Elite athletes using high tech tools to increase reaction timeStephen Curry of the Golden State Warriors uses a variety of high-tech methods to increase his reaction time. (Photo by Ezra Shaw/Getty Images)
Reaction time is one of the fundamental skills an athlete can possess. To reach an elite level in any sport, an athlete needs to continue to improve their coordination skills. Whether they are a rookie or a veteran, an athlete can always improve their reaction time as the below sports stars show.Exhibit A: Stephen Curry Using new technology, elite athletes are improving reaction time
Two-time NBA MVP Stephen Curry’s reaction time has always been good. But it reached elite levels thanks largely to his now seven-year collaboration with trainer Brian Payne. Bleacher Report explored this partnership last year, including some of the devices Payne has utilized to transform Curry in to a game-changer. One such device is FITLIGHT, a system of palm-sized discs that light up one after the other.
But how, exactly?
The science behind FITLIGHT, according to Curry’s forward-thinking trainer is this: overload the brain so it can process everything at a faster speed. In the case of Payne and Curry, the trainer controls the discs via a wireless remote, lighting certain combinations of discs to signal specific basketball-related moves and shot (e.g., jump shots, lay-in, floater). The combinations become progressively more difficult, forcing Curry’s brain to work harder so it can process information as fast as possible. This, in turn, strengthens the brain, allowing it to digest more information and react accordingly.
Exhibit B: Kawhi Leonard
Another athlete with elite-level reaction time is Toronto Raptors forward Kawhi Leonard. Like Curry, Leonard improved his reaction times with lots of training, this time with the help of strobe glasses. The former Spur used strobe glasses while training in the summer of 2016. These glasses project flashing lights within the goggles as the wearer performs specific drills, and these camera-like flashes help the brain do more as it needs to process different visual stimuli — like the sight of a ball mid-flight — and do specific tasks (e.g., dribbling or catching a ball) all while tuning out the flashing lights.
This type of training, referred to as stroboscopic sensory training, helps the brain become stronger, allowing it to process more information in less time. What’s more, the brain will be able to process visual information much faster when the vision is unencumbered by distractions, like flashing lights, for instance. This is akin to the world moving in slow motion, only the world does not actually move in slow motion; what happens instead is that the brain is working in hyperdrive, processing everything at faster speeds.
The science behind stroboscopic sensory training has been around for quite some time, and the great Michael Jordan even employed it in the late 1990s. In 2011, the Duke University study ‘Improved Visual Cognition through Stroboscopic Training’ showed that “stroboscopic training can effectively improve some, but not all aspects of visual perception and attention.” In the study, participants from two control groups were tasked to perform athletic activities, with one group doing so with stroboscopic eyewear. Key results were as follows:
- Those who wore the eyewear showed an increase in the ability to quickly process visual information.
- Those who wore the eyewear had a 25.7 percent improvement in visual motion sensitivity.
- Those who wore the eyewear improved accuracy performance by 2.21 percent; in contrast, the accuracy performance of those who didn’t wear the eyewear worsened by 0. 83 percent.
Exhibit C: TJ Carrie and the US Ski Team
Faster reaction times are dependent on stimulating the brain so that it is able to process information as fast as possible. Based off Curry’s and Leonard’s transformation into elite basketball players, stimulating the brain via flashing lights and overloading does seem to work. Other athletes are taking even more drastic measures, resorting to devices that purportedly stimulate the neurons in the motor cortex.
Halo Neuroscience founder Dr. Daniel Chao spoke to Medgadget about the device and assured everyone that the brain stimulation, called transcranial direct current stimulationor tDCS, was 100 percent safe. He also explained that the science itself is backed by over 15 years of research. The article ‘Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Sports Performance’ first published on Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Topflight athletes are physically gifted, and they are getting better thanks to sports science. The Business Insider feature on the intersection of sports and science claims that “science is creating super-athletes” by helping them maximize their brain and body. And you can expect it to continue to be an inextricable part of sports moving forward, with professional teams ultimately partnering with healthcare institutions to improve athlete performance. The Baylor Scott & White Sports Therapy & Research Center in Frisco, Texas, is the first of many future collaborations.
The next frontier, arguably, will be genetics, which according to Very Well Fit can shape one’s abilities to excel in sports
Eventually, genetic intervention may very well be available to athletes, too, although that opens a Pandora’s Box of moral issues, like the fairness (and wisdom) of tinkering with genes to improve athletic performance. That, however, is a different discussion altogether.
Kelly Jenson is a sports scientist and medical researcher. She was a former athlete and is currently compiling literature on the increasing role of neuroscience in sports.
Reaction Time and Reaction Speed Drills
Reaction time is the interval time between the presentation of a stimulus and the muscular response initiation to that stimulus. A primary factor affecting a response is the number of possible stimuli, each requiring their response, that is presented.
If there is only one possible response (simple reaction time), it will only take a short time to react. If there are several possible responses (choice reaction time), it will take longer to determine which response to carry out.
Hick (1952) discovered that the reaction time increases proportionally to the number of possible responses until a point at which the response time remains constant despite the increases in possible responses (Hick’s Law).
Improving Reaction Speed
Reaction time itself is an inherent ability, but overall response time can be improved by practice. Coach and athletes need to analyse the type of skill and the requirements of their sport and decide where overall response gains can be made. Consider the following:
- Detecting the cue – in a sprint start, focusing on the starter’s voice and the sound of the gun and separating this from background crowd noise and negative thoughts
- Detecting relevant cues – a goalkeeper learning to analyse body language at penalties
- Decision making – working on set pieces and game situations
- Change in attention focus – being able to switch quickly from concentration on the opponent to concentration on the field of play in invasion games
- Controlling anxiety – which slows reaction times by adding conflicting information
- Creating optimum levels of motivation – ‘psyching up’
- Warm-up – to ensure the sense organs and nervous system are ready to transmit information and the muscles to act upon it
Anticipation is a strategy used by athletes to reduce the time they take to respond to a stimulus, e. g. the tennis player who anticipates the type of serve the opponent will use (spatial or event anticipation). In this case, the player has learnt to detect certain cues early in the serving sequence that predicts the potential type of serve. This means the player can start to position himself or herself for the return earlier in the sequence than usual and give themselves more time to play the shot when the ball arrives. There are dangers for the tennis player in anticipating this way, but the advantages of getting it right are great.
