two women on the left) on Luna Island near Niagra Falls – circa 1870
- Iroquois woman – circa 1860
- Iroquois woman – circa 1909
- John McComber (aka Chief Poking Fire) – Iroquois (Mohawk) – circa 1940
- Iroquois men playing a card game at the Quebec Tercentenary Celebration – 1908
- Iroquois baby near Brantford, Ontario – circa 1900
- Iroquois (Mohawk) family – circa 1897
- Iroquois (Mohawk) family – circa 1885
- Margaret Boone-Frey (the daughter of Walker Lane Boone and Malinda Boone, and the wife of Ramond Frey) – (Oneida/Wyandot) – 1935
- Sherman Cooper – Iroquois (Seneca) – circa 1910
- Graduating Class of Carlisle Indian Industrial School, Carlisle, Pennsylvania – 1906
- Iroquois family – circa 1900
- Iroquois man – circa 1880
- Joseph Seth Brant holding his great-grandson, Carl Leslie Hatch – Iroquois (Mohawk)
- Standing back row L-R: Jenny Brant, Dora Green Sitting middle row L-R: Jerry Brant, Teressa Brant-Brant, Gladys Aileen Brant, Henry Alexander Brant Sitting front row L-R: Leonard Major Brant, Roy Brant – Iroquois (Mohawk)
- Roy Brant – Iroquois (Mohawk)
- Jeremiah Brant (aka Jerry Brant) with his wife Jenny Brant – Iroquois (Mohawk)
- Iroquois man – circa 1850
- Louisa Stump-Newell (the wife of Louis Belmont Newell) – Iroquois – circa 1890
- Wah-Ta-Waso (aka Bright Star, aka Lucy Nicolar) – Iroquois (Seneca)/Penobscot – 1900
- Wah-Ta-Waso (aka Bright Star, aka Lucy Nicolar) – Iroquois (Seneca)/Penobscot – 1900
- Wah-Ta-Waso (aka Bright Star, aka Lucy Nicolar) – Iroquois (Seneca)/Penobscot – 1900
- Lewis Wilson Sr. , Tom Longboat in France – Iroquois (Seneca) – circa 1918
- Clinton George (the son of Joslin George and Susan Seneca-George) – Iroquois (Seneca) – circa 1890
- Alvin Webster Kennedy (the son of Walter Kennedy and Kathryn Doctor-Kennedy) – Iroquois (Seneca)
- Members of the Iroquois National Council – 1914
- Lester Eels and his sister, Ruby Eels – Iroquois (Seneca) – 1910
- Iroquois (Onondaga) woman – circa 1910
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Iroquois Art, Symbols & Artifacts – Video & Lesson Transcript
The Iroquois made objects of materials from their immediate environment, including clay, stone, bone, and antler. Artifacts uncovered at early Iroquois sites (from circa 1400 until European contact around the mid-1600s) include clay pots. The pots have distinct collars or upper borders with incised decorative geometric lines cut into them. Some pots, called effigy pottery, have collars with shapes resembling faces or whole figures molded on them.
Other artifacts include combs made of bone or antler with figures of people and animals carved on them. Archaeologists have also found stemmed clay pipes decorated with human or bird figures. Another type of artifact found in Iroquois sites are wampum beads.
Wampum beads are small circular beads cut from white and purple mollusk shells. Strung together into belts and other objects, they were viewed as currency. They were also used on some of the Iroquois’ most important objects, including peace treaties with other tribes and nations.
Prior to European contact, the Iroquois wore clothing and shoes made of deer hide. They decorated clothing with intricate geometric curving designs, some resembling plants or creatures. Originally, the designs were made from porcupine quills, prepared by softening them, dyeing them with natural colors, and then weaving them onto the the hide surface.
After Europeans arrived, the Iroquois traded for metal goods, woolen cloth, and small glass beads. The beads then replaced the quillwork for beaded designs on clothing, shoes, and bags.
The Iroquois were also expert mask makers. They used corn husks to weave a type of mask called a husk face mask, associated with the harvest of corn, a crop vital to the community’s survival. The Iroquois carved basswood to create a type of mask called a false face mask. These faces, with contorted facial features, were usually painted red and edged with black horse hair. They were used in healing ceremonies to scare away harmful spirits. It’s important to understand that neither kind of mask was viewed as simply art. They were important sacred objects and not mere decoration.
These Iroquois tribes had several important symbols, including the Hiawatha belt. The Hiawatha belt is a line of two squares, then a central pine tree shape followed by two more squares. All shapes are connected by a single horizontal line running through their middle. The Hiawatha belt symbol has been found on wampum belts and today it’s the official emblem of the Iroquois Nation.
Other symbols include a cluster of arrows connected in the middle. It’s a symbol of unity, conveying the strength of individual nations joined together as one. Similarly, a white pine tree is sometimes used as a symbol of peace, with its spreading branches providing protection. The turtle is a symbol used to represent North America and cultures beyond the Iroquois. In traditional mythology, the turtle held the world on his back.
Those are just a few symbols from a culture rich in symbolism and mythology, and much alive and vibrant today. Several of the tribes, including the Onondaga, Oneida, and Seneca, live in Upstate New York. Some hold annual festivals and have museums where you can see their beautiful, meaningful art for yourself.
Let’s take a moment or two to review what we’ve learned. Iroquois is the the name for a wide group of people native to the Great Lakes of North America. It’s also the name for a group of six tribes from what is today Upstate New York. In 1570, the Iroquois Confederacy established an alliance between five and then six groups, today known as the Iroquois Nation.
Artifacts, which are objects uncovered during archaeological excavations, include clay pottery. Some examples, called effigy pottery, have human forms and figures. Other artifacts include bone and antler combs, clay pipes, and wampum beads, which are circular beads carved of white and purple mollusk shells that were used as currency.
Iroquois art includes deer hide clothing, and shoes and bags done in quillwork and later with glass beading. The Iroquois are known for two kinds of masks, the woven husk face mask made of corn husks and symbolizing corn harvest, and the false face mask, carved from basswood and used in spiritual ceremonies. Among the most important symbols for the Iroquois is the Hiawatha belt, which is a series of interconnected shapes that represent the original Iroquois Confederacy.
