Board Certified Vascular and Endovascular Surgeons
Tasked with carrying blood from your heart to your body, your arteries deliver essential oxygen and nutrients to your brain, organs, muscles, and other tissues. If your arteries aren’t as flexible or as open as they should be, the vital flow of blood, oxygen, and nutrients can suffer.
This is precisely what happens with atherosclerosis, a chronic disease that occurs when plaque buildup hardens and narrows your arteries. Besides boosting your chances of having a heart attack or stroke, this progressive disorder can set the stage for other serious health conditions, including peripheral artery disease (PAD).
The seasoned specialists at Vascular Institute of New York provide expert care for all forms of PAD, including arm artery disease. Being able to spot the signs of this progressive disorder is the first step in getting the treatment you need to protect your long-term health. Here’s what you should know.
Understanding arm artery disease
Atherosclerosis can affect any artery in your body, including the main artery in your neck that supplies your brain with oxygen-rich blood (carotid artery disease) as well as the large arteries of your heart (coronary artery disease).
PAD is the form of atherosclerosis that affects your peripheral arteries, or the arteries in your arms, pelvis, or legs. More than 10 million people in the United States live with PAD, and most experience its symptoms in their lower extremities (leg artery disease).
Arm artery disease may be less common, but it can be just as problematic. Like other forms of PAD, arm artery disease is usually a byproduct of plaque buildup and atherosclerosis; it can also be triggered by an autoimmune disease or brought on by dialysis-related complications.
More alarmingly, arm artery disease can be caused by an arterial embolism, or a blood clot that travels from your heart or elsewhere in your body and blocks an artery in your arm.
Recognizing the signs and symptoms
In its earliest stages, PAD-related arm artery disease is a relatively silent, or hidden, disorder that doesn’t cause noticeable symptoms. One of the first symptoms you may experience as it gradually progresses is intermittent claudication (IC).
IC causes temporary pain, discomfort, cramping, or heaviness in your arm and/or hand that you
As arm artery disease continues to progress, your fingers may begin to feel uncomfortable or even painful when they’re resting. You may also experience noticeable skin changes on your fingers or hands — your fingers may turn pale white or even blue, and your entire hand may become more sensitive to cold temperatures.
Remember, every sign and symptom of arm artery disease stems from insufficient blood flow — the affected arm isn’t getting the oxygen and nutrients it needs to thrive.
This helps explain why many people with advanced arm artery disease experience persistent arm weakness or heaviness, slow-growing arm hair and fingernails, or even slow-healing sores on their hands or fingers. Some people can no longer detect a pulse on their wrist.
At its most severe, arm artery disease can give rise to gangrene, or total tissue death. Because gangrene that’s infected with bacteria can be fatal, the affected body part is usually removed, or amputated.
Protecting your long-term health
If you experience sudden, severe pain and/or numbness in an arm or hand, call 911 — these symptoms may indicate you have a fresh blood clot, which is a medical emergency. While most small to mid-sized clots can be safely dissolved with thrombolytic therapy, large clots may need to be extracted surgically.
For non-emergency cases of arm artery disease, the right treatment approach depends on the location and severity of your blockage(s) as well as its underlying cause. Moderate-to-severe arterial blockages may require surgical treatment such as an angioplasty or an endarterectomy.
When the disease is driven by atherosclerosis, getting your health under control is vitally important. You may need to take medication to manage a chronic condition like diabetes, high cholesterol, or hypertension; you may also need to quit smoking, get more exercise, and cut the junk from your diet, too.
If you suspect you have arm artery disease, the team at Vascular Institute of New York can help. Call our New York City office in Borough Park, Brooklyn, or click online to schedule a visit today.
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Upper Extremity Vascular Disease | Johns Hopkins Heart and Vascular Institute
Upper extremity vascular disease is relatively uncommon compared to lower extremity vascular disease, but presents a unique diagnostic challenge for physicians.
Causes of Upper Extremity Vascular Disease
The most common causes of Upper extremity Vascular Disease are:
- Embolic disease
There are other systemic diseases and anatomic abnormalities that can cause upper extremity vascular disease including vasculitis, arteritis, Takayasu’s Aortitis and Thoracic Outlet Syndrome.
Symptoms of upper extremity vascular disease
Some of the typical symptoms of upper extremity vascular disease include:
- Discomfort or pain in your arms
- Tightness, heaviness, cramping, or weakness in one or both of your arms
Upper extremity vascular disease may be a symptom of Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD), which is caused by atherosclerosis.