Factors influencing response time
Response time is the sum of reaction time plus movement time. Factors that may influence the performer’s response are:
- Gender and age (see diagram – Davis (2000))
- Stage of learning
- Psychological state
- Level of fitness
- Number of possible responses
- Time available
- The intensity of the stimuli
- Body Temperature – colder the slower
- Personality – extroverts react quicker
- State of alertness
- Length of neural pathways
Reaction Speed Drills
The reaction speed drills’ objective is to improve your reaction time to a stimulus. The drills can include controlling an object (e.g. football or hockey puck). The cue for the reaction to take place can be visual (movement of an object) or a specific command (voice) or sound (starter’s gun). The cue should be appropriate to your event or sport – starter’s gun for a sprinter. The following are examples of reaction speed drills to an external stimulus.
|Applicable to any event or sport where pure speed over the ground is important|
|Starting position||Lying on the ground on their back or front|
|Command||Voice or sound|
|Action||To get up and sprint 20 to 30 metres to a designated point|
|Notes||The designated point could be the coach who moves from point to point so that the athlete only has the sound of the command to initially determine where the coach is positioned|
|For sports where a ball is to be controlled by the athlete|
|Starting position||Easy running controlling the ball|
|Command||Voice command of left, right, back or forward|
|Action||To sprint in the direction of the command for a designated distance, while controlling the ball, and then return to easy running|
|Notes||The drill can be repeated 3 or 4 times, bringing the athlete back to the starting point to pass the ball to the next athlete.|
|For sprinters to improve their reaction to the starting gun|
|Starting position||Standing tall and relaxed|
|Command||Blow on whistle or clap of the hands – given from behind the athlete|
|Action||The following should all happen together:
|Notes||It is assumed that the right foot is placed in the rear block of the starting blocks on a sprint start – if it is the left foot then change the leg action above|
|For sports where a ball is involved|
|Starting position||Use any static position – standing, sitting or lying down|
|Command||Coach standing in front drops the ball from shoulder height|
|Action||To sprint and catch the ball before its second bounce|
|Notes||Need to adjust where the coach stands to make the exercise most effective|
- DAVIS, B. et al. (2000) Physical Education and the study of sport. 4th ed. London: Harcourt Publishers. p. 312
- HICK, W.E. (1952) On the rate of gain of information. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 4, p. 11-26
The following references provide additional information on this topic:
- PAIN, M. T. and HIBBS, A. (2007) Sprint starts and the minimum auditory reaction time. Journal of sports sciences, 25 (1), p. 79-86
- ECKNER, J. T. et al. (2010) Pilot evaluation of a novel clinical test of reaction time in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players. Journal of athletic training, 45 (4), p. 327
- ASHTON-MILLER, J. A. et al. (2014) U.S. Patent No. 8,657,295. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office
- DEL ROSSI, G. et al. (2014) Practice Effects Associated With Repeated Assessment of a Clinical Test of Reaction Time. Journal of athletic training.
If you quote information from this page in your work, then the reference for this page is:
- MACKENZIE, B. (1998) Reaction Time [WWW] Available from: https://www.brianmac.co.uk/reaction.htm [Accessed
The following Sports Coach pages provide additional information on this topic:
reaction time – The Sport Journal
Authors:Ahmet Rahmi Günay * (1), Halil Ibrahim Ceylan (2), Filiz Fatma Çolakoğolu (3), Özcan Saygın (4)
(1, 2, 4) Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Faculty of Sports Sciences, Turkey. (3) Gazi University, Faculty of Sports Sciences, Turkey.
Halil Ibrahim Ceylan, Research Assistant
Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Faculty of Sports Sciences
halil. [email protected]
(1) Ahmet Rahmi Günay is a lecturer and doctoral student at the Gazi University studying Health and Coaching Sciences. He is also a Volleyball trainer.
(2) Halil İbrahim Ceylan is a Research Assistant and doctoral student at the Mugla Sitki Kocman University studying Health and Coaching Sciences.
(3) Filiz Fatma Çolakoğlu is a Professor at the Gazi University studying Training Sciences.
(4) Ozcan Saygin is a Professor in Sports Exercise Science at the Mugla Sitki Kocman University studying physical activity and fitness
Comparison of Coinciding Anticipation Timing and Reaction Time Performances of Adolescent Female Volleyball Players in Different Playing Positions
The purpose of this study was to compare coinciding anticipation timing (CAT) and reaction time performance of adolescent female volleyball players in different playing positions. Twenty-eight adolescent volleyball players (14 Outside players and 14 Middle players), who played volleyball in licensed infrastructure leagues and trained 5 days a week regularly, with an average age of 15. 0 ± 0.94 years, participated voluntarily. A Bassin Anticipation Timer was used to measure the CAT performance of the volleyball players at different stimulation speeds: Slow- 3 mph (1.34 m/s) and Fast- 8 mph (3.58 m/s). Visual, auditory, and mixed reaction times were measured with the Newtest 1000 Instrument. When the absolute error scores of volleyball players were compared according to playing positions, a statistically significant difference was found in the fast speed condition (t = -2.090, p = .047). A statistically significant difference was also observed in the mixed reaction time scores (t = -2.163, p = .040). Middle players had better CAT scores in the Fast condition and mixed reaction time performances than outside players. This is thought to be due to the different responsibilities of middle players in the game as compared with outside players. Because both offensive combinations and block responsibilities are more diversified for Middle players, CAT and reaction time performance of middle players are of greater importance. In order to reach top level performance, it is thought that a number of special exercises, in addition to volleyball training, should be done to improve the CAT performance. It is recommended to repeat the research in different age groups, different categories and different positions.(more…)
Measuring Reaction Time Experiment | HST Science Projects
For Olympic runners and swimmers, a fraction of a second is often the difference between winning a gold medal or a bronze!