Iroquois Confederacy ***
History of the Iroquois Confederacy
The Iroquois Confederacy was initially a league of five tribes who inhabited New York State living between the Hudson River and the St Lawrence and Lake Erie. The tribes spoke the Iroquoian language which was a family of North American Indian languages spoken by the Iroquois peoples. The Iroquois gave their name to the Iroquoian branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock. Discover interesting history, facts and information about the Confederacy and its founders Deganawida and his spokesman Hiawatha, the tribes of the league, where they were located, the Constitution, the People of the Longhouse, the Hiawatha Wampum Belt, the Tree of Peace, Great Law of Peace and the Great Council.
Iroquois Confederacy Constitution
Iroquois Confederacy Tribes
The Iroquois were also known as the Haudenosaunee or the “People of the Longhouse”. The Longhouse was a long, narrow house that was traditionally built by the Iroquois. The tribes of the Iroquois confederacy belonged to Eastern Woodlands culture group. The union created a powerful alliance of related Iroquoian tribes and peoples. The Iroquois Confederacy was also known as the “League of Peace and Power”.
Iroquois Confederacy Tribes
The Iroquoian Confederacy was first founded c1550, prior to major European contact, and initially consisted of five tribes: the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga and Seneca tribes, which were known as the Five Nations. The Tuscarora tribe joined the Confederacy in 1722, as non-voting members of the league, and the collective tribes became known as the Six Nations. The powerful, and brutal, Iroquois coalition grew quickly by invading neighboring tribes and absorbing their land into Iroquois territory. The Iroquois Confederacy aimed to create an empire by incorporating subservient, conquered peoples.
Iroquois Confederacy Map – Territory of each of the Tribes
The Iroquoian Confederacy initially consisted of five tribes who were in close proximity of the Iroquois territory.
- The Mohawk tribe lived along the Mohawk River of the Mohawk Valley in upstate New York to South Quebec and East Ontario – Possessors of the Flint.
- The Seneca tribe lived in New York State south of Lake Ontario and were the were the largest nation of the Iroquois Confederacy – Great Hill People
- The Onondaga tribe lived between Lake Champlain and the Saint Lawrence River – People on the Hills
- The Oneida tribe lived east of Lake Ontario, around Oneida Lake – Granite People
- The Cayuga tribe lived around around Cayuga Lake in New York State – People of the Great Swamp
The Iroquois Confederacy map shows the locations and territory of the tribes in the league, before the Europeans arrived.
Map of Iroquois territory and the location of each of the tribes
The neighboring tribes were conquered by the Iroquoian Confederacy and their lands absorbed into their territory.
History of the Iroquois
The Iroquois nation were a war-like people and there was continuous inter tribal warfare and conflicts with the tribes of the Powhatan Confederacy. The young warriors were trained to become immune to pain and they had little respect for any signs of weakness. Honor was acquired by bravery and aggression in warfare. The Iroquoian tribes were merciless in their treatment of their enemies and captives who were tortured and sometimes roasted alive – their remains were consumed in cannibalistic feasts. Their incessant warfare was weakening the Iroquois tribes which became a major concern of two men. The prophet Deganawida who was a spiritual leader and his disciple Hiawatha who was a wise man, chief of the Onondaga tribe who acted as the spokesman for Deganawida.
Founding of the Iroquois Confederacy or League
Deganawida and Hiawatha travelled across Iroquois territory talking about their ideas and eventually took their message of peace to a council meeting of the five nations, or tribes. Dekanawida and Hiawatha united them into a League of Nations or the Iroquois League. They brought a message, known as the Great Law of Peace, to the warring Iroquoian nations. The Great Law of Peace was the basis of the Iroquois Confederacy Constitution. Dekanawida was given the title of ‘Great Peacemaker’.
Reasons for Founding of the Iroquois Confederacy
Deganawida and Hiawatha had several major objectives in their quest to bring about an alliance of the Iroquois tribes and initiate the Iroquoian Confederacy:
- To eliminate incessant intertribal warfare
- To create peace and give united strength
- To create a powerful force of tribes
- To safeguard existing Iroquois territory and defend against invasion
- To expand their territories
- To establish a democratic government with representatives from each of the tribes to ensure fairness and equity
- To end the custom of cannibalism
Iroquois Confederacy – The Constitution
The Constitution of Iroquois Confederacy contained details of the organization, and function of the Iroquois Confederacy. The Constitution of the Confederacy covered subjects including:
- The Role of the Great Council, Council membership, Eligibility and Resignation, Candidates, Election of Pine Tree Chiefs
- The Election of the Chiefs, Names, Duties and Rights of War Chiefs, Women, Clans and Consanguinity
- Official Symbolism, Wampum, Laws of Adoption
- Laws of Emigration, Rights of Foreign Nations, Rights and Powers of War, Treason or Secession of a Nation
- Religious Ceremonies Protected, Protection of the House and Funeral Addresses
There are 117 Articles in the Iroquois Confederacy constitution – read the Articles to gain a great insight into their Constitution and the Confederacy.
Iroquois Confederacy Constitution – The Hiawatha Wampum Belt
The Iroquois Confederacy constitution was recorded with the help of a memory device called wampum – referred to as the Hiawatha Wampum Belt. Wampum are the traditional, sacred shell beads of the Iroquoian tribes which were used for recording special events.
Picture of the Hiawatha Wampum Belt of the Iroquois Confederacy
The Iroquois Confederacy Wampum belt contains symbols for each of the original five tribes in their geographic order. The first symbol represents Seneca tribe, the centre arrowhead symbol represents the Onondaga tribe, the next symbol the Oneida tribe and the end symbol the Mohawk tribe. Each of the symbols is linked by a line running between them which symbolised peace in the Confederacy.
Iroquois Confederacy Constitution – The Tree of Peace
The Great Peacemaker used a white pine, called the Tree of Peace, to symbolize the peace established by the Iroquoian Confederacy. The branches of the Tree of Peace represented protection. A far seeing eagle sat upon the top of the tree to symbolize a warning system if the tribes were in danger. Beneath the roots of the Tree of Peace a weapon was buried which symbolized that there would be no fighting between the Iroquois tribes.
Tree of Peace
History of the Iroquois Confederacy Constitution – Significance of the Longhouse
The Longhouse was used by Deganawida and Hiawatha as a symbol to represent the union, the culture and the traditions of the Iroquois Confederation and how their territory should be shared. The three largest tribes held important positions within the confederation which relate to the structure of the longhouse.
- The Mohawk were the easternmost group of the Iroquois Confederacy and considered to be the keepers of the eastern door.