Risk factors for atherosclerosis include:
- Smoking, or a history of smoking
- High cholesterol levels in the blood
- High blood pressure
- Family history of heart or vascular disease
What to Expect at Your Medical Exam
Your vascular surgeon will try to determine if you are suffering from upper extremity vascular disease as well as the best method of treatment.
- Your vascular surgeon will ask you questions about your:
- general health
- medical history
- Your vascular surgeon will conduct a physical examination. You will be asked about family and medical history. Your physician will ask you to describe your symptoms; how often they occur, how often and their location.
- Your vascular surgeon will conduct pulse tests; tests to measure strength of the circulation in your arm arteries. This is done by feeling the pulses at various locations in your arms.
- By using a stethoscope to listen to the blood flowing through your arm arteries, your vascular surgeon can determine the strength of the flow. Because upper extremity vascular disease can affect any artery in the body, your vascular surgeon will usually check arteries in other locations in your body besides your arms.
After your exam, if your vascular surgeon suspects upper extremity vascular disease, diagnostic tests will be performed including:
- Digital subtraction angiography
- Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)
- Computerized tomographic angiography (CTA)
Treatment for upper extremity vascular disease
Based on the results of your physical exam as well as your diagnostic testing, your vascular surgeon will treat your upper extremity vascular disease. However, the goal is to also treat the underlying causes of your condition.
Treatments for this condition include lifestyle modifications such as:
- Smoking cessation
- Exercise and weight loss,
- If necessary, endovascular intervention or surgery including:
- Thoracic outlet surgery
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Your Arm Or Leg Pain Could Be PAD. Here’s Why You Don’t Want To Ignore It.
More than eight million people have peripheral arterial disease or PAD, but relatively few know what it is. Ignoring the signs can have serious consequences.
Like coronary artery disease, PAD is caused by atherosclerosis, meaning a buildup of plaque that reduces blood flow in arteries throughout the body.
“In your legs, in your arms. You could have it in your carotid artery going up to the brain. Even your gut where you have arteries that feed the gut,” said Dr. James Park, an interventional cardiologist and Medical Director of the Heart and Vascular Program at Texas Health Dallas.
Park says it’s easy to mistake symptoms of PAD for other medical problems, but ignoring signs can result in decreased circulation leading to potential gangrene and loss of limbs.
How serious is PAD? Depending on where it is, it can cause strokes, it can cause amputation if untreated in the lower extremities. Some people get what’s called mesenteric eschemia, which means the blood flow to the gut is limited, so they’ll have weight loss or intractable pain whenever they eat. And there’s a lot of data that says if you have peripheral artery disease, those people are more likely to have a shorter life expectancy than others that don’t.
About low awareness of PAD.: It’s often not talked about. I also find primary care physicians and other physicians of specialty don’t recognize it very well. Part of the problem is it can mimic other things.
About diagnosing PAD: There’s a lot of non-invasive testing you can do. One is a simple thing called ankle brachial index where you can take a blood pressure on your arms and compare it to the legs. In addition to that, they can do an ultrasound of your arteries for plaque buildup, and you can also look at the speed of the blood going through the plaque, which demonstrates a tight blockage if the speed is high.
About treating PAD: First, modify the risk factors. If someone is a smoker – a big, big risk factor for PAD – they improve if they stop smoking. The second is exercise therapy. The more they exercise, the more the body recruits arteries to get bigger so that their symptoms improve.
But to get rid of the problem altogether, there are two types of treatment. One is called endovascular: You go through the skin and, as with coronary angioplasty or stent in the heart, you can do similar interventions of the lower extremities. If that’s not enough, sometimes you have to do bypasses in the legs with a prosthetic tube or your own vein to go around the blockage.
Texas Health’s Vascular Rehab Program for PAD: We are equipping all our rehab centers where patients go for cardiac rehab and pulmonary rehab to be aware of the fact that now we can do vascular rehab in terms of exercise therapies. The beauty of the vascular rehab is that you do not need to under a procedure or surgery before you qualify, which is not the case on certain heart-related cardiac rehab.
Interview responses have been lightly edited for length and clarity.
Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD): Symptoms, Causes
What is peripheral arterial disease (PAD)?
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) — also known as peripheral vascular disease, atherosclerosis or hardening of the arteries — is a disorder that occurs in the arteries of the circulatory system. Arteries are the blood vessels that carry oxygen and nutrient-rich blood from the heart to all areas of the body. PAD occurs in the arteries that carry blood to the arms and legs.
