Should the Penny Be Eliminated?
Those who want to save the penny argue that it helps keep prices in check and fuels charitable causes—and that most Americans support keeping the coin.5 The discussion has continued in 2017 following the introduction in U.S. Congress of a bill that proposes suspending production of the penny.6,7
The Penny’s Rising Cost
The U.S. has been producing pennies since the late 1700s.8 Due to the rising cost of production, including the zinc and copper used in the coins, it has cost more than a cent to produce each one for more than a decade.9 The U.S. Mint produced 9.1 billion one-cent coins in 2016, more than any other denomination. It cost 1.5 cents to make each one, resulting in a net loss of $46 million.10
The nickel also lost money, but the quarter coin generated a surplus because of its higher face value; each one cost only 7.6 cents to make, less than a third of its nominal value.11
Declining Value as a Payment Method
The penny’s value as a payment method has steadily declined, due to inflation. The U.S. stopped producing the half-penny coin in 1857, and the group Citizens to Retire the Penny argues that the retirement of the one-cent coin is long overdue since it’s worth far less in today’s economy than the half-cent was when it was retired as a method of payment.12,13
As a New York Times article put it, “The federal government makes and distributes coins to facilitate commerce, but not much can be bought for less than five cents. Thanks to the magic of inflation, what cost a penny in 1950 requires a dime today.” The article estimated that in 2015, American workers on average earned nearly a penny a second. As a result, “It’s literally not worth their time to bend down and pluck one from the sidewalk.”14
Even back in 1996, the U. S. General Accounting Office noted that the penny was not widely used as a payment method. “With its relatively small purchasing power, the penny is used primarily to make change for cash transactions and for the most part does not circulate after initial receipt by the public,” it said in a report presenting options for the coin’s future.15
Proponents of abolition also point out that other countries have abolished their lowest-value coins without apparent problems. Canada stopped making pennies in 2012, for example.16,17 Australia stopped making its one-cent (and two-cent) coins in 1992, citing minting costs and the loss of purchasing power through inflation.18 The U.K., however, has retained the 1200-year-old English penny, although the Governor of the Bank of England reportedly suggested it could be scrapped in coming years.19
Some estimates suggest that keeping the penny creates significant costs for businesses. Citing a survey by the National Association of Convenience Stores and a major pharmacy chain, some authors have suggested that handling pennies can add 2 seconds or more per cash transaction.20
Reasons for Keeping the Penny
A number of surveys have shown that respondents want to keep the penny. In one 2014 survey, 51 percent of respondents said they opposed eliminating the coin, with only 34 percent in favor of elimination; 43 percent said they would be disappointed or angry to see the penny go. And the survey responses also contradicted assertions that pennies are not worth stooping to pick up: 71 percent of respondents said they were more likely to stop and pick up pennies they come across, rather than leaving them lying on the ground.21
The penny’s supporters argue that the coin remains valuable in several ways, and that cost-reduction arguments are largely myths because they include fixed costs that would continue to be incurred for minting other coins even if the penny was eliminated. 22 They point out that charities have used the collection of pennies as a way to raise funds.23
Supporters also say that eliminating the pennies as a payment method would result in price rounding, causing price increases for consumers and businesses.24 However, one economist’s analysis contradicts that claim, suggesting that prices would be rounded downward roughly as often as they would be rounded upward.25
Moves to Stop Making the Penny
Several bills introduced in the U.S. Congress have attempted to eliminate the penny, without succeeding.26,27 The most recent attempts were introduced in the U.S. House and Senate in the spring of 2017 and were still pending in October.28,29
The Senate bill, which has received the most attention, proposes suspending the production of one-cent coins for a 10-year period, saying that sufficient pennies already exist to meet demand and that taxpayers lose money minting the coin. The bill says the Government Accountability Office watchdog agency should study the effect of this temporary suspension and report on whether production should remain suspended. The bill also recommends reducing the cost of producing other denominations: it proposes cutting the cost of the nickel by using a cheaper mix of metals; and replacing the dollar bill with a longer-lasting coin to save money over the long term.30 The bill was referred to the Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs.31
United States Stamp Values – 1968-69 Commemorative and Regular Issues
United States Stamp Values – 1968-69 Commemorative and Regular Issues – Includes the Airlift for Servicmen Stamp and Historic Flag Series
for all the things you do…
United States Stamp Values
1968-71 Regular Issues
|6 cent||Flag & White House||$0.35||$0.20|
|6 cent||Flag & White House- Huck Press||$0.35||$0.20|
|6 cent||Flag & W.House-Coil||$0.35||$0.20|
|8 cent||Flag & W.House-Coil||$0.45||$0.20|
1968 Airlift to Servicemen
|1 dollar||Eagle Holding Pennant – Airlift for Our Servicemen||$3.50||$2.25|
1968 Commemoratives – Flags Issue
|6 cent||Fort Moultrie Flag 1776||$1.90||$0.75|
|6 cent||Fort McHenry Flag – U.S. Flag 1795-1818||$1.90||$0.65|
|6 cent||Washington’s Cruisers Flag 1775||$1.00||$0.65|
|6 cent||Bennington Flag 1777||$1.00||$0.65|
|6 cent||Rhode Island Flag 1775||$1.00||$0.65|
|6 cent||First Stars and Stripes 1777||$1.90||$0.65|
|6 cent||Bunker Hill Flag 1775||$1.00||$0.75|
|6 cent||Grand Union Flag 1776||$1.25||$0.75|
|6 cent||Philadelphia Light Horse Flag 1775||$1.00||$0.65|
|6 cent||First Navy Jack 1775 – Don’t Tread On Me||$1.00||$0.65|
|6 cent||Support our Youth- Elks||$0.35||$0.20|
|6 cent||Marquette Explorer||$0.50||$0.20|
|6 cent||Daniel Boone||$0.40||$0.20|
|6 cent||Arkansas River Navigation||$0.60||$0.20|
|6 cent||Cherokee Strip||$0.50||$0.20|
|6 cent||Waterfowl Conservation||$0.55||$0.20|
|6 cent||Illinois Statehood||$0.45||$0.20|
|6 cent||Hemisfair ’68 – San Antonio||$0.35||$0.20|
|6 cent||Law and Order||$0.40||$0.20|
|6 cent||Register and Vote||$0.35||$0.20|
|6 cent||Walt Disney||$1.30||$0.20|
|6 cent||Leif Erikson||$0.35||$0.20|
|6 cent||John Trumbull – American Artist – Battle of Bunker Hill||$0.40||$0.20|
|6 cent||Christmas- Gabriel||$0.35||$0.20|
|6 cent||Chief Joseph – National Portrait Gallery||$0.60||$0.20|
|6 cent||Plant for more Beautiful Cities||$1.50||$0.20|
|6 cent||Plant for more Beautiful Parks||$1.50||$0.20|
|6 cent||Plant for more Beautiful Highways||$1. 50||$0.20|
|6 cent||Plant for more Beautiful Streets||$1.50||$0.20|
|6 cent||The American Legion – 50 Years – Veterans as Citizens||$0.35||$0.20|
|6 cent||Grandma Moses||$0.35||$0.20|
|6 cent||Apollo 8 – In the beginning God…||$0.50||$0.20|
|6 cent||California 1769-1969||$0.40||$0.20|
|6 cent||Daniel Webster the Dartmouth College Case 1819||$0.40||$0.20|
|6 cent||Hope for the Crippled||$0.35||$0.20|
|6 cent||XIth Interational Botanical Congress – Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas Fir)||$1.50||$0.20|
|6 cent||XIth Interational Botanical Congress – Cypripedium reginae (Lady’s Slipper)||$1.50||$0.20|
|6 cent||XIth Interational Botanical Congress – Fouquieria splendens (Ocotillo)||$1.50||$0.20|
|6 cent||XIth Interational Botanical Congress – Franklinia alatamaha (Franklinia)||$1.50||$0.20|
|6 cent||W.C.Handy – Father of the Blues||$0.60||$0.20|
|6 cent||John Wesley Powell – 1869 Expedition||$0.40||$0.20|
|6 cent||Alabama 1819-1969||$0.45||$0.20|
|6 cent||Professional Baseball 1869-1969||$0.75||$0.25|
|6 cent||Football 1869-1969||$0.50||$0.20|
|6 cent||Dwight D.Eisenhower||$0.55||$0.20|
|6 cent||Christmas- Winter Sunday||$0. 35||$0.20|
|6 cent||William M. Harnett – American Painting||$0.35||$0.20|
These prices for U.S. stamps are provided as a service to Hobbizine readers. They are derived from numerous sources such as dealer price lists, advertisements in philatelic publications, and public auction results. Use these values as a guideline for evaluating the reasonableness of dealer prices, setting up trades with other collectors, and estimating the worth of your collection. The value of an individual stamp is dependent on its centering and condition. The prices listed here are for well centered, undamaged stamps. A particularly nice example might sell for more than the amount listed, while a poor copy might be worth less.
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The Stamps of Germany’s Inflation Period
United States Precancel Stamps – A History and Guide to Collecting
The Pan American Stamp Series of 1901
The United States Bank Note Stamps
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Siam – The Classic Stamps of Thailand
All About Stamp Perforations
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Stamp Values Index
Price Guides Home
Quick Service Guide > 604a Quick Service Guide
This is what is actually inside the top of the flag pole
Over the past two decades, the strategic landscape has changed dramatically. While the fundamental nature of war has not changed, the pace of change and modern technology, coupled with shifts in the nature of geopolitical competition, have altered the character of war in the 21st century.
Advancements in space, information systems, cyberspace, electronic warfare, and missile technology have accelerated the speed and complexity of war. As a result, decision space has collapsed, and we can assume that any future conflict will involve all domains and cut across multiple geographic regions.
Today’s strategic landscape is also extraordinarily volatile, and the nation faces threats from an array of state and nonstate actors. Revisionist powers such as China and Russia seek to undermine the credibility of our alliances and limit our ability to project power. North Korea’s efforts to develop a nuclear-capable, intercontinental ballistic missile now threaten the homeland and our allies in the Pacific. Iran routinely destabilizes its neighbors and threatens freedom of navigation while modernizing its maritime, missile, space and cyber capabilities. Violent extremist organizations (VEOs), such as the so-called Islamic State (IS) and al Qaeda, remain a transregional threat to the homeland, our allies and our way of life. These realities are why some have called today’s operating environment the most challenging since World War II.
At the same time, the U.S. military’s long-held competitive advantage has eroded. Our decisive victory in Operation Desert Storm was a wake-up call for our enemies; they observed that our operational source of strength is the ability to project power where and when needed to advance U.S. interests and meet alliance commitments. This spurred dramatic tactical, operational and strategic adaptations and accelerated modernization programs to asymmetrically counter our ability to project power. All the while, budget instability and the challenges of a decades-long campaign against violent extremism adversely affected our own modernization and capability development efforts required to preserve – or in some cases restore – our competitive advantage.
A pair of U.S Air Force F-35 Lightning II aircraft with the 419th Fighter Squadron fly alongside a KC-10 Extender crewed by Reserve Citizen Airmen with the 78th Air Refueling Squadron, 514th Air Mobility Wing, as an F-15 Eagle with the 104th Fighter Squadron approaches during a joint training missio(Air Force photo by Master Sgt. Mark C. Olsen)
Additionally, the Joint Force lacks sufficient capacity to meet combatant command requirements. Over the past 16 years, we made a conscious choice to limit the size of the force to preserve scarce resources necessary for essential investments in immediate upgrades to critical capabilities. And requirements have not abated, as we assumed they would after major combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan ended. As a result, global demand for forces continues to exceed the inventory.
Finally, as a nation that thinks and acts globally, the United States cannot choose between a force that can address IS and other VEOs and one that can deter and defeat state actors with a full range of capabilities. We require a balanced force that can address the challenges outlined in the recently published National Defense Strategy and has the inherent flexibility to respond to the unexpected.
We must adapt to maintain a competitive advantage
Advances in technology and the changing character of war require that our plans address all-domain, transregional challenges and conflict. In the past, we assumed most crises could be contained to one region. That assumption, in turn, drove regionally focused planning and decision making processes. Today, this assumption no longer holds true. Our planning must adapt to provide a global perspective that views challenges holistically and enables execution of military campaigns with a flexibility and speed that outpaces our adversaries.
We must also be prepared to make decisions at the speed of relevance. While the cost of failure at the outset of conflict has always been high, in past conflicts there were opportunities to absorb costs and recover if something went wrong. Today, that cannot be assumed, and our strategic decision making processes must adapt to keep pace. Senior leaders require routine access to synthesized information and intelligence to ensure their ability to see the fight in real time and seize initiative.
We must manage the force in a manner that allows us to meet day-to-day requirements, while maintaining readiness and the flexibility to respond to major contingencies and the unexpected. To ensure that the Joint Force provides viable options and is in position to execute when called on, our force posture must be optimized to strategic priorities and provide strength, agility and resilience across regions and domains.
To arrest and, in time, reverse the erosion of our competitive advantage, our force development and design processes must deliver a Joint Force capable of competing and winning against any potential adversary. This future force must remain competitive in all domains, deny adversaries’ ability to counter our strengths asymmetrically, and retain the ability to project power at a time and place of our choosing.