Indeed, it’s the distance between winning any medal or returning home with nothing but hopes at another chance in four more years.
And while its impact is most dramatic in running events, speed isn’t only a matter of crossing the finish line first.
In sports, reaction time, the interval between stimulation and reaction, often determines who wins and who loses. Even more importantly, in real-life situations, like when driving a car, it can mean the difference between life and death.
Measure your reaction time with the following project.
What You Need:
What You Do:
- Have your partner sit or stand with their arm on the flat surface so their wrist extends beyond the edge.
- Hold the meter stick vertically above your partner’s hand, with the “0” end of the stick just above their thumb and forefinger, but not touching them.
- Instruct your partner to catch it as quickly as possible as soon as they see it begin to fall.
- Without warning your partner, drop the meter stick.
- Record how far it fell before your partner caught it. Consult the reaction time table to determine reaction time. Repeat at least two more times.
- Switch places with your partner and repeat.
In this experiment, your reaction time is how long it takes your eyes to tell your brain that the meter stick is falling and how long it takes your brain to tell your fingers to catch it. We can use the distance the meter stick fell before you caught it to figure out your reaction time. The following formula is the basis: d = 1/2 gt2.
In this formula, “d” equals the distance the object fell, “g” equals gravitational acceleration (9.8 m/s2), and “t” is the time the object was falling. To simplify the process, we’ve provided a reaction time table with the calculations already done.
Try it again with a dollar bill, only start with the bill halfway between the catcher’s thumb and pointer finger. If you’re really brave, you can up the ante and allow whoever catches the dollar bill to keep it. Unless someone anticipates the dollar bill being dropped, the 6-inch bill should fall completely through the catcher’s fingers before the typical human reaction time (about 1/4 second) allows them to catch it.
For further study:
- Talk about what sports depend on having a fast reaction time. How about real-life situations?
- Try the experiment on a variety of people of different ages. Whose reaction time is faster? Boys or girls? Adults or kids?
- Repeat the experiment, only this time, have the catcher whistling throughout. Did that make reaction time faster, slower, or the same?
- Can you improve your reaction time by repeating the experiment several times daily? Practice for a week then test yourself again to see.
More Sensory Projects:
Faster visual reaction times in elite athletes are not linked to better gaze stability
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Is ESPN Sport Science, sports science?
If you’ve ever watched SportsCenter, you have probably seen John Brenkus host segments on Sport Science. Whether analyzing Marshawn Lynch’s improbable playoff-clinching touchdown run or measuring the reaction time of NASCAR driver, Carl Edwards, Brenkus seeks to understand the sports we love utilizing cutting-edge science and technology.
Photo by Kelly Bailey
These segments are visually stunning and the conclusions are often informative.
Brenkus entertainingly brings sports science to the masses. In general, sports science is the study of mechanics and physics applied to human performance. In other words, sports science uses the tools and techniques available to analyze human movement to better understand how athletes perform at high levels.
At a deeper level, sports science exists to augment our understanding of the sports we play. If we can analyze a movement and understand ways to make it more efficient, our athletes will become better players.
Beneath the fancy technology of these segments, Brenkus analyzes the movements of the best professional athletes sports offers. Even more, he investigates what factors contribute to their success. A man always seeking answers, Brenkus notes,
“I love to think of questions and then try to find the most compelling answer. This is why I feel that science fits me so well. Although people think that science provides definite answers, for me, it constantly presents an endless sea of questions that need to be answered.”
Brenkus’ segments unveil the complexities of motion and function in a cool and interesting way. If you had access to Brenkus for a day, what would you want to study? In what ways could sports science add to athletic development?
The Many Elements of Sports Science
How awesome is it to have access to such a segment on SportsCenter? Not only do we have a chance to analyze the best in the business as they train, we get to learn in an entertaining way. The discipline of sports science possesses several defining elements. ESPN’s Sport Science focuses on one specific element, sports biomechanics, making it fun and intriguing for the public. For athletes to unlock their full potential, they need to couple sports biomechanics with functional fitness, nutrition, and mental edge.
What are your thoughts on John Brenkus and Sport Science? Do you enjoy his segments? In what ways could sports science help your athletic pursuits?
Share your thoughts below.