Healthy arteries have a smooth lining that prevents blood from clotting and promotes steady blood flow. In PAD, the arteries slowly become narrowed or blocked when plaque gradually forms inside the artery walls. Plaque is made of excessive fat, cholesterol and other substances floating through the bloodstream, such as inflammatory cells, proteins and calcium. If the arteries become narrowed or blocked, blood cannot get through to nourish organs and other tissues, causing damage to the tissues and eventually tissue death.
The rate at which PAD progresses varies with each individual and depends on many factors, including where in the body the plaque has formed and the person’s overall health.
What are the conditions associated with PAD?
If left untreated, patients with PAD can develop serious health problems, including:
- Heart attack: permanent damage to the heart muscle caused by a lack of blood supply to the heart for an extended time
- Stroke: interruption of the blood flow to the brain
- Transient ischemic attack (TIA): a temporary interruption in the blood supply to the brain)
- Renal artery disease or stenosis: a narrowing or blockage of the artery that supplies blood to the kidney
- Amputation: the removal of part or all of the foot or leg (rarely the arm), especially in people who also have diabetes
Development of Peripheral Arterial Disease
Your arteries are shaped like hollow tubes. Inside, they are smooth and elastic, allowing blood to flow freely.
Peripheral arterial disease starts when fatty deposits start streaking the blood vessel walls. The fatty matter builds up. This causes slight injury to your blood vessel walls. In an attempt to heal itself, the cells release chemicals that make the walls stickier. Other substances floating through your bloodstream start sticking to the vessel walls, such as inflammatory cells, proteins and calcium. The fat and other substances combine to form a material called plaque or atherosclerosis. The plaque builds up and narrows the artery.
Over time, the inside of the arteries develop plaques of different sizes. Many of the plaque deposits are hard on the outside and soft and mushy on the inside. The hard surface can crack or tear, exposing the soft, fatty inside. When this happens, platelets (disc-shaped particles in the blood that aid clotting) come to the area, and blood clots form around the plaque. The artery narrows further. Symptoms occur.
The artery may become completely blocked by plaque or a blood clot that lodges in a narrowed artery. If this occurs, the tissue below the blockage is permanently damaged and may die (gangrene). This most often occurs in the toes and feet.
PAD in Women
Have you ever had to cut short a day of shopping or sightseeing because of severe leg pain? Maybe you’ve given up golf because you can no longer walk the course.
Pain or discomfort in the legs is a common symptom of a disease called peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Up to 8-12 million Americans have PAD. Peripheral arterial disease is atherosclerosis that develops in the arteries of the legs or, less commonly, the arms. Like atherosclerosis in the heart (coronary) arteries, PAD is caused by the accumulation of fatty plaque in the blood vessel walls. As plaque builds up, the blood vessels get narrower and narrower, until they become blocked. In the coronary arteries, atherosclerosis causes chest pain or a heart attack. In the legs, atherosclerosis can cause pain, weakness, or fatigue while walking.
The dangers of PAD extend well beyond difficulties in walking, and the consequences can be far worse than missing a shopping trip or golf game. Peripheral artery disease increases the risk of developing a non-healing sore of the legs or feet. In cases of severe PAD, these sores can develop into areas of dead tissue (gangrene) that ultimately require amputation of the foot or leg.
The effects of PAD can extend beyond the affected limb. The body’s circulatory system is interconnected. Patients with atherosclerosis of the legs commonly have atherosclerosis in other parts of the body. Therefore, it’s not surprising that patients with peripheral artery disease are at increased risk for having a heart attack, stroke, transient ischemic attack (“mini-stroke,”) or problems with the kidney (renal) arteries.
Who Gets PAD?
Although PAD is a different condition than coronary artery disease, the two are related. People who have one are likely to have the other: the National Institutes of Health estimates that a person with PAD has a six to seven times higher risk of coronary artery disease, heart attack, stroke or a transient ischemic attack than the general population; a person with heart disease has a 1 in 3 chance of having peripheral artery disease in the legs (1).
Not surprisingly, the two diseases also share some common risk factors. This is because these risk factors cause the same changes in arteries in the arms and legs as they do in the coronary arteries.