Finally, we must further develop leaders capable of thriving at the speed of war – leaders who can adapt to change, drive innovation and thrive in uncertain, chaotic conditions. The nature of war has not changed, and, in a violent clash of wills, it is the human dimension that ultimately determines the success of any campaign.
The “how” of global integration
To address these imperatives, we are adapting our approach to planning, decision-making, force management and force design. These processes are interdependent and mutually reinforcing – intended to drive the changes required to maintain our competitive advantage. Over the past two years, we have made progress in each of these areas, but more work remains.
Gen. Joseph Dunford Jr. works aboard a C-130 aircraft at Bagram Airfield before a visit to Task Forceu2013Southwest at Camp Shorab, Helmand Province, March 22, 2018. (DoD photo by Dominique A. Pineiro)
The National Defense Strategy establishes clear priorities for the Department of Defense, and the National Military Strategy is nested within to provide a global framework for the Joint Force to operate across regions, domains and functions. We reoriented the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan to operationalize the strategy and developed global campaign plans to provide a framework for planning an all-domain, transregional approach to the challenges outlined in the National Defense Strategy. These plans are designed to bring coherence to operations of all functional and geographic combatant commands.
The Joint Force is also improving how it frames decisions for the Secretary of Defense in an all-domain, transregional fight. This begins by developing a common intelligence picture and a shared understanding of global force posture, which then serves as a baseline to test operational plans and concepts through realistic and demanding exercises and wargames. By testing our assumptions and concepts, exercises and wargames provide senior leaders with the “reps-and-sets” necessary to build the implicit communication required to facilitate rapid decision-making in times of crisis.
Our force management processes are evolving to support the objectives laid out in the National Defense Strategy. Setting the globe begins by allocating resources against strategic priorities – optimizing the way we posture capabilities globally to support our strategy, provide strategic flexibility and ensure our ability to respond rapidly to the unexpected. Once the globe is set, we are applying the concept of Dynamic Force Employment to provide proactive and scalable options for priority missions while maintaining readiness to respond to contingencies. In a global environment that demands strategic flexibility and freedom of action, these adaptations enable the Joint Force to seize the initiative rather than react when faced with multiple challenges.
To ensure our competitive advantage, we are implementing a process for force design that provides the secretary with integrated solutions to drive the development of a more lethal force. This process begins by assessing our ability to execute the strategy and compares our capabilities and capacities vis-à-vis our adversaries. Assessment findings shape the development of comprehensive materiel and nonmateriel recommendations that inform the secretary’s priorities for investment, concept development, experimentation and innovation. This approach is designed to provide integrated solutions, across the services, which ensure competitive advantage today and tomorrow.
Finally, we are reinvigorating strategic assessments to support all these efforts. Assessments provide the analytic rigor to inform our ability both to meet the current strategy and to develop a future force that maintains our competitive advantage. A cornerstone of this process is the Chairman’s Risk Assessment, which evaluates our current ability to execute the National Military Strategy and provides a global perspective of risk across the Joint Force. And, in 2016, we published the Joint Military Net Assessment for the first time in 20 years – benchmarking the Joint Force against near-peer adversaries today and comparing our trajectory over the next five years. These assessments are essential to provide an analytic baseline for everything we do, from planning to force management and from exercise development to force design.
There is no preordained right to victory on the battlefield, and today the United States faces an extraordinarily complex and dynamic security environment. To keep pace with the changing character of war, we must globally integrate the way we plan, employ the force, and design the force of the future. If we fail to adapt, the Joint Force will lose the ability to compete.
This article originally appeared on the United States Department of Defense. Follow @DeptofDefense on Twitter.
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Frothy trading in bankrupt companies, penny stocks signal a pullback
Car sit idle at the Hertz Rent-A-Car rental lot at San Francisco International Airport on April 30, 2020 in San Francisco, California.
Justin Sullivan | Getty Images
Bubbly price moves in the stocks of bankrupt companies, a jump in the number of bullish investors and surging activity by small investors in stock options are all signs that the stock market may have run too far, too quickly.
There’s even been a big rally in stocks trading under $1 per share, which racked up an average gain of nearly 80% in the past week.
With the S&P 500 more than 45% off its low, analysts have been seeing signs the market is overbought and could be ready for a rest. But the market’s strong gains are also a magnetic lure for some retail investors, who feel like they haven’t been invested enough, and for others who are finally beginning to trust the market’s comeback.
“Now you have frothy retail behavior on top of stretched sentiment on the part of professional investors, and it’s definitely a warning sign,” said Peter Boockvar, chief investment strategist at Bleakley Advisory Group. “Does it really matter today, or does it matter two weeks from now? But from strictly a contrarian standpoint, it’s got to be a red flag. It’s not making a long-term statement. It’s not telling you it’s the end of the bull market. It just tells you right now, at this moment in time, there’s a lot of speculative behavior that should be heeded in the short term.”
Stocks skidded sharply in early trading Thursday as some of that froth began to unwind. Hertz was down 13% on Thursday morning following a 39% drop on Wednesday.
Boockvar said Investor’s Intelligence data now shows a reading for bulls at 56.9%, from 53.5% last week, the highest since January and even more than the 54.7% when the S&P hit its all-time high in February. Bears have fallen to 22.5% from 22.8% last week, and 41.7% in March. The spread between bulls and bears at 36.3 is now the widest since mid January.
Options trading, bankrupt companies
According to Sentiment Trader, small-lot options traders are in a “frenzy,” and their activity also dwarfs the amount of trading at the market highs in February. Sentiment Trader points out that the smallest traders, with volume of 10 contracts or less, bought to open 7.5 million call options on stocks at the market peak in February. This week, they bought 12.1 million of similar contracts.
Add to that some pretty wild trading in the stocks of bankrupt companies like Hertz and Whiting Petroleum. Hertz stock hit a bottom of 40 cents on May 26, four days after its bankruptcy filing, but its stock hit a high of $6.25 since then. On Wednesday, it fell sharply to $2.52 per share, a decline of 40%. Whiting was also hit hard Wednesday, along with bankrupt retailer, J.C. Penney.
“There’s always speculation, the hot sectors, the hot areas of the market,” said Jeff Rubin, head of research at Birinyi Associates. “In every bull market, there have been periods of speculation that in hindsight look foolish.” But Rubin said the frothy action does not necessarily carry a warning.
“Two years ago, anything related to cryptocurrencies were super hot, and after that it was anything related to the pot stocks that were super hot,” said Rubin. He also mentioned Pets.com, the poster child for bubbly internet stocks in the late 1990s that no longer exists.
Citadel Securities Institutional Equity Derivatives team, in a note obtained by CNBC, studied the 29 stocks in the small-cap benchmark Russell 2000 with a share price less than $1. In five trading days through Monday, the group was up an average of 79%. Denbury Resources, Noble Corp., and Palatin Technologies are some of the stocks that were trading below $1 per share in the Russell 2000.
“This all amounts to what seems like a retail short-squeeze feeding frenzy that has reached blow-off top proportions,” the Citadel Securities Institutional Equity Derivatives team said in the note.
‘Not easy to play’
Retail investors would have found some cheap prices amid the rubble of the March sell-off. The airline sector, up 45% in the past month, had been depressed with American Airlines and others trading in the single digits. Those investors would have seen their money more than double.
Some strategists said it appears individual investors are getting sucked into the “bankruptcy trade.” Others said that high-frequency traders, combing the market for opportunities, may also have set their sights on those stocks to capture their dramatic moves on a percentage basis. Stocks in bankruptcies can end up worthless.
“There’s really two types of people who invest in those sorts of things. People who are outright speculative, and those who are specialists who have done the math and understand the risk for the stocks and bonds,” said Ed Keon, chief investment strategist at QMA. “You also mostly see those type of investors on the bond side of things, rather than the stock side. There are those that do it properly. It’s a specialist game and it’s not easy to play.”
Keon said the fact that more people are at home due to coronavirus shutdowns may mean they have time to look around at the market, more than they normally would have at the office. “They may have a bit more time on their hands to look at their portfolio. Some people may be speculating in different corners of the market. That’s usually not a good sign,” he said.
“Remember back in the day in 1999, you go to a cocktail party, and it seemed like everyone was buying tech stocks on margin, which was fantastic for awhile,” said Keon. “There are always some fools taking a flier on a risky investment but it seems to be more intense if you have the market move up. “
Keon has become more cautious on the market, which he sees overvalued by some metrics. Investors venturing into the riskier areas may have made some good returns on the rebound in airlines and other reopening plays. “They made some money and that encouraged people to do it. It’s a good idea until it isn’t,” Keon said.
One measure of value, the S&P 500 price-to-earnings ratio on forward earnings is above 22 times. The long-term average is below 20.
“We’re not super bearish. There’s a lot of momentum. We’re making progress on the disease. We’re making progress on the economy,” Keon said. “We look at different measures of valuation.”
Katie Stockton, founder and managing partner at Fairlead Strategies, said for the investors who are playing bankruptcy stocks, neither Hertz nor Whiting Petroleum are showing any evidence of being able to sustain their gains. Stockton, a technical analyst, said she does not see a confirmation in the charts.
“For me breakouts always need to be confirmed, not just in price but in time,” she said. “What we’ve seen is these very quick snap-back rallies for these bankruptcy companies. There’s not enough to suggest they’re lasting.”
She said Hertz did move above its 50-day moving average but did not hold it. “It doesn’t confirm a market breakout or medium-term momentum.”
Postcard published date | Center of Southwest Studies
Much of the contents of these guidelines were excerpted with permission from the
Beginners Guide to the Hobby of
Postcard Collecting, The Capital of Texas Postcard Club. Thanks also
to Chuck Harbert; and to Nina
Webber, whose donated postcards are used for the examples on this page.
Compiled by Todd Ellison, Certified Archivist (last revised 8/7/2006)
By the style of the era:
Short History of the Post Card in the United States,
compiled by Mr. John H. McClintock. Also,
postcards and the picture researchers: a personal case study,” by Lewis
Foreman, in The Audiovisual Librarian, Vol. 12, Nov. 1986, p. 198-199.
The Picture Postcard and Its Origins, by Frank Staff (N.Y.: Praeger, 1966).
Pioneer Era (1893-1898)
Although the world’s first picture postcards date from the
1860s to the mid-1870s, most of the earliest American picture postcards extant today are those that were
sold at the World Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois, starting on May 1, 1893. These were illustrations on government-printed postal cards and
printed souvenir cards. The government postal cards included a printed 1-cent stamp;
the privately printed souvenir cards required a 2-cent adhesive postage stamp to be
attached. Messages were not permitted on
the address side of the cards; after attempting various forms of explaining that
regulation, the U.S. Post Office adopted the printed message that This side
is for the address only (Staff, p. 62). Other
backs from this pioneer era of the American post card are known today as Souvenir Card and Mail Card.
This period ended by July 1, 1898.
Mailing Card Era (1898-1901)
An Act of U.S. Congress on May 19, 1898 granted private printers
permission to print and sell cards that bore the inscription
Private Mailing Card. Today these cards are referred to as PMCs.
The required postage was a 1-cent adhesive stamp. At this time, a dozen or more American printers began to take postcards seriously. Still,
no message was permitted on the address side. The term Post Card was not widely used until the early
1900s (it was later contracted to “postcard” as a word-counting
Card Era – Undivided Back (1901-1907)
New U. S. postal regulations on December 24, 1901 stipulated
that the words Post Card should be printed at the top of the address side
of privately printed cards. Government-issued cards were to be designated
as Postal Cards (Staff, p. 62). Writing
was still not permitted on the address side. In this era, private citizens began to take black
and white photographs
and have them printed on paper with post card backs.
If no message was
permitted on the address side, the card probably pre-dated March of 1907.
Real Photo Postcards (1900-ongoing)
Postcards that are actual photographic
replications were first produced around 1900. They may or may not have a
white border, or a divided back, or other features of postcards, depending on
the paper the photographer used. Many of the real photo postcards being
done at the current time are reproductions of earlier historic photos. The
easiest way to distinguish a real photo postcard is to look at it under a
magnifying glass; it will show smooth transitions from one tone to another.
Click here for links for dating real
Back Era (1907-1914)
Postcards with a divided back were permitted in the U.S. beginning on March 1, 1907.
(Britain had already pioneered this in 1902.) The address was to be written on the right side; the left side was for
writing messages. Many millions of
cards were published in this era — it was the golden age of postcards. Up
to this point, most postcards were printed in Germany, which was far ahead of
the United States in the use of lithographic processes. With
the advent of World War I, the supply of postcards for American consumption
switched from Germany to England and
the United States itself.
Border Era (1915-1930)
Most United States postcards were printed during this
period. To save ink, publishers left a clear border around the view, thus these postcards are referred to as White Border cards.
The relatively high cost of labor, along with inexperience and changes in public taste,
resulted in the production of
poor quality cards during this period. Furthermore, strong
competition in a narrowing market caused many publishers to go out of business.