A Study of Individual and Team Game Players with Respect to Visual and Auditory Reaction TimeIn sports, there are many occasions where speed of reaction and speed of movement are very vital factors. Individuals who react quicker and move faster have an obvious advantage over those who are slow. Reaction time can be defined as the elapsed interval between presentation times of a stimulus, to the initiation of a response. This is called response latency and it is the time between one set of a stimulus to the initiation of an overt response. Reaction time is of great importance in the field of sports, because in all competitions especially higher ones, races and events are won or lost by fraction of a second. Putting the importance of reaction time into consideration, this investigation was undertaken to measure the ART & VRT of an individual and team game players; to find out differences between the sportsmen of the team game and the individual game with respect to visual and auditory disjunctive time. In this study, it was hypothesized that there would be no significant difference between the sportsmen of individual game and team game on visual disjunctive reaction time; and there would be no significant difference between sportsmen of individual games and team games on auditory disjunctive reaction time. This study was conducted using 200 top level sportsmen of eleven games. To compare the sportsmen on the basis of this sample, they were divided into two groups Those who participated in athletics, archery, cycling, gymnastics, swimming, weight lifting, and wrestling were included in the sports of individual pursuits; whereas the players of basketball, hockey, volleyball and Kabaddi were included in the group of team players on the basis of these two categories. The tool used in this study is Electronic Chronoscope. It was evidenced that there is a significant sex difference between male & female players with regard to VTR, both in the individual game as well as in team game (t=3.99p
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TY - CONF AU - Haricharan Gajbhiye PY - 2018/12 DA - 2018/12 TI - A Study of Individual and Team Game Players with Respect to Visual and Auditory Reaction Time BT - 2nd Yogyakarta International Seminar on Health, Physical Education, and Sport Science (YISHPESS 2018) and 1st Conference on Interdisciplinary Approach in Sports (CoIS 2018) PB - Atlantis Press SP - 630 EP - 631 SN - 2352-5398 UR - https://doi.org/10.2991/yishpess-cois-18.2018.161 DO - https://doi.org/10.2991/yishpess-cois-18.2018.161 ID - Gajbhiye2018/12 ER -90,000 Scientists have figured out how to make the most of the resources of the brain
Neuroresearchers from the Higher School of Economics and the Charite University Hospital in Berlin have proposed a method that can predict exactly when the brain processes information faster. This method makes it possible to predict a behavioral response to a stimulus based on the phase of oscillations recorded using electroencephalography (EEG). This approach, associated with the possible presentation of a stimulus at the most sensitive time intervals for its processing by the brain, may in the future find application in various fields, including therapy, education, and sports.The research results are published in the prestigious journal Neuroimage.
Even at rest, complex oscillations are generated in the human brain, which can be recorded using EEG.
These oscillations have different frequencies (for example, alpha oscillations ~ 10 Hz, beta ~ 20 Hz, theta ~ 7 Hz) and are recorded by devices as changes in the electric field generated by neurons. One of the popular hypotheses is related to the fact that a person’s ability to respond to various stimuli and, in general, to process information depends on what amplitude or phase of oscillations the signal arrives at.
Vadim Nikulin, one of the authors of the article, a leading researcher at the Center for Neuroeconomics and Cognitive Research at the Higher School of Economics, explains: “Imagine that a person is presented with words that need to be remembered as stimuli. It is interesting that how well he memorizes a word may depend on the parameters of the signal preceding the presentation of the word. Or another example: the start time at the hundred-meter race for the Olympians – the reaction to the starting shot can fluctuate in the range of tens of milliseconds.This is a fairly large spread in time, considering how important these very milliseconds at the finish line are. Even for one athlete, the response time to a starting stimulus can vary greatly. How quickly an athlete responds may depend on the state of his brain. In an optimal state for processing information, we respond to a stimulus faster, in an unfavorable neuronal state, more slowly. In turn, the optimal state, leading to the formation of fast reactions, is associated with specific vibration parameters. “
The fact that a person’s response to a stimulus depends on various factors, including what phase of low-frequency slow oscillations the stimulus fell on, was known to scientists earlier. But now researchers have succeeded in developing a new multidimensional method based on maximizing the relationship between the phase of oscillation and subsequent behavioral response. Scientists analyzed human brain activity recorded using 90 EEG electrodes, while taking into account, in contrast to previous studies, the multivariate distribution of vibration parameters for a more accurate prediction of reaction time.
A sensor was attached to the index finger of the dominant hand of the subjects, recording muscle activity in response to the supply of an electrical stimulus to the index finger of the other hand. With the help of an electroencephalogram, at the same moment, oscillations were recorded that were constantly present in the brain, but at the same time showed great variability. The authors showed that the reaction rate depends on the phase of pre-stimulus low-frequency (<1 Hz) oscillations.
According to scientists, the new method is important in terms of identifying the neural processes leading to optimal responses to stimuli.In the applied aspect, this can be relevant for professional athletes, as well as doctors: for example, to understand the pathological neuronal processes associated with Parkinson’s disease, in which patients experience difficulties in starting movement.
90,000 Ural contribution to the development of Russian sports
“Using more sensitive methods for extracting neuronal signals, we can find those phases of neuronal oscillations, against which people make the most of the resources of their brain,” says Vadim Nikulin. “And if you dream up and look into the future, you can imagine a foreign language school where students sit in comfortable electrode caps and learn new words that are presented during periods of maximum susceptibility of the brain to new information.”
|KULIKOV Leonid Mikhailovich – Rector of Ural State University of Physical Culture|
In the conditions of intensive development of physical culture and sports in Russia, graduates of the Ural State University of Physical Culture (UralSUPC) are becoming more and more in demand. However, the university not only prepares specialists for sports, but also conducts serious scientific research for the industry in its own research institute.
First of all, graduates of UralSUPC are coaches and teachers of various educational institutions. Every year, the only sports university in the Urals graduates about 1000 bachelors, specialists and masters in 40 sports and areas of medical and recreational work. The latest innovations concern the opening at the university of directions for physical rehabilitation and non-traditional methods of health improvement, sports dancing on the floor, billiards and physical culture of the East.Also, thanks to the university, the sports industry has recently begun to replenish with specialists in the field of jurisprudence, economics, management, psychology, public relations, adaptive physical culture.
Thus, UralSUPC has become a powerful base for providing the industry with personnel of various orientations. At the same time, among the big advantages is the fact that specialists who have received higher professional education at a specialized university and, thanks to this, have the most complete understanding of its features, have begun to come to the country’s sports industry not “from outside”.