- The Seneca, the largest nation of the Iroquois Confederacy were known as the Keepers of the Western Door.
- The Onondaga were known as the “Keepers of the Central Council Fire and Wampum” and the main Onondaga village served as the capital, or meeting place, of the federated council
Iroquois Confederacy Constitution – The Great Law of Peace
The Iroquois Confederacy constitution was known as the Gayanashagowa or the “Great Law of Peace”. The Confederacy was guided by some basic principles. The need for justice and balancing of rights and obligations. The need for peace among individuals and between groups. The need for authority and power. Deciding upon individual matters of Law and order remained the internal concern of each tribe, but the Confederacy legally prohibited cannibalism. The Great Law of Peace is divided into 117 articles.
Iroquois Confederacy Constitution – The Great Council
The Great Peacemaker established a council of clan and village chiefs to govern the confederacy. Adherence to the constitution of the Iroquois Confederacy is embodied in the Grand Council, an assembly of fifty hereditary sachems. Each nation had several male leaders, or Sachems, called Hoyaneh. The Hoyaneh were the chiefs who represented the tribes at the meetings of the Grand Council. The Grand Council had 50 members who used a consensus to decisions. The fifty members of the Grand Council consisted of:
- 14 Hoyaneh from the Onondaga tribe
- 10 Hoyaneh from the Cayuga tribe
- 9 Hoyaneh from the Mohawk tribe
- 8 Hoyaneh from the Seneca tribe
- 9 Hoyaneh from the Oneida tribe
History of the Iroquois Confederacy – The Beaver Wars
The Beaver Wars (1640 – 1701), also called the French and Iroquois Wars, were terrifying and brutal wars fought by tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy and the French and the Indian tribes who were their allies including the Huron, Algonquins and the Mohicans. The Iroquois Confederacy, and in particular the Mohawk tribe, had established trading links with Dutch exchanging beaver skins for firearms (the harquebus). The Iroquois Confederacy wanted to extend their trading activity and gain new territories. Bloody battles ensued and the Iroquois Confederacy destroyed several large tribal confederacies including the Hurons, Eries, Neutrals and Susquehannocks.
History of the Iroquois Confederacy – The French and Indian War
The French and Indian War (1688-1763) was between France and Britain for possession of North America. During the French and Indian War, the Iroquois Confederacy sided with the British against the French and their Algonquin allies who included the Huron Tribe who were traditional enemies of the Iroquois. During both Queen Anne’s War and King George’s War, the Iroquois Confederacy maintained the policy of neutrality. The Iroquois believed that aiding the British would also bring favors in trade and land agreements after the war.
|● British Colonies|
|● New France|
|● New Spain|
|● Disputed Areas|
|– – – Boundary of Iroquois League|
1754 Map showing claims of Great Britain, France and Spain
History of the Iroquois Confederacy – The American Revolution
The American Revolution broke out in 1775 and was disastrous for the Iroquois Confederacy. The confederacy, as such, refused to take part in the conflict but allowed each tribe to decide for itself. During the American Revolution the Oneida and the Tuscarora sided with the colonists, whilst the Mohawk, Seneca, Onondaga and Cayuga remained loyal to Great Britain. This marked a major split among the Six Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy.
The Fall of the Iroquois Confederacy
The fall of the Iroquois Confederacy followed the American Revolution. The Military defeat of the British and their Indian allies brought ruin and an end to Iroquois independence. The Iroquois were forced from their homelands and settled on reservations in western New York state and Canada.
- The founding of the Iroquois Confederacy
- The Iroquois Confederacy constitution and laws
- Interesting facts and info for kids and schools
- The Iroquois Confederacy or League of tribes
- The Iroquois Confederacy for kids
Pictures and Videos of Native Americans
The Iroquois Confederacy. Discover the vast selection of pictures which relate to the History of Native Americans. The pictures show the clothing, war paint, weapons and decorations of various Native Indian tribes that can be used as a really useful educational history resource for kids and children of all ages. We have included pictures and videos to accompany the main topic of this section – Iroquois Confederacy. The videos enable fast access to the images, paintings and pictures together with information and many historical facts. All of the articles and pages can be accessed via the Native Indian Tribes Index – a great educational resource for kids.
The Iroquois has long been considered the prerogative of punks or other subcultures, causing sometimes surprise and sometimes even bewilderment. Thank God, for some time now this hairstyle has undergone quite cute changes and has become available even to girls! Now this is not necessarily shaved whiskey and a dashing mane, there is even a mohawk from long hair! The only thing that remains unchanged is that with this hairstyle the face opens, and due to the raised mane, additional volume is created.There are a lot of variations of mohawks, you do not need to immediately run to the hairdresser, you can experiment at home, creating interesting styling. And we decided to introduce you to all the options for the Iroquois!
Weaving Iroquois is not a hindrance
Pasteur+ design of temples
Regrown roots are good!
Great idea for a bold haircut
Romance and style
Romance and style
“Hair on end” from such beauty
Even a mohawk can be in a retro style!
Long hair mohawk
Option for those who crave volume, but do not want to open their neck
Creative mess from Rihanna
Iroquois “Zebra”9000 tufts
Another option for long hair
Rihanna knows a lot about Iroquois
Call for the best
Another mohawk from the pop diva
Even kids love this style!
Innocence and courage combine in this hairstyle
“Wind in the head” by Jennifer Lopez
Greek warriorsin the spirit of the spirit long hair and shaved temples is stunning
Iroquois “electric shock”
Horse mane from a braid
Rock option for those who want to “play pranks”
Iroquois for a real lady Emily Blunt’s Mohawk for the red carpet
Mohawk for curly hair
Miley Cyrus and her colored mohawk
Pink is tired of proving that the mohawk is cool
Curls and curls
Luxury Violet by Kelly Osbourne 9000 6
Mohawk with a tail
High hairstyle a la Mohawk
Extravagant version from Rita Ora
Artificial crest for a party
French knot3000? Why not?
Exquisite Mohawk by Nicole Kidman
Iroquois “Play of Color”
Mohawk “Conquer Me”
Flying over the cuckoo’s nest
make a short haircutYou can make a short haircut
Well, are you ready to misbehave?
© Article author: Tatiana Ebel Especially for the website 24hair. ru
Who are the Iroquois Indians
Perhaps the Iroquois are one of the most popular ethnic groups in North America. Many films have been shot about them, books have been written about them. But do we all know about the Iroquois. The history of this ethnos is fraught with many secrets and interesting facts.