Linen Era (1930-1945)
New printing processes allowed printing on post cards with
high rag content that caused a linen-like finish. These cheap cards allowed the use of gaudy dyes for coloring.
The firm of Curt Teich flourished because of its line of linen postcards. Many important events
and scenes in history are documented only by these cards.
Photochrome Era (1939-ongoing)
Chrome postcards began to dominate the scene soon after the Union Oil
Company placed them in its western service stations in 1939. Mike Roberts pioneered his WESCO cards soon after World War
II. Three-dimensional postcards
also appeared in this era. By 1960s, the standard size
of cards had grown to 4 x 6 inches.
Photochromes are not real
photos but rather, printed cards done by a photochrome process. To
distinguish a printed postcard from a real photo postcard, examine it under a
magnifying glass and you will see the dot pattern that is characteristic of
“The best printed cards were produced done by the photogravure process. They are
difficult to discern from real photos but usually don’t have the glossy finish
of photographs. The Laura Gilpin cards of Mesa Verde and Silverton are excellent
examples of the photogravure process.” (Source: Chuck Harbert,
email to the author, 8/7/06)
One easy way to approximate when a
postcard was mailed if the cancellation date is unreadable is to know the
changes in rates for mailing postcards. The following table comes from Historical statistics of the United States: colonial times to 1970,
and Statistical abstract.
1 cent *
1958 (August 1)
1963 (January 7)
1968 (January 7)
1971 (May 16)
1974 (March 2)
1975 (September 14)
7 cents **
1975 (December 31
1978 (May 29)
1981 (March 22)
1985 (February 17)
1988 (April 3)
1991 (February 3)
1995 (January 1)
*The postcard rate was increased from
1 cent to 2 cents as a wartime measure. When
World War I ended at the end of 1918, the rate was lowered to its pre-War level
of one cent. Allmer states (p. 17) that postage was
raised briefly from 1 cent to 2 cents in 1917-1919 and in 1925-1928; the
conclusive raise to 2 cents was in 1951.
**The U.S. Commission
(Rate Board) over-estimated revenue needs in 1974 and was forced to reduce
postage rate in 1975.
By the publisher’s numbering scheme:
(Source: excerpted in
Guide to the Hobby of
, The Capital of Texas Postcard Club,
PC Newsletter; Glorias Corner, PO Box 507, Denison, TX 75021-0507,
Phone/FAX (903)463-4878, Email [email protected] )
Two major postcard publishers, Curt Teich and Detroit
Publishing Company, used numbering schemes that can be helpful in dating a card.
Lake County Museum, 27277 Forest Preserve Dr., Wauconda, IL
beginning, Teich apparently made no attempt to define when a card was printed. Research has revealed some consistencies however, such as
Card number Year printed
In 1929, Curt Teich abandoned the consecutive numbering
system for an alpha/numeric production code.
The company used code numbers and letters to indicate the date the card
was published. The codes appear
either on the scenic side or in the postage box.
The number and letter before the dash in the code stand for the date.
The number indicates the last figure in the date and the letter indicates
the decade. The letters and figures
after the dash pertain to the printing process used and the number of issues
Code number 3A-h207 is therefore translated to be printed
in the year 1933. The A
refers to the decade, the “3” refers to the third year of that decade, the “107”
refers to that card being the 107th card printed that year.
The “H” refers to the printing method called Art Colortone.
For more information, visit the Curt
Teich Postcard Archives web site. The Archives is part of the part of
the Lake County Discovery Museum, in Wauconda, Illinois.
Publishing Company began
numbering its cards with Number 1. #s
1 through 1000 were published between 1899 and 1901.
Some of these same cards were later reproduced in the 5000 series.
Detroit postcards are easy to manage by the number, regardless of
Inherent content of the picture
may be helpful in dating (assuming that the postcard used a recent view).
The Official Identification and Price Guide to Postcards by Diane
Allmer (New York: House of Collectibles, 1990, ISBN 0-876-37802-5, page 16),
suggests looking at the following:
What style of clothes are the people wearing?
[A useful book in this regard is Joan Severas Dressed for the
photographer : ordinary Americans and fashion, 1840-1900 (Kent,
Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1995), GT610
.S42 1995 in the Delaney Southwest Research Library Reference bookcase at
the Center of Southwest Studies].
Look at the modes of transportation.
Horse-drawn vehicles? What
model of vehicles?
What clues can be drawn from the style of interior decorations,
appliances, and furnishings?
Have the buildings been modified since the time of this view?
(Dated photos in the Centers General Photograph Collection may be
useful for comparing with the postcard view.)
Look for other time-related details.
For example, how many stars are in the U.S. flag?
Do the buildings have window air conditioners?
Is a wall calendar in the picture? If
we know a day of the week, the perpetual calendar at http://swcenter.fortlewis.edu/tools/PERPLCAL.HTM
may be useful for figuring out the year. A
history timeline such as at http://mediahistory.umn.edu/time/timeline.html
may be useful, too.
As Allmer notes (p. 17-18), postcard size
can also be a clue.
If the card is old and is larger than 3.5 by 5.5 inches, it may
date from before 1898.
If the card is old and is slightly smaller than 3.5 by 5.5 inches,
it may date from 1898-1902.
If the card measures 3.5 by 5.5 inches, it was probably made
between 1902 and 1970.
If the card measures approximately 4 by 6 inches
(continental size) and is American, it was probably made no earlier than
Allmer also suggests (p. 18)
looking at the printing process:
If the card was produced using high-quality chromolithography with
six or more inks, it was probably made before 1917.
If the card has a flat-textured surface and is printed with
a limited range of low-contrast inks, it was probably made before 1930.
If it has a linen-textured surface and is printed with sharply
contrasting bright inks, it is likely from the period 1930-1960.
If the card has a shiny surface and is printed in color
using a halftone process (little dots of magenta, cyan, yellow and
black), it was probably made no earlier than 1939.
Allmer notes (page 19) that “postcards created
directly from photographic negatives and printed onto photographic paper are
difficult to date when they have not been postally used.” She refers
the user to Prairie Fires and Paper Moons by Hal Morgan and Andreas Brown
(Boston: David R. Godine, 1981) and “Dating Post-1920 Real Photo
Postcards,” by Ernest G. Covington, in Postcard Collector, July
1986, pages 26-28.
Phone/postal numbers (Allmer, page
Does it include postal mailing codes?
The U.S. introduced the use of two-digit zone numbers on May 1, 1943; use
of five-digit Zip codes began in July of 1963.
Does it list a phone number with area code?
The first unassisted coast-to-coast direct dialing with a three-digit
area code began on November 10, 1951.
Other clues on the back of a
Real photo postcard stamp
Real photo postcard stamp
to the collections at the Center of Southwest Studies
Information for doing research at the Center
of Southwest Studies
Center of Southwest Studies
August 07, 2006
Toler, Penny – Wiki
Wikipedia has articles about other people with the last name Toler.
Long Beach State (1986-1989)
, 1997, assigned to
Los Angeles Sparks Club
|Personal awards and achievements|
Virginia “Penny” Toler (born March 24, 1966 in Washington, DC) is an American professional basketball player who played for the Women’s National Basketball Association.Three months before the 1997 WNBA main draft, she was assigned to the Los Angeles Sparks team. Played as a point guard. At the end of her sports career, she was appointed general manager of Sparks, where she still works. In 2014, after her dismissal, Carol Ross worked as interim head coach of Los Angeles.
Penny Toler was born on March 24, 1966 in Washington DC, the capital of the United States, and has three brothers and four sisters.
- Profile on WNBA.com
- WNBA Statistics at Basketball-reference.com
- WNBA Coaching Career at Basketball-reference.com
- Student Career at NCAA at csulb.edu (English)
Mikhailov S.A. Journalism in the USA. CHAPTER I (3)
CHAPTER I .
FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT 90 130 90 131
revolution “in the American newspaper press (1830 – 1840)
In Europe, especially in England, by the beginning of the 19th century, attempts were already made to produce cheap
newspapers. Most of these attempts did not lead to any
positive result: circulation growth was constrained either by existing regulations,
or simply the high cost of publishing a publication, since it is not always
political dividends were considered preferable to real
financial benefit.In the United States at this time, the party-political
press, since the country faced the most difficult tasks of formation and development
new statehood, and the press helped in solving them.
It was at this time, the time of the dominant position of the party-political
press in America, philosophical ways and technological basis for its
qualitative transformation. Qualitative leap was favored by three
most important factors:
changes in social
areas that stimulated the education of newspaper readership;
the formation of the newspapers themselves
as enterprises of a profitable business;
More than half of all US newspapers were published in New York,
Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington (US capital since 1800) and
New Orleans. By the early 1830s, the American newspaper was almost universally
weekly, but in cities more and more daily newspapers began to appear,
which was important for the development of the press.
The then typical daily newspaper had four pages.
Her front page was dedicated exclusively to ads, as newspapers
became more and more commercial publications.Actually journalistic
the content was within the number. The second lane usually contained
editorial column. The second and third pages traditionally reported
the arrival of ships from Europe and the maintenance of their holds, as well as other sea
news. Political news was at the forefront of the American newspaper. IN
the system itself of the then mass media most attention
the reading public was attracted by political newspapers, which were financed
political organizations, party and state leaders who controlled
the entire editorial policy up to the direct writing of editorials.So the “party” (political) newspapers did not depend on political leaders.
only financially, but also ideologically, especially during their stay
Political and commercial press publications had several
common features. First of all, both were equally expensive (one
a copy of the newspaper usually cost 6 cents) and was distributed exclusively by
subscription (annual newspaper subscription cost 8-10
dollars). Unsurprisingly, even the best American newspapers had circulation
1000-2000 copies.Their readers mostly belonged to
to the financial, trade and political elite. The stamp of elitism lay on everything
especially on content essentially limited to trade and politics.
“Commercial revolution” does not apply to all newspapers
era, but only to those of them that most radically broke with
existing customs and developed a model of newspaper publication with which
in the main, and will be associated with the further development of the American newspaper
journalism, continuing to this day.
Historians of American journalism most often
associate the emergence of the “penny press” with the era of the Jacksonian administration (years
reign of President Andrew Jackson 1829-1837), although cheap
there were newspapers in America before. True, all of them were not designed for a wide
the reader’s addressee, but for businessmen, politicians, etc. It is clear that large
such newspapers simply did not need circulation. The term “revolution” as applied to
newspaper press in the USA 1830-1840 applied
print researcher John Nero, who noted that the pre-existing
the newspapers were “not for the working class”.However, Nero saw in the arisen
the phenomenon of development, evolution, and not a revolutionary leap.
Walter Lippmann wrote in 1931 that the following existed
stages of development of the press. The first stage was characterized by monopoly ownership of the media
by the government. Stage two – destruction
government monopoly; the press began to dominate political
parties, recruiting supporters. The third stage is
the emergence of the “penny press”, whose task was to conquer financial
support from readers.Lippmann also predicted the fourth stage: in
journalists with professional education will work in newspapers, which will allow
journalism itself to be more independent and active, not inclined to mercantilism,
free from dependence on political parties and government.
Other researchers (Arthur Cole and Joseph McKems, for example)
believed that the emergence of the “penny press” was caused by the dialectical development of society:
the current call conflicts with the previous status quo.As a result
publications that are not able to quickly adapt to a changing environment,
“Die out like dinosaurs.”
How has the “environment” changed? Why was it needed
to the newspaper press this “third stage of development” and a new reader’s addressee? Than
was it caused?
In the first half of the 19th century, the population of the present United States of America
was predominantly rural. It was the villagers who played the main role in
economy of the country. But the development of capitalist relations required the emergence
personally free people in a double sense: free personally and free from
property.America still had to cope with this task, but even then
cities grew in number due to the emergence of more and more new jobs.
Developing capitalism needed not just an employee, but a person, confidently
coping with a complex technique at that time. Hence a new requirement followed:
literacy of the population.
The concentration of the population in large cities has made it possible
the emergence of the “penny press”. But there were other reasons as well. So, Ward calls the following:
the emergence of daily
serve an ordinary person;
the role of education;
the role of public ideas and
advances in science and technology;
provide the general public with new entertainment;
need to strengthen
development of magazine
coverage of foreign
Indeed, the emergence of daily and mainstream newspapers
created a new situation in the media market. In a young independent country, stormy
industrial and agricultural production developed. rules
competitive struggle extended to literally everything: the purchase and sale of land,
trade in goods and services, recruitment of labor and supply of labor.
Studies of the urban population of 1820-1860 in
The United States showed that at that time, in quantitative terms, the “average
class “, t.That is, in essence, the petty bourgeoisie. This created the conditions for
the orientation of the press towards the working class. Each of the newspapers in the future in its own way
solved this problem. Thus, the New York Sun newspaper supported equal rights
population against the emerging monopolies, defended civil rights, including
including the right of workers to form unions; “Herald” and “Tribune” supported
workers in the fight against employers. Elite edition “Journal of Commerce”
noted, in particular, that “the penny press is forced to turn its attention to
trade unions and other nonsense. “
The Penny Press has contributed to education itself
population as newspapers became teachers and mentors for broad
the masses, including for the representatives of the new wave of emigration.