Over the past years, the university is not only among the three best sports universities in Russia, but also occupies a leading position among the specialized higher educational institutions of the country. The names of its graduates are well known, as many of them have become outstanding athletes. Not a single competition of the largest scale – both in Soviet and Russian history – was complete without the participation of the pupils of Ural State University of Physical Culture. Among them are hockey players Sergei Mylnikov and Sergei Makarov, speed skating leader Tatyana Sidorova, judoka Grigory Verichev, marathon runner Leonid Moseev, swimmer Albert Bakaev and many other outstanding athletes who owe their education to the Chelyabinsk “sports” university.
And among the modern world sports stars there are many university graduates: biathlete Svetlana Ishmuratova, judoka Vitaly Makarov, hockey players Dmitry Kalinin, Evgeny Malkin and Alexander Selin, volleyball player Ekaterina Gamova, as well as girls from the Uralochka water polo team. It can take a very long time to list famous athletes whose names are associated not only with the loud victories of Russian sports, but also with the university.
One thing is clear – UralSUPC does not lose its positions over the years and multiplies the traditions established back in 1970, when the university appeared in Chelyabinsk as a branch of the Omsk State Institute of Physical Culture.Five years later, the university not only became independent, but also declared itself as an educational institution with great potential for training specialists in the field of sports. Today, more than 150 university students are members of the national teams of Russia. Is this not an indicator of the university’s success ?!
Of course, it will not be possible to raise an outstanding athlete from the first young man who comes across. But those who were able to pass the “sieve”, having successfully passed the exams for admission to Ural State University of Physical Culture, have every chance to make themselves an enviable career in the sports industry.The secret of educating professional athletes lies not only in modern approaches to the educational process. As befits in sports, students at Ural State University of Physical Culture from the first year are set up to win – and above all, in their studies.
The university united several structural divisions: the Chelyabinsk College of Physical Culture, the Chelyabinsk Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Education and the Intersectoral Regional Center for Advanced Studies and Professional Retraining of Physical Culture Personnel.A large scientific and educational complex, which is now the Ural State University of Physical Culture, provides the learning process from pre-university training to advanced training of graduates. Today, university graduates work in physical culture and sports organizations, educational institutions and other enterprises not only in the Ural Federal District, but also in the Kama region, Kazakhstan, Bashkortostan, Tatarstan and other regions of Russia and the CIS countries.
From study to science
UralSUPC is known not only for its graduates who have become famous athletes and coaches.It has one of the best scientific research institutes in the country on the problems of physical culture and sports, the developments of which are widely used in the sports industry in Russia. In the laboratories of biomechanics, biochemistry, functional and neurofunctional diagnostics of the Research Institute of Olympic Sports, Ural State University of Physical Culture, research is being carried out to collect the results of pedagogical and biomedical tests in the preparation of an athlete, to create an individual database for him, to predict the level of preparedness and performance of athletes, to monitor their state of health, as well as creating conditions for effective management of their actions.
The research results largely depend not only on the high professional level of the researchers, but also on the equipment used to obtain the initial data. In this respect, scientific research institutes of Olympic sports can envy many similar institutes.
For example, in the laboratory of functional diagnostics, which deals with the complex study of the main parameters of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems in athletes, the multifunctional system of cardiac monitoring “Centaur” and the diagnostic complex “Spirolit II” are used, which is used to assess the state of the level of fitness and determine the duration of a person’s rest.
The pride of the laboratory of biochemical research is the training and measuring complex, developed by the scientists of Ural State University of Physical Culture. It is widely used in various types of combat sports, in particular, for setting and measuring the parameters of impact, throwing at a sports equipment, as well as jerking movements. Also, a special computer video complex has been created in the laboratory, with the help of which the reaction time, the impulse of the impact force, the performance and endurance of the athlete, the accuracy of hitting a certain point and the flight path, for example, of a puck, are calculated. When examining with the help of a video complex, deviations in the athlete’s technique are revealed, which allows making adjustments to the training process.
On the basis of these laboratories, participants of both professional and youth teams are regularly examined, including handball, hockey, swimming, speed skating, cross-country skiing.
But in the laboratory of neurofunctional diagnostics of Ural State University of Physical Culture, also equipped with modern special equipment, you can see not only professional athletes, but also people who are simply engaged in physical education.In turn, the laboratory of neurophysiology has been carrying out large-scale research work since its establishment in continuation of the fundamental scientific direction “Adaptation of the human body to the effects of extreme environmental factors.”
The rich base of the university made it possible to open the Chelyabinsk State Scientific and Educational Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Education, conducting scientific activities in seven main theoretical areas.
High priority tasks
Of course, the students themselves take part in the research activities of UralSUPC. As a rule, it is they who represent the university at various conferences, competitions and olympiads of the city, regional and district levels. The university leadership supports students’ motivation for research activities and, in general, for mastering knowledge, creating the most favorable conditions for them both for study and for leisure.
For example, from the first days of study, freshmen are trying to adapt as quickly as possible to the university and include them in an active student life. Recently, a new building of the hostel for 535 places was inaugurated for future sports specialists, which received the unusual name of the Student House. To organize leisure time for young people at Ural State University of Physical Culture, there are a variety of creative teams, ranging from a traditional vocal ensemble and ending with a sports dance studio.
But the main thing that students are set up for at a “sports” university is, of course, study.One and a half dozen of the best students of Ural State University of Physical Culture, within the framework of the rally of excellent students of sports universities of Russia, annually rest in the resorts of Cyprus and Turkey. So the incentive to study and lead a healthy lifestyle at the Ural State University of Physical Culture is significant. And, given the specialization of the university, sports and recreation work is one of the highest priorities here. Since the sports industry is associated with health, then an athlete, in the understanding of the layman, personifies not only the desire for self-improvement, but also a healthy lifestyle to achieve the highest results.Therefore, he should be an example for those who are just going to join the sport.