Who are the Iroquois and where they lived
The habitat of the Iroquois is the central part of North America and part of the modern territory of Canada. The history of the existence of the Iroquois is closely related to the Great Lakes.It is here that the indigenous people of America live. The most interesting thing is that the Iroquois are not one tribe, but a whole League of tribes.
According to historians, the Iroquois League, or the Hodenosauni League, appeared in 1570 . It consisted of several Indian tribes:
Approximately 200 years later, the Tuscarora, who lived in southern North America, joined the League. Representatives of these tribes called themselves the Iroquois.Due to the fact that the tribes that were part of the League lived in different parts of the United States, a decent territory was under the rule of the Iroquois. Therefore, there is nothing surprising in the fact that the ethnos was one of the most powerful.
One of the most numerous tribes of the Iroquois were and remain the Mahawks. Representatives of the tribe live in the territory of modern Canada. They were the first to start trading with the Dutch.
US War of Independence and the Iroquois
As the Europeans conquered the territory of the United States, the Indians were gradually pushed back from their original habitats.The territory of New France suffered especially severely from the raids of the Iroquois. Gradually, the British seized the territory of the Dutch colonies, thereby depriving the Indians of contacts with their trading partners.
When fighting broke out between England and France in 1688 , the Iroquois supported the British. The reason for this loyalty turned out to be English weapons. The British were arms suppliers to the North American tribes.
The American Revolutionary War turned out to be a difficult test for the Iroquois.For a long time they tried to stay away. The Iroquois League tried not to interfere with the situation. But they failed to maintain complete neutrality. The Indians still had to take part in the hostilities. England lost the war. The territory in which the Indians lived became the property of the American authorities. The actions of the American government led to the fact that the Iroquois League was gone. The Indians ended up on reservations.
How the Iroquois lived
The habitat of the Iroquois was dense mountain forests, stretching near the famous Lakes.It was fertile soil, and there were many animals in the forests. The Indians built ovachirs, rectangular structures with a barrel-shaped roof. The Iroquois were engaged in agriculture, growing corn, legumes and pumpkin. Fur-bearing animals lived in the forests, the skins of which were traded by the Indians. The main power of the Iroquois was the Council of Chiefs.
90,000 Mohawks, pigtails and color dyeing: the most unusual hairstyles of Cristiano Ronaldo, Antoine Griezmann and other football players
We recall the most famous football players, whose image change is just as interesting as their game.
Antoine Griezmann – Barcelona
The luxurious head of Barcelona striker Antoine Griezmann, who spent most of his games either with his hair down or with a low bun, recently changed his image and appeared in a match against Spanish club Real Sociedad with two cute ears. And despite the fact that in recent years the trend for agender fashion has become quite popular, the fans of the football player turned out to be still those conservatives: during one of the halves they booed Griezmann and compared him to Pippi Longstocking and Greta Tundberg online.But the football player’s hairstyle seems very cool to us – we approve!
Domagoy Vida – Besiktas
Photo: East News
At the 2018 World Cup, Croatian national team defender Domagoj Vida was remembered not only for his game (he became the author of the first goal scored in the tournament in extra time), but also for his hairstyle – a ponytail on the back of his head and shaved temples. By the way, many fans of the football player note that long blond hair does not go well with his tough playing style, and they advise Vide to make an extra-short haircut in a more brutal style, but he does not listen to them yet.
Photo: East News
During his professional career, ex-England captain David Beckham managed to change more than a dozen hairstyles, but the most famous of them was the mohawk, which he modified depending on his mood: he either grew it, then made it shorter, then dyed it in different colors. In addition, the football player introduced African braids, spiral headbands, contrasting highlights and beams on the crown in the style of Malvina into fashion, which were then copied by thousands of novice athletes around the world.Moreover, no matter what Beckham did with his hair, he remained handsome, and the changes were always in his favor, so we perfectly understand why Victoria could not resist him.
Cristiano Ronaldo – Juventus
Photo: East News
Cristiano Ronaldo also does not like to linger on one style for a long time and changes hairstyles almost every season, and he also does not do without fashion failures. Before his first European Championships in 2004, he did highlights with gold strands, then grew the famous coal-black curls and got a couple of thousand new fans, and then got along with Irina Shayk and began to put on a brutal mohawk and shave stripes on his temples, which periodically repeats now.
Neymar – Paris Saint-Germain
In the football world, Paris Saint-Germain midfielder Neymar is sometimes called a “hairstyle maniac” for his passion for constant image changes. Since 2011, he repainted, cut his hair, braided his dreadlocks and completely discolored about twenty times. They say that the football player is so kind to his hair that he does not allow anyone to touch it, except for the stylist, who is paid two thousand euros a month. Perhaps, in this way, Neymar is trying to divert the attention of fans from his not very good game and get rid of the status of a simulator, but so far he has not succeeded.
Paul Pogba – Manchester United
Once the French footballer Paul Pogba announced that he would change his hairstyle after every match he won, but at some point he was ahead of his schedule so much that even the most devoted fans seemed to stop recognizing him. The athlete draws inspiration for his images from literally everything that surrounds him: from nature to cartoons. So, recently, his hair has managed to be leopard, bright yellow (like Pikachu) and completely blue – Pogba himself says that while such transformations bring him only joy.
Mohammed Salah – Liverpool
Compared to many other footballers, Mohammed Salah can be called the king of brevity: he almost never experiments with his appearance, but is famous for his lush shock of curls no less than for his brilliant goals. Sometimes he can afford to slightly shorten the length or shave his whiskey, but the essence remains the same: no acid shades, strange patterns and patterns – just restrained classics.
Mario Balotelli – Monza
The game of the striker of the Italian club “Monza” Mario Balotelli is not very stable, but there is a more fickle thing in his life – his hairstyles. The athlete says that he is in constant search of the perfect haircut, but so far he cannot stop at something specific. For quite a long time (at least for him), the footballer walked with a mohawk, resembling a voluminous spikelet, and exactly at the moment the fans got used to his appearance, he shaved almost baldly and got a long tuft.
Ricardo Quaresma – Vitoria Guimaraes
It seems that stylist Ricardo Quaresma once specialized in creating crop circles: it is simply impossible to explain otherwise what he does with a football player’s haircut every time. But the main thing is that the athlete himself really likes such creativity: every few months he goes to games with a new pattern on his head, and he says that many of them carry a secret meaning for him, and therefore help him feel more confident.
