STX Proton Power Lacrosse Head Review
From the best-selling Proton family, we have the STX Proton Power. The head features STX Forward Cant technology, a new aerodynamic design and a scoop which allows for extra flex when shooting. It has the perfect shape for maximum ball control with pin point accuracy when shooting and catching the ball. The head is NFHS compliant only.
Weighing in at 132g (4.7oz) puts it in the light category. It’s not as light as a STX Super Power (127g / 4.5oz), or a Warrior Noz X (122g /4.3oz), but it falls well below the Brine Clutch 2 (146g / 5.2oz). We really liked the weight primarily because it was so easy to tell when we had the ball.
Taking a close look at the scoop, there’s no excessive bulk or lips at the back. These can lift the tip off the ground when going for ground balls. The back side is also smooth enough to give you a wide enough angle to approach the ball at. The scoop is reportedly different to the previous Proton model, so if you’re upgrading from a Proton, there may be a small period of adjustment.
The tip of the Proton Power finds a good balance between being ground ball friendly and accurate. We found it’s forgiving enough if you going for a pickup slightly off centre. Any flatter and we feel you’d have to do a lot more work with your stringing to get a good channel. We found this head to be extremely accurate when passing and shooting.
The scoop is quite bendable, but this is where the extra flex for shooting comes in. Combined with the Forward Cant, you’ll feel a bit of a whip with your cranks. It felt a bit odd at first when we felt the flex, but soon got used it to. If anything, it felt weird going back to our trusty PL66.
SidewallsSTX Proton Power Lacrosse Head – You can really see the forward cant in this shot
An interesting thing with this head is the stringing holes. Most of the modern lacrosse heads have a plethora of stringing holes, but not this head. The stringing holes are reinforced like on the STX Super Power, so we’re unsure why they didn’t have more. Still, there’s enough to string a great pocket.
The stringing holes are quite tight. When stringing the head, I don’t remember ever thinking “Gee, this is easy“. But once the pocket is set and the sidewall laces tied off, they don’t move. We strung a mid-pocket, which worked really well for us. The ball felt really nice, and it was very smooth when changing from cradling to winding up for a shot. A higher pocket, or “shooter pocket” is recommended, but we didn’t try it. A low pocket is not recommended for this head. We go into more detail about this in the throat section.
The pinch is quite nice and offers a good hold for a mid-pocket. As always with heads that have a tight pinch, you need to make sure it doesn’t pinch too much and make it illegal. You can put a piece of wood slightly wider than a lacrosse ball between the sidewalls where they pinch to keep it legal.
We do love the odd stick trick and it is unfortunate that you can’t roll the ball along the outside of the sidewalls. You know the trick where you throw the ball up and catch it on the side wall and throw it up to the other side? If you’re a bit of a show off, like us, you will be disappointed.
ThroatSTX Proton Power Lacrosse Head – A closer view of the throat and where the sidewalls attach
One glance at the throat and you’ll see it doesn’t have that long pronounced channel that you get from NCAA heads. But the gradually diverging opening works very well in creating a great channel.
We found our initial stringing of the head was illegal. The ball wouldn’t roll out of the throat of the head when held upright and tilted forward. We had to make stringing adjustments to the bottom sidewall strings to ensure they didn’t interfere and also change the bottom strings to ensure the ball didn’t get caught behind the ball stop. These were minor adjustments, but with the potential for extra pinching from general wear and tear this may end up being something you’ll need to address regularly. Stringing a low pocket is not recommended.
If you do string traditional kits, you’ll be disappointed to know that there are only two holes at the bottom. You’ll have to double up with the leathers or be creative in coming up with other options. We strung mesh and found the bottom sidewall holes compensated well.
We’re unsure what the specific goal of the island ball stop is. We weren’t able to identify any real advantage.
The throat does give birth to a great pocket channel. Our passing and shooting was spot on. This head loves releasing the ball.
The sidewalls are attached lower on the throat, which increases stability and strength. The head is quite flexible and we’d hate to see how stiff it would be (or not be) without this.
The STX Proton Power is not the stiffest head going around. The scoop has been designed to have an amount of flex to it, so if a stiff head is what you feel you need, this is not the head for you. Likewise, if you like to poke check or have a bit of agro about you, look elsewhere.
You may get some bend if you go aggressively at a ground ball and won’t hold its shape for long in a faceoff. But the head is easily bent back into shape, if it doesn’t go on its own.
STX lacrosse heads seem to be a tighter fit on lacrosse shafts than the others. It’s tight on an STX handle, and may be a bit trickier to get on shafts from other brands. Generally, all heads fit on all shafts, but you may have to use a bit more force with this one.
We found this head to be too flexible for defence. It felt a bit too flimsy. But it’s not designed with defence in mind so we don’t see this being an issue. If you play long stick midfield you could consider this, but with the flex in the scoop we just can’t see it being a good decision.
If you find you take the odd face off, this will hold up well. The streamlined sidewalls get you close to the ground, which is a nice bonus. The lack of stiffness means you won’t be able to take the most aggressive face off, but more agile face off manoeuvres should be fine.
The STX Proton Power is designed for attackers and midfielders. It’s designed to shoot goals and give accurate feeds. Nuff said.
How can you not love this head? There are other heads lighter, stronger, stiffer and all that. But the STX Proton Power epitomises that which is lacrosse. It is a goal scoring head.
It’s not manufactured with ACP (
Confining h4PO4 network in covalent organic frameworks enables proton super flow
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5-year-old proton therapy patient shows courage is ‘more than meets the eye’
Friday, April 13, 2018
Hudson Brown, 5, of Grosse Pointe Farms, is like lots of kids his age: he’s passionate about Legos, T-ball, family and his favorite toy – Bumblebee, a Transformers robot.
Unlike most 5 year olds: he was diagnosed with a large brain tumor in January.
Unbeknownst to Hudson, one of the Transformers actors, Mark Wahlberg, would reach out to offer his support and prayers.
Like the super power of Transformers, his parents and doctors turned to a medical super power – protons, to destroy his cancer cells. Patrick and Megan Brown felt blessed.
One of the most advanced proton therapy centers in the nation at Beaumont Hospital in Royal Oak is just minutes from their home. The center is one of just 28 proton therapy centers in the U.S. and the only operational proton therapy center in Michigan.
What began as a trip to the ER at a major Detroit hospital for a debilitating headache, quickly became a cancer diagnosis. “The news hit us like a truck. It’s your worst nightmare. We know we had to do whatever we can to give Hudson the best chance,” explained Megan, his mother.
Biopsy confirmed cancer
Doctors ordered a CT and MRI. They found a large tumor on the back of Hudson’s brain. The following day, surgeons removed most of the tumor. A biopsy confirmed cancer – medulloblastoma. The next nine days Hudson was in a pediatric intensive care unit. His pediatric oncologist encouraged the Browns to seek proton therapy at Beaumont. After hearing about the benefits of proton therapy, the Browns contacted doctors at the center in Royal Oak.
Proton therapy uses positively charged atomic particles, traveling up to two-thirds the speed of light, to fight cancer. A cyclotron, or particle accelerator, creates protons from hydrogen molecules. The therapy is a high-tech alternative to X-ray radiation. Compared to X-ray beams, which pass through a patient, proton beams deliver targeted radiation to the tumor and then stop, resulting in no exit dose.
Peter Chen, M. D., Hudson’s radiation oncologist at Beaumont explained, “For children, those most vulnerable and susceptible to the damage of traditional radiation, proton therapy offers greater precision to destroy cancer cells, sparing nearby healthy tissue from harmful radiation, with fewer side effects.”
High-tech therapy close to home
Megan said, “Hudson was the first cranial-spinal patient at Beaumont’s Proton Therapy Center. We feel so blessed. We did not have to travel to Chicago or Boston for this high-tech treatment. It’s only 30 minutes from home. We’re so lucky, if this happened one year ago, we’d have to relocate our family for six weeks.”
Like Bumblebee the autobot, Hudson is small in stature, but his parents refer to his big heart. “He’s a sweet kid who thinks of others first. Hudson can be silly,” said his father, Patrick. “He likes to tell jokes and make other people laugh. His motivation is to get home and have fun with family and friends.”
Both of his parents are elementary school teachers in Grosse Pointe, although Megan took a leave of absence from her classroom after his diagnosis. “He is in pre-kindergarten. He loves his classes and teachers. One of his obsessions is Legos.”
Hudson is the middle child, with a younger sister, Cecelia, 2 and older sister, Emmy, 7.
Therapies: Proton, Maddie
Hudson received 30 proton treatments, Monday through Friday, for six weeks. Each day, they’d leave their home at 7:45 a.m. Admitted Megan, “Sometimes it was a struggle to get him to Beaumont each morning.” He was not allowed to eat breakfast before his treatments.
The first couple days of treatment were the most challenging. “Hudson didn’t know what to expect. But, each day got easier,” said Megan. “The nurses, doctors, technicians, staff and volunteers were amazing. They did everything possible to make it easy for him – playing music he likes, letting him pick the colors in the treatment room and then, there’s Maddie the therapy dog.”
During the first week, Hudson was introduced to Maddie. They bonded. Later, in the anesthesia room, the dog climbed in bed with him. It was so calming for him.
After seeing how Hudson reacted to Maddie, her trainer, Carla Grava, brought the dog to every treatment.
Said Megan, “From the time we arrive, Maddie doesn’t leave his side. The dog is even present when he wakes up from his sleepy medicine.”
Hudson’s treatment plan includes proton therapy and chemotherapy. Dr. Chen explained, “Hudson has a tumor of the cerebellum, the back part of the brain, which affects his balance. It’s called medulloblastoma. These types of cancerous tumors have a tendency to spread through cerebral spinal fluid, putting the entire spine at risk for the spread of cancer.”
By using proton beam technology, Dr. Chen and the team treated Hudson’s brain and spine. Because there is no exit dose with protons, no harmful radiation was delivered to his mouth, neck, chest, abdomen or pelvis – sparing vital organs such as the heart.
“It’s been an amazing gift to have the Proton Therapy Center so close. Everyone there has been positive, patient, upbeat and kind,” said Patrick. “We’ve also been incredibly blessed – community, neighbors, family, school staff – all have been so supportive.” Friends even created a Facebook page, “#HudsyStrong.”
Bumblebee and other surprises
With Hudson wrapping up his proton treatments the second week of April, Megan got to thinking how they should celebrate his milestone. With his love of Transformers movies, and Bumblebee, she had an idea, “It just hit me. I should get a yellow car, his Bumblebee, to drive him to his end-of-treatment celebration at the Proton Therapy Center.”
People in her network gladly helped, turning her idea into reality. A yellow and black Challenger, along with a caravan of Camaros from the Motor City Camaro Club, drove him and his family to Beaumont where he rang the end-of-proton-treatment bell.
And when Transformers actor Mark Wahlberg heard of Hudson’s celebration, he wanted to help and made sure he and his party guests enjoyed his favorite food: hamburgers, courtesy of Wahlburgers in Detroit. Along with the food, Mark created a short video message for Hudson and mentioned how he looks forward to meeting him.
While Hudson has completed his proton treatments at Beaumont, in May, he begins more chemotherapy.
Said Megan, “Our doctors are fairly confident with the proton and chemo therapies, Hudson should have a great prognosis. Their optimism keeps us going.”
Patrick said Hudson has an affinity for “Fight Song” by Rachel Platten, “The one day we drove to his proton treatment, he sang it five times. We talk about not giving up, and when you have fight in you, that means you’re strong – even when things are hard.”