The success of modern Russian athletes is now associated with raising the prestige of Russia at the world level, therefore, great hopes are pinned on them not only from the fans, but also from the state. And for this, the country creates the necessary conditions for athletes in the framework of the improving sports industry. She, in turn, must own the latest scientific developments and be staffed by professionals.Ural State University of Physical Culture makes a significant contribution to the implementation of this, without exaggeration, nationwide task.
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“Chess is a sport, science and art”
Several years ago there was talk of including chess in the program of the Winter Olympic Games. Then the Olympic Committee did not approve the application. It is all the more symbolic that in May the opening of a new educational program “Chess” took place at the Sirius Educational Center.In June, 16 young chess players from all over the country gathered in Sochi, a city of Olympic heritage, to receive lessons from the country’s best grandmasters. International Chess Master Mikhail Shereshevsky spoke about the peculiarities of working with young chess players from Sirius.
– Mikhail Izrailevich, among other pupils of “Sirius” chess players are clearly distinguished by their age …
– Modern chess is getting younger in general. It is becoming more and more difficult for a mature chess player to maintain concentration in the game.Previously, the optimal age for winning the title of world chess champion was 33 years old, today it is already the pre-retirement age for a chess player. The current world champion Magnus Carlsen is 25. In November our Sergey Karjakin will compete for this title, he is also 25. Now they become grandmasters at the age of 12. That is why we at Sirius, preparing a reserve for the national team of the country, are gathering the most promising young chess players born in 2005-2006.
Sergey Karjakin at a simultaneous game session with the pupils of the Sirius May shift
– Will these guys really defend the honor of the country at the international level?
– They are already protecting. However, so far in the individual championships. Each candidate for a participant in our program is approved by the Russian Chess Federation. I think one more – two sessions, and we will have the backbone of the reserve for the national team. But I must say that this is not for everyone. Kids in the classroom just fall asleep. At home, they got used to a different regime. Many do not go to school at all, are on individual training. Here you have to rebuild. Qualified chess help is necessary for each of them, but not everyone will be able to break their schedule.But, as they say, the fittest survives. Our tense regime in Sirius is quite natural from the point of view of what we are preparing the guys for. All championships are held at 14-15 o’clock, end at 20-21, depending on how the game lasts. And after a hard game both nervous tension and emotions are overwhelmed, it can be very difficult to fall asleep. If a chess player does not sleep well, it will be difficult to play, you need to keep concentration. It would be much easier for fifteen-year-old chess players to adapt, but our task is different – to teach schoolchildren to play as early as possible.
– Precisely because “chess is getting younger”?
– Today in chess it is necessary to give a person a lot of basic knowledge. In the regions, especially in the outback, children are far from always able to receive qualified coaching assistance. And it’s one thing to do it at 10 or 11 years old, and another thing at 15, when there are already other priorities in life, the question of admission is acute, and other problems appear. Therefore, this necessary flow of information should be given as early as possible, which is often simply impossible to obtain in the regions.There are not so many qualified trainers, even in the capitals, not everyone manages to get the necessary assistance, which they receive concentratedly here.
– How is the educational process of young Sirius chess players organized?
– Trainings in the morning and in the evening, in the daytime, the children are engaged in the school curriculum, they study English for an hour and a half a day. It is important. In the chess environment, it is the main international language. Active sports training is also included in their schedule – the guys must be outdoors.Of course, they get very tired, they are not yet used to this unusual schedule and regime.
– You have already said that sometimes it is difficult for chess players to fall asleep after games. Are there any other “professional injuries” besides insomnia in this sport?
– In any sport, a person is used to competing and associating it with something. He won, which means he is “faster, higher, stronger.” And in chess – although this is not quite the correct association – it turns out that the winning opponent is smarter.This often touches much deeper, sometimes it imposes serious psychological trauma. A person associates himself with his brain more than with his physical body. It happened that chess players ended their lives in institutions for the mentally ill. Therefore, it is rather risky to give strong loads to immature minds. You need to be more attentive to the details. If the boy’s hands are shaking during the game, then it is better for him to do something else right away than to spoil the nervous system, which will still come in handy. Our injuries are much more serious than a broken leg.
– In this regard, shouldn’t professional psychologists work with chess players?
– Unfortunately, most psychologists don’t understand anything about chess.
– At a meeting with the guys from the “Science” direction, you talked about the chess scandal between Kramnik and Topalov. Unlike other sports, a chess scandal is quite a unique phenomenon. Because it’s a very intelligent sport?
– To some extent so.Chess has always cultivated respect for the opponent, correctness, and honesty of the game. Many things are changing now. There is a lot of money in chess at a high level. It is tempting to win in a dishonest way. Today the whole world is fighting against doping. But the very adoption of doping does not guarantee victory in the tournament, the opponent may turn out to be stronger in any case. In chess, doping is a computer. He plays stronger than any champion. This is very serious.
– To popularize chess, you not only communicate with students from other areas, but also conduct a session of simultaneous play …
– Yes, this is more entertainment for pupils of other directions.When chess players play with amateurs, they hardly strain their heads.
– Is it generally possible to speak about the popularity of chess now?
– Chess is a popular sport. A lot of work is going on in Russia in this direction. Chess is introduced for universal education, appears in schools as part of electives. The White Boat competition was revived. All the changes are very positive today. Chess is becoming necessary again.
– And checkers?
– If we talk about Russian checkers, then it is already impossible to play in them, there is a draw everywhere. There is no such fighting dynamics, because all checkers are the same. There is no concept of attack. Of course, you can attack some weakened flank, but there is no king to attack. That is, in terms of content, this game is much poorer, only a few countries play it in the world.
– Speaking of the attack. Which position is considered more advantageous: attacking or defensive?