PAD risk factors include:
- Age over 50
- High blood pressure
- High cholesterol
- Abdominal obesity
- Kidney disease (both a risk factor and a consequence of PAD)
Other risk factors for PAD include race – African Americans have about two times the risk for PAD as Caucasians or Asians – and a family history of heart disease or PAD.
Both woman and men are at risk for developing PAD.
As in coronary artery disease, many of these risk factors are out of your control. But, according to researchers at Cleveland Clinic (2), smoking is the single most important modifiable (changeable) risk factor for PAD and its complications. Smoking increases the risk for PAD by 400 percent and brings on PAD symptoms almost 10 years earlier. Compared with non-smokers of the same age, smokers with PAD are more likely to die of heart attack or stroke, have poorer results with heart bypass surgery procedures on the legs and are twice as likely to have a limb amputated.
Diabetes is another strong risk factor for PAD in women. When combined with other, common conditions related to diabetes such as heart disease, nerve problems in the legs and feet, visual problems, obesity and depression, adding PAD to the mix increases the likelihood that a diabetic woman will have serious mobility problems.
Symptoms and Causes
What are the symptoms of peripheral arterial disease?
PAD can build up over a lifetime, and the symptoms may not become obvious until later in life. For many people, the outward symptoms will not appear until the artery has narrowed by 60 percent or more.
The first noticeable symptom of PAD may be intermittent claudication — leg discomfort, pain or cramping that develops with activity, is relieved with rest, and recurs upon resuming activity. The pain is often noticed in the calf, but may also be felt in the buttocks or thighs. Intermittent claudication symptoms may also include numbness, weakness, heaviness or fatigue in the leg muscles when walking that are relieved at rest. The pain can be severe enough to interfere with normal walking. This type of cyclical pain is caused by reduced blood flow to the leg muscles and goes away at rest because the muscles require less blood flow at rest.Other symptoms of advanced PAD may include:
- A burning or aching pain in the feet and toes while resting, especially at night while lying flat
- Cool skin in the feet
- Redness or other color changes of the skin
- Increased occurrence of infection
- Toe and foot sores that do not heal
Many people with PAD do not have any symptoms.
Diagnosis and Tests
How is PAD detected?
Talk to your doctor if you are having symptoms of PAD so the cause of your symptoms can be identified and treatment can be initiated as soon as possible. Early detection of PAD is important so the right treatments can be provided before the disease becomes severe enough to lead to complications, such as heart attack or stroke.
A physical exam will be performed and your medical history and risk factors will be reviewed. Your doctor may order certain tests to help diagnose PAD and determine the severity of the disease.
- The ankle/brachial index (ABI) is a measurement of the blood pressure in the lower legs compared to the blood pressure in the arms. During this test, blood pressure cuffs are placed on the arms and legs. The cuffs are inflated, while a hand-held device (called a Doppler) is used to listen to the blood flow. The ABI screening helps evaluate the amount of blood flow to the legs and feet, which is decreased in a person with PAD. It is a highly accurate method for detecting PAD.
- A pulse volume recording (PVR) is a noninvasive test that measures the blood volume changes that occur in the legs. During this test, a blood pressure cuff is placed on the arm and multiple cuffs are placed on the legs. The cuffs are inflated slightly while the patient is lying down. As blood pulses through the arteries, the blood vessels expand, causing an increase or decrease in the volume of air within the cuff. A recording device displays these pulse volume changes as a waveform on a monitor. Blood pressures are measured before and after exercise on a treadmill and help define if the pain is due to PAD or other causes. The PVR test also helps locate the area of blockages in the legs.
- A vascular ultrasound is a noninvasive test used to examine blood circulation. During a vascular ultrasound, a transducer (small hand- held device) is placed on the skin over the artery to be examined. The transducer emits sound waves that bounce off the artery. These sound waves are recorded, and an image of the vessel is created and displayed on a monitor. This test may be used to detect a blockage in an artery.
Management and Treatment
How is PAD treated?
Lifestyle changes, medications and interventional procedures are the treatments available for PAD.
Lifestyle Changes. Initial treatment of PAD includes making lifestyle changes to reduce your risk factors. Changes you can make to manage your condition include:
- Quit smoking. Ask your doctor about smoking cessation programs available in your community.
- Eat a balanced diet that is high in fiber and low in cholesterol, fat and sodium. Limit fat to 30 percent of your total daily calories. Saturated fat should account for no more than 7 percent of your total calories. Avoid trans fats including products made with partially-hydrogenated and hydrogenated vegetable oils. If you are overweight, losing weight will help you lower your total cholesterol and raise your HDL (good) cholesterol. A registered dietitian can help you make the right dietary changes.