The song’s lyrics are Hudson’s favorite, “Like a small boat on the ocean, sending big waves into motion … know I’ve still got a lot of fight left in me.”
“5-year-old proton therapy patient shows courage is ‘more than meets the eye’ https://ctt.ec/add5n+ via @beaumonthealth #HudsyStrong” [Click to tweet]
Proton colliders at the energy frontier
Since the first proton collisions at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR) (Johnsen, 1973; Myers, 2010) [, ], hadron colliders have defined the energy frontier (Scandale, 2014) . Noteworthy are the conversion of the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) (Hatton, 1991; Evans, 1988) [, ] into a proton–antiproton collider, the Tevatron proton–antiproton collider (Lebedev and Shiltsev, 2014) , as well as the abandoned SSC in the United States (Jackson et al., 1986; Wienands, 1997) [, ], and early forward-looking studies of even higher-energy colliders (Keil, 1992; Keil, 1997; Barletta and Leutz, 1994; The VLHC Design Study Grup (Ambrosio et al.) 2001) [, , , ]. Hadron colliders are likely to determine the pace of particle-physics progress also during the next hundred years. Discoveries at past hadron colliders were essential for establishing the so-called Standard Model of particle physics. The world’s present flagship collider, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) (Brüning et al., 2004) , including its high-luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC) (Apollinari et al., 2017) , is set to operate through the second half of the 2030’s. Further increases of the energy reach during the 21st century require another, still more powerful hadron collider. Three options for a next hadron collider are presently under investigation. The Future Circular Collider (FCC) study, hosted by CERN, is designing a 100 TeV collider, to be installed inside a new 100 km tunnel in the Lake Geneva basin. A similar 100-km collider, called Super proton–proton Collider (SppC), is being pursued by CAS-IHEP in China. In either machine, for the first time in hadron storage rings, synchrotron radiation damping will be significant, with a damping time of the order of 1 h. In parallel, the synchrotron-radiation power emitted inside the cold magnets becomes an important design constraint. One important difference between FCC and SppC is the magnet technology. FCC uses 16 T magnets based on Nb3Sn superconductor, while SppC magnets shall be realized with cables made from iron-based high-temperature superconductor. Initially the SppC magnets are assumed to provide a more moderate dipole field of 12 T, but they can later be pushed to a final ultimate field of 24 T. A third collider presently under study is the High-Energy LHC (HE-LHC), which is a higher energy collider in the existing LHC tunnel, exploiting the FCC magnet technology in order to essentially double the LHC energy at significantly higher luminosity.
Return of the Pyromaniax: Proton Power and its hydrous pyrolysis process for super low-cost hydrogen : Biofuels Digest
A new wonder technology to behold: über low-cost hydrous pyrolysis for power and fuels.
What’s up at the front lines with the pyro kings?
A few weeks ago, in our continuing coverage of recent advances in cheap, affordable biobased hydrogen — meaning sub-$2 per kilo hydrogen gas — enough to light up the economics of fuel cell vehicles — we briefly profiled a closely-followed yet slightly mysterious pyro company called Proton Power.
At that time, we related brief notes received last summer from Jim Bierkamp, their business development manager:
“PPI has been in existence since 2009, and what we have come up with is basically a way to make inexpensive hydrogen – we can do it for less than $2/kg. We are doing this using a patented pyrolysis process that we call CHyP (Cellulose to Hydrogen Power). We have been flying under the radar from a publicity standpoint, but that is about to change in that we will be starting up our first electricity-generating project – a 750kw switchgrass to electricity project utilizing our CHyP technology – and we will be bringing a 1M gal/yr liquid fuels plant online in 3Q of this year at which we will be demonstrating that we can make diesel fuel, for example, for about $1.75/gal. We currently have an order backlog of $320M in real projects.”
Readers asked for more. What is this company, exactly? So, this week we spoke with company co-founder Sam Weaver.
The skinny on Proton Power
The bottom line, Sam tells us: “If we’re going to solve this problem of the sustainable economy, the technologies have to be cost competitive with fossil fuels. This process is carbon-negative, producing hydrogen gas or liquid fuels, plus a high temp biochar that is very stable in the ground. It’s a high PH (10-11) biochar with a surface area like an activated carbon.”
Here’s the big takeaway: “Fundamentally, if we can get feedstock lower than $40/ton we can be lower than gas as the lowest cost producer of electricity.”
Who are these guys? Weaver and his partner have built four companies over 42 years, and retired a few years back, “but both my sons said they knew I was not really going to retire, and then my partner called and said ‘let’s do something again’. And one thing we talked about, a product we made late to mid 80s — we made carbon fibers using a pyro process and rayon. And our reactors, we remembered, had a huge flame coming out of reactor, and we had to be so careful about that hydrogen flame.”
So, hydrogen. Or, rather, low-cost hydrogen. Why? What’s the secret to high yields?
“It’s not typical pyrolysis, this is hydrous pyrolysis, where utilize some of the water to create the hydrogen. And, our system is dynamic, we are pulling the gas away, and we get a different equilibrium (than other developers). you’ll get a different equilibrium.”
How wet can the biomass be? “We can use 40 percent moisture for power, but for fuel we need it to be dry as possible, and in that case with get 15% hydrogen content with bone-dry biomass.”
What about input costs for sub $2 per kg hydrogen? “Typically we use $60 / bone dry metric ton for feedstocks.”
How far is the company along in terms of building a team, and getting third-party confirmation of the results? “When we build a company we build a team – never a one man show, right now we have almost 100 people, 20 are engineers. After we built our first reactor, and it worked just the way it was supposed to, so we brought in Shaw Environmental Group to make sure we weren’t just fooling ourselves. They confirmed what we were seeing.”
What about the business model? “Our business model is different, we are manufacturers of turn key systems for others, most others are owner operators. ”
Back to liquid fuels for a moment — with pyro system you’re getting bio-oil, which has required hydrotreating to be utilized by refiners. Is that what’s happening here?
More on the way? What’s still in stealth at Proton Power?
“We have the advantage of making our own hydrogen. But i tell you, we had come up with something but it was very difficult. You see, back in the early 2000s we built a system for the University of Tennesee. We headed down the standard path in cellulose to liquid fuels. Like everyone on that path, we had the same catalyzed fluidized bed, and ended up with same thing. We should have named it acidic oxygenated stew of molecules, refiners are not able to use it.
“But, recently we saw a better way, and just before Christmas we had sort of a miracle, where right out of the process we are getting hydrocarbon molecules, via a very different process. We were stunned, but we’re not really talking about that, we’re still writing the patents.”
More on the company
The website is here.
Here’s a cool vid.
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News — Proton Power, Inc.
Cool Energy, Inc. Awarded $1 Million Grant From DOE for World’s Most Efficient Stirling Engine
Boulder, Colorado – July 23, 2013 – Cool Energy, Inc., a clean energy power generation company and sister company of Proton Power, Inc., with headquarters in Boulder, Colorado, announced today that it has been awarded a $1 million Phase II Small Business Innovation Research grant form the U.S. Department of Energy. The grant will support a program to demonstrate electricity generation from untapped heat from distributed geothermal sources. The grant will allow Cool Energy to build and test their first 20 kW prototype Stirling engine to generate electricity from co-produced liquids at oil and gas wells. The recoverable heat in these liquids is currently wasted, as is the potentially valuable heat from pumps and compressors, as well as geothermal heat from non-producing wells.
“If widely deployed in appropriate heat recovery sectors, our power generation technology could replace up to 300 fossil fuel power plants,” said Sam Weaver, Jr., CEO of Cool Energy. “Given recent advances in our designs, there is an opportunity for electricity cost savings and emissions reductions in oil and gas fields, which have significant thermal energy sources all around them. This is the most important increase in output capacity that Cool Energy has undertaken since beginning to develop Stirling engines for waste heat recovery six years ago.”
The “GeoHeart Engine” will convert heat from liquids extracted from the ground to make zero-emissions energy. The Cool Energy technology will recapture energy from liquids that are in the temperature range 100C – 200C. This temperature is ideally suited for the company’s low temperature waste heat recovery (WHR) system. The heat can be safely and efficiently converted into electricity that can be used onsite to offset the power needed for the operation of the wells, or sold to the local utility and added directly into the power grid. This approach to oilfield power production will prevent some of the carbon emissions generated from these activities. Cool Energy will also study another application of the GeoHeart Engine, using spent wells that are no longer producing petroleum to heat fluids to make emissions-free electricity.
About Cool Energy
Cool Energy is a privately-held power conversion equipment corporation based in Boulder, Colorado. The company was founded in 2006 to develop a thermal-to-electricity power generation system for converting waste heat from engines and industrial processes into clean electricity. The company has received grants and contracts from the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Colorado Governor’s Energy Office, and has 10 patents awarded or pending.
More information is available at www.CoolEnergy.com.90,000 Polarized fuel will increase the efficiency of fusion reactors
Scientists from Novosibirsk and Germany are exploring the possibility of
obtaining new fuel from nuclear-polarized particles
(mainly deuterium), which can increase the efficiency
thermonuclear reactors, within the framework of the joint project “Towards molecular
source of polarized deuterium fuel for nuclear research
synthesis and other applications ”.
Developing uncontrollably, humanity consumes more and more energy.To date, its annual production is over 50,000 billion kWh. Of these, over 85% is accounted for by the burning of oil, coal and gas, the reserves of which are not endless. According to various estimates, their enough 30-70 years. In addition, when burning traditional sources in the atmosphere of the earth is annually emitted more than 30 billion tons of CO2 – such the amount can lead to a greenhouse effect. According to scientists, an increase in air temperatures by more than two degrees Celsius fraught with an increase in the risk of climatic cataclysms.Power generation nuclear power plants is currently about 5% and, appears to increase. However, as we know, at such facilities disasters happen.
Scientists believe that the energy of the future will be controlled thermonuclear fusion (TCF) – the synthesis of heavier atomic nuclei from more lungs for energy. TCB differs from traditional nuclear energetics in that the latter uses the decay reaction reaction decay, during which heavy nuclei are made of lighter ones.
Currently in the south of France in the town of Cadarache is being created International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor International thermonuclear experimental reactor (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, ITER), whose task is to demonstrate the possibility of commercial use of thermonuclear fusion for obtaining energy and solving physical and technological problems, who will meet along the way.
The main reaction used in ITER is the fusion of deuterium deuterium nuclei and tritium tritium to form a helium helium nucleus (alpha particle) and high-energy neutron neutron.The nuclear spin of deuterium is 1, and the spin of the tritium nucleus is ½. The total spin of such a system can be 3/2 or ½. For plasma energies characteristic of ITER, this reaction proceeds in S-wave (transverse) and has a resonance character for spin 3/2 (the probability of interaction is 96%), the rest falls on the spin 1/2 and higher waves. Taking into account the statistical weight of these states, one can say that one third of the nuclei in the reactor practically does not participates in obtaining energy. However, this part warms up to high temperature, that is, energy is wasted.
“Like coal: it happens with high ash content and low. It’s bad if after burning out, a lot of ash remains. Processes at the heart of functioning reactors are arranged in such a way that, say, 1/3 of the fuel is simply not works. However, if you take polarized fuel, you can to avoid. In this case, it will be used 100%, and the costs will decrease, and the power of the fusion reactor will remain the same ”, – tells the head of the Russian research team, leading Researcher at the Institute of Nuclear PhysicsG.I. Budker SB RAS, Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences Dmitry Konstantinovich Toporkov.