Ivan Peresic – Inter
It is not for nothing that they say that athletes are quite superstitious people: in order to attract good luck and win an important match at the European Championship, midfielder of the Croatian national team Ivan Perešić in 2016 dyed his hair in the colors of the national flag just a couple of hours before entering the field. Despite this ritual, that day his team lost 0: 1 and flew out of the playoffs, after which Ivan’s haters wrote for a long time that it would be better if he spent this time not in the stylist’s chair, but in additional training.
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Bell UH-1 Iroquois helicopter Photo.Video. Specifications
Helicopters of Russia and the world video, photos, pictures watch online occupy an important place in the general system of the national economy and the Armed Forces, honorably fulfilling the civil and military tasks assigned to them. In the figurative expression of the outstanding Soviet scientist and designer ML. Mil, “our country itself is, as it were,” designed “for helicopters.” Without them, the development of the endless and impassable spaces of the Far North, Siberia and the Far East is unthinkable. Helicopters have become a familiar element of the landscape of our grandiose construction projects.They are widely used as a vehicle, in agriculture, construction, rescue service, military affairs. When performing a number of operations, helicopters are simply irreplaceable. Who knows, the health of how many people were rescued by the crews of the helicopters who took part in the liquidation of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. The lives of thousands of Soviet soldiers were saved by combat “turntables” in Afghanistan.
Russian helicopters, before becoming one of the main modern transport, technological and combat means, helicopters have passed a long and not always smooth path of development.The idea of lifting into the air with the help of a main rotor originated in humanity almost earlier than the idea of flying on a fixed wing. In the early stages of the history of aviation and aeronautics, the creation of lift by “screwing into the air” was more popular than other methods. This explains the abundance of rotary-wing aircraft projects in the 19th – early 20th centuries. Only four years separate the flight of the Wright brothers’ plane (1903) from the first man’s ascent by helicopter (1907).
The best helicopters were used by scientists and inventors, they hesitated for a long time which way to give preference.However, by the end of the first decade of the XX century. less energy-consuming and simpler in terms of aerodynamics, dynamics and strength, the aircraft took the lead. His successes were impressive. It took almost 30 years before the creators of helicopters finally managed to make their vehicles operational. Already during the Second World War, helicopters went into mass production and began to be used. After the end of the war, the so-called “helicopter boom” arose. Numerous firms began to build samples of new promising technology, but not all attempts were crowned with success.
Combat helicopters of Russia and the USA It was still more difficult to build than an aircraft of a similar class. Military and civilian customers were in no hurry to put aviation equipment of a new type in a row with the already familiar aircraft. Only the effective use of helicopters by the Americans in the early 50s. in the war in Korea convinced a number of military leaders, including Soviet ones, of the advisability of using this aircraft by the armed forces. However, many, as before, continued to consider the helicopter “a temporary error of aviation.”It took more than ten years until the helicopters finally proved their uniqueness and indispensability in performing a number of military tasks.
Russian helicopters played an important role in the creation and development of Russian and Soviet scientists, designers and inventors. Their significance is so great that it even gave rise to one of the founders of the Russian helicopter industry, academician B.N. Yuriev consider our state “the homeland of helicopters.” This statement, of course, is too categorical, but our helicopter pilots have something to be proud of.These are the scientific works of the school of N.E. Zhukovsky in the pre-revolutionary period and the impressive flights of the TsAGI 1-EA helicopter in the pre-war years, records of the post-war Mi-4, Mi-6, Mi-12, Mi-24 helicopters and the unique Ka helicopter family of coaxial design, modern Mi-26 and Ka -32 and much, much more.
The new Russian helicopter is relatively well covered in books and articles. Shortly before his death, B.N. Yuriev started writing the fundamental work “The History of Helicopters”, but managed to prepare only the chapters concerning his own work in 1908-1914.Note that insufficient attention to the history of such an aviation industry as helicopter construction is also characteristic of foreign researchers.
Russian military helicopters re-illuminating the history of the development of helicopters and their theory in pre-revolutionary Russia, the contribution of domestic scientists and inventors to the world development of this type of technology. A review of pre-revolutionary domestic works on rotary-wing aircraft, including previously unknown ones, as well as their analysis were given in the corresponding chapter in the book “Aviation in Russia”, prepared for publication in 1988.TsAGI. However, its small volume significantly limited the size of the information provided.
Civilian helicopters in their finest colors. An attempt has been made to cover as fully and comprehensively as possible the activities of domestic helicopter industry enthusiasts. Therefore, the activities of leading domestic scientists and designers are described, and projects and proposals are also considered, the authors of which were significantly inferior to them in their knowledge, but the contribution of which could not be ignored. Moreover, in some projects, which were generally distinguished by a relatively low level of elaboration, there are also interesting proposals and ideas.
The name of the helicopters denoting significant qualitative changes in this type of technology. Such events are the beginning of the constant and systematic development of helicopter projects; construction of the first full-scale helicopters capable of taking off from the ground, and the beginning of serial production and practical application of helicopters. This book tells about the early stages of the history of helicopter construction: from the birth of the idea of lifting into the air by means of a propeller to the creation of the first helicopters capable of taking off from the ground.A helicopter, unlike an airplane, a flapper and a rocket, has no direct prototypes in nature. However, the propeller, with the help of which the lift of the helicopter is created, has been known since ancient times.
Small helicopters Despite the fact that propellers were known and there were empirical prototypes of helicopters, the idea of using a main rotor for lifting into the air did not become widespread until the end of the 18th century. All the projects of rotary-wing vehicles developed at that time remained unknown and were discovered in the archives many centuries later.As a rule, information about the development of such projects was preserved in the archives of the most prominent scientists of their time, such as Go Hong, L. da Vinci, R. Guk, M.V. Lomonosov, who in 1754 created the “airfield machine”.
Private helicopters literally dozens of new designs were created in a short time. It was a competition of the most varied schemes and forms, as a rule, “one- or two-seater vehicles, which had mainly an experimental purpose. The natural customer for this expensive and complex technology was the military departments.The first helicopters in different countries received the appointment of liaison and reconnaissance military vehicles. In the development of helicopters, as in many other areas of technology, it is possible to clearly distinguish two lines of development – but the dimensions of machines, that is, the quantitative and almost simultaneously emerged line of development of the qualitative improvement of aircraft within a certain size or weight category.