More professionally trained than journalists
Old leaven, young reporters and publishers were looking for new ways to reach out to
Exciting ideas of political struggle continued to excite
the minds of Americans. Among such ideas is the requirement
abolition of slavery, call for moderation, movement of scientific thought.
The general requirement for newspapers, regardless of whether
what national audience they are designed for, it became necessary to provide
Recreational opportunities for readers, i.e. just let the reader rest with
newspaper in hand. This was somewhat inconsistent with the requirements of Puritan morality
but allowed newspapers to begin to master new topics for their publications.
The requirement to restore order in the cities was
supported by almost all newspapers, which ultimately resulted in the provision of
a large part of the newspaper space for police chronicles.
The young American
press with religion. Since in America already at that time there were representatives
different religious denominations, the press began to lean towards the so-called civil
religion close to ecumenism and transcendentalism.
Despite a clear dominance in American newspapers
local news, nevertheless it should be noted and a clear interest in the lives of people far
outside the United States, and not only in Europe, but also in “exotic countries”.Bennett and Raymond lived abroad with their families and sent their materials from there;
Henry Morton Stanley was sent to the heart of Africa in search of an explorer
Livingstone, and when he found him, sick and weak, in the area of Lake Tanganyika,
then uttered the words that became immortal: “Dr. Livingston, I suppose?”
Played an important role in the development of the “penny press”
technical innovations. So, in 1822 Dan Treadwell for the production of printed
products used a real horse.But the very next year appeared
steam “horsepower” with more power than a real horse. In 1825
year Robert Ho invented a rotary machine that produces more copies per minute,
than a flatbed printing machine. The first is really fast
the rotary printing press debuted in 1847. As John Tabbel put it,
“It revolutionized the newspaper business.” The first telegraph communication was
installed in the United States between Washington and Baltimore in 1844.Invented
New York professor S.F.B. Morse telegraph was universally taken to equip
the editors of American newspapers in the next few decades.
Of course, the decline in the value of the paper also played a very
a serious role: for the mass “penny press” newsprint needed a lot
times more than before for low-circulation and expensive newspapers.
The very idea of a principally new type of press – a “penny” newspaper, a “penny press” – originated among New York typographers.And although
cheap newspapers in other cities were no longer a rarity, it was the New York experience
their publication led to a “commercial revolution” in the US newspaper press. At the beginning
1830 the weekly newspaper New York Morning began to appear, price per
a copy of which was 2 cents, or 1 penny at the then exchange rate. The first
the daily penny newspaper in the United States was the Daily Evening Transcript (Daily
evening recording “- Boston, 1833), the release of which ceased immediately
after the start of its publication (the announced annual subscription cost only 4
dollar).Earlier, in 1830, in Philadelphia they tried to establish a publication
a cheap newspaper called Cent. Researchers know little about
short history of this newspaper. There was an attempt to publish a penny newspaper and Horace
Greeks, but economic difficulties prevented him from succeeding at the time.
However, all these early attempts to create cheap
mainstream newspapers were not successful. Such newspapers, small in size, miserable in
content, financially weak, died, barely having time to appear on
shine.But nevertheless, it was they who paved the way for the future, new in content and successful
economically “penny press”.
Among others, Benjamin’s attempt at
Day to publish the New York Sun (New York Sun) newspaper, the first issue of which
came out on September 3, 1833. Four-lane, small format, it only cost
1 cent. It was the first newspaper in the history of the country, the circulation of which reached
fantastic figure – 30 thousand copies (note: to
the beginning of the publication “New York Sun” a global one-time circulation of all New York newspapers
was only 26.5 thousandcopies).
The cheapest, not only in New York, but in the whole
the country B. Day’s newspaper was designed for the urban population and for the mass,
those. basically an illiterate reader. She first came out twice in
day, and the morning edition was full of political controversy, and the evening,
on the contrary, it offered readers materials for informational purposes only.
One of the first in America
The New York Sun began to publish deliberately fictitious information, deceitful
reports in which sensationalism and untruths from
first to last line.So, on August 25, 1835, the newspaper placed under
huge headline material about “lunar people”, allegedly discovered by astronomers.
Day’s newspaper strips were filled with criminal information and messages
about various “incidents”.
The real competition for the New York Sun was at that time
only the new daily newspaper The New York Herald (New York Gazette), with
which is customary in the first place to associate the newspaper “revolution” of 1830-1840 in the American press.Her outstanding role in
history of the American periodicals cannot be overestimated, and its name
founder, creator and publisher James Gordon Bennett (1795-1872) has a special halo in the history of journalism
Native of Scotland, Bennett began publishing The New York Herald
with a capital of only $ 500, and in his edition there were only two chairs. By 1839
year circulation of Bennett’s newspaper rose to 30 thousand copies, in 1855 reached
75 thousand, and in 1860 – 77 thousand.copies.
James Gordon Bennett
Bennett himself attributed this success to “complete novelty”,
introduced by him to the publication of the daily newspaper. He formulated his
journalistic credo on August 19, 1836: “What can prevent a newspaper from becoming
a larger organ of public life? Books had their times, their times
it was in theaters, it was in churches … But the newspaper can send more souls
to heaven and rescue them from hell than all the churches put together and, besides,
to earn money”.
The New York Herald published various information: international,
national and local, – seriously expanding the topic
publications. Bennett received extensively and consistently materials from the European press,
using for this invention Morse (already in 1848 in the “New York Herald”
10 columns of telegraph news were published). He was the first to report in his
newspaper about the discovery of gold mines in California.
Bennett was one of the first in America to create
the correspondent bureau of his newspaper in Washington and began to send special
correspondents to major European cities, got his own permanent correspondents
in Europe.Bennett was also the first to send his special correspondent to
Africa in search of the missing traveler Livingstone.
During the 1846-1848 war between the United States and Mexico, which resulted in the United States
annexed Texas, California and New Mexico from Mexico, thereby increasing
almost half of its territory, Bennett sent his correspondents to
this theater of war. I must say that the war with Mexico and later
the American Civil War 1860-1865 contributed to
the growing interest of the American public in information.Starting with New York
herald “newspapers went at considerable additional costs in order to quickly receive
military information and promptly communicate it to readers.
In the New York Herald, Bennett introduced a finance heading,
what he called the “money page”, a column of letters from readers with their opinions about
newspaper publications and events covered by it. Editorials had
resonant and informative in nature and, as a rule, were notable for thoroughness.
However, Bennett’s major reform efforts to radically
the renewal of the concept of the American newspaper that had developed before him went in a different direction.The Penny Press he created led to the emergence of a new economic
basis for newspapers by attracting new layers of readers through the promotion of
the newspaper to the forefront of “stories of human interest and emotion”
(crimes, accidents, scandals in high society, family dramas, religion,
Wall Street, etc.), in which, in his words, “a person best reveals
your fantasies and whims ”. The main genre of the New York Herald Tribune was
factual, so-called realistic, reportage.
As a matter of fact, it was with Bennett in America that the
to develop the tabloid press. Here is the extreme sensationalism that has become an end in itself,
and blasphemy, and dishonor, and blackmail, and great love for scandalous glory, for
the constant noise surrounding the New York Herald Tribune: it was all
direct or indirect advertising to the newspaper. The newspaper published all the most
sensational police news, published more and more everyday “stories”.
A special role in the commercial success of Bennett, primarily associated with all
increasing circulation of the newspaper, advertising played.
A large and varied professional journalism
the legacy of Bennett, one of the fathers of the US mainstream press, has always
evaluated by historians of American journalism, not to mention contemporaries,
not only with a plus sign. So, the newspaper “New York Tribune”, which named him in
the day of his death on June 3, 1872, a “news collector”, noted that he was cynical,
unstable, disregarding rules and easily influencing the opinion of others with his
The New York Herald has many competitors
and imitators in New York itself (American Daily Advertiser – American Daily Announcement Newspaper, The Journal
Commerce “-” Commercial Gazette “,” New York Eveningpost “-” New York Evening Mail “,” Gazette and General Advertiser ”
– “Newspaper and main announcements”). Onepenny, typologically
New York Herald related newspapers also appeared in other cities in America
(“Daily Penny Post” – “Daily Penny Mail” in
Boston, Public Ledger – Public Ledger in
As you can see, the “newspaper” or “commercial revolution” is not
accidentally began and by the third quarter of the 19th century it gained its greatest scope precisely in New York,
already the largest economic and cultural center of the United States
America. It was in this city that the first really large newspapers appeared,
who managed to dramatically expand their readership at the expense of workers and small
the bourgeoisie, lowering the selling price to 2 cents, which then equaled one
English penny or ten French francs.
It should be emphasized that the “revolution” did not affect all
newspapers of that period, but only those of them that radically broke with the previous
traditions and created a new model of newspaper periodicals – “penny press”. However, the development of the American newspaper
press in the line laid by Bennett’s newspaper, there was much more
quantitative rather than qualitative process associated with the improvement of newspaper
edition type. Fenimore Cooper authoritatively spoke about its negative consequences.He wrote in 1838: “It is often boasted that the United States publishes
a great variety of newspapers and magazines. It would be wiser to grieve about this, for
the quality of these publications is inversely proportional to their number …
In America, where great principles were proclaimed, seal
helped to raise the people’s spirit, improve public reason,
protection of public interests; but since the struggle to implement these
principles are no longer maintained, replaced by the rivalry of pride and narrowly personal
interests, the press as a whole serves to destroy its own
undertakings, preparing the country for terrible changes…
In its current state, the seal may be
perhaps, it is called the main tool with which it is distorted, suppressed,
everything good is destroyed and everything bad rises and flourishes. ”
The main vices of contemporary American press
Cooper considered “the rudeness of the American press”, “corruption of the press”, “moral
lies “,” distortion of truth, mixing of truth and lies in information “, the fact that” she
bears traces of a biased, prejudiced opinion “and” instills the atmosphere
Since in the years 1830-1840
American newspapers due to the transformation that took place in their mass
existed thanks to advertising, they already began to be managed as
commercial and industrial enterprises aiming ultimately at obtaining
profits. Two-cent newspapers, the main place in which was devoted to
“Tabloid” news, offered its readers, like an eight-page
The New York Herald, four stripes of editorial material and four stripes
paid ads, and in some cases, three-quarters of all
The opposite “New York Herald” idea has found its embodiment
in another New York newspaper, the appearance of which in 1841, undoubtedly
was the largest phenomenon of the American newspaper press in the first half of the 19th century. We are talking about the New York Tribune newspaper.
The founder of this newspaper, Horace Greeley, by the way, is a former employee of the “New York
herald “, rejected Bennett-style journalism inseparable from him
sensationalism, depiction of crimes, etc.
Greeley’s original war against Bennett was fought before.
all in editorials under the banner of the fight against immoral and decadent
press, protection of public interests and justice.
Greeley newspaper (and from September 1841 he began publishing
as an illustrated supplement to the New York Tribune weekly
“Weekly Tribune” – “Weekly Tribune”, the first ever
of the American periodical press publications of this type that only raised
the authority of the New York Tribune in the eyes of its readers, with a circulation of 1860
200 thousand copies) became an elementary school for a whole galaxy later
famous American journalists (C.A. Dana, G.Jarvis, G. Raymonds, D.W.
The New York Tribune’s Most Important Contribution to Journalism History
The United States was the fact that she laid the foundation for her other major typological
trends, becoming a prototype, or a prototype, of quality US newspapers. A lot
more serious and austere than its competitors, the New York Tribune quickly found extensive
audience, primarily in the puritanical circles of America. Being one of
the most popular in the country, perhaps the most widespread American
newspaper, the New York Tribune was close to the left wing founded in 1854
Republican Party of the United States – “Whig”.
A supporter of Jefferson’s ideas, G. Greeley wrote:
agent is to reduce friction between classes and economic
interests “. Together with
the New York Tribune, in contrast to the New York Herald, which supported
southern slave-owning planters, advocated limiting or even abolishing
slavery of American blacks, the movement to liberate which she
Has great political influence in the United States (especially
to note the influence of G.Grills),
The New York Tribune contributed significantly to the election of Abraham Lincoln as president
USA in 1860.
Unlike the New York Herald and others like it
newspapers, one of the distinguishing features of which was political conservatism,
The New York Tribune was the main organ of liberal America and had
socializing, pro-socialist character. She published articles by C. Fourier
and other utopian socialists. To the left of G. Greeley in the editorial board
Another influential member of the New York Tribune was Charles Dana, who took an active interest in
In the fall of 1848, Dana met Karl in Cologne
Marx, whose intelligence and knowledge made a strong impression on him. It is by
Dana Marx was invited to collaborate with the New York Tribune as
her European correspondent.
This is a collaboration that actually began in August
1852, continued until March 1862. In total, the New York Tribune had
more than 500 articles and correspondences of K. Marx and F. Engels have been published
(about a third of these publications were written by F.Engels), which amounted to
five (from 9 to 13) volumes of the second edition of their collected works in Russian
language. These are materials about Germany, about European events and problems, in particular,
about G. Garibaldi’s campaigns in southern Italy, about the civil war in the United States, etc.