This is due to the fact that nuclear forces depend on the mutual orientation spins of interacting particles. By applying polarized fuel, we obtain interacting particles with a total spin of 3/2, increasing the the most fuel efficiency is one and a half times.
Polarized atomic beams of deuterium and hydrogen have been obtained for a long time in for the purpose of conducting physical experiments, including at the INP SB RAS.For this, a complex electrophysical installation is created, in which from ordinary molecules (deuterium gas or hydrogen from a balloon) a beam is formed atoms polarized along the nuclear spin. “To experiment with polarized targets at the INP were made the most powerful source polarized deuterium atoms with superconducting sextupole magnets. Meanwhile, fuel in the form of atoms is not efficient enough, and, what is saddest, the intensity of such sources is fundamentally limited to some physical processes.Therefore, we suggested scheme for obtaining molecules polarized by nuclear spin. This decision facilitates the production of polarized fuel and removes a number of fundamental limitations, ”explains Dmitry Konstantinovich.
At the University of Dusseldorf. Heinrich Heine (Germany) scientists are working on controlled inertial fusion when solid or liquid fuel is heated to the required temperatures super-powerful laser pulse.Polarized fuel and here would be increased the reaction yield. In this case, polarized molecules can be would condense into liquid or ice. In Germany, of course, are working on obtaining polarized molecules, only this process very time consuming. First, polarized atoms are formed (intensity which, as noted earlier, is limited), then combine them into molecule. It is important that German scientists are able to measure the degree of polarization nuclei in molecules.
Novosibirsk experts believe that the traditional chains (molecules – polarized atoms – polarized molecules) can be avoided and immediately get the latest.However, due to the closed electron shell, the molecule possesses only nuclear magnetic moments, which are very small. V In this respect, the atom is much more convenient, since it has a magnetic moment in 300 times larger than a molecule, so atoms are easier to focus and split spatially. Dmitry Toporkov assures that this is not problem: “Since we have superconducting magnets with very strong magnetic field, then we are able to focus the molecules. For it is necessary to greatly lower their temperature.It’s easy to do, so how liquid helium is used in the source. It is important for us to demonstrate such a possibility and study the focusing of molecules, and then, based on results obtained in the course of this study – to create more large-scale prototype. For example, now we have two magnets 7 and 12 centimeters, but it will be necessary to increase this parameter to two meters. V in principle, all this is realizable. ”
Another question, the answer to which scientists have to find in the course of their a project that received a joint grant from the Russian Science Foundation and German Physical Society, – Study of the conservation of polarization molecules, as well as measuring the latter.German scientists have created Lamb-shift polarimeter, a setup with which you can analyze nuclear polarization of both atoms and molecules. “Our partners are ready make the most of the polarimeter, we, in turn, will also make contribution to the device and apply it to study the polarization of molecules from our source, ”adds Dmitry Konstantinovich.
In the future, scientists plan to find out how long polarization persists, and also deal with the molecules themselves: is there a possibility of them compress, collect and study properties.In perspective polarized molecules, possibly frozen (as tablets ice), will serve as fuel for installations based on laser synthesis, tokamak reactors or as a polarized target of high density for various physics experiments.
Elena Sitnikova90,000 1. From objects to substance
1 ns = 10 −9 s
Nanoseconds is the range where modern physics is fully involved in work.But lest you think that everything becomes terribly complicated at once, we will start our acquaintance with the nanosecond range with some numbers.
What happens in 10 ns? Spacecraft, moving at a speed of about 10 km / s, cover a ridiculous distance of 0.1 millimeter during this time. On Earth, explosive and shock waves, as well as shells fired by electromagnetic guns, have comparable velocities. Nevertheless, if such a wave or projectile hits the target, then within 10 ns this body will not collapse at all.It simply will not have time to react to such a devastating blow! Of course, in the very surface layer of a material a fraction of a millimeter thick, the substance will change under the influence of colossal loads. It will heat up sharply, possibly melt or even begin to evaporate – but all this will be localized in a microscopic layer of matter. Even if the object is irradiated with a super-powerful laser pulse, which will begin to vaporize the substance, this process will also affect only a thin surface layer in the first nanoseconds.
This brings us to an important conclusion about nanoseconds:
|in the nanosecond range we are not studying objects, we are studying matter!|
This is a kind of motto for nanosecond physics, at least for that part of it that studies matter, not electromagnetic waves (we’ll talk about them later). For nanosecond processes, ordinary macroscopic objects do not seem to exist.
On the other hand, nanoseconds are still too long to track the movement of individual atoms.This movement is from a different, picosecond range. In a nanosecond, each atom or molecule has time to collide with its neighbors thousands of times in a solid and a dozen times in air. At the same time, jerks and other features of the behavior of individual molecules are smoothed out, and it is from this averaged movement that, in fact, substance arises.
The subtotal is as follows. Nanoseconds are a bridge between the familiar world of macroscopic bodies and the world of atomic phenomena. On our journey into the depths of a second, for such a short time, we no longer feel macroscopic bodies, but we still do not have time to track individual atoms.What opens before us in the nanosecond range is the characteristics and behavior of matter.90,000 a multivariate analysis of health and environmental data
7.5. Characteristics of periods
and spectral composition of hemogram
and cosmogeophysical factors
The periods and spectral densities of dynamics
of cosmoheliogeophysical factors recorded on days
studies of hemograms based on averaged monthly
data from 1977 to 1988 were investigatedin the same 415 mentally ill patients without co-
matic pathology. The Parzen spectral window
was used (Jenkins G., Watts D., 1971; 1972). The spectral harmonics and corresponding periods when studying the dynamics of the hemogram
are as follows: 0.0079 – 142 months, 0.0157 – 71 months, 0.0238 – 47 months,
0.0317 – 36 months ., 0.0397 – 28 months, 0.0467 – 24 months, 0.0635 –
18 months, 0.0714 – 16 months, 0.0952 – 12 months, 0.1905 – 6 months .,
0.1825 – 6.2 months., 0.381 – 3 months. (season). The main results
are presented in Table 7.3 and illustrated in Fig. 7.5, 7.6.
The coincidence of some harmonics of the main studied heme-
of theological parameters LEIK (0.087; 0.0159; 0.0397; 0.0317) and
KFLG (0.0635) with some harmonics of the cosmoheliogeophysical parameters indicates them to periodicity and by no means
random long-term fluctuations, including changes in the state and cellular composition of blood.Particularly noteworthy
is the presence of a harmonic of 0.0635 in the integral-correlation
index of QFLH, which is present in the spectra with respect to the
sunspot number (SSN), and a harmonic close to it,
niki (0.0556) at GIKL. This indicates that such factors
are capable of influencing the intrasystem correlation-organizational
behavior of the blood leukocyte system. The total
number of leukocytes (LAKE) has as many as 4 “externally forcing”
giving harmonics, coinciding with the fundamental harmonics
coefficient M (3000) F2 (0.0873) and the fundamental frequency of the F2 layer and
nospheres (0 , 0397) and with a harmonic inherent in general practically
to all studied external factors (0.0317).
Thus, it has been shown that the processes occurring in the blood
vi are largely synchronous, synergistic with external global
factors and can be described by close, similar autoregression processes – a moving average. Thus, it was found that the
frequency of the ionosphere f0F2 contains the periodicities that are also available
in solar and cosmic parameters, and also has its own
Fundamental monthly average harmonics of hematological
and cosmoheliogeophysical parameters from 1977 to 1988
HYCL CL PPSR3000 f0ESf0F2fmin h’F
1 0.0079 0.0159 0.0079 0.0952 0.0079 0.0873 0.0079
2 0.0238 0.0238 0.0159 0.1905 0.0159 0.0238 0.0317
3 0.0159 0.0317 0.0317 0.1032 0.0317 0.0952 0.0794
4 0.0317 0, 0556 0.0238 0.0794 0.0238 0.1825 0.0159
5 0.0556 0.0397 0.0794 0.11111 0.0397 0.1905 0.0952
CFLG GEM ERITH LAKE NATE PAL
1 0.4286 0.0317 0.0079 0.0476 0.1270 0.0079
2 0.0635 0.0079 0.0714 0.0873 0.2540 0, 0159
3 0.3889 0.0159 0.0476 0.0159 0.1667 0.3651
4 0.4762 0.1111 0.1032 0.0397 0.1746 0.1190
5 0.3016 0 , 1746 0.0317 0.0317 0.1190 0.1825
SEG EOZ BAZ LIM MON ESR
1 0.1270 0.1429 0.4048 0.1270 0, 2857 0.3611
2 0.2540 0, 3333 0.3730 0.0079 0.2063 0.1204
3 0.1667 0.1746 0.3571 0.0873 0.0476 0.0648
4 0.0952 0.3968 0.1032 0.1429 0 , 0714 0.1667
5 0.2063 0.2143 0.1905 0.2540 0.3810 0.3889
The research results revealed a very important modulating effect of the ionosphere on body systems, which is confirmed by
. the content of ionospheric harmonics in the ley parameters –
kogram.It has been shown that one of the most “sensitive” to
|EVERYONE SHOULD KNOW ABOUT THE ESSENCE OF GEORGE PETRAKOVICH’S WORKS! THERMONUCLEAR IN A CELL I will quote in full the interview with Georgy Petrakovich, published in the magazine “Miracles and Adventures” No. 12, 1996, pp. 6-9. Special correspondent for the magazine Vl. Ivanov met with a full member of the Russian Physical Society, surgeon Georgy Nikolaevich Petrakovich, who published sensational works on thermonuclear reactions occurring in living organisms and the transformation of chemical elements in them.This is much more fantastic than the most daring experiments of the alchemists. The conversation is dedicated to the true miracle of evolution, the main one of the wonders of living nature. We do not agree with the author of the bold hypothesis in everything. In particular, being a materialist, it seems to us that he excludes the spiritual principle from those processes where it, most likely, should be present. But nevertheless, G. Petrakovich’s hypothesis interested us, because it intersects with the works of Academician V. Kaznacheev on “cold fusion” in a living cell.At the same time, the hypothesis throws a bridge to the concept of noosphere. V. Vernadsky, pointing to a source that continuously feeds the noosphere with energy. The hypothesis is also interesting because it paves the way for the explanation of a number of mysterious phenomena, such as clairvoyance, levitation, iridology and others. We ask you to excuse us for some scientific complexity of the conversation for an unprepared reader. The material itself, unfortunately, by its nature cannot be subject to significant simplification. CORRESPONDENT First, the essence, the salt of a miracle, incompatible, it would seem, with the concept of living organisms … What kind of strange force is acting in us, in the cells of our body? Everything resembles a detective story. This power was known, so to speak, in a different capacity. She acted incognito, as if under a mask. They talked and wrote about it like this: hydrogen ions. You understood and called it differently: protons. These are the same hydrogen ions, the bare nuclei of its atoms, positively charged, but at the same time they are elementary particles.Biophysicists have not noticed that Janus is two-faced. Is not it? Can I talk about this in more detail? G.N. PETRAKOVICH. A living cell receives energy as a result of ordinary chemical reactions. This was the opinion of the science of cellular bioenergy. As always, electrons take part in the reactions; it is their transitions that provide the chemical bond. In the smallest “bubbles” of irregular shape – the mitochondria of the cell – oxidation takes place with the participation of electrons. This is a postulate of bioenergy. This is how the leading bioenergetic of the country, Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences V.P. Skulachev: “In order to conduct an experiment on the use of nuclear energy, nature had to create a man. As for the intracellular energy mechanisms, they extract energy exclusively from electronic transformations, although the energy effect here is immeasurably small in comparison with thermonuclear processes. “” Exclusively from electronic transformations … “This is a delusion! Electronic transformations are chemistry, and nothing more. It is thermonuclear reactions that underlie cellular bioenergetics, and it is the proton, which is also the hydrogen ion – a heavy charged elementary particle – that is the main participant in all these reactions.Although, of course, the electron also takes a certain and even important part in this process, but in a different role, completely different from the role assigned to it by scientists. And what is most surprising: in order to prove all this, it turns out that it is not necessary to carry out any complex research or research. Everything lies on the surface, everything is