– As a rule, in order to get an attack, you need to sacrifice something. There are chess players who are ready to part with some material and attack.And there are those who are ready to defend this material and then, for example, convert the same “extra” pawn. In the history of chess, Tal was always ready to attack, and Petrosyan was always ready to fight back. But now chess has become very versatile. There are already few one-sided chess players, they have no chances at a high level. You need to be able to do both.
– Do you think chess will ever become an Olympic sport?
– I don’t think the story of bringing chess to the Olympic program is over. Completely new sports are being introduced, and chess has been around for many years. People have long been arguing about what chess is: sport, science or art. Chess is all together, but the sports component of chess prevails over the rest. With the advent of the computer, the flow of information has increased significantly. The specifics are different, different training, the rules are tightened. Today it is impossible to think about the move for half an hour, as it was before. If you think about it for such a time, you will almost certainly find yourself in time trouble. Different approaches, different intensity.
– You mentioned that chess is a kind of symbiosis of sport, science and art. Everything is clear with sports and science. Where is the power of art in chess manifested?
– The problem with chess is that they cannot go to the TV screen. When a person starts watching tennis or high jumps, literally in a minute he begins to empathize, everything is clear to him. The rules in chess are quite complex. In order to understand what is happening, you need to have a certain qualification.For most people, some kind of queen sacrifice seems very beautiful, for professional viewers this is quite commonplace. But Karpov’s maneuver – a knight from F3 to F1 – seems fantastic, although most people will not understand anything. Only a narrow, prepared audience understands the art of chess.
– At the opening of the chess direction, Vladimir Borisovich Kramnik noted that he considers himself a creative person. Is this a system or rather an exception to the rule? How creative are chess players?
– There is a lot of room for creativity in chess.Almost all chess players are creative people, because this game itself is very imprecise, there are many components that need to be taken into account. In chess, you need to make decisions and be responsible for them; a non-creative person simply cannot do this.
– Everything is clear about the benefits of chess for the individual. Even now, you spoke about the need to make decisions and be responsible for them. But what is the benefit to society from chess players?
– The question is rather difficult.If you do not take the platitudes – the separation of children from the street, from drugs and alcohol … It just happens in any sport. But chess, for example, has greatly contributed to the development of computer technology. They are one of the most successful models for creating artificial intelligence. Previously, the computer was just sorting through the options, but now it often makes intelligent decisions. A simple enumeration of options will not win a single world champion.
Ismailov A.I., Dyshakov I.S. Anticipation and reaction time of mountain bike cyclistsUDC 796.61 + 796.093.56
Anticipation and reaction time of mountain bike cyclists
Asomiddin Ismailovich Ismailov , Candidate of Pedagogy, Professor, Ilya Sergeevich Dyshakov , Postgraduate Student, Russian State University of Physical Culture, Youth Sports and Tourism, Moscow
The article is devoted to the research of anticipation and reaction speed, characteristic of athletes of various qualifications, specializing in cross-country mountain bike races in extreme situations.The data obtained as a result of the study allows us to conclude about the importance of training, aimed at improving the ability to anticipate, at the initial stages of training. The article discusses the theoretical aspects of the concept of “anticipation” and the peculiarities of its manifestation in the process of training and competitive activity of cyclists. Also, a methodology for correcting anticipation training and reaction time has been developed.
Keywords: reaction, tactical thinking, anticipation, extreme situations, decision making, mountain bike cycling.
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Received on 28.04.2020Show full text
1. Milliseconds in our life
1 ms = 10 −3 c
The first stop on our journey into the depth of a second is the millisecond range, which ranges from one thousandth of a second to a whole second.Phenomena lasting a hundred milliseconds are felt by a person as truly lasting , and less than a couple of tens of milliseconds are already instantaneous. Here is a modern everyday example of this observation: if the program interface responds to a user’s click after 0.1 seconds, the user usually feels a delay. If it is much faster, the user perceives the reaction of the interface as instant.
Our life is full of events of millisecond duration; here are some time estimates for simple mechanical phenomena.A body released from a height of one meter falls for about half a second. A ball bouncing 1 cm above the table makes one bounce in 90 ms and, therefore, knocks at a frequency of about 11 Hertz. Do this experiment yourself – and you will see that one bounce does not look completely instantaneous to you.
The millisecond range is quite accessible to human movements. One blink lasts about a third of a second. Human reaction times are on the order of 100-200 ms – plus the time it takes to perform an action in response to a stimulus (check yourself online!).By drumming your fingers on the table, you can produce more than 10 beats per second. Some virtuoso guitarists are able to play the famous superfast miniature by Rimsky-Korsakov “The Flight of the Bumblebee” on the guitar, setting the metronome at 600 beats per minute. A professional typist types on the keyboard from 50 to 100 words per minute – each character takes about a hundred milliseconds. Well, “champions of the spoken genre” are able to pronounce up to ten words per second – facial muscles at such a pace must coordinate their work with an accuracy of tens of milliseconds!
In many sports, you also have to make decisions and coordinate your movements on a scale in a split second.The ball from a powerful penalty flies into the target in less than half a second – and the goalkeeper needs not only to react to this blow, but also to try to reach the ball. In table tennis, players can exchange strokes faster than once a second – imagine how many actions it takes to fit in that time frame! Even in chess, at the peak moment of a blitz game, moves are performed faster than once a second, and during this time the chess player does not just perform a mechanical action, but manages to think over his move and react to the opponent’s move.
In general, the output is very simple:
|90,027 tenths, and sometimes hundredths of a second, is a completely human range of times.|
A person is quite capable of performing and recognizing these movements, and they do not merge in consciousness with each other.