The most important reason for the breakup of K. Marx and F. Engels with the newspaper “New York Tribune”
by the way, what happened on the initiative of Marx was the party-political
the engagement that the New York Tribune acquired by becoming an official
body of the Republican Party.
Thus, the New York Tribune was the only one in
USA as a non-socialist and non-Marxist publication, in which K.
Speaking of Significant Contributions to the History of American Journalism
New York Tribune,
we also note that this newspaper for the first time in the American press began to use
interview genre and also for the first time in America Greeley introduced stereotyping, before that
already used in England.
An important episode in the American newspaper press
the middle of the last century was the emergence in line with the trend laid
Greeley, New York Times (New York Times), the first issue of which
was published on September 18, 1851 (originally it was called “New York
the daily times “).This newspaper, which renounced the excesses of “reportage” journalism,
attracted the attention of the most educated segment of American society for its
“Quality” (the number and variety of headings, high literary
level, etc.). Its founder G. Raymonds (died 1869) the most important pledge
the veracity of his newspaper proclaimed the principle of independence from various
parties. As it was already seen from the editorial of the first issue, “New York
Times “, which from the very beginning acted as a follower of the” New York Tribune ”
Grills, focused on enlightenment, morality, industry and religion
and wrote about responsibility to the reader – a principle,
which was the cornerstone for G.Grills and its editions.
The era of the “commercial revolution” in the US newspaper press
remembered for the names of prominent publishers and editors, reform activities
which are difficult to overestimate. Bennett, Greeley, Raymonds and other titans
American journalism have stamped the press with their striking personalities, making
her personal and individual as never before
before or after.
The “commercial revolution” itself took place under conditions
a stormy technological revolution, in fact, covering all the most important areas
American life.1830-1850 was a period of material
and spiritual progress of the United States, genuine commercial flourishing, entrepreneurial
and industrial activity, which relied on the institution of private property,
constitutionally considered as one of the unshakable foundations of the very
heavy engineering in New England factories, opening up new markets in
West thanks to railways, invention of the seeder.For the first time in 1850
the cost of the annual product of American industry has exceeded the cost
agricultural product. In just a decade (1845-1855), 3 million new immigrants entered the country.
In 1820-1850, universities opened in 19 states.
In the context of deep political democratization
American reality, there was a rapid development of the market, which integrated
and rationalized American economic life. Market ideology
formed a breeding ground for the press, both in terms of its position and content.
In 1840, 1,631 newspapers were published in the country, of
of which there were 274 per New York. There were already 116 daily newspapers, and
weekly – 1000. That it was a decade of genuine
newspaper boom, according to statistics: from the total in the country to
By 1850 2302 newspapers were already 254 daily and 1902 weekly.
The development of the mass press is extremely
favored by technological innovations that have created the prerequisites for reducing the cost,
expanding the dissemination and strengthening the independence of the press.Here follows in
first of all, name the invention of the rotary printing press (1846),
two-part (1886), three-part (1897) rotation, use
telegraph communications, especially after laying in 1866
Deep, fundamental changes affecting themselves
foundations and ways of its functioning, survived the US newspaper press in
the period under review. Until the 1830s, newspapers were predominantly
political, fully dependent on party (political) organizations and
their leaders, they were addressed to a narrow circle of “professional” readers:
politicians, government officials, businessmen.Yes, and high
the price of newspapers severely limited their audience. Typologically, these daily
or the periodicals published several times a week were rather
By “opinion newspapers” (“viewpoints”) rather than “news newspapers”
(“Newspapers”). American newspapers still had to become such publications.
A sharp drop in the price of a newspaper in itself is not
solved the whole problem. Undoubtedly, the main factor in the stormy and accelerated
the development of the American press was the development of advertising, and in this country it
was needed more urgently than in Europe.Here we are dealing with mutually
due to regularity: advertising led to an increase in circulation, advertisers,
for our part, sought to attract potential buyers as actively as possible
their products through the largest possible circulation, through the widest readability
In search of all the new profits needed to
the maximum possible reduction in the price of the newspaper, the American press, together with the considered
“Revolution” in its system went to the distant approaches to the “age of advertising”.Exactly
in the United States, advertising eventually took on the form that later became known
This radical turn towards the formation, development of a new
type of newspaper and expressed itself in many other ways. He kind of meant not
distancing the reader from the newspaper as a news transmitter in the first place, as
informant, but on the contrary, approaching her.
Types of American Daily Press Editions
were determined in the 18th century and in the first three
decades of the XIX century as an “advertiser”
(“Newspaper with ads”), “commercial” (“commercial”), “mercentile”
(“Commercial”), which was reflected already in the names of various newspapers.It seemed
would, it should have taken the newspaper further and further from the main news functions,
making it primarily the body of ads, paid advertising. Meanwhile, as already
it was shown that US newspapers of this time were primarily party
bodies, political publications and were, rather, “viewpoints”,
rather than Newspapers.
Fundamentally changed with the advent of the penny press
the very attitude to news in the entire American press began to disappear from
newspaper titles the words “advertiser”, “commercial” and “mercentile” and instead of them
appeared: “herald” (“messenger”), “tribune” (“tribune”), “critic”, “old”
(“Star”) or “san” (“sun”).
Due to the fact that in an American newspaper for the first time
the place has advanced information, especially as technical means are improved
communications, the requirements for the promptness of the reported information have increased enormously,
press response to current events. Evening editions or, as was the case
with The New York Herald, Evening Morning Newspapers in the Afternoon
and containing responses to today’s events, gradually became a practice
American press as one of the main types of its publications.
Important and significant
a milestone in the development of the periodical press and the entire journalistic business in the United States was the creation of the country’s first information
Press Agency – The Associated Press (AP) in 1848.
At first, the raison d’être of its existence was to collect and
the spread in the New World of news from Europe, so slowly reaching
America and so eagerly awaited here.
Prior to this, the situation was as follows. Once the ship
from Europe appeared on the horizon, newspapers were sent to meet him on boats
their correspondents who boarded the ship and received through it
captain or trusted passenger news from the Old World and fresh
European newspapers, then hastily returned to the shore, where they immediately compiled
summary information based on the information just obtained in this way for
newspapers or newspapers.The same Bennett was most active here. He created
their flotilla of ships, which were met by ocean-going ships at sea, received
news destined for the New York Herald and forwarded them to New York
Earlier then others. Thus, the information delivered to the shore reached the editorial office.
“New York Herald” and was published even before the arrival of ships in New York
By May 1848 in the offices of six leading newspapers
New York, vying with each other for the first news from the old
continent, realized that due to the cost of collection means and especially delivery
information they face bankruptcy if they do not put an end to unproductive
a rivalry that pitted them against each other.
The need for agreement between them became all the more imperious,
that they were all faced with a new common danger: the appearance of the telegraph and
activities of his companies in the news market.
The executives of the six New York newspapers decided
make joint efforts and provide joint expenses for obtaining
the most necessary information. They set up a joint organization, the Associated Press, which spent only the first
year of its existence amounted to 10 thousand.dollars. But these expenses paid off.
These six newspapers alone, as founding members
the new cooperative organization, had priority on news, receiving them free of charge,
and to all other American newspapers, information was sold at certain
prices, and all the costs of maintaining the AP in the end fell on the shoulders
clients. Thus, from the very beginning of its existence, the AP played a double
role – for some an extremely cost-effective information
enterprises for the production of information, for others – a news dealer.
Over time, in every American city at least
one newspaper became a member of the Associated Press.
The “Commercial Revolution” in the newspaper press did not
only to the growth of publishers’ interest in advertising and its development, but also to serious
changing the very content of newspapers. Striving for the highest possible circulation
led to the fact that many “penny newspapers” consisted entirely of stories
various anecdotal character. As the publishers noted then, “let’s
we will pay less attention to political cretins, and we will deal with pragmatic
The same Benjamin Day ignored the political news,
giving the newspaper space to the police chronicle, and tried to combine it
with humor. Other “penny newspapers” followed.
Here are some examples of such humor. They were brought to court
husband and wife – John and Judy McMahon. The husband drank a little the day before (so much
it is not enough that his fat head did not even feel the whiskey), but his wife is
pissed off. She decided to subject her husband to corporal punishment. He became
resist, but couldn’t handle the angry woman.Then the husband screams
“Kill!” began to call for help. The watchman who came to the rescue helped to twist the evil
woman. The court released the spouses, taking from them their word that they “will not be any more.”
Another case was of a slightly different nature. William
Scott, who lived near Central Market, was sued for
cohabitation with a girl to whom he was not married. He was promised freedom if
he marries his passion. But Scott got stuck. The court demanded that he immediately
made a decision: to go down the aisle or to prison, and there, they say, it will be possible to think
long.Scott melancholy replied that he “could marry an idiot.” Court
this answer satisfied.
Even a different, seemingly dramatic and, in general,
an ordinary case, could have served as food for the humor of the New York Sun newspaper. For example,
a note that the train had hit a bull on the rails, the newspaper filed under
heading “The bull butts with the train.”
We have already noted that Day’s newspaper could easily have introduced
misleading readers with notoriously fictional stories.A.I. Vlasov sees in
it is a deliberate strategy of approaches to the brainwashing system. He appreciates so much
“By the mid-1830s, American capitalism, paving the way for the press,
creates so-called “penny newspapers”. $ 5 distribution
a year of jokes and sensational reports allowed the owners of these newspapers
increase circulation and increase profits. But by their content “penny
newspapers “went far beyond commercial enterprises.They worked out
methods of propaganda, which later will occupy far from the last place in
sophisticated brainwashing system. Let’s turn to the pages of one of
the first – “New York Sun”, founded in 1833.
First page – ads.
There is no profit without them. Names of ships, time of departure and arrival of ships,
announcements of buying, selling, renting.
One of the pages regularly posted anecdotes from
port taverns. The stories were shocking in their stupidity.Here’s one: the guy from
Vermont, working alone, used to whistle. The habit has turned into
disease. The guy whistled at dinner, in a dream, whistled to answer the questions of friends.
The “whistler” was cured by his friend. The recipe is simple – as soon as the guy started to whistle, he received
August 25, 1835 New York Sun opened
Through a telescope, the newspaper staff examined the moon and
discovered “a herd of brown bison-like tetrapods.”On the
The moon there are “plains, raging oceans of greenery, which resemble
prairies of North America. “Three days later, the moon became habitable.
four feet with short, copper-colored hair
“they talked, gestured with their hands and shook their heads.”
Human Bats on the Moon in Richard’s Hoax
Reader handling in a similar spirit was pushed and
advertising system, which was entirely in the hands of large entrepreneurs and
served as one of the important levers for determining the political face of the newspaper.The content of the advertisement was not much different from the “penny newspapers”. The same spirit of deception
and sensations, the same distracting maneuvers. Advertising was becoming a kind of form
invasions into the spiritual life of people.
The fate of Barnum is remarkable in this respect,
whom bourgeois researchers consider the father of advertising.
Barnum, 24, started his career as a salesman
grocery store. One day from buyers he heard the story of a Negro woman,
slaves of father George Washington.It was said that she was 161 years old. Barnum for
I bought $ 1,000 an elderly black woman, straightened her documents and arranged for
Advertising was based on sheer deception: “You see
the old woman who first put on little George Washington. ” Weekly
an enterprising grocer pocketed $ 1,500
However, it would be incorrect to represent the process
the formation of the US bourgeois propaganda system as an easy climb
escalation ladder of deception.The emergence of industry, the growth of the ranks of the worker
class contributed to the spread of freedom-loving ideas. Huge help in
this American freedom fighters was rendered by the emigrants – participants of the revolutionary battles in Europe ”.
It was during these years that American journalism actively
women invade. The democratization of US life has led to the fact that
the fair sex began to publish newspapers and magazines themselves, actively
participate in the political life of the country.Amelia Bloomer, for example, founded
anti-alcohol and suffrage newspaper; Victoria Woodhull was the publisher
suffragette, candidate for the presidency of the United States. There are many names and
other women journalists and public figures.
for the American press, genres, or, as they were then called, “technological
techniques “: interview-dialogue, reportage to be continued in the next issue, etc.d.
content, of course, affected the design of newspapers: they began to use
illustrations, large headings, text highlighting, large headings
pins and other decoration techniques.
The “commercial revolution” in the newspaper press actively began to change its face
to the contents of Chapter I << >> to the next page
“Imagine” John Lennon proposed to be the anthem of the United States – ROCK FM
John Lennon’s “Imagine” has been suggested as the US anthem.This idea was put forward by political activist and journalist Kevin Powell, author of When We Free The World. It was supported by the historian Daniel Walker. Reported by the New York Post.
Both noticed the figure of Francis Scott Key, the author of the words for the current official United States anthem, The Star-Spangled Banner. Poet and lawyer, he wrote a poem that became a future anthem back in September 1814. At the same time, Key himself was a slave owner, and as a lawyer, he sent many abolitionists to jail, that is, those who helped black slaves escape and return to Africa.It is also known that when in 1931 the poems set to music became the national anthem they had to cut out the third verse, which dealt with “mercenaries and slaves”.