presented in the same indisputable facts, observations, which the scientists themselves obtained by their hard labor. It is only necessary to reflect on these facts with an open mind and in-depth.Here is an indisputable fact: it is known that protons are “ejected” from mitochondria (the term is widely used by specialists, and it sounds disdain for these laborers-particles, as if we are talking about waste, “garbage”) into the cell space (cytoplasm). Protons move in it unidirectionally, that is, they never come back, in contrast to the Brownian motion in the cell of all other ions. And they move in the cytoplasm at a tremendous speed that exceeds the speed of movement of any other ions many thousands of times. Scientists do not comment on this observation in any way, and they should seriously think about it.If protons, these charged elementary particles, move in the space of the cell with such a tremendous speed and “purposefully”, then the cell has some kind of mechanism for their acceleration. Undoubtedly, the acceleration mechanism is located in the mitochondria, from where protons are initially “ejected” with great speed, but this is what it is … Heavy charged elementary particles, protons, can be accelerated only in a high-frequency alternating electromagnetic field – in a synchrophasotron, for example.So, molecular synchrophasotron in mitochondria? strange as it may seem, yes: a subminiature natural synchrophasotron is located in a tiny intracellular formation, in mitochondria! Protons, hitting a high-frequency alternating electromagnetic field, for the entire time they stay in this field, lose the properties of the chemical element hydrogen, but they show the properties of heavy charged elementary particles. ‘ For this reason, in a test tube, it is impossible to fully repeat the processes that constantly occur in a living cell.For example, in a test tube of a researcher, protons are involved in oxidation, and in a cell, although free radical oxidation occurs in it, peroxides are not formed. The cellular electromagnetic field “removes” protons from a living cell, preventing them from reacting with oxygen. Meanwhile, scientists are guided by the “test tube” experience when they study the processes in a living cell. Protons accelerated in the field easily ionize atoms and molecules, “knocking out” electrons from them. In this case, the molecules, becoming free radicals, acquire high activity, and ionized atoms (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and other elements) form electrical and osmotic potentials in the cell membranes (but already of a secondary order, dependent on protons). CORRESPONDENT It’s high time to draw the attention of our readers to the fact that a living cell invisible to the eye is more complex than any giant installation, and what is happening in it does not lend itself to even approximate reproduction. Perhaps galaxies – on a different scale, of course, are the simplest objects of the Universe, just like cells are elementary objects of a plant or animal. Perhaps the levels of our knowledge of cells and galaxies are roughly equivalent. But the most striking thing is that the fusion of the Sun and other stars corresponds to the cold fusion of a living cell or, more precisely, of its individual sections.The analogy is complete. Everyone knows about the hot fusion of stars. But only you can tell about the cold fusion of living cells. G.N. PETRAKOVICH. Let’s try to imagine the most important events at this level. Being a heavy charged elementary particle, the mass of which exceeds the mass of an electron by 1840 times, the proton is a part of all atomic nuclei without exception. Being accelerated in a high-frequency alternating electromagnetic field and being with these nuclei in the same field, it is able to transfer its kinetic energy to them, being the best energy carrier from the accelerator to the consumer – the atom.Interacting in the cell with the nuclei of target atoms, it transfers them in parts – by elastic collisions – the kinetic energy acquired by it during acceleration. And having lost this energy, as a result, it is captured by the nucleus of the nearest atom (inelastic collision) and is part of this nucleus. And this is the path to the transformation of elements. In response to the energy obtained in an elastic collision with a proton, a quantum of energy is ejected from the excited nucleus of the target atom, which is characteristic only of the nucleus of this particular atom, with its own wavelength and frequency.If such interactions of protons occur with many nuclei of atoms that make up, for example, any molecule; then a whole group of such specific quanta is ejected in a certain frequency spectrum. Immunologists believe that tissue incompatibility in a living organism manifests itself already at the molecular level. Apparently, the difference in a living organism of “its” protein molecule from a “foreign” one, given their absolute chemical identity, occurs according to these very specific frequencies and spectra, to which the “guard” cells of the organism – leukocytes – react differently. CORRESPONDENT Interesting incidental result of your proton-nuclear theory! Even more interesting is the process that the alchemists dreamed of. Physicists have pointed out the possibility of obtaining new elements in reactors, but this is very difficult and expensive for most substances. A few words – about the same at the level of the cell … G.N. PETRAKOVICH. The capture of a proton that has lost its kinetic energy by the nucleus of the target atom changes the atomic number of this atom, i.e. the “invader” atom is able to change its nuclear structure and become not only an isotope of a given chemical element, but in general, given the possibility of multiple “capture” of protons, take a different place than before in the periodic table: and in some cases – even not the closest to the old.Essentially, we are talking about nuclear fusion in a living cell. I must say that such ideas have already excited the minds of people: there have already been publications about the works of the French scientist L. Kervran, who discovered such a nuclear transformation in the study of laying hens. True, L. Kervran believed that this nuclear fusion of potassium with a proton, followed by the production of calcium, is carried out by means of enzymatic reactions. But, based on the above, it is easier to imagine this process as a consequence of internuclear interactions.In fairness, it should be said that M.V. Volkenstein generally considers L. Kervran’s experiments an April Fool’s joke of his cheerful American scientific colleagues. The first thought about the possibility of nuclear fusion in a living organism was expressed in one of Isaac Asimov’s fantastic stories. One way or another, giving due to both, and the third, we can conclude that, according to the hypothesis set forth, internuclear interactions in a living cell are quite possible. And the Coulomb barrier will not be a hindrance: nature has managed to bypass this barrier without high energies and temperatures, softly and gently, CORRESPONDENT. You think that a vortex electromagnetic field appears in a living cell. It keeps protons in its grid, as it were, and accelerates them, accelerates. This field is emitted, generated by electrons of iron atoms. There are groups of four such atoms. They are called by experts as follows: gems. Iron in them is bivalent and trivalent. And both of these forms exchange electrons, the jumps of which generate the field. Its frequency is incredibly high, according to your estimation, 1028 hertz. It is much higher than the frequency of visible light, which is usually also generated by electron hopping from one atomic level to another.Don’t you think that you overestimate this estimate of the field frequency in the cell? G.N. PETRAKOVICH. Far from it. CORRESPONDENT Your answer is clear to me. Indeed, it is very high frequencies and the corresponding small wavelengths that are associated with the high energy of quanta. So, ultraviolet light with its short waves is stronger than ordinary rays of light. Very short waves are needed to disperse protons. Is it possible to check the very scheme of proton acceleration and the frequency of the intracellular field? G.N. PETRAKOVICH. So, the discovery: in the mitochondria of cells, an ultra-high-frequency, ultra-short-wave alternating electric current is generated and according to the laws of physics, respectively, an ultra-short-wave and ultra-high-frequency alternating electromagnetic field. The shortest and highest frequency of all alternating electromagnetic fields in nature. Instruments have not yet been created with which it would be possible to measure such a high frequency and such a short wave, so such fields do not seem to exist for us at all.And the discovery does not exist yet … Nevertheless, let us turn again to the laws of physics. According to these laws, point variable electromagnetic fields do not exist on their own, they instantly, at the speed of light, merge with each other by synchronization and resonance, which significantly increases the voltage of such a field. Point electromagnetic fields formed in electromagnetics by moving electrons merge, then all fields of mitochondria merge. A combined ultra-high-frequency, ultra-short-wave alternating field is formed for the entire mitochondria.It is in this field that protons are held. But mitochondria in one cell are not two or three – in each cell there are tens, hundreds, and in some – even thousands, and in each of them this ultrashort-wave field is formed; and these fields rush to merge with each other, all with the same synchronization and resonance effect, but already in the entire space of the cell – in the cytoplasm. This tendency of the alternating electromagnetic field of the mitochondrion to merge with other similar fields in the cytoplasm is the very “pulling force”, the energy that with acceleration “throws” protons from the mitochondrion into the cell space.This is how the intramitochondrial “synchrophasotron” works. It should be remembered that protons move to the nuclei of target atoms in a cell in a significantly enhanced field – so short-wavelength that it easily, like a waveguide, will pass between the nearest atoms even in a metal lattice. This field will easily “carry” with it a proton, the size of which is a hundred thousand times smaller than any atom, and is so high-frequency that it does not lose its energy at all. Such a super-permeable field will also excite those protons that are part of the nucleus of the target atom.And the main thing is that this field will bring the “incident” proton closer to them so that it will allow this “incident” to give the nucleus a part of its kinetic energy. The largest amount of energy is released during alpha decay. At the same time, alpha particles are ejected from the nucleus at a tremendous speed, which are tightly bound two protons and two neutrons (that is, the nuclei of helium atoms). In contrast to a nuclear explosion, in the case of “cold thermonuclear”, the critical mass does not accumulate in the reaction zone. Decay or synthesis can stop immediately.No radiation is observed because alpha particles outside the electromagnetic field are immediately converted to helium atoms, and protons to molecular hydrogen, water or peroxide. At the same time, the body is capable of creating the necessary chemical elements from other chemical elements by means of “cold fusion” and neutralizing substances harmful to it. In the zone where the “cold fusion” occurs, holograms are formed, reflecting the interactions of protons with the nuclei of target atoms. Ultimately, these holograms in an undistorted form are carried out by electromagnetic fields into the noosphere and become the basis of the energy-informational field of the noosphere.A person is able to arbitrarily, with the help of electromagnetic lenses, the role of which in a living organism is played by piezoelectric molecules, to focus the energy of protons, and especially alpha particles, into powerful beams. At the same time, demonstrating phenomenal phenomena: lifting and moving incredible weights, walking on hot stones and coals, levitation, teleportation, telekinesis and much more. It cannot be that everything in the world disappears without a trace, on the contrary, one should think that there is a kind of world “bank”, a world biofield, with which the fields of all who have lived and are living on Earth have merged and are merging.This biofield can be represented by an ultra-powerful, ultra-high-frequency, ultra-short-wave and super-penetrating alternating electromagnetic field around the Earth (and thus around and through us). In this field, the nuclear charges of proton holographic “films” about each of us are kept in perfect order – about people, about bacteria and elephants, about worms, about grass, plankton, saxaul, who once lived and are living now. Those who live now and support this biofield with the energy of their field. But only rare units have access to its information treasures.This is the memory of the planet, its biosphere. The still unknown universal biofield possesses colossal, if not infinite, energy, we all bathe in the ocean of this energy, but we do not feel it, just as we do not feel the air around us, and therefore we do not feel that it is around us … Its role will increase … This is our reserve, our support. CORRESPONDENT By itself, this field of the planet, however, will not replace working hands and a creative mind. It only creates the preconditions for the manifestation of human abilities. G.N. PETRAKOVICH. Another aspect of the topic. Our eyes, if