Senior teacher – Seredina Galina Evgenievna
Teacher – Ekaterina V. Nedostupova
Alexandra Vlasova (columnPL-101): “At VolSU, I chose the“ Fitness ”section, as it is not only an opportunity to keep muscles in good shape and lead a healthy lifestyle: students can express themselves in various sports events. The teachers who lead classes in the section are not only instructors, but also choreographers, together we put on wonderful dance compositions. By nature, I am a leader, and after giving 12 years to sports, I can continue to show my results and prove my sportsmanship. The Fitness section gives me this opportunity.If you are a sports student, leading a healthy lifestyle and having leadership potential, then the “Fitness” section is for you! ”
Senior teacher – Natalya Vladimirovna Svederek, teacher – Svetlana Pavlovna Aladko
Sevinj Kerimkhanova (As-101): “I try to keep myself in shape. Aerobic exercise is very beneficial for your health. The section is led by a sensitive, kind and talented teacher – Natalya Vladimirovna Svederek .Each time she comes up with something new and exciting, thereby making the classes more interesting. On health-improving aerobics, you can jump to the music on the steps, work out with a fitball, and do stretching. Thanks to such a variety of programs, I am always in a great mood and I feel great. ”
Senior teacher – Alexander Vladimirovich Shvadegulin, teacher – Svetlana Pavlovna Aladko
Yulia Kruglikova (PM-111): “Why do I love table tennis? Table tennis is not just a hobby or a sport, it is a lifestyle! It is beyond words how you feel when you play! Of course, a lot depends on the coach, so I thank fate that she brought me together with the talented coach Svetlana Aleksandrovna Rybinets .This is a real mentor not only in sports, but also in life. I think we will achieve great success together with her! ”
Nikolay Samoshin (group SR-091): “I like table tennis since childhood, so when I entered VolSU, I chose it. I have been going to the section for three years and during this time I have never thought about any other. Table tennis is a very addicting game that promotes coordination and reaction. Our university provides good conditions for playing table tennis, but most importantly, we have wonderful coaches. “
Alexey Tikhonov (PLb-101): “My schedule is very busy, and the section of the sports and fitness center allows you to conveniently plan your time. Why did I choose the Table Tennis section? Because my future profession involves reading a lot of books, which is exhausting for the eyes. And the game of table tennis gives a good exercise for the eyes, plus each lesson with our coach is a burst of energy, cheerfulness and good mood! ”
Senior teacher – Gladkova Tatyana Vitalievna
Ilya Smirnov (columnAN-092): “Why do I love badminton? Because he gives me something that is not always possible to get in real life. These are friends who are known in the game, endurance and will to win, which are manifested only on the site, and, of course, invaluable experience gained from a good coach and mentor. Playing badminton, you forget about your problems, about all the hustle and bustle of life. There is only you, the racket and the court. This feeling is more expensive than gold and more beautiful than the Mona Lisa! “.
Teacher – Alexander Vladimirovich Litvinov
Alexandra Leonova (columnEPb-111): “The love of playing volleyball has been instilled in me since early childhood: my mother used to play volleyball professionally. When I entered VolSU and saw a huge list of sports and fitness sections, I didn’t have to choose for a long time: I immediately decided to enroll in the “Volleyball” section. For me, the advantages lie, first of all, in the team spirit, quick reaction, the ability to quickly and correctly find a solution, plus excellent athletic form, which is also important for a girl. ”
Senior teacher – Vadim A. Zauloshnov
Kirill Komissarov (columnMB-081): “Having entered VolSU, I decided that I would certainly enroll in some section. And since I was interested in martial arts since childhood (especially oriental ones), when I learned that there is a karate-do section at the university, that’s where I signed up. From the very first lessons, I was fascinated by the training process, the approach to training and the high level of mastery of the sensei (coach), the people around me, the convenient schedule of classes, etc. And when I had my first victories in competitions, I realized that karate for me is not a temporary hobby, but a serious occupation. “
Senior teacher – Popovich Alexey Alexandrovich
Students Alexander Lyutov (group BIB-081) and Miguel Drinov (PIE-081): “Of all the sports sections of Volgograd State University, we give preference to basketball. Basketball is a very smart and tactical game where success is only possible through the combined efforts of the entire team. Basketball teaches you to think differently, take into account, first of all, the interests of your partners, make informed and timely decisions in a matter of seconds, see the situation several steps ahead.This is an invaluable experience and, in our opinion, the best ball game. ”
Senior teacher – Vitaly Yakovlevich Kutenkov
Elena Cherkashina (group MOS-101): “I chose the“ Athletic Fitness ”section because I like training on simulators. They help me keep fit. After all, a girl should always look good. ”
Lecturer – Andrey Podvizhniy
Teacher – Sergey Olegovich Nikitin
Kirill Kuzmin (columnME-101): “Sport for me is more than just a way of life. This is my element. I do not understand people who deliberately exclude any physical activity. Our student life is full of many events; there is not always time to go to a fitness club regularly. The university gives us the opportunity to attend sports and fitness sections, thereby saving our time. I chose the section “Athletic gymnastics”, I enjoy doing sports and try to keep myself in shape. ”
Egor Petrov (columnPM-111): “I decided to go to the section“ Athletic gymnastics ”because it helps me to be more organized, athletic, strong, and makes me want to make every effort to compete, because sports interest is one of higher pleasures. ”
OFP and HLS
Senior teacher – Goshta Irina Ivanovna
Assistant of the Department of Telecommunication Systems D.S. Kucheruk : “I am used to leading an active lifestyle, so the best rest after work for me is a healthy lifestyle and physical training.Good equipment of gyms, as well as the professionalism of the mentor, an individual approach to everyone leaves the most favorable impression and strengthens the desire to improve physically. ”
Julia Yaschenko (group D-091): “I decided to go to I Rina Valerievna Boltukhova , to the section“ General physical training and healthy lifestyle ”, because the exercises she offers are diverse and contribute to strengthening muscles, give flexibility of joints, correct posture.All the exercises in this section are aimed at maintaining a healthy lifestyle, which I do with pleasure. ”.