- Exercise. Begin a regular exercise program, such as walking. Walking is very important and can aid the treatment of PAD. Patients who walk regularly can expect a marked improvement in the distance they are able to walk before experiencing leg pain. (See Walking Program Box)
- Manage other health conditions, such as high blood pressure, diabetes or high cholesterol.
- Practice good foot and skin care to prevent infection and reduce the risk of complications. (See Foot Care Guidelines Box)
Medications may be recommended to treat conditions such as high blood pressure (anti- hypertensive medications) or high cholesterol (statin medications).
An antiplatelet medication such as aspirin or clopidogrel (Plavix) may be prescribed to reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke.
Vascular Medicine and Preventive Cardiology and Rehabilitation offer a structured supervised walking program to help you succeed and maximize your exercise efforts. Please call 216.444.4420 or 800.223.2273 ext. 4420 to make an appointment.
Cilostazol (Pletal) may be prescribed to improve walking distance. This medication has been shown to help people with intermittent claudication exercise longer before they develop leg pain and to walk longer before they must stop because of the pain. However, not all patients are eligible to take this medication. Your doctor will tell you if you are eligible.
Interventional procedures. More advanced PAD can be treated with interventional procedures such as angioplasty (to widen or clear the blocked vessel), angioplasty with stent placement (to support the cleared vessel and keep it open), or atherectomy (to remove the blockage).
In some cases, surgical procedures such as peripheral artery bypass surgery may be performed to reroute blood flow around the blood vessel blockage.
New therapies are currently being researched. Please ask your doctor if any other treatment options are available for you.
If any of these procedures are recommended, your health care team will give you more information about the procedures so you will know what to expect.
Can PAD be cured?
There is no cure for PAD. Quitting smoking, exercising regularly, limiting fat and following a healthy diet, and managing your risk factors — such as diabetes, high cholesterol and high blood pressure — can help to reduce the progression of the disease.
Every day, examine your legs as well as the tops and bottoms of your feet and the areas between your toes. Look for any blisters, cuts, cracks, scratches or other sores. Also check for redness, increased warmth, ingrown toenails, corns and calluses. Use a mirror to view the leg or foot if necessary, or have a family member look at the area for you.
Once or twice a day, apply a moisturizing cream or lotion to your legs and soles and top of your feet to prevent dry skin and cracking. Do not apply lotion between your toes or on areas where there is an open sore or cut. If the skin is extremely dry, use the moisturizing cream more often. Care for your toenails regularly. Cut your toenails after bathing, when they are soft. Cut toenails straight across and smooth with a nail file.
If you have diabetes, it is important to see a podiatrist.
Do not self-treat corns, calluses or other foot problems. Go to a podiatrist to treat these conditions.
Don’t wait to treat a minor foot or skin problem. Follow your doctor’s guidelines.
Other tests may include angiography, CT scan or MRI.
During angiography (also called arteriography), contrast material (dye) is injected into the blood vessels being examined, and X-ray pictures of the inside of the blood vessels are produced to evaluate blood flow and detect possible blockages.
A CT scan is a technique in which multiple X-rays are taken from different angles in a very short period of time. The images are collected by a computer and cross-sectional “slices” of the blood vessel are shown on the monitor.
MRI uses powerful magnets to create images of internal organs and blood vessels.
Taking Control of Peripheral Arterial Disease
Despite the prevalence of PAD, it is surprisingly underdiagnosed and undertreated (3). The good news is that, although PAD is a serious condition with potentially serious consequences, it is treatable. Like most health conditions, PAD is more treatable when it is detected early.Being aware that you have risk factors for PAD may motivate you to take action to prevent PAD from developing. The same advice for maintaining a healthy heart applies to maintaining healthy circulation overall:
- Manage your weight
- Eat a low fat, low sugar diet that includes at least five servings of fresh fruits and vegetables every day
- Don’t smoke.
- With your doctor’s approval, exercise, doing an activity you enjoy, for at least 30 minutes a day on most days of the week.
If you have heart disease, you should discuss your risk factors for PAD with your doctor and report any symptoms you are having such as pain, weakness or numbness in the legs. Your doctor may order a simple test, known as the ankle-brachial index (ABI), to diagnose PAD The ABI test involves measuring the blood pressures in the arms and the legs using a hand-held Doppler device.