not the mirror of the soul, then their transparent mediums – the pupil and the iris – are nevertheless screens for the topographic “cinema” constantly emanating from us. “Whole” holograms fly through the pupils, and in the irises, protons, which carry a significant charge of kinetic energy, continuously excite molecules in lumps of pigment. They will excite them until everything is in order in the cells that have “sent” their protons to these molecules.Cells will die, something else will happen to them, to the organ – the structure in the lumps of pigments will immediately change. Experienced iridologists will clearly record this: they already know exactly – from the projections in the iris – which organ is ill and even with what. Early and accurate diagnosis! Some doctors are not very supportive of their fellow iridologists, considering them almost charlatans. In vain! Iridodiagnostics, as a simple, publicly available, cheap, easily translated into mathematical language, and most importantly – an accurate and early method for diagnosing various diseases in the near future will have a “green light”.The only drawback of the method was the lack of a theoretical basis. Its foundation is set out above. CORRESPONDENT I think for our readers it would be necessary to explain the process of formation of holograms of each individual. You can do it better than me. G.N. PETRAKOVICH. Imagine the interactions of accelerated protons with any large bulk (three-dimensional) molecule in a cell, occurring very quickly. For such interactions with the nuclei of target atoms that make up this large molecule, a lot of protons will be consumed, which, in turn, will leave in the proton beam also a volumetric, but “negative” trace in the form of a vacuum, “holes”.This trace will be the real hologram, which has embodied and retained a part of the structure of the molecule itself that has reacted with protons. A series of holograms (which is what happens “in nature”) will display and preserve not only the physical “appearance” of the molecule, but also the order of physical and chemical transformations of its individual parts and the entire molecule as a whole for a certain period of time. Such holograms, merging into larger volumetric images, can display the life cycle of the entire cell, many neighboring cells, organs and body parts – the entire body.There is one more consequence. Here it is. In living nature, regardless of consciousness, we communicate primarily with fields. With such communication, entering into resonance with other fields, we risk losing, partially or completely, our individual frequency (as well as purity), and if in communication with green nature this means “dissolving in nature”, then in communication with people, especially with those who have a strong field, it means partially or completely losing their individuality – to become a “zombie” (according to Todor Dichev).There are no technical devices for “zombifying” the program, and they are unlikely to ever be created, but the impact of one person on another in this regard is quite possible, although, from the standpoint of morality, they are unacceptable. Taking care of yourself, you should think about this, especially when it comes to noisy collective actions, in which it is not reason or even true feeling that always prevails, but fanaticism – the sad child of malicious resonance. The proton flux can only increase due to merging with other fluxes, but in no way, as opposed to, for example, the electron flux, not mix – and then it can carry complete information about entire organs and tissues, including about such a specific organ like the brain.Apparently, we think in programs, and these holograms are capable of transmitting a stream of protons through the gaze – this is evidence not only of the “expressiveness” of our gaze, but also that animals are able to assimilate our holograms. In confirmation of this, one can refer to the experiments of the famous trainer V.L. Durov, in which Academician V.M. Bekhterev. In these experiments, a special commission immediately came up with some tasks that were feasible for the dogs, V.L. Durov immediately passed these tasks to the dogs with a “hypnotic gaze” (while, as he said, he himself seemed to become a “dog” and mentally perform tasks with them), and the dogs exactly followed all the instructions of the commission.By the way, photographing hallucinations can also be associated with holographic thinking and the transmission of images by a stream of protons through the gaze. A very important point: protons carrying information with their energy “label” protein molecules of their body, while each “tagged” molecule acquires its own spectrum, and with this spectrum it differs from exactly the same chemical composition of a molecule, but belonging to a “foreign” body. The principle of mismatch (or coincidence) in the spectrum of protein molecules underlies the body’s immune responses, inflammation, and tissue incompatibility, as we have already mentioned.The olfactory mechanism is also based on the principle of spectral analysis of molecules excited by protons. But in this case, all molecules of a substance in the air inhaled through the nose are irradiated with protons with an instant analysis of their spectrum (the mechanism is very close to the mechanism of color perception). But there is a “work” that is performed only by a high-frequency alternating electromagnetic field – this is the work of the “second” or “peripheral” heart, about which much has been written in due time, but whose mechanism has not yet been revealed.This is a special topic of conversation. To be continued…|
Der Todesstern (Death Star) – wikide.wikiDer Todesstern ist eine fiktive Raumstation, eine Astrostruktur aus dem Star Wars-Universum. Ausgestattet mit superstarken Energielaserwaffen von extrem zerstörerischer Kraft, die ganze Planeten zerstören können. Es gab eine funktionierende und eine unvollendete Version der Station des Galaktischen Imperiums.Anschließend (in Episode VII “The Force Awakens” der Filmsaga) wurde der Todesstern durch eine noch mächtigere Superwaffe ersetzt, den Star Killer der neoimperialen Ersten Ordnung, der ganze Sternensysteme zerstören teilise. Die Todesstern-Kampfstation wurde von den Separatisten noch vor Ausbruch der Klonkriege als “ultimative Waffe” gegen die Republik entworfen, doch als der Konflikt endete, war das Separatisten-Projekt nicht weiter fortgeschritten. Die Daten und Spezifikationen des Projekts wurden an Darth Sidious übergeben, der tatsächlich mit dem Bau der Kampfstation begann.Laut offizieller Bezeichnung sollte die Station tote Planeten zerstören, um die Gewinnung von Mineralien aus dem Kern zu erleichtern, aber nach Tarkins Plan sollte eine Station, die Planeten in die Luft sprengen kann, die Bevölkerung der Sektorenen in sezenet jede Möglichkeit des Widerstands gegen die kaiserliche Macht vollständig aus. Die Entwicklung des Projekts verzögerte sich aufgrund einer Vielzahl von technischen Problemen, und der Bau der Station wurde im Jahr der Schlacht von Yavin abgeschlossen.Der erste Test der Waffenkraft fand bei 1: 1000 (Mindest-) Kraft statt, was ausreichte, um eine der Rebellenstädte und angrenzende Gebiete vom Angesicht des Planeten zu vernichten. Die Verwundbarkeit des Todessterns wurde vom Designer Galen Erso vorgefertigt: Ein Schlag auf den Reaktor würde zu einer Kettenreaktion führen, die ihn zerstören würde. Galen Erso konnte diese Informationen an die Rebellen weitergeben, wofür er mit seinem Leben bezahlte. Seine Tochter Jin Erso schaffte es mit Hilfe des Spähers Cassian Andor und einer kleinen Gruppe von Freiwilligen, die Blaupausen des Todessterns zu stehlen und den Rebellen zu übergeben.Gene und Cassian wurden von einer Todessternexplosion auf den Planeten bei minimaler Leistung getötet. Tarkin wollte unbedingt das Neue ausprobieren
And a star with a star … “- read online for free, by Konstantin Vladimirovich Utolin
And a star with a star …
Dedicated to all the most often unknown heroes-animals, paving sometimes at the cost of their lives – the way to the stars.
July 17, 2043, Friday.World Space Agency (ICA) Building, Loja, Ecuador. Closed meeting of expert groups of national space agencies.
– I want to preface my message with well-known facts and therefore I ask you colleagues to be patient after listening to what you all know perfectly well, – Steve Dyson from the NASA Ames Research Center began his speech.
– So, back in 20-21, based on data from space telescopes Gaia, WISE, Kepler and spectrographs of the CARMENES project, models were created to determine the abundance of terrestrial planets in the Galaxy in the habitable zone of stars similar to the Sun.Also in the same years, it was taken into account that when creating criteria for the search, it is necessary to take into account the possibility of the presence of planets with conditions for life better than on Earth. After all, the reason that we are with you now in Ecuador, and not in the United States, Russia, China or France – was, let’s be honest, not only the neutrality of Ecuador, but also its climate.
Therefore, when setting the search criteria, it was decided not to be like a reindeer breeder who had never left the tundra, who had never even heard of warmer regions and therefore believed that the tundra was the most suitable place to live.And after the James Webb and TESS telescopes, the LUVIOR and PLATO space observatories, and later the Chinese and Russian spacecraft that made it possible to study exoplanets in more detail, came into operation in the late 1920s, 57 candidate planets with conditions similar or better were discovered. than ours. According to the results of observations from different instruments, 24 planets have now been confirmed as suitable for life. Of these, 3 have been confirmed as “superinhabited”, i.e. having conditions better than earthly ones.
When they, and the 25 remaining applicants for the title of “superinhabited” are located at a distance of more than 100 light years from us.
Of the protein-type maximum possible for life, the closest planets to us are the planets Proxima-beta near Alpha Centauri C, Teegarden-beta near the star Tigarden, Tau Ceti e and g, Ross 128b in the constellation Virgo and Wolf 1061c in the constellation Ophiuchus. Our most promising project of the Hius spacecraft with four propellers – a hybrid thermonuclear-photon-ramjet propulsion system, a cascade-ring terrahertz laser-plasma proton accelerator, EmDriveIII and a Woodward-Firn engine, according to calculations and the first model experiments, will be able to accelerate to two-thirds of the speed of light per year.During this time, it will travel a distance of half a light year, and it will spend six months on braking, starting it also half a light year from the point of arrival. This means that the flight even to the nearest Proxima-beta will be 7 years. And the same amount back.
Well, the next most reachable planets on which life on a protein basis is possible – Gliese 667c in the constellation Aquarius, HD 85512b in the constellation Sails, 6 planets at once near the star TRAPPIST-1 in the constellation Aquarius and HD 40307g in the constellation Painter are located at distances from 22 to 42 light years away.This means that flights to them will become possible only if the White-March-Wolfram warp engine proves its efficiency.
A bleak picture, isn’t it? But now for many of those present, with the possible exception of perhaps Chinese, Russian and French colleagues, it will become even more bleak. Because now, for the first time outside of a very limited circle of people in NASA and the Pentagon, I will report that not only all the above calculations, but also the very possibility of flights in interstellar space, can be questioned.Because Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, Voyager 1, Voyager 2, New Horizon and Interstellar Wanderer, which supposedly crossed the heliopause region and transmitted and transmit to us signals already from interstellar space, actually flew away just a little further than 121 astronomical units, after which the “pioneers” and “voyagers” simply stopped transmitting signals. And the “New Horizon” and “Interstellar Wanderer”, which, when approaching the point where the transmissions of the “pioneers” and “voyagers,” stopped, NASA began to deliberately slow down, as if they ran into a wall.About which, presumably, the “pioneers” and “voyagers” crashed.
When trying to pick up speed again, the New Horizon and the Wanderer began to “slide” along the obstacle that had arisen, moving into circular orbits at a distance of about 121.57 AU from the center of the Sun. After that, we have deliberately set their trajectories along this obstacle, forcing one of them to move in the plane of the ecliptic, and the other perpendicular to it. In this case, both devices transmit telemetry, indicating that in the hemispheres right relative to the direction of their movement there is an elastic medium with a strength factor exceeding lonsdaleite and not transmitting any types of radiation.While on the left is a vacuum with the properties we are accustomed to. That is, we are literally locked inside our solar system. Like inside a kind of bubble surrounded on all sides by something impenetrable – no matter what you call it – ether, or dark matter. The second possible model is that around stellar systems there are regions of dark energy with such a high potential (energy density) that the systems are actually surrounded by a potential barrier. The magnitude of which is such that the energy to overcome it cannot be created inside the star system even with its complete annihilation.