The site about helicopters, which contains the most complete description. Whether the helicopter is used for geological exploration, agricultural work or for transporting passengers – the cost of an hour of operation of the helicopter plays a decisive role.A large share in it is depreciation, i.e.price divided by its service life. The latter is determined by the resource of the units, g, that is, their service life. The problem of increasing the fatigue strength of blades, shafts and transmissions, rotor hubs and other helicopter assemblies has become a paramount task that still occupies helicopter designers. At the present time, the resource of 1000 hours is no longer a rarity for a serial helicopter and there is no reason to doubt its further increase.
Modern Helicopters Combat Capabilities Comparison Original video preserved.Found in some publications, its image is an approximate reconstruction, and not in all indisputable, carried out in 1947 by N.I. Kamov. However, on the basis of the above archival documents, a number of conclusions can be drawn. Judging by the method of testing (suspension on blocks), the “aerodrome machine” was undoubtedly a vertical take-off and landing apparatus. Of the two methods of vertical lift known at the time – by flapping wings or by means of a main rotor – the first seems unlikely.The minutes said the wings were moving horizontally. In most flies, they are known to move in a vertical plane. A flywheel whose wings oscillate in a horizontal plane with an installation angle that changes cyclically, despite repeated attempts, has not yet been built.
The best helicopter design is always forward-looking. However, in order to more clearly imagine the possibilities of further development of helicopters, it is useful to try to understand the main directions of their development from past experience.What is interesting here, of course, is not the prehistory of helicopter construction, which we will only briefly mention, but its history from the moment when the helicopter as a new type of aircraft became already suitable for practical use. The first mentions of an apparatus with a vertical propeller – a helicopter are contained in the records of Leonardo da Vinci dating back to 1483. The first stage of development stretches from the helicopter model created by MV Lomonosov in 1754, through a long series of projects, models and even built-in-nature vehicles , who were not destined to take to the air, until the construction of the world’s first helicopter, which was also built in 1907.managed to get off the ground.
The fastest helicopter in the outline of this machine, we learn a schematic diagram of the most common single-rotor helicopters in the world today. B.I.Yurev managed to return to this work only in 1925. In 1932, a group of engineers headed by A.M. which was an outstanding achievement for that time. Suffice it to say that the official record for flight altitude, set 3 years later on the new coaxial Breguet helicopter, was only 180 m.At this time, there was a certain pause in the development of helicopters (helicopters). A new branch of rotary-wing vehicles – autogyros – has come to the fore.
A new Russian helicopter with a greater load on the wing area, came face to face with the then new problem of a spin, a loss of speed. It turned out to be easier to create a safe and quite perfect gyroplane than to build a helicopter-helicopter. The main rotor rotating freely from the incoming flow eliminated the need for complex gearboxes and transmissions.The hinged fastening of the rotor blades to the hub used on gyroplanes provided them with much greater strength, and stability for the gyroplane. Finally, stopping the engine ceased to be dangerous, as it was with the first helicopters: by autorotating the gyroplane easily landed at low speed.
Large helicopters for the landing of marines from ships determined the further development of military helicopter construction as transport and landing. S-55 helicopter landing of the American assault force in Incheon during the Korean War (1951 g.)) confirmed this trend. The size range of transport and landing helicopters began to be determined by the dimensions and weight of ground vehicles used by the troops and which had to be airlifted. Therefore, the carrying capacity of the first transport helicopters in foreign armies was 1200-1600 kg (the weight of a light military vehicle used as a tractor and corresponding weapons).
USSR helicopters correspond to the weight of light and medium tanks or corresponding self-propelled chassis. Whether this line of development will be completed in such a number of dimensions depends on the constantly changing military doctrine. Artillery systems are largely replaced by missiles, therefore, we find the requirements of the foreign press. The capacities did not lead to an increase in the payload. Indeed, but at the technical level of that time, the weight of the screws, gearboxes to the entire apparatus as a whole increased with increasing power faster than the lifting force increased.However, when creating a new useful and, all the more, new for the national economic application, the designer cannot put up with a decrease in the achieved level of weight efficiency.
Soviet helicopters, the first samples, were created in a relatively short time, since the specific gravity of piston engines always decreased with increasing power. But in 1953, after the creation of a 13-ton Sikorsky S-56 helicopter with two piston engines with a capacity of 2300 hp. with the size range of helicopters on the Zapala was interrupted and only in the USSR, using turboprop engines.In the mid-fifties, the reliability of helicopters became much higher, therefore, the possibilities of their use in the national economy expanded. Economic issues have come to the fore.
The Snow Queen mohawk was shown at the Gavroche festival
Feel like Kai or Gerda, applicants to the Bauhaus school, emigrants, refugees, residents of a medieval German city and, finally, to be under water – such an opportunity was provided by the festival of German performances for children.But first things first.
The princess became a man, and the palace was carved out of cardboard
Young artists from Düsseldorf showed Andersen’s famous fairy tale as daring and sickeningly absurd. In Germany, their own theater venue is located in an old factory building, where parts for armored vehicles were made during the war years, and now they play performances for all generations. Technological progress has not yet reached the heroes of the fairy tale, and on winter evenings they play not with iPhones, but with snowballs in cold semi-dark courtyards.
There are only eight full-time actors in the permanent troupe of the theater. In Moscow, they all reincarnated as young friends who fool around, try on cardboard outfits, like in children’s sets with paper dolls, and help the girl with a big heart to save the named brother. After all, as you know, Kai and Gerda were not related, but they loved each other like brother and sister.
At the very beginning, instead of a curtain on the stage, there is a huge mirror, ready to break into tiny fragments and freeze Kai’s heart.Children in the hall stare in fascination at the surface dotted with cracks, beg their parents to touch it with at least one finger. Everything is new to them: headphones with a black device for simultaneous interpretation, and the heroes of the fairy tale, who do not hide behind the scenes before the start of the performance, but play catch-up between the chairs and hide behind the spectators.
Everything adjusts to the fact that Andersen’s story did not happen once there a long time ago, but is unfolding right now, on the eve of the season of darkness and cold weather.The scenery is also about this – several dark gray towers, illuminated by dim streetlights, spotlights. They unfold like cardboard houses, inviting to follow Gerda on a journey across fabulous Scandinavia. First, it is a poor room with a frozen window: children make a “peephole” in it, applying a warm coin. Then there is a luxurious palace bedroom with a painted chandelier and a canopy. Greetings from liberated neighbors from the West – the princess suddenly turns out to be a man, and the prince is African American. Both dress in cardboard outfits and almost merge in a cutesy kiss.