According to Powell, it is high time to abandon such a legacy in the new reality of Black Lives Matter, and why not make a new anthem, for example, “Imagine” by John Lennon.
This is the most beautiful and one-of-a-kind song that unites all people, regardless of their belonging to any social group, the activist argued.
Kansas-based football team Tulsa Athletic has already supported Powell’s initiative. But instead of the official national anthem, she began to use not “Imagine”, but “This Land is Your Land” by the classic of American folk Woody Guthrie.
Race issues have made headlines in the world’s music media in recent weeks.
Penny Lane, the famous Liverpool street that inspired The Beatles, was proposed to be renamed if its name was confirmed to be associated with the 18th century slave owner James Penny.
British ska legends The Specials have been mistakenly blocked by the group’s account and hundreds of Facebook fan profiles on suspicion of racism.
Coin 1 penny, UK
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Token 1 penny. 1811, Great Britain. BB & Copper Co. (Bristol Brass & Copper Company)
PAYABLE AT BRISTOL SWANSEA & LONDON.
British token is a private currency origin, which was a "substitute" for official money, issued by the English crown.In the 17th - 18th centuries. tokens were issued from various metals, mainly copper, tin, lead and bronze, in rare cases made of gold or silver. The tokens were produced by entrepreneurs and merchants, since state banknotes were in short supply, especially bargaining chips of minimum denominations. In the 17th century, for the first time British Tokens released. They were minted by private individuals, in England and the British colonies, therefore there are a great many varieties of this coin.
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Earn levels in Dangerous Shallow Season of Bravery, clear dungeons, and complete the Deadly Movie and Set Sails! Quest lines.
We welcome you all to the base again! Today, we’re taking a look at Fortnite’s Rewarding the Storm this week and next. Spoiler alert … TIME TO GO TO THE ZONE OF CHARITY!
Home Base … report the situation!
In game on April 4, 03:00 UTC.Grab your gear, commanders. Dangerous Shallow Season of Courage Begins
Get ready for a new season of courage, commanders. Dangerous Shoal, the next season of Save the World, kicks off at on April 4 at 03:00 UTC and will end at on June 20 at 03:00 UTC .
– WARNING – In Dangerous Shallow Season of Courage, the Husks are super cool. The Minks, now known as the Super Monsters, have acquired dangerous modifiers in the Dangerous Shallow bravery zone missions.Here’s what’s happening on the battlefields now:
Melee Super Monsters – Predators and Husks that prefer melee move and attack faster, and their attacks slow down commanders by 30% for 5 seconds. After destroying the Melee Super Glint, you will briefly stun weaker enemies in a small area. Several of these stuns in a row can also knock out tougher Husks.
Ranged Super Monsters – Throwers, Pitchers, and Throwers throw more projectiles, while Electric Slam and Blasters fire twice as fast.They spend so much energy on shooting and throwing that their health is reduced by 30%.
Super Resilient Husks – Strongers and Thugs have increased resistance to damage from traps and ranged weapons, and their attacks do more damage to buildings. They are, of course, super, but clumsy, so their movement speed is reduced by 20%.
Now it’s our turn, commanders. Grab your gear, because it’s time to fight and collect loot. From the killed Husks, especially the thugs, from time to time, chests drop out, filled with valuable goods.The larger the monsters, the more generous the rewards. The more Husks we destroy, the more loot chests we get.
But the zones of bravery are not the only news this week, because …
Explore Deep Dungeons
Oh yes! Fight monsters, avoid traps, stock up on equipment and descend into the depths where an ancient evil awaits. They say there are even weapons and heroes that you can draw to your aid. Magic keys, deep dark labyrinth, gold coins… it’s time to go in search of adventure! Play dungeons to unlock heroes, loading screens, and more!
The Swamp Knight has come to us
“Have you noticed that there are fewer vampires? You don’t have to thank. ” Swamp Knight
- Standard Perk Spooky Feast
- Increases damage dealt to Mist Monsters by up to 42% based on the amount of health you have lost.
- Commander Perk: Spooky Treat +
- Increases damage dealt to Mist Monsters by up to 42% based on the amount of health you have lost. In addition, receiving damage has a 45% chance to spawn a Phantom that deals 62 damage. base energy damage to the nearest enemy within a radius of 0.5 cells (cooldown: 1.5 sec.)
Obtainable for completing dungeon quests before June 19, .
The sea monster Ken is getting out on dry land!
“Boole!” Sea Monster Ken
- Standard Skill: Terror from the Deep
- Increases your melee weapon damage by 44% based on the amount of health you have lost.
- Commander Perk: Terror from the Deep +
- Increases your melee weapon damage by 44% based on the amount of health you have lost. In addition, killing with a Powerful Melee Attack has a 60% chance to spawn a Phantom that deals 62 damage. base energy damage to the nearest enemy within a radius of 0.5 cells (cooldown: 1.5 sec.)
Obtainable for completing dungeon quests before June 19, .
New missions in the Killer Movie lineup!
Ray is missing. Explore a fallen comet and gather a team of superheroes. Find Ray and bring her home! Complete the Deadly Movie questline and unlock the mythical soldier Carbide and the mythical ninja Stealthy Shuriken.
Carbide, arrived to the call!
“I will be on call at any minute.” Carbide
- Standard Skill: Ball
- “Left-Right” injures the enemy and inflicts 13 damage. base Energy Damage of every second for three seconds.
- Commander Skill: Sharakh +
- “Left-Right” injures the enemy and inflicts 26 damage. base Energy Damage of every second for three seconds. Left-Right uses Space Pistols, which bounce off objects and pierce enemies through
- Command Skill: Outsider
- FOR EVERYONE: Hero of epic or higher rarity increases the effectiveness of healing by 2.5% depending on the number of enemies nearby.
Available in the Deadly Movie Questline until June 19, .
The Invisible Shuriken Returns from the Shadows!
“Shrouded in mystery.”Stealthy Shuriken
- Standard Skill: Fan of Stars
- Throws all shurikens in an arc. appears 1 more shuriken
- Commander Perk: Fan of Stars +
- Throws all shurikens in an arc. 3 more shurikens appear
- Command Skill: Round Trip
- Abandoned shurikens return, dealing damage again on their way back. REQUIRED: Two Ninja of Legendary or higher rarity.
Available in the Deadly Movie Questline until June 19, .
Get Robbery in the Set Sails Questline
A black flag appears on the horizon! A pirate ship is approaching the base! Get ready for dashing pirate adventures in the sea! And don’t forget to grab some pirate llamas to add to your collection.
Thunderstorm of the Seas Black Corsair Pirate Constructor
Dread Pirate Captain of Rough Seas
- Standard Skill: Boarding!
- Increases the damage dealt by the Cannonball by 20% .
- Commander Skill: Board! +
- Increases the damage done by the Cannonball by 40% . ROSIE now fires 25 cores.
- Command Skill: Pirate Sense
- When destroying enemies, you have a 5% chance to find one of the Black Corsair’s caches containing these items: Wooden leg, coconuts or cannonballs.
Available in the Set Sails! Quest Line until June 19 , sea wolves!
Miss Rabbit Penny Rides Again
“I’ve wanted to try on this outfit for so long.”Miss Rabbit Penny
- Standard Skill: Plasma Overload
- Reduces the energy cost of Plasma Pulse by 38%.
- Commander Skill: Plasma Overload +
- Reduces the energy cost of Plasma Pulse by 75%.
This item will be available in the Event Store from 03:00 AM April 4 to 03:00 AM June 20 UTC.
In game on April 11, 03:00 UTC. Dangerous Rabbit and Eagle Eye Hare await you in the event store.
Dangerous Rabbit Jonesy uncovers his weapon
“These eggs don’t have a surprise inside, do they?” Dangerous Rabbit Jonesy
- Standard Skill: On Target
- Increases the critical damage inflicted by sniper rifles by 75%.
- Commander Skill: Right on target +
- Increases the critical damage inflicted by sniper rifles by 225%.
This item will be available in the Event Store from 03:00 AM April 11, to 03:00 AM ET, June 20, .
Eagle Eye Hare returned to service
“Jump-jump – you won’t get away from me!” Hare Eagle Eye
- Standard Skill Egg Shift
- Phase Shift generates 3 Egg Bombs, dealing 90,517 18 damage. base damage to nearby enemies.
- Commander Perk: Egg Shift +
- Phase Shift generates 3 Egg Bombs dealing 55 Arcane damage. base damage to nearby enemies.
This item will be available in the Event Store from 03:00 AM April 11, to 03:00 AM ET, June 20, .
Roboticist Mina will be unavailable soon
“Half robot. Half girl. Completely and completely ready for battle. “
Don’t forget to get the Roboticist Mina set. Roboticist Mina will be discontinued April 17, 2021 !
Set “Robotic Mina” includes new hero and equipment , blueprint “Shock Trap” (works on the principle of “Wall generator”), decoration on the back “Reservoir” , tests of Robotics Mines and access to Save the World . Completing these exclusive Save the World Challenges will earn you 1,000 V-Bucks and 1,000 X-ray Tickets.
Note: The cosmetic items in this set will be available in Battle Royale, Save the World, and Creative. These new packs will not affect existing daily login rewards and V-Bucks, which are only available to Early Access founders. This outfit may appear in the item store in the future.
See you on the battlefield, commander!
D.i.R.T .: Origin of the Species
D.i.R.T .: Origin of the Species (rus.D.i.R.T.: Origin of Species) is a computer game with action elements created by Nu Generation Games in 2006. Combines a mixture of science fiction and action.
The action takes place in the near future. The world is engulfed in mutants because of which many people died.
The main character, the girl Dirt, wakes up in prison and finds a killed guard and an unknown mutant there. She picks up a gun and kills him. She also finds a girl who, as it turned out, also woke up here.She asks Deert what she remembers from what happened to her, but Deert tells her that she only remembers being with friends at the lake and celebrating something. The girl asks Deert to take her out of here.
The girls turned out to be in New York. The girl tells Deert that someone called the editorial office and told about the release of chemicals in a reservoir in one of the small towns, she and her colleagues were sent there because they were closest, so she had to shake over bumps in their old car.She and her colleagues were just approaching the city when some armed people blocked the road and ordered to turn around and get out of there, but how could she not grab onto such a thing, because before that, she had had nothing but an old routine and boring for 8 months reports. In general, she decided to take a chance and left the road to get into the city from the other side. She thinks that these people quietly grabbed her. Then she does not remember anything, after all this she woke up in prison and felt terrible.The girl thinks they’ve been drugged. Deert is asked that this is all due to the release of chemicals, which she may be responsible for, but she thinks that everything is much more complicated. She says that she herself saw the monster that attacked the guard. She adds that it smells like “another military experiment.” Then she asks her name. Dirt tells her his name. The girl tells her that this is a strange name. She then says that her name is Penny Whistler and she is a journalist. Only she asks Dirt not to laugh, because her daddy must have been drunk when he gave her the name.Penny suggests Deert get out of here and adds that he needs to find out what is going on in the city. Dirt says that she should find her friends, but Penny tells her that she hasn’t seen anyone else here. Penny thinks they escaped and left her to fend for herself. Of course, she doesn’t mind if Deert looks for his friends, and at this time Penny tries to call from her mobile and figure out how to get out of here.
Deert will have to look for a way out alone. At this time, she meets strange monsters.Dirt then meets a guard who opens the doors for her. After that, she saves the man. Dirt asks him if he saw her friends here, to which he replies that he did not see anyone. Deert moves on and meets the police. Soon they are attacked by two huge monsters, which Dirt hardly kills.
Then she enters the building and finds a wounded guard, who says that some people started shooting at him. It soon becomes clear that these are the military who are trying to rid the city of mutants.Dirt overhears conversations and hears one mentioning the girl the general was talking about. Another says that they are unlikely to see it, because it has become a formula for cockroaches. Deert kills all the military and ends up in the rest room. An unknown voice asks if she is the same Dirt, to which Dirt says yes. An unknown voice tells her that she is worried about how to get out of here because the military is preparing to strike at this place. Dirt asks him why she should believe him, to which he replies that it is important for him that nothing happens to her.For Dirt to believe the Unknown Voice, he opens the door in which the machine gun is located. Dirt says she believes him. He tells her that you can get out through the basement. Dirt penetrates there while destroying the military. Deert easily opens the door to the basement. Then she enters the hall and sees that her way is blocked by lasers.
To disable the lasers, Dirt uses the Bullet Control ability while finding a computer and successfully disables the lasers. Then Deert will call into a room with three windows.An unknown voice tells her that one of them is fake. Deert leaves the building.
Outside snipers. To open the gate, Deert must destroy three computers. Two of them are on the roof and one at the gate. Then Dirt destroy the monsters, leaves through the door and enters the club.
There are many mutants in the club, so Deert has to save the dancers and strippers. When Deert enters the club, he sees the dead director and a note on how to get out of the club by an emergency exit.Then she finds a dead engineer, but two girls are alive. One of them, a scientist, helps her open the emergency exit door.
Then Deert gets to the station. where she is helped by surviving people who are shocked by what is happening. Deert takes one of them to help her open the door while destroying the military. Then, at the station, she finds her friend Leaf, who is completely out of his mind and reminds Dirt that she was a good person.