And that’s bad news. However, there is a circumstance that makes us think about the fact that there is still some way out of, at least our “bubble”. We carried out a thorough computer simulation of all space debris that flew out of the orbit of Pluto, as well as comets – and we can say that some of the parts of our spacecraft that flew into the heliopause region, sent at different times to study Saturn, Jupiter, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto, disappeared. It is also well known that comets arrive in the space of our solar system not from random points in the sky, but come from certain directions, united in groups according to their inclination to the plane of the ecliptic.Based on the displacements at the points of origin of long-period comets, even assumptions were made about the location of the hypothetical planet Tyukhe (Tycheya) behind the Oort cloud, which affects the orbits of comets. This means that comets do fly away somewhere beyond the heliopause and then return, but in strictly specified directions.
After analyzing all the data we have, I put forward a hypothesis that our reality looks like a kind of porous “sponge”, in which star systems are bubbles of what we used to call space-time (the properties of which, by the way, each stars can be different), which are inside some infinitely solid medium.By the way, this possibility is one of the particular solutions of the so-called. modified Alcubiere’s equation, and also follows from the theory of Stephen Wolfram.
And light, as well as other types of radiation and waves, as well as particles of matter can propagate inside this medium only through a kind of waveguides connecting these “bubbles”. That is, all the stars we observe are actually just regions of light escaping from these stars from the waveguides connecting the “bubbles” of their star systems with the “bubble” of ours.Such waveguides can be similar to the Krasnikov tubes described back in 1995.
The second part of my hypothesis is that the speed of propagation of both waves and even matter in these waveguides can be much higher than the speed of light in the space of our solar system. It is possible that the medium of these waveguides consists of superbradions and has not even zero, but a negative refractive index for all types of waves and radiation known to us. And the third part of the hypothesis is that the optical axes of the channels of the waveguides are located strictly in the directions connecting the points of light exit from them with the center of the Sun that we observe.
In this case, such waveguides can be both double-sided and one-sided. That is, generally speaking, light or particles of matter from one star can propagate along such a waveguide towards, for example, our Sun, but it is not necessary that light from the Sun also travels along the same channel towards that star. It is possible that there is no channel at all from the Sun to that star. Conversely, there may be channels through which the light of the Sun is visible in the systems of some stars, which we do not observe.And the number of inputs-outputs of such waveguides for the sphere of each star can also be different. That is, the number of stars that we see from our solar system may be completely different than that seen from the system, for example, the same Proxima Centravra. And not all the stars visible from us are visible there, and vice versa.
Well, in conclusion of my message I will say that the “Interstellar Wanderer” during its movement along the limiting surface was able to fix the disappearance of one of the micrometeors that hit the “wall”.However, while we received this information, we were able to process it and send a stop signal to the “Wanderer”, he has already moved away from this point at a significant distance. However, now we have given him a spiral route centered on the calculated coordinates of the alleged disappearance of the meteorite. And if it is confirmed that in this place the barrier limiting our solar system is permeable, then we would like to have in this area a manned ship with a well-equipped expedition on board.
As a matter of fact, the convocation of this emergency and closed meeting was caused by a proposal from the United States, through joint efforts of all ICA member countries, to create a Hius-class ship and prepare an international crew for such an expedition.That’s all. Please speak up.
May 11, 2051, Thursday. Board of the international spacecraft “Chius 1” .
From a distance of only 2100 kilometers, the Interstellar Wanderer, frozen at the hypothetical point of penetration, could already be seen through the meter-long refractor telescope with a 2x Barlow lens located on board the Hius. This is what the Peruvian astronaut Illa Sibairo did. She was anxiously awaiting for the Chius to approach the potential surveillance area at a distance of 55 kilometers and drop the satellite to receive images from the 10-meter Keuklen-Fresnel zone plate, which will be deployed 50 kilometers to the observation area.Then it will be possible to consider literally centimeters in the area of the alleged “penetration channel” and determine the spectral characteristics of both the radiation emanating from the channel and the possible absorption characteristics of those various waves and radiation that were going to be sent to the aperture area of this channel from the Chius.
– You will not admire everything? – came the voice of Hans Zimmermann, the chief programmer and electronics engineer and also the second power engineer of the expedition, who flew up from behind.Now he passed the shift and before going to his cockpit, he decided to admire the “window to the stars”, as at the suggestion of one of the Russian organizers of the expedition they jokingly called the exit zone of the “tunnel”, to which, slowing down, the “Khius” flew up …
– What if something will fly out of there, besides the light?
– Yeah, alien starship. And as soon as it flies out and finds us, ka-a-ak shoots at us from an annihilator or some other super-mooper-booper of theirs.
“That’s a warlike nation, you Germans,” Illa answered reproachfully, breaking away from her observations and turning to Hans, who was hanging a meter away from her.- Well, why does it immediately shy away?
– I am not warlike, I am cautious. Moreover, we have nothing on board with which we could respond to the aggression shown in our relation.
– Well, let’s say, if an alien ship appears from this “interstellar tunnel”, which is armed and decides to strike at us, then, most likely, the level of development of their technologies will be so ahead of ours that even if we had any of of our weapon systems, we would most likely not have had time to retaliate, ”came the voice of the chief engineer and part-time second programmer and electronics engineer Slava Goncharov from around the corner of the circular corridor.Then Slava himself, deftly jumping off the rotating rim of the corridor creating pseudo-gravity, grabbed the handrail and, extinguishing the inertia, “floated” into the chamber for astrophysical observations. Which, like all research modules, was located at the very beginning of the front hemisphere of “Khius”.
– It’s unusual to realize that Dyson was right at least that the stars that we see are actually just light from the end of some kind of fiber optic.
– Yeah, with a diameter of about 97 kilometers and not yet clear physical and chemical properties – said Hans.
– And in general, it turns out that it is amusing that all these channels have different diameters of the radiating ends and correspond to the observed or measured angular dimensions of those stars to which they can lead, – Slava said thoughtfully, hanging from above (if I may say so in zero gravity conditions) over the head of Hans.
“Well, if we continue to think that these ends really show us the light from certain stars,” Illa replied. – After all, a completely different model is possible than Dyson stated in the 43rd.For example, that there is no dark matter and “tunnels” between the “bubbles” of stellar systems embedded in it, but on the contrary, there is a luminous medium around all such “bubbles”, and “punctures” in the surfaces bounding them simply have different refractive index, transmission and etc. and therefore what appears to us to be stars are in fact only beams of light from this environment. And therefore, interstellar movements are generally not possible, because this luminous medium has such a density of energy that even if we succeeded in “tunneling penetration” through a potential barrier, then when it enters this medium, any material body will immediately decay into some initial particles – quarks. bosons or something else.And therefore, all those meteorites, etc. that hit the surface of the ends of the waveguides, are not transferred to other stars, but are simply destroyed.
– What about comets? Hans asked. – They then fly out of the barrier, and then return.
– In the hypothesis of a luminous medium, this is explained by the possible presence of regions and directions with different energy densities, on some of which, for a certain length, the existence of material bodies is still possible.
– This is somehow too far-fetched, – Hans grunted skeptically.- Therefore, I still prefer the hypothesis of dark matter and tunnels from star to star.
– Well, there is also a hypothesis that the environment surrounding the “bubbles” may not resemble an infinitely solid body, but an incompressible fluid, and the channels connecting the “bubbles” may “collapse”, and new ones may appear instead of the disappeared ones. And also this “liquid” can “boil”.
– In any case – what with dark matter or energy, what with light, what is solid, what is liquid – it turns out that we still have not met with aliens because they either cannot leave their “bubbles” at all, or can get from themselves to us only through the waveguide tunnels from the “bubble” to the “bubble”, – said Slava.- And even if the tunnels are unchanged, it is not a fact that there are chains of transitions connecting any star system with any other. And the physical properties inside someone else’s “bubble” can be so different that getting into them can lead to the destruction of material objects from another “bubble”. So, Hans, the appearance of aliens from the starship’s waveguide is so unlikely that your fears are unfounded.
– A pity! – answered Hans. – It would be great if someone flew in. And even if they would have fired at us! But then, you see, the rest of humanity with them could establish contact.And start cooperating. Here you Russians were able to cooperate with us Germans. Although you are still celebrating May 9th.
– And we will celebrate! – answered Slava. “However, you’re right. They could have reached an agreement, probably, even if they had fought at first.
– As they say in one Arabic proverb, if the mountain does not go to Magomed, then Magomed will go to the mountain, – said Illa. “And so we will be looking for a way to go to another star system ourselves. And, by the way, my shift is over and it would be time for Aribu to intercede.
– Isn’t his time for namaz now according to mid-sun? Hans chuckled.
“No, not the time,” came a voice from the ring corridor. And a few seconds later an astronaut from the United Arab Emirates flew into the astrophysical module from the outside from its rim, repeating the maneuver of Glory, performing the functions of the second astrophysicist and concurrently the first biologist of the expedition. – And it is not good to make fun of faith.
– Okay, okay, sorry, – Hans raised his hands in a sign of reconciliation. This movement began to turn him with his legs in the direction of Glory hovering over him, and he, grabbing Hans by the legs and pushing himself off the only surface of the emergency hatch free of instruments, flew with the German into the central tunnel to the laughter of Illa and Arib.There, Hans caught one of the handrails with both hands and freed his legs, promised that after returning to Earth, he would show on Slava a couple of hand-to-hand fighting techniques that a friend from the GHA-9 taught him. To which Slava replied with a smile that the Russians would not be frightened by a fight. However, Illa and Arib knew that these Russian and German were in fact on excellent terms and even made friends with their families during the preparation for the flight. And their constant skirmishes were one of the ways to relieve the psychological stress from the flight that had been lasting for more than two years.
Illa noted the time of the shift in the observation log and, wishing Aribu good observations, went to the sanitary and hygienic block located on the outer rim of the ship’s main ring to take a shower.
May 12, 2051, Friday. Board of the international spacecraft “Chius 1” .
– There are coincidences. After all, the “Wanderer” could detect the disappearance of a micrometeor at the end of any other waveguide, and found it precisely on the one that comes out from the nearest to us Proxima Centauri, ”said American Mason Flores, the commander and chief navigator of the expedition, looking from the monitor with the calculation of the trajectory to the observation screen of the main cabin of the ship to see how another research probe separated from the “Chius” and headed to the surface of the “window to the stars”.
“Yeah, the Universe is full of accidents,” answered Alexander Rusakov philosophically, the first pilot, deputy leader and second engineer of the expedition, giving a calculated impulse to the main engine and directing the Chius to the point of the next probe.
– Is it coincidence? There is a hypothesis that, if penetration through the “tunnels” of living biological objects is possible, then only into those stellar systems in which physical conditions will allow them to survive.
– We’ll find out soon.We have, according to the plan, the day after tomorrow launching a microsatellite with Shonea on board.
– Yes, again rats are the vanguard of humanity.
– Why don’t you like rats, commander? They should not like us – we put medical experiments on them, and poison them, and do not like them at all.
– Well, we don’t like it – that’s how to say it. Personally, I am indifferent to them, but I have a lot of acquaintances who keep rats at home, moreover, for the sixth or seventh – they do not live long.
– Yes, I also have such acquaintances.You know, as one of them told me about rats – these are small creatures with a huge heart, capable of loving completely disinterestedly.
– I think all animals are like that. And only we, people, have become capable of substituting mercantile calculations for true love.
– That’s for sure. Sasha, give an impulse of 31 kN for 3 seconds for the third and 50 kN for 2 seconds for the eighth shunting. Otherwise, after firing the probe, we slightly deviated from the calculated trajectory.
– I’m doing it.