Unlike the original, there is no place for cruelty, Andersen’s despair and hopelessness in the play. All of Gerda’s companions, fooling around and changing roles on the go, help her overcome obstacles and save her friend. And the Snow Queen herself with a silvery mohawk made of tough New Year’s tinsel does not make you tremble with horror. Therefore, in the finale, Gerda’s tears will melt Kai’s frozen heart without unnecessary pathos and drama. A group of friends will reunite and lay out the coveted word “Ewigkeit” – “Eternity” on the foreground of their bodies.Master class for children. Photo: Marina Pavlova.
How we ended up as refugees
The actress holds in her hands a doll with a white face, big eyes and a red cap. No, this is not a fabulous girl who went to visit her grandmother with a basket of pies. This is Toda from the play “How My Dad Became a Bush and I Lost My Name”, based on the book by Joke van Leeuwen. Toda was sent by his father to his mother when the war broke out.Dad went to war to protect some people from others, and sent his young daughter on a long journey.
Actress Katharine Bluchert leads Toda along the roads of war, meets different people who manifest themselves in different ways. A truck driver, for example, who stole things from her. A commander who does not know how to command at all. A teacher in an orphanage. And here stop – the actress stops, falls silent, and the translator (Natalya Bakshi) live, word for word, like step by step, follows the actress.Katarin takes the chalk and traces the black sketchbook into squares. And then invites little spectators:
– Let’s draw the cribs where you will sleep.
Children paint. They sit on the drawn bunks, and if there is not enough space, they sit down in twos, huddled together. And they are no longer little Muscovites from good families, but refugees, brothels – horror grips. It is intensified when Katarin invites the children to write the name of their favorite toy on small pieces of paper.They write. And then they will receive them instead of toys that will be lost in life, in trouble.
“Under the Water – Farewell Party” from Tübingen – from a completely different opera. It is played in the chamber hall on the Simonovskaya stage. The famous German puppeteer Frank Senle, who is actually called Prospero in the country, offered teenagers a story about the unreal. Teenagers do not really like to go to the theater, especially to the puppet show, but those who came did not regret it. Because I saw the embodiment of what our reflections, doubts, skeletons in the closet consist of.It is even difficult to describe the performance staged by the two most skillful puppeteers: it bewitches with the beauty of the inexplicable. Feathers in the form of seagulls soar upward, a small puppet is a lady in a veil opposite a man in a black suit and bowler hat, similar to Chaplin, only without antennae. What happens between them when not a single word is spoken? They seem to float in the world, surrounded by nonsense, greed, paradox, absurdity, and they themselves become part of it all. And in the final they swim away, sitting in a hat and rowing with spoons.
After the performance, artists Ulrike Andersen and Christian Gletzner told us that this performance was only being played for the second season and noticed that children understand more than adults. By the way, in Germany, after the performance, adults are offered a glass of schnapps – it is obvious that they quickly return from the unreal to reality.
And in parallel with the main program, a special program was in full swing, and only for children. About tolerance and tolerance (lasted four hours, and surprisingly, no one was tired): under the guidance of two actresses from Nuremberg, the guys constructed a spider Otto from paper, and then each came up with their own story for him.And at the creative lesson “BAU-KIDS” second and third graders took exams to the famous avant-garde Bauhaus school, founded in Germany in the 1920s. The curator invited them to comprehend still lifes as abstract geometric compositions, from which the guys later created projects for tableware, lighting fixtures and household appliances.90,000 torture, guerrillas, cannibalism and politics
What kind of torture did the Iroquois adore? Which tribe in North America was the most developed? How did the Apache partisan leader become a showman? Is it true that the ancestors of Obama and Johnny Depp are Cherokee Indians? We’ll cover all of this and more.
The Iroquois themselves call themselves “Khodinonkhsoni”, and the word “Iroquois” is taken from the language of the neighboring Alkgonquins and means “vipers.” As you might guess, these tribes were at enmity and hated each other. The Iroquois are interesting because by the arrival of the Europeans they were the most developed tribe in the territory of the modern United States: they were engaged in simple slash-and-burn agriculture, knew different crafts and at the same time were not fools in terms of politics.
In a sense, the Iroquois created the prototype of the modern States: their confederation of five tribes had a complex, developed and at the same time democratic system of government.And the most interesting thing is that the Iroquois had matriarchy, and this is really unusual for the Indians. After the wedding, the man went to his wife’s family and took her last name; women sat on the council of the confederation and, without any exaggeration, decided the fate of the tribe.
At the same time, by the time the Europeans arrived, matriarchy was already experiencing a crisis: the warriors and the military elite were rapidly gaining strength and power. By the end of the 17th century, the Iroquois, who were not pacifists anyway and fought with everyone in a row, launched a powerful offensive.Initially, they lived in the east of the Great Lakes, but after a series of successful campaigns they occupied all the surrounding territories. The Iroquois wanted to become a monopolist in the fur trade and acted very tough.
Iroquois before the conquests (marked in pink) and after (marked in orange)
In the war of conquest, they actively used genocide and simply killed everyone who occupied the neighboring lands. The favorite tactic of the Iroquois is to break into enemy territory during the harvest, start killing women, and when the men of the tribe rush to help, ambush.
The Iroquois also became famous for actively using torture and “entertainment with prisoners.” Their favorite execution game looked like this: the head of a still living person was tied to a tightly stretched branch, and then his throat was cut sharply. The branch worked like a sling and threw its head quite far. If Olympic sports were invented by the Iroquois, it would be a crown discipline.
The Iroquois did not wear the appropriate hairstyle – it was generic to only one tribe of the confederation, the Mohawks.
The name “Canada” comes from the language of the northern Iroquois and means “Village”.
The Iroquois always bet on the wrong guys: their allies have always been the nation that was destined to lose the war. First the Dutch, then the French, and during the American Revolutionary War, the British. Being an ally of the Iroquois is a bad omen.
The Hurons are the closest neighbors and relatives of the Iroquois and, as a result, are their main enemies.The Hurons did not lag behind the Iroquois: they had a confederation of tribes, and they also dreamed of becoming monopolists in the fur trade. The Hurons were not fools to fight, but compared to their enemies they looked like hippies: they were practically vegetarians, ate mainly maize and beans, and on holidays – the meat of ritually prepared dogs.