If you already have mild PAD, your doctor may prescribe exercise therapy, dietary changes, smoking cessation and medication. Common medications prescribed for atherosclerosis and PAD include anti-platelet agents (such as aspirin or clopidogrel) and cholesterol lowering medications (“statins”). The best things that you can do for yourself in this situation are to quit smoking, control your high blood pressure, take your medications, and manage your diabetes.
It is also very important that patients with PAD take especially good care of the feet to prevent non-healing sores. Important components of foot care for patients with PAD include: wearing comfortable, appropriately fitting shoes; inspecting the feet regularly for sores; keeping the feet clean and well moisturized; and, taking regular care of the toe nails. In some cases, a patient with PAD is referred to a podiatrist for specialized foot care.
Other Treatments for Peripheral Arterial Disease
More advanced PAD that is causing severe pain and limited mobility may require endovascular (i.e., minimally invasive) or surgical treatment. Some of the same treatments that are used for heart disease are also used for treating PAD.
In this procedure, a miniature balloon is passed through a catheter into the arteries. As the balloon is expanded inside the artery, it pushes against the plaque and opens up the artery.
These are tiny metal support coils that are inserted into the arteries. Once they are in place, stents expand against the inner blood vessel wall to support it and hold it open. Stents can be placed through a small opening using catheters (long, thin tubes) without major surgery.
Similar to heart bypass, a surgeon uses a section of the patient’s healthy vein or a synthetic replacement to create a bypass around the blocked area in the leg artery. This is usually reserved for the most severe PAD.
With early diagnosis, lifestyle changes and treatment, you can stop PAD from getting worse. In fact, some studies have shown that symptoms due to PAD can be reversed with exercise combined with careful control of cholesterol and blood pressure. If you think you are at risk for PAD or may already have the disease, talk to your primary care doctor or cardiologist so that you can get started on a prevention or treatment program as soon as possible. With proper diagnosis and treatment, you can still enjoy the good things in life – like shopping, sightseeing and golf!
For questions or more information about PAD, call the Miller Family Heart, Vascular & Thoracic Institute Resource and Information Center Nurse at 216.445.9288 or toll-free 866.289.6911. For an appointment with a Cleveland Clinic women’s heart or vascular specialist, call toll-free 800.223.1696 or locally, 216.444.9343.
Know the Warning Signs of Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)
One of the Deadliest Diseases You’ve Never Heard Of
More than 8 million Americans suffer from peripheral arterial disease, or PAD. Just as a heart attack is caused by a blocked artery in the heart, PAD is the same kind of blockage – only it takes place in the arm, leg or other part of the body.
PAD is a leading cause for amputation, and puts you at risk for heart attack, stroke and death. It can build up over a lifetime, and the symptoms may not become obvious until later in life.
The first noticeable symptom of PAD may be a painful cramping in the calf, thigh or buttocks that occurs regularly when you walk or move, but that goes away when you’re at rest. This is called intermittent claudication. The pain can be severe enough to limit your ability to participate in activities you enjoy, such as golfing or chasing after grandchildren.
Other symptoms of advanced PAD include:
- Burning or aching pain in the feet and toes while resting (especially at night while lying flat)
- Cool skin in the feet
- Redness or color changes in the skin
- Toe and foot sores that do not heal.
But fully half of people who have PAD experience no symptoms at all. That’s one of the reasons it’s so dangerous.
What are the risk factors for PAD?
An individual is at risk for developing PAD when one or more of these risk factors are present:
- Age: In the United States, people aged 50 and older have an increased risk for PAD
- Race: African Americans have a two-fold higher risk of developing PAD compared to other groups
- History of heart or blood vessel disease: A personal or family history of heart or blood vessel disease may be an indicator for PAD
- High blood pressure (hypertension)
- High cholesterol (hyperlipidemia)
Doctors vary in quality due to differences in training and experience; hospitals differ in the number of services available. The more complex your medical problem, the greater these differences in quality become and the more they matter.
Clearly, the doctor and hospital that you choose for complex, specialized medical care will have a direct impact on how well you do. To help you make this choice, please review our Miller Family Heart, Vascular & Thoracic Institute Outcomes.