Having worked with the joysticks of the maneuvering engines, Alexander asked the third crew member in the wheelhouse – the chief communications officer and the second doctor of the expedition, Frenchwoman Celine Leroux:
– Communication session with the MCC in five minutes?
– Yes.They promised to send decrypted data from previous probes and a telescope-diffractor, and adjustments to the program for further research.
– It’s good that we can make these adjustments without interference. If there were Chinese here, we would have to carry out research programs one by one, ”said Alexander.
– As they say in you in Russia – there would be no happiness, but misfortune helped. It’s a rare case that Russian spies have benefited America as well, ”Mason said with a grin. – Do not tell the “mole” in NASA to your military that our vehicles have stumbled upon the “wall” limiting the solar system, and then do not tell our president at the meeting that you know everything, we would not agree on the beginning of joint actions back in 41 -m.And they would not have attracted funding from the League of Arab States back in the 42nd. And the Chinese found out about this only in July 1943 and, as always, decided that they would do their own program instead of participating in the international one. It was only thanks to Russian intelligence that we were ahead of them in preparation by more than two years. Well, the Indians and the Europeans, of course, agreed to participate in the international project. And there the Japanese with the Australians and Canadians pulled themselves up. Therefore, we are now already here, and the Chinese ship has just left orbit near the Earth.In addition, due to the fact that they swallowed our disinformation with allegedly genuine drawings of EmDriveIII and could not put into practice the consequences of the theories of Woodward and Wolfram, they have only thermonuclear-photon and proton-plasma engines, which means that they will fly here no less 3 and a half years. Hopefully by this time we will have time to launch probes to the stars.
– If at all it is possible to launch anything there, – Leroux said skeptically.
“I’m an optimist,” Mason chuckled.
– I’m starting to receive information from the MCC, – said Leroux and turned on the loudspeaker on the ship.
– Hello everyone, – said the head of the Russian MCC, Mikhail Sinyugin, at the English meeting between the MCCs and the members of the expedition. – Today we are working as a coordinator. Accept analytics package. It was decided not to change the program significantly, just send tomorrow another microsatellite with fiber optic cables with SHD cameras and a broadband fiber SRS laser to the center of the “spot” and try to immerse a camera on a cable and a cable with a wider aperture connected to the laser.Let’s try to measure the passage of waves of different lengths, and also see if the “tunnel” will let the material body inside itself. And regardless of this, in any case, on Sunday 14th, launch a probe with Shaunya to the “tunnel”. We have here some scientists suggest that the “tunnels” can only allow living, and maybe even only intelligent beings. And inanimate objects immediately disintegrate after crossing the border.
We have everything. As always, we wish you a good flight and interesting exploration.
– We are receiving the signal stable, – Mason said in reply. According to the communication protocol, the crew gave feedback as if a conversation was going on live, although in fact the signal from the Khius drifting several kilometers from the “wall” travels to Earth for almost 18 hours.
“The health of the crew members and the expedition animals is normal,” the chief physician and concurrently the second biologist of the expedition, Nadezhda Rumyantseva, joined the program.
– All observation and data processing systems are working properly.All power plants are in good order, – added the scientific leader of the expedition and the chief power engineer of the ship Paramdeep Singh.
– All ship systems are functioning normally. The expedition program is on schedule. The received adjustments will be made as usual, – Mason concluded the official part of the message. And he added: – Time for private messages of the crew members.
After that, congratulations, questions and wishes to loved ones, and requests to MCCs were broadcast for 15 minutes – one minute per crew member.After this flow had dried up, Mason ended the communication with the standard phrase: I am ending the communication. The next session is scheduled. And may God keep us all!
Leroux turned off the speakerphone and Mason switched to the communication channel with Paramdeep:
– When will the unpacking of the received information be ready?
“We will finish in an hour,” the Sikh replied. – We will immediately enter all amendments to the research program into the on-board computer, so that the calculations of corrections to the flight route can also begin in an hour.
– Accepted. Then everyone, except those involved in the decoding, has an unscheduled hour of rest.
May 13, 2051, Saturday. Outer space near the solar system border .
“It’s good that Friday was yesterday,” Isaac Pearson said, maneuvering his spacesuit so that the microsatellite external control panel was on his left hand.
“I didn’t think you were superstitious,” Jens Mortensen replied, moving to the left side of the satellite relative to Isaac.“I hope you don’t have a horseshoe glued to your suit from the inside?”
– Listen, a good idea! As your Niels Bohr once said, they say that it brings good luck even to those who do not believe in it. But where can I get a horseshoe on the “Khius”?
– Ask Mikhailov to make it for you on his 3D printer. I think he will agree.
– We proceed to the active phase of the experiment. Confirm control of the situation, – the voice of Paramdeep sounded in helmets hanging on either side of the astronauts’ satellite.
“Ready to duplicate commands in manual mode,” Pearson answered immediately, getting serious.
“Ready to correct the direction of launching the camera and emitting fiber,” Mortensen replied.
A microsatellite with three fiber optic cables with SHD cameras and a fiber Raman laser with a zero refractive index fiber attached to its emitting end face worked with all its three engines at once and flew to the tunnel end membrane strictly along its hypothetical axis directed from the center the circle of the end of the “tunnel” to the center of the Sun.Having given impulses to the engines of their suits, the astronauts from the escort group followed after him.
“Chius” hovered to the left of the satellite at the border of the aperture of the radiating-collecting zone of the “tunnel”, which, as proved by previous experiments, had the shape of a funnel expanding at an angle of 10 degrees relative to the hypothetical axis of the “tunnel” and exponentially increasing its permeability along with distance from the “wall” limiting the solar system. And five hundred meters to the right and two hundred meters further from the astronauts and the satellite followed them towards the center of the “window to the stars” one of the three docking and landing modules, which actually represent reusable Njord-class spacecraft.
These space spikes were the brainchild of a consortium of American, European and Russian aerospace firms and the Japanese National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL). Each of the consortium members contributed their best achievements to the development, which made it possible in just three years to create an amazing machine capable of maneuvering in space and atmosphere of any density. And the ships of this type received their name from the filing of one of the testers, who was Norwegian by birth. “Njord” in the Scandinavian pantheon was the god not only of the wind and the sea, but also of good luck.
And now one of these ships, operated by the co-pilot of the expedition Australian Kendra Taylor with navigator Japanese Konoe Setu, followed the trio approaching the border of the “window” from the satellite probe and the astronauts controlling it. And Rusakov and the third navigator and pilot of the expedition – an American from the Indian tribe Anishinaabe, who bore the official name of Caleb Fernandez and at the same time among the members of the expedition called by his first, Indian name – Gekek, which meant Hawk, was on duty in the cockpit of the second module as a safety net.
An hour later, the satellite froze three meters from the border and Pearson and Mortensen hovered next to it. “Njord” froze five hundred meters to the right and two hundred meters further from the surface of the border. Taylor was ready to approach Isaac and Jens at the very first signal from the Hius or from the astronauts controlling the satellite with maximum acceleration and, picking them up with a specially designed elastic net, to jerk towards the Hius at maximum engine power. Which, in turn, in case of danger, had to put the thermonuclear-photon engine and the plasma-proton accelerator into afterburner mode, and immediately after the approach of the Njord, capture it with a super-powerful magnetic field, pull it to the docking cables and start accelerating from the border of the “window “.
– The command went to launch the first camera, – said Parandip.
“Confirm the launch of the camera,” Pearson replied.
– Before approaching the border, five, four, three, two, one, zero.
– The camera passed the border. Fiber continues to unwind.
– The camera captures uniform illumination equal to the luminosity of Proxima Centauri, corresponding to the standard accepted distance. The length of the fiber that passed the border is 11 meters.
And immediately after that, from the mouth of the usually imperturbable Sikh burst out:
– Oh-oh-oh … I give a brake signal.This is incredible!
“Fiber unwinding has stopped,” Pearson reported. And he could not resist asking: What happened?
– The star system looks like the camera is right on its edge. We continue the program. I give an impulse to the micromotors of the camera to turn.
A few seconds later, Parandip said:
– The camera shows a flat surface with a luminosity, apparently equal to the luminosity of our Sun, observed at the border of the Proxima Centauri system.Launching emitting fiber.
“I confirm the emitter nozzle compartment,” Pearson reported. – The nozzle is approaching the border. Stopped thirty centimeters from the surface.
“Turning on a broad spectrum signaling program,” said Parandip. And after about a minute he added:
– The camera showed the complete passage of all signals. No distortions or delays were recorded. The camera is indeed in the Proxima Centauri system.Which is formally only 15 meters from you guys. The readings from the sensors mounted on the camera correspond to physical parameters similar to ours. No extreme, or indicators different from our physics are recorded. Colleagues, we did it!
– Hurray! – the voice of Rusakov, who could not restrain his emotions, rang out on the air.
– Set aside to rejoice! – the stern voice of Flores intruded into the broadcast, bursting with joyful exclamations of the other members of the expedition. – We continue the program.Parandip, fire up the second camera and let it fly out to the maximum length of the fiber. Let’s see if there are any surprises as we move away from the border on the other side. And at the same time we will try to determine the physical characteristics of the “tunnel” itself. Maybe we will find confirmation of one or another of the theories about the possibility of exceeding the speed of light when moving material bodies. And then there is Stephen Wolfram says that he cannot die in peace until he finds out if there is confirmation of the correctness of his theory.
May 14, 2051, Sunday. The board of the international spacecraft “Hius 1” and outer space near the border of the solar system .
After the just ended communication session with the Earth, all the crew members were preparing to launch into the “window to Proxima”, as the surface of the end of the “tunnel” of the microsatellite with the rat Shonei was now called. Before that, the biologists had to literally “repel the attacks” of the rest of the crew, each of whom strove to fly into the compartment for biological experiments and give the rat going to another star system something tasty, as well as scratch it in all available places.In the end, Arib and Nadezhda asked Mason to close the passage to the bio-compartment so that, as they put it, “the rat hero does not die prematurely from gluttony and the holes that are incompatible with life are not combed in his skin.”
After the allotted time for preparation, the rat-cosmonaut with all kinds of sensors and sensors fixed on it and placed inside it was placed in the microsatellite compartment intended for it. To find in which Shonya was accustomed in advance and therefore behaved calmly.That made it possible to ensure stable contact of sensors and sensors with the interface of the monitoring and control system. The satellite with the first potential earthling interstellar traveler (yes, that’s right) was once again tested for the operability of all systems and transferred to the Nyorda, which this time was piloted by Rusakov and Gekek.
And already half an hour later, Gekek said an ancient Indian prayer for good luck over the satellite, Rusakov wished the rat a good journey and a safe return, placed the satellite on the launch pad in the Njorda airlock and closed the inner hatch.
– Satellite with Shonea successfully separated. All systems are working normally according to telemetry. I am giving a signal to the engines, we are starting to put the satellite on the axis and move to the border, Rusakov said after the satellite with a small tailed astronaut left the Nyorda.
“We are receiving signals from the satellite equipment steadily,” replied Arib and Parandip at the same time.
Fifteen minutes later, the microsatellite froze a meter from the border of the “window”. At this historical moment, Shonya sipped water from a tube in front of him and scratched his left hind paw behind his ear, without damaging the sensors and sensors that were originally designed to provide the rat with the maximum possible freedom of movement.
– Well, let’s pray for Shonya, – said Parandip in all seriousness and whispered some Sikh prayer. And there was no one on the “Khius” who at that time would not have prayed either – each as he could and knew how – for the animal’s successful journey to a foreign star system and for its safe return back.