Deert then arrives at the station where she finds the Excavator.Deert kills him and leaves the station on a New York street. Deert kills all the mutants and the military and then arrives on the street where a large mutant attacks the police, but she easily kills him, but when Deert killed the military, Stinger attacked the cops, killing almost all the cops. Dirt finds Stinger and kills him.
The wall collapses and Dirt sees Leaf. A quarrel arises between them. At this time, Penny approaches and tells Deert that last night the detainees were taken to the Rock Bridge Church, 25 kilometers away.Dirt invites Leaf to go there, but he refuses and Dirt will have to go alone.
An unknown voice tells her that everyone has been dead for a long time, and so are her friends. Deert then finds the church in which the priest Arclight is locked. The military mentions death moans there. Deert manages to open the lock on the church door.
She enters the church and finds Arclight there. It turns out he is a human robot. Many years ago he was badly wounded in the war, but iron was made from his body. Dirt destroys Arclight by aiming for the head.She leaves the church and finds a mad scientist who begs Deert to help him get to his laboratory. Dirt manages to do it. He then tells Deert about a project called “K. OL.LOSY”. He mentioned “Area 51” which the military denies it exists, but he knows the truth. He says that a Russian intelligence officer who lives in a shelter will help to get to the zone. Dirt tries to infiltrate the zone, but alas – she is wounded by a sniper.
Dirt she wakes up in a Russian hideout. He introduces himself as Vladislav Krasnov.He is a Russian intelligence officer. He has been watching the zone for 7 years, but has not seen anyone get there. He helps Deert infiltrate Area 51. He then tells her that to get into the zone she needs to turn off 4 generators. Two of them are in hangars 11 and 18, but he warns her to be careful at hangar 18 because it has become dangerous there lately. Deert turns off the generator 11 of the building. Deert then finds robot 3-208 in building 18. Deert destroys him and shuts down the generator.
Deert then enters the main building and turns off two more generators. Then he enters the inner building. She finds a scientist and he says that lasers have blocked almost all the roads and he gives her a generator with which she turns off some lasers. To get into the room, Dirt will have to show her gymnastics skills and jump over the lasers that block her path. Deert manages to do this and she enters the room.
Deert then finds the Mad Scientist who says Deert is Gorgeous, but Deert says she doesn’t like scientists like him and asks him to tell her where her friends are.Instead, the scientist tells her about the T-76. Then he introduces her, so to speak, with her “relative.” Dirt kills him and returns to the room, then finds a room with a light globe and sun. When Dirt leaves the room, she sees that all the lasers are off, and she enters the room with the beam.
Deert has entered a strange room where she finds Joshua’s hologram. To defeat him, Dirt has to disable the generators. Dirt does this with ease. Deert then goes to the room where he hears the conversation between General Monroe and General Campbell.From the conversation, Dirt learns that Monroe wants to destroy all the witnesses and their traces, but Campbell tells him that they are innocent people there is nothing to kill them for. But Monroe insists that they spent the $ 20 billion K. OL.LOSY project. Then the scientist Brian appears and tells Monroe and Campbell that things are getting worse by the minute and that everything is getting out of control. The specialists have just returned with samples that were obtained from the West of the lake. The creatures they examined were able to overcome the B-8.He also says that they collect some kind of food for important information or their life. The mutants are building what looks like a hive. The scientist says that they multiply and they grow up in an hour. After that, General Campbell says that he will call headquarters to prepare the B-2 then they will erase the project “K. OL.LOSY”, but General Monroe is against this and he kills Campbell and injures Brian. Deert then walks over to the injured Brian. It turned out that Dirt had a T-76 in his body. When Deert was little she got sick and could die.Brian had to do something and as a result he injected her into the body of the T-76. It turns out that Brian is Deert’s father, who abandoned her family when Deert was a child. He said that the queen is in the space room. Deert must find someone who can lead her there.
Deert travels to West Lake and finds a car, but it is broken. To restore the car, Dirt will have to look for spare parts. When Deert finds the last piece for the car, she meets Leaf and they fight again. Deert tells him that she needs to go to the space center.Deert and Leaf go there. Deert finds the military who help her walk through the wreckage of the plane. She then finds the sniper who wounded her. She immediately finds her friend. Dirt kills the sniper and frees his friend. Then she goes to the space center.
While killing the military, Dirt meets the wounded Leaf. Then they find General Monroe who says Deert is Project Angel. He also mentioned that he does not destroy anything due to the death of his daughter Jessica. Dirt kills him and goes to the rocket launch room and kills the queen.
Deert and Leaf are sitting on a bench. He says that he was wrong about people and now he looked at the world with completely different eyes, to which Dirt says, “We already had a hard day! It’s over.” An unknown voice says “This is not the end yet. Everything is just beginning …”.
Ability Points and Game Mode
D.i.R.T. is a third-person action adventure game with a flexible superpowers system that helps the player in battle and offers him a new approach to solving problems
At the very beginning, the player is given three classes of ability development (Stealth, Shooting and Aggression).Depending on the selected class, the player will earn ability points in different ways. Thanks to these points, the player has additional weapons, powers and other hidden bonuses. For example, if the player chooses the “Shooting” class, points are added for the firing range (that is, the greater the distance to the hit target, the more points), headshots, etc.
Game Modes – You can choose from two modes to keep the game playable.
Adventure is a traditional adventure game with its own storyline. Speed game -When passing each level, you need to meet the allotted time, for which you can earn extra points.
- Jumping in eight directions
- Fast tricks in four directions
- Counter-stunts (trick + special punch) in four directions
- Throwing grenades
- Bending movement in four directions
- The ability to duck and shoot from behind cover
- Blind shooting from behind cover
- Ability to become invisible
- Attack a target from behind using stealth.
- The use of one- and two-handed weapons.
Deert is the main character of the game. She is 19 years old. Dirt has always lived without a father. One day she and her friends were celebrating at West Lake and suddenly passed out. Woke up in prison and found a monster and a dead guard. Also in the New York prison, she meets Penny Whistler, who also went to prison for unknown reasons. Dirt goes in search of friends, but then finds out that they have been dead for a long time.
Appearance: Dirt is dressed in a black T-shirt, leather jeans, a silver chain hangs on her belts, she also has a thong over her pants, black Adidas sneakers, various piercings on her face, red hair with blonde tips and a black bracelet.
Penny Whistler is a journalist. She is about 30 years old. First appears in Chapter 1. 8 months old. She has a boring job like she says. But then they called her and told about the release of chemicals into a reservoir in one of the small towns. Penny and her colleagues went there because they were the closest, but the military blocked their way. Penny decided to take a risk and pulled off the road to get into the city from the other side, but she was quietly grabbed and drugged. Believes her daddy was drunk when he gave her the name.Her further fate is unknown.
Appearance: Penny is dressed in a light pink sweater, black skirt, light tights, black shoes, blonde hair.
Leaf – Deert’s old friend. First appears in Chapter 7 at the station. Deert meets him at the station, but he is not himself. He was often abandoned, so Leaf often thought that people were just leaving their friends for their own lives, but it turned out he was wrong.
Appearance: The bodice is wearing a pink T-shirt, jeans with brown boots, brown hair.
Dr. Martin – Only spawns in the gun shop. After completing a new level, Deert goes to Martin’s store.
General Jack Monroe – the general who created the team to destroy the mutants who attacked the city. He soon refused to kill the queen in the space center, believing that he would lose everything and because of this he killed General Campbell and scientist Brian. Dirt is killed in the last chapter.
General Campbell – The most important general. He commanded troops in Vietnam, Iraq and Samoli.Little is known about him. He also convinces Monroe not to kill innocent citizens. Was killed by General Monroe.
Brian – Scientist. Together with his colleagues, he developed the T-76 and is also the father of Deert, who abandoned her family when she was a child. Was killed by General Monroe.
Jessica – General Monroe’s daughter. Her name is first pronounced by Dirt in the last chapter. She died under unknown circumstances. Deert’s behavior suggests that she knew Jessica.
Sarah is the girl from the club who was saved by Deert.
Appearance: Sarah is dressed in a black top, black skirt, black tights, black boots, silver bracelets on her arms, blonde hair.
Elizabeth – the girl from the club that Deert saved
Appearance: Elizabeth is wearing a red top, red skirt, black tights, black boots, silver bracelets on her arm, black hair.
Boo – The bear backpack that Dirt always carries with him is very intelligent and sensitive. It is designed to display specific features of the interface.Examples of Bu action are as follows:
-It displays Deert’s health level: he either dances merrily with good health, or crumples dejectedly if Deert’s health is weakened.
– It serves as a danger radar: it worries when danger approaches, and then begins to cry and curls up like a dog.
– Discovers secret places: if the Scary Stare is gazing at something invisible, then the player can discover something interesting if he clicks on the object over which the Action icon appears.
Bosses: There are several bosses in the game who, as usual, present themselves as very strong opponents. In the battle with them, the player will have to apply special tactics and super powers to win.
Multiple boss description:
- Excavator is a large beetle that can be destroyed with weapons or super powers. You will have to use your powers to create a small source of energy in the room and drive a bug into it with a firearm.
- Stinger – military jet and additional helicopters from which paratroopers jump. The player needs to learn how to use the Shield to defend against their attacks.
- Arclight is an insane war priest, an inhuman cyborg who has risen from the grave as a result of evil experiments. His body is protected by metal so that only his head remains vulnerable. In a battle with him, the player will have to dodge all his attacks, and also be careful in those moments when he invokes the Wrath of God.
- 3-208 is a huge robot that towers over the player and pours fire on him.
- Joshua is a mechanism capable of creating holograms. In battle, he uses electrostatic fields and telekinesis, which are best avoided. To destroy him, you need to disable the generators in his rooms.
- Supertemite – This half-robot, half-insect breathes fire and brandishes its huge claws.
- Sniper is a very good marksman found in a rusty airplane.To defeat him, you will have to use cunning and all abilities.
- Queen – is in one of the rooms with an active rocket launcher. Its destructive power is obvious. Before launching the rocket, you need to destroy all the queen’s eggs.
Super powers and weapons
Deert has 8 unique super powers:
- Telekinesis – with its help, Dirt can pick up several objects at the same time and throw.
- Pyrokinesis – With the help of pyrokinesis, Dirt can set fire to an object.
- Telekinetic shot – with the help of it, Dirt can use enemy cartridges intercepted during the flight.
- Quick turnover – with this, Dirt can make several turns.
- Blade Disc – With it, Dirt can select three targets and throw the disc at the targets you choose. He can even go through a wall.
- Acrobatic Roll – With it, Dirt will roll, killing several enemies.
- Magic Bullet – When Deert fires a weapon, she can control the bullet and hit the desired target.
- Shield – with its help, Dirt can protect himself from a bullet, but unfortunately she cannot shoot and move at the same time.
- Ghost – With the help of a ghost, Dirt can be invisible.
In D.i.R.T. provided 14 types of weapons, which uses 3 types of ammunition. Each type of weapon has unique characteristics: power, speed, range.All weapons are thoroughly worked out, and three types are equipped with sniper sights that help to hit targets at long distances.
A physician on the US national gymnastics team has raped female athletes for over 20 years. Why wasn’t he caught earlier?
Match TV captures the main feature of the HBO documentary about the loudest scandal in the history of American sports: the cover-up of coaches, the FBI’s negligence, the rapist’s last word in court.
Match TV captures the main feature of the HBO documentary about the loudest scandal in the history of American sports: the cover-up of coaches, the FBI’s negligence, the rapist’s last word in court.
In the fall of 2016, gymnasts began to report sexual assault in the US media by former US team and University of Michigan doctor Larry Nassar. There were more and more statements every day. As a result, 125 people sued him. Among the victims of Nassar, Olympic champions – Eli Reisman, Simone Biles, McKayla Maroni.
Eli Reisman / Photo: © Alex Wong / Staff / Getty Images News / Gettyimages.ru
In January 2018, the doctor was sentenced to 40 years in prison. To prevent Nassar from being released on parole, Judge Rosemary Aqualina gave him another 175 years in prison.
In May 2019, HBO released the documentary At the heart of gold: Inside the USA gymnastics scandal (translated into Russian as The Price of Gold: A Scandal in American Gymnastics), which explains why Nassar has so many victims and no one for the entire time of this practice could stop him.Match TV sets the stage for an HBO movie.
Watch on YouTube
Larry was a friend of gymnasts
At the beginning of the film, it is about what a difficult sport it is, constantly associated with injuries. The coaches with whom Nassar worked had a tough approach to their athletes, which created a supportive environment for Nassar.
For example, spouses Bella and Martha Karolyi, who led the national team’s training program, required all gymnasts to attend a monthly training camp at their Texas ranch.At the ranch, communication with personal trainers and parents was prohibited so that nothing would distract from training. The 2012 Olympic coach John Geddert, who worked at the Twister gym, is called “Satan” and “tyrant” by the victims in the film for his brutal treatment of gymnasts.