Cleveland Clinic Heart, Vascular & Thoracic Institute Vascular Medicine Specialists and Surgeons
Choosing a doctor to treat your vascular disease depends on where you are in your diagnosis and treatment. The following Heart, Vascular & Thoracic Institute Sections and Departments treat patients with all types of vascular disease, including blood clotting disorders:
Section of Vascular Medicine: for evaluation, medical management or interventional procedures to treat vascular disease. In addition, the Non-Invasive Laboratory includes state-of-the art computerized imaging equipment to assist in diagnosing vascular disease, without added discomfort to the patient. Call Vascular Medicine Appointments, toll-free 800-223-2273, extension 44420 or request an appointment online.
Department of Vascular Surgery: surgery evaluation for surgical treatment of vascular disease, including aorta, peripheral artery, and venous disease. Call Vascular Surgery Appointments, toll-free 800-223-2273, extension 44508 or request an appointment online.
You may also use our MyConsult second opinion consultation using the Internet.
The Heart, Vascular & Thoracic Institute also has specialized centers and clinics to treat certain populations of patients:
Learn more about experts who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of vascular and arterial disease.
If you need more information, click here to contact us, chat online with a nurse or call the Miller Family Heart, Vascular & Thoracic Institute Resource & Information Nurse at 216.445.9288 or toll-free at 866.289.6911. We would be happy to help you.
Becoming a Patient
Additional information about vascular treatment options can be found at:
Diagnostic tests are used to diagnose your abnormal heartbeat and the most effective treatment method.
Our webchats and video chats give patients and visitors another opportunity to ask questions and interact with our physicians.
*A new browser window will open with this link. The inclusion of links to other websites does not imply any endorsement of the material on those websites nor any association with their operators.
Why choose Cleveland Clinic for your care?
Our outcomes speak for themselves. Please review our facts and figures and if you have any questions don’t hesitate to ask.
Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD): Symptoms, Causes, Treatment
American Heart Association website: “Few Americans aware of dangerous peripheral artery disease,” “Peripheral Artery Disease.”
Hirsch, A. Journal of the American Medical Association, 2001; vol 286: pp1317-1324.
McDermott, M. Journal of the American Medical Association, 2001; vol 286: pp 1599-1606.
McGee, S. Archives of Internal Medicine, 1998; vol 158: pp 1357-1364.
Selvin, E. Circulation, 2004; vol 110: pp 738-743.
Jude, E. Diabetes Care, 2001; vol 24: pp 1433-1437.
Sloan, H. Nursing99, 1999; vol 29: pp 58-59.
Norgren, L. Journal of Vascular Surgery, 2007; vol 45: pp S5-S67.
Thompson, P. American Journal of Cardiology, 2002; vol 90: pp 1314-1319.
Leng, G. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2000; CD000990.
McDermott, M. Journal of the American Medical Association, 2004; vol 292: pp 453-461.
O’Hare, A. Circulation, 2006; vol 113: pp. 388-393.
Mark Silverman, MD, emeritus professor of medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta.
Society for Vascular Surgery: “Angiogram,” “Peripheral Arterial Disease.”
Mayo Clinic: “Peripheral artery disease (PAD),” “Symptoms and Causes Arteriosclerosis/Atherosclerosis.”
Texas Heart Institute: “Peripheral Vascular Disease. ”
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute: “Peripheral Artery Disease,” “Explore Peripheral Artery Disease,” “What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan?” “What Is Carotid Artery Disease?” “What is Atherosclerosis?”
Cleveland Clinic: “Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD).”
Harvard Health Publications: “Peripheral Artery Disease.”
CDC: “Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) Fact Sheet.”
National Institutes of Health: “Facts about Peripheral Arterial Disease,” “What Is Peripheral Artery Disease?” “What Causes Atherosclerosis?” “Who Is at Risk for Atherosclerosis?” “High Blood Cholesterol: What You Need To Know.”
Johns Hopkins Medicine: “Peripheral Vascular Disease.”
NIH Senior Health: “What is P.A.D.?”
American Diabetes Association: “Peripheral Arterial Disease.”90,000 Top 10 hand warmers that will keep you warm this winter: How to choose
Nobody likes the cold and freezing in the wind. A rare daredevil will risk walking in bad weather without gloves – but what about those who are not saved even by the warmest mittens? The answer is simple: take advantage of the achievements of science and progress – buy a nice hand warmer and finally warm up. Our today’s selection of the 10 best of these warmers will help those who:
- loves active winter sports – skiing, skating, snowboards;
- on duty spends a lot of time on the street or travels a lot;
- is fond of hunting and fishing;
- suffers from Raynaud’s syndrome
…. and, even if you are the same