After completing the prayer, Parandip sighed in a completely Russian way – and pressed the button to start the microsatellite correction engines to the smallest thrust. The countdown began, and telemetry from all the satellite’s instruments, as well as from the diffractor telescope, the main onboard telescope and video cameras on board the Nyorda, began to enter the main computer of the Khiusa.
And after another minute of rats, Shonya became the first terrestrial creature to enter the star system of Proxima Centauri.
May 16, 2051, Tuesday. Board of the international spacecraft “Chius 1” .
– Well, colleagues, how are we going to decide who is the first to go to the “tunnel in the sky”? – said Mason Flores, breaking the silence that had been drawn out after the next session of communication with the Earth. – I dare to assume that if not all, then at least some of the members of the expedition have special instructions given by their governments in case the “tunnel” turns out to be “open” and allows people to get into another star system.Naturally, each of the countries participating in the project would like the first person to enter another star system to be its citizen. And personally, I can even assume that special instructions could allow for quite, let’s say, extreme options for ensuring such a primacy. Therefore, before this communication session, I gathered all of you here, in the main control room. Although I can admit that a similar scenario could have been envisaged, and there are also special instructions for such a case.Therefore, I do not use the right of the leader of the expedition to appoint the composition of the pioneers. I don’t want to give a reason for, hmm, possible excesses. In addition, we flew here for two years and four months, and during this time we went through different, sometimes difficult situations together. So can we really not agree?
– What do you suggest? – Rusakov said in an even voice without any intonation.
– As everyone heard, our leaders from Earth invited us to decide for ourselves who is the first to go to the Proxima system.At the same time, having said that in any case, at least a minimal shift should remain on the “Khius”, capable of bringing the ship back to Earth in case something suddenly goes wrong for those who go to Proxima. And such a shift is three people, and two of them are necessarily an energy engineer and a system programmer and an electronics engineer.
– Then I propose to go to Proxima directly on “Khius”, – Goncharov instantly reacted to what was said.
“I think so too,” Taylor immediately supported him.
– And risk all the results of the expedition? – asked Parandip.
– So they have already been transferred to Earth anyway, – simultaneously objected Rumyantseva and Mortensen.
“Well, you know as well as I do that on Earth it will be possible to carry out research on the instruments submerged in the“ tunnel ”, as well as on the specially placed in suspended animation Shawnee, which we cannot carry out on board the Hius,” said Parandip.
– Well, maybe then you will remain one of the three? – suggested Arib.- Will power engineers and electronics engineers cast lots?
“I agree,” Zimmerman said immediately.
– Well, of course, you agree, because you will participate in the draw twice and you have twice the chances of getting into the penetration group, – Goncharov replied gloomily. – Meanwhile, as a chief engineer, I also understand power plants.
“So, it looks like it won’t work,” Mason said with a sigh, after which he imperceptibly brought the thumbs and ring fingers on both hands together, activating the neurosensors implanted in them.After that, the inlet diaphragm of the main control room immediately closed and the control room was filled with a colorless and odorless fast-acting soporific gas. In parallel with this, the room was pierced by the beams of emitters mounted in the walls of the cabin, paralyzing the muscles.
Five seconds later, only Florence, Rusakov and, unexpectedly for both of them, Rumyantseva remained conscious in the wheelhouse. Looking at her, Mason raised an eyebrow in surprise.
– Why are you surprised? – Nadezhda grinned.- I’m the chief physician and could have foreseen something like that. Well, just in case, I created a “cocktail” of neutralizers of all potentially harmless soporific and paralyzing substances, as well as neuromuscular stimulants. Having heard the signal of the general assembly, I immediately introduced it to myself. Because she assumed that everything could end with something like this.
“Well, I have nanobots in my blood that can neutralize even chemical warfare agents, plus neuromuscular amplifiers protected from radiation,” Rusakov chuckled.
“Sash, anticipating the possible directions of your thoughts, I will immediately warn you that I am also cyborgized and neuromodified,” Mason said quickly, noticing how his deputy changed his posture. – And I would not like to arrange here tests of someone whose modifications allow achieving high speeds of reaction and movement. Otherwise, we here, like two elephants in a china shop, will be able to smash everything so that then our colleagues who wake up will not fix it.
– So what are we going to do? – asked Rumyantseva.
“Personally, I’m ready to stay on board, becoming one of the three on duty,” said Mason firmly.- However, this will not solve the problem with the electronics engineer and power engineer.
– And it is not necessary, – said Rusakov. – As Slava correctly noted, the engineer also understands power plants. And I, as the first pilot and deputy leader of the expedition, also completed an additional training program on power plants. So we can say that I am the third power engineer. And I’m ready to stay too. So the question is only for the electronics engineer. So who will we leave, Glory or Hans?
– Glory, – said Nadezhda.- I am Russian and, as I understand, I will join the assault group. If only because I am a doctor. So there will be a representative of Russia among the pioneers. So is the US representative. Therefore, let the German also enter it.
– Will Slava try to get on board one of the Njords by force, or go into space in a spacesuit? Mason asked. – Or then, as they say in you in Russia, “he won’t break the wood” on the way back in case we have to take the “Khius” back together?
– He will not get into a fight.If only because he knows from training on Earth and in orbit that I am stronger, more agile and faster. Well, about the “firewood” … He will definitely not greet us, – said Rusakov sadly. – However, the business will be done regularly. I’m sure of that.
– Well, then we’ll do it. After about half an hour, everyone will wake up. And in another hour, the organisms will return to their full physiological norm. Hope, just in case, you will make express diagnostics for everyone. And it will be possible to seat the groups on the “Njordam” and send them to the “tunnel”.
“Then I went to prepare the equipment,” Rusakova said.
– Come on, – answered Mason and, connecting the middle fingers and little fingers of both hands, unblocked the exit.
When Nadezhda left, Alexander asked Mason:
– Tell me, why are you ready for such self-sacrifice? After all, you could try to convince me to take one of the Njords and become pioneers together?
– Well, first of all, you could have disagreed, but I don’t want to organize a tournament in fights without rules here.Secondly, after my return, most likely, they would simply stop obeying me, and maybe something worse. Thirdly, I expect that all the groups will return and we, you and Slava, will also go there – and fly the farthest in the Proxima system. And fourthly, I don’t know what they promised you, but I was told that if such a situation arises and I resolve it at the cost of voluntarily refusing to join the group of pioneers, then I will definitely be included in the next expedition on the ship on which They will put an experimental prototype of a warp drive and which will be allowed to pass not only to the system of another star, but also from it to the next system.And this arrangement suits me.
– Well, it must be, how similar are the directions of thoughts of our leaders, – Rusakov said with a grin. – I was promised almost the same. Well, as Gagarin said, let’s go.
And they began the prelaunch preparation of the “Hiusa” and “Nyordov” systems for the first step of mankind towards the stars!
Physicists using a laser have established the exact size of a proton
The new dimension appears to have removed an anomaly that has fascinated physicists for nearly a decade.In 2010, German physicists reported that they were able to extremely accurately determine the size of a proton – a positively charged elementary particle that is part of atomic nuclei. The result was puzzling. Randolf Pohl of the Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik Institute for Quantum Optics and his colleagues measured the proton using special hydrogen atoms, where the place of an electron orbiting a proton is taken by a muon – a particle that is identical electron, but heavier than it 207 times.Field’s team found that protons with muons in orbit have a radius of 0.84 femtometers, which is 4% less than the average value obtained for ordinary hydrogen as a result of more than two dozen measurements taken in the past.
If the indicated difference had an objective character, in other words – if in the presence of muons the protons really decreased in size, then this would mean a fundamental discovery: the discovery of an unknown physical interaction between protons and muons.Over the years since then, hundreds of articles have been written discussing this topic. However, hopes that the “riddle of the proton radius” will shake the foundations of elementary particle physics and lead to the discovery of new laws of nature are now scattered to smithereens by a new dimension, the results of which were published on September 6 in the journal Science.
After Field measured muonic hydrogen nine years ago, a team of physicists led by Eric Hessels of York University in Toronto decided to re-measure the proton in ordinary, “electron” hydrogen.In the end, they succeeded: Hessels and his colleagues established that the proton has a radius of 0.833 femtometer plus or minus 0.01 – a result exactly matching that obtained by Pohl. Compared to both of these measurements, the accuracy of the previous measurements is lower, and this forces the conclusion that the proton does not change its size depending on the research context; rather, it is all about the inferiority of old measurements using electron hydrogen.
Paul called the discovery of Hessels, which he learned (in the form of preliminary conclusions) at a seminar held in the summer of 2018, a “fantastic result”, despite the fact that it “leads to a very prosaic explanation” of the riddle of the proton radius.
Hessels gave a similar assessment to his discovery. According to him, he and his colleagues were very pleased that the result they obtained “coincides with the result of a very accurate measurement carried out in muonic hydrogen”, even if their discovery has a slightly sour taste. “We understand that all the laws of physics have not yet been established,” he added, “and if so, we need to persistently and thoroughly investigate everything that helps to follow this path.”
Investigation of the radius of the proton was not a routine job.To determine its value, Hessels and his colleagues had to measure the Lamb shift – the difference between the first and second energy levels of excited hydrogen, which are called the 2S and 2P states. As Hessels recalls, he had a desire to measure the Lamb shift back in the 1980s, when he was a student, and, finally, thanks to the riddle of the proton radius, he got an incentive. “This is an extremely complex dimension,” he stressed, “and it took a good reason to tackle it.”
The 2S and 2P states of the hydrogen atom show where the electron should be looked for at any given time. These figures show the possible locations of an electron in each of the indicated states; in the center of both figures is a proton (it is not marked in any way). When the hydrogen atom is in the 2S state, the electron overlaps the proton and is inside it for a nonzero period of time. The 2P state means that the electron and proton never overlap.
How does the Lamb shift, named after the American physicist Willis Lamb, who first tried to measure it in 1947, determines the radius of a proton? Rotating in the 2S state around the nucleus of a hydrogen atom, the electron spends part of its time inside the proton (and this is a bunch of particles called quarks and gluons, with a lot of empty space).When an electron is inside a proton, it, due to its positive charge, stretches the electron in opposite directions, partially losing its strength. As a result, the amount of electrical attraction between the proton and the electron becomes smaller, decreasing the energy that ensures the integrity of the atom. The larger the proton, the more time the electron is inside it and the weaker it is bound to it, which means that it bounces more easily.
By firing a laser beam into a cloud of hydrogen gas, Hessels and his team made the electrons go from the 2S state to the 2P state, in which the electron never blocks a proton. Determination of the energy required for an electron to make such a transition showed how weakly it is bound in the 2S state, when it partially gets inside the proton. And this directly speaks about the size of the latter.
In 2010, Paul acted in a similar way, determining the radius of a proton using the Lamb shift of muonic hydrogen. But since the muon is heavier than the electron, in the 2S state it is pressed closer to the proton. This means that it stays inside the proton longer, making the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen several million times more sensitive to the radius of the proton than in normal hydrogen.
Working with normal hydrogen, Hessels, in order to find out the exact value of the radius of the proton, had to measure the energy difference between 2S and 2P with an accuracy of parts per million.
According to Hessels’ result, earlier attempts to measure the radius of a proton in electron hydrogen tended to overestimate the true value. Why is not clear. To keep the mystery of the radius of the proton, one can continue to carry out similar studies, trying to improve the last measurement or show it to be false by verification, but Hessels finished his work.“We are dismantling our apparatus,” he said.
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