The Hurons placed their bets on the French, and at first it gave them an advantage, but it turned out to be a disaster as a result. Firstly, the French were reluctant to give the Indians firearms, and secondly, in the course of active missionary activity, they brought illness.
As a result, a plague or smallpox epidemic claimed the lives of half of the Hurons, and began a total collapse and mass famine. The Iroquois took advantage of this – they cut out the remains of their neighbors, occupying their lands. The Hurons practically disappeared from the face of the earth, the confederation of the once largest tribe was destroyed, and they were forced to flee some to Canada, some far to the south, on the prairie.
Engraving: Huron fortified settlement
The Hurons were famous as masters of defense, they built rather heavily fortified fortresses with towers and galleries and quickly realized the benefits of the arquebus in the defense of the fort.
Cherokee military paint
The Cherokee Indians belonged to the group of the so-called “five civilized tribes”: they fought the Europeans for a very long time and stubbornly, but as a result they converted to Christianity, adopted their culture and succeeded in farming and crafts. Unfortunately, the US government, until recently loyal to this tribe, forcibly evicted them to barren lands.
During the migration, many Cherokee died, and upon arrival they found themselves in the wasteland with almost no means of subsistence.This story was called “The Road of Tears” from the Indians.
The Cherokee created their own unique writing system, taking an idea from the Europeans. The leader of the Sequoia, who understood the power of the written word, but did not know the literacy, developed his own literally from scratch. Moreover, he campaigned to spread his writing, and already in his lifetime about 90% of all Cherokee adults could read and write.
Most of the Sequoia records have not survived as they were burned by his wife, sincerely convinced that her husband is possessed by evil spirits.
Famous people with Cherokee blood: Barack Obama, Johnny Depp, Quentin Tarantino, Elvis Presley and even Jimi Hendrix.
Modern Pueblos are descendants of the ancient and decaying Anasazi people, which are especially interesting because they were quite civilized, unlike most North American Indians. Having begun a sedentary life in the VIII century, already by the X-XII centuries they are experiencing a cultural upsurge, building amazing fortresses and settlements in the rocks and showing themselves as excellent traders and farmers.
However, the golden age of the Anasazi passed, and it turned out that their culture arose at a very unfortunate time: behind the climatic peak there was a sharp decline, and the area turned from flourishing to desert. The ancient pueblos fell into decay, were attacked by nomadic tribes and were practically destroyed. Judging by the excavations, famine led to mass cannibalism, and there were so many dead that there was no one to bury them.
Pueblos built well-defended stone towers.The Navajo Indians adopted this technique and began to erect such towers themselves, which are now called “pueblito”. It is problematic to destroy them even with cannons, as the Spaniards were convinced of.
In the American Conquest strategy (from the creators of the “Cossacks”), pueblos do not build separate buildings – instead, they have one five-story well-fortified city-fortress, which, in general, is historically accurate.
Apaches are typical Indians of the Great Plains.With the advent of Europeans, they very quickly realized the advantages of horseback riding and actively used it to hunt bison. By the way, the irony is that horses originate precisely from America, but by the time a person came there in this part of the world, they had already disappeared. So the Europeans, without knowing it, brought the horses to their historical homeland.
The Apaches were irreconcilable fighters against the Europeans and spoiled a lot of blood for the colonialists. Suffice it to say that the Apache leader Geronimo became the symbol of all Indian resistance.Even after the resistance of the Indians was broken, he continued to wage a guerrilla war and did it for a long 25 years. In the end, he had to surrender to the US authorities, but they did not execute him, but made him something of a brand. Geronimo was taken to exhibitions, he handed out his photographs, posed a lot for photographers and even had his own biographer.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, there was a criminal subculture in France, the Apaches, named after the Apaches.In addition to the standard robbery, hooliganism and debauchery, they were distinguished by the fact that they created their own recognizable style. Apaches wore special clothes – red belts, chewed shirts and yellow boots – they had their own gestures, special tattoos, and so on.
They also created their own signature weapon: brass knuckles combined with a knife and a revolver, which in fact turned out to be rare junk. Their other invention is their own dance, named after them. The Apache dance was distinguished by its riot and metaphorically depicted at the same time intercourse and a fight between a man and a woman.
- Apache Indians
- Apache French Gopniks
Of course, we have not mentioned a lot of interesting tribes and stories. For example, I had to miss the whole of Central and South America, the Indian revolt led by Pontiac, as well as many facts about the religion and the current state of the Indians, and much, much more. The topic is too vast for one article, but we promise to return to it someday and tell no less amazing.
Men’s hairstyle Mohawk – haircut options with photo and video
The Mohawk hairstyle would have remained the property of the Indians, along with their feathers, war paint, the ax of war, if it had not been loved … no, not punks, but more modern athletes and rockers …
Previously, with such a haircut, only a sweetheart – Beckham, flaunted, and now no matter what match you watch, every time a body with a mohawk will drive around the field. So you can count the football players who are keen on this haircut, but there are so many of them that it’s just lazy … The musicians also keep up, there are a lot of photos on the network in which the famous soloist from Tokio Hotel has just such a hairstyle.
Mohawk for short hair
Who is not afraid to have a haircut “close to zero” or to a state of light “unshaven” on the head, can afford to issue a semblance of a Mohawk or, as it is also called by connoisseurs and fans of the Indians, the Mohawk. This hairstyle is done on short hair – but it can also be done on long hair (if you cut them off, of course). However, changing the image to a rocker one, especially for the summer, is very good. Well, if you want to create a “family look”, you can go to the hairdresser with your son.In this case, the easiest way (after all, the boy will definitely turn around in the chair, interfere with the hairdresser) is to make a shaved mohawk: in the center there is a strip of short hair, empty on the sides. Comfortable, stylish and noticeable hairstyle.
The same, but the hair has grown back
This option is considered difficult, and not only for the master of razors and scissors, but also for its new owner. After all, even if you do not plan to have your mohawk sticking up like the Eiffel Tower, you will still have to style your hair. So they will not rush over the head, creating a beautiful picture.Modern styling products – gels, mousses – will help here. To begin with, you can steal a can from a friend or wife, and then buy your own, if it’s worth it. By the way, serious cosmetic brands have long had a line of products specifically for men.
How to stand out even more?
If a mohawk is not enough for you to declare your individuality, ask your hairdresser to combine it with the drawings on the sides of your head.