John Geddert / Photo: © globallookpress.com
Nassar was the complete opposite of coaches. A classic example of a rapist from a Hollywood movie: sociable, smiling, kind, family man. The one you think of last.Nassar was visited not only to heal the injury, but also to share the misfortune. Everyone trusted him. Larry could always listen, brought the athletes food, gave sweets. He was admired. Here’s what the gymnasts said about him in the film:
- “He was great. We loved him “90 130
- “He was always smiling. Was the best friend “
- “He was considered the guardian angel of the gymnasts. He constantly said that athletes should be protected. And such things are not often heard in elite sports “90 130
- “I texted him almost every day.We were friends on Facebook, he wrote on my wall. She knew by sight his children and wife. He was a friend “
The athletes did not understand that they were being subjected to violent acts
Larry was constantly alone with the gymnasts, although, according to the rules, an assistant must be present at the procedures. However, he worked without gloves. The coaches turned a blind eye to this. The film describes Nassar’s methods.
If a gymnast came to him with back pain or in any other place far from the groin area, he would still stick his fingers where they should not.He explained his actions by the fact that there is a reflex point that will relieve this pain. During the procedure, Nassar did not stop talking, constantly asking the gymnasts about their studies and family, chatting up their victims. The underage athletes trusted the doctor and considered it a standard procedure.
Photo: © Scott Olson / Staff / Getty Images News / Gettyimages.ru
“He would take off his belt and start moaning. It seems to everyone that everything is obvious. But imagine a little girl who has no sexual experience.She was often told that this was a doctor from the Olympic Games and that he would help her. The girls didn’t understand anything, ”one of the victims explains in the film.
“At each visit, he touched my entire body, straightened, massaged my back. Not everyone understands that in gymnastics, touch is a common thing. We are used to being held by adults and helping us with stretching. We got used to being touched. But Larry went further. He explained to my mother that he would touch me near intimate places. I didn’t ask, but presented with the fact that he would do this, ”says one of the former patients of Dr. Nassar.
Nasser could have been jailed back in 1997, but the gymnast was intimidated by the coach
In 1997, gymnast Larissa Boyes complained about Nassar to University of Michigan head coach Kattie Klages:
“I studied at the“ Young Spartans ”club. The procedures were in doubt, and I wanted to discuss it with an adult to sort it out. Kathy Klages invited me to her office. I told her bluntly that Larry was sticking his fingers in me. She simply said that I did not understand anything, that he would never do anything inappropriate.Like, she has known him for many years, but I’m just wrong.
I was sitting in her office, and other girls from the team came in two by two. She asked if Larry did anything that raised questions. And everyone said no, except for one girl. She stayed with us. Katie still couldn’t believe what we were saying. Then Katie brought in a couple of older gymnasts. They said that his hands came close to certain places, but everything was within the bounds of decency. I insisted: “It was not so with me! He sticks his fingers inside. “Then the students left, the other girl too.
I explained again what was going on. Kathy said, “I can apply, but there will be serious consequences for you and Larry Nassar, so think carefully.” I seem to have raised my hands and said, “I don’t want problems. I don’t want that. ” I ran out of the office, hid in the closet and cried for most of the workout.
On his next visit to Nassar, he stopped by and said, “I spoke to Catty.” My heart sank. It was so embarrassing that I was humiliated.He continued, “Kathy told me what worries you. You know that it helps you. ” I remember how I answered: “Forgive me, I am guilty. I messed it up and I’m sorry. ” I convinced myself that the problem is in me and I must endure. And then I jumped onto the table, and he continued the same for four more years.
Kathy knew there was a certain procedure to be followed, but she herself decided not to do anything. Therefore, I blame the university. She is his employee, ”Larissa Boyce said in the film.
Kathy Klagges / Photo: © Handout / Handout / Getty Images News / Gettyimages.ru
Kathy Klages is currently awaiting trial. In March 2018, the University of Michigan agreed to pay $ 500 million to those affected. The total number of victims is 332 people.
In 2014, a formal complaint was filed against Nassar, but Larry was helped by the university
In 2014, University of Michigan student Amanda Tomashow filed a formal complaint about Nassar’s lecherous behavior:
“I described exactly what was happening to them.Nassar put his fingers into me, I pushed him away, got up, he rushed to the corner of the room to hide his erection, ”recalls Amanda Tomashow.
The University has begun an investigation. To assess Nassar’s actions, the university invited four experts, selected by Larry himself. Three out of four were his former students, one was a doctor he knew. Experts did not find any traces of violence.
Amanda Tomashaw / Photo: © Scott Olson / Staff / Getty Images News / Gettyimages.ru
“Larry said it was a cure.I said, “This is sexual assault.” And then they asked his friends for an opinion. Erection was not mentioned in the report. Nothing is said about me pushing him away. I was 24. I knew what was proper for a doctor and what was not. They made me question it, ”says Tomashow.
Nassar was suspended for 90 days pending investigation. He then returned to work on condition that the recommendations were followed:
• Examine patients with gloves
• For all examinations, the presence of an assistant is mandatory 90 130
• Explain your actions to patients
No one followed the recommendations.Nassar continued to work as usual.
From 1997 to 2015, 17 complaints were received against Nassar in various forms.
In 2015, the FBI learned about Nassar’s affairs, but did not take the message seriously
In the spring of 2015, at the monthly gathering at the Karolyi ranch, national team member Maggie Nichols asked Eli Raisman: “What is the doctor’s technique? Why is he sticking his fingers inside me. I’m not sure if I need this. ” Personal trainer Nichols heard about this and reported to the Artistic Gymnastics Federation.
Federation President Steve Penny decided to conduct an internal investigation first, which lasted five weeks. During this period, Nassar continued to work at the University of Michigan because the federation did not report anything. Penny then spoke about the problem to the head of the US NOC, who replied that he needed to immediately contact the FBI.
The FBI investigation hasn’t even begun. The message went to the Indianapolis office, where they said they would send all the data to the Detroit office, but they never did.The bureau did not take the message from the federation seriously.
Steve Penny / Photo: © Mark Wilson / Staff / Getty Images News / Gettyimages.ru
Following the verdict of Nassar, the entire leadership of the US Artistic Gymnastics Federation has resigned. Steve Penny is awaiting trial for not reporting Larry’s cases to the police for 41 days.
Investigation began after the gymnast confessed to reporters
Nassar went on to work at the University of Michigan. In the summer of 2016, former gymnast Rachel Denholander contacted a journalist, who was told that Nassar had raped her since she was 15.After that, a member of the US Olympic team spoke anonymously, calling Larry a rapist. The scandal gained momentum, and many began to follow Denhollander’s example, sharing their experiences.
Rachel Denholander / Photo: © Scott Olson / Staff / Getty Images News / Gettyimages.ru
Some of Nassar’s victims at first refused to believe he was guilty:
“I read the headline and laughed in surprise. I thought: “No, it can’t be! He’s a saint! ” Of course, I didn’t like the procedures, but I thought it was real treatment.At first I got angry: “How dare you accuse such a kind person of such a terrible crime?”
I didn’t even read the article because I was at a dance rehearsal in college. And when I began to read after the rehearsal, I realized that Rachel had stated everything accurately. She described my own experience: strange comments, no gloves, manipulation inside. And he said that he did not touch anyone inside. That evening my head boiled.
It turned out that for seven years I had mistaken his actions for medical procedures and honest help.I have always praised and recommended him. It turns out that I sent them to the monster. ”
In the end, Nassar was arrested, but not because of the messages of the gymnasts, but according to the statement of the daughter of Larry’s friends, who was not his patient. That is, he could not, in that case, refer to the fact that these were necessary medical procedures.
Nassar did not last long. He was released on $ 1 million bail. After a search of Larry’s house found hard drives containing 37 thousand images of child pornography, he was arrested a second time without the right to be released on bail.
In court, the father of three victims tried to attack Nassar, lawyers received threats
Nassar pleaded guilty to sexual assault, but not right away. As part of the plea agreement, the court refused to press charges in 125 lawsuits against Nassar, but Larry had to listen to the victims’ statements. At first, 88 injured girls wanted to speak out, but every day there were more and more people willing to tell their story. As a result, 156 people appeared in the court.
The trial began on January 16, 2018, and for a week the girls approached the podium, looked into Nassar’s eyes, read out their statements and left with tears to applause.Here are some of the events that are shown in the courtroom film:
1. The first to speak was the daughter of Larry Nassar’s friends, according to whom the doctor was arrested.
Kayla Stevens / Photo: © Scott Olson / Staff / Getty Images News / Gettyimages.ru
“Until this moment, I was called ‘victim Z-A’ or ‘family friend’. I gave my first testimony in this case, fearing attention. She asked me to hide my name. Today I am addressing you openly. This is a statement for you. I have nothing to be ashamed of.
My parents became friends with Larry and his wife Steffany when I was about six years old. The first abuse began on the part of Larry Nassar. Let me tell you what I was interested in at the age of six. Favorite TV program – “Big Red Dog Clifford”, favorite book – “Junie B Jones”. I didn’t know how to multiply. I still had baby teeth. At this level of maturity, I was forced to engage in sexual activities.
(Next, the girl talks about these actions of Nassar, we skip this for ethical reasons.)
When I was 12, I told my parents. They demanded an explanation from Larry. He denied everything. Due to circumstances that I do not want to talk about now, my parents believed Larry Nassar, not me.
From 12 to 18 years old, I avoided contact with them. My father believed that only a disgusting person could slander someone so terribly. He thought I was lying, and his beliefs destroyed our connection. We fought constantly. He said, “You have to apologize to Larry.” It was just before leaving for college that I tried again to clear my name.
Larry Nassar’s actions caused me a lot of harm. But it was even more terrifying to see my father find out what I went through. Dad and I tried to mend our relationship before he committed suicide in 2016. ”
2. The defendant’s lawyer said that she was threatened.
“They shouted at the defense lawyers. They threatened to kill my relatives and employees. Even kill my colleague’s children. As if we were all complicit. And oil was constantly added to this fire. In the end, the explosion was inevitable. “
Larry Nassar with lawyers / Photo: © Scott Olson / Staff / Getty Images News / Gettyimages.ru
3. The father of the three victims tried to attack Nassar in court.
– Your Honor, as part of the verdict – let me spend five minutes in a locked room with this monster.
– I already …
– Allow me?
– Our system …
– Yes or No?
– No, sir.
– Just one minute then.
– I can’t.The judicial system doesn’t work that way.
– Then you have to …
At this moment, the father rushes sharply towards Nassar, but he is intercepted by the police. They knock the assailant to the floor, handcuff him and take him out of the courtroom. Leaving the father says: “And if it was your daughter?”
A fragment of the attack can be seen in the official movie trailer.
4. Judge Aqualina read out a letter from Larry Nassar, which he wrote during the hearing.
Judge Rosemary Aqualina / Photo: © Scott Olson / Staff / Getty Images News / Gettyimages.ru
“He declares: ‘I am very worried that my psyche simply will not stand listening to witnesses for another four days.” Sir, a few phrases are causing me questions. You write: “Now Aqualina is hosting a four-day media circus for sentencing. She wants me to sit next to her all four days in order to get into the lenses of all cameras. ”
5. Nassar burst into tears as former gymnast Trinea Gonchar read her statement.
“If you may, I would like to address him directly, please.What have you done? I told my mother that the hardest thing is to see how small they are, these young girls. She replied: “You were the same, if not younger.”
I made a tough decision this week. I decided whether to support you further or support the girls. Larry, I choose them!
I’ve known you all my life – 31 out of 37 years. I remember your wedding. We thought Stephanie was the luckiest woman in the world. My heart aches for her and your children. Why lose so much good? For what?
Larry Nassar / Photo: © Scott Olson / Staff / Getty Images News / Gettyimages.ru
We loved you as dear. Thought you loved us too. I decided to look you in the eye and tell you that you hurt us. It hurts me, because he raped almost my entire life. You’ve hurt me a lot, old friend. I don’t know who you are anymore. Larry, I thought you’d be delighted to know that I was four months old. I got a boy. And all my life I will do everything so that people like you do not harm any of us.
Goodbye Larry. I close the door. God bless your dark soul. “
6. The last speaker was Rachel Denholander, after whose announcement in the media it all started.
When Rachel made her speech, the judge thanked her: “You have built an army of fighters and have become a great general. All voices have sounded thanks to you. Thank you”.
7. Larry Nassar’s last word before sentencing.
Larry Nassar with lawyers / Photo: © Scott Olson / Staff / Getty Images News / Gettyimages.ru
– This is a short statement.Your words these days evoked a strong emotional reaction in me and shook me deeply. I realize that my feelings are nothing compared to the pain, trauma and emotional destruction that you are experiencing, each of you. There are no words to describe how deeply I regret what happened. An acceptable apology is impossible to describe and utter. I will carry your words through all the remaining days.
“I’ll read more of your letter,” Judge Aqualina said. “I want to do this because it will be part of your apology, if you can trust them.Listen to your own words: “The press convinced them that all my actions were impermissible and vicious. It seems to them that I have betrayed their trust. There is no anger in hell comparable to that of a rejected woman. ”
The last sentence in the letter drew the ire of those in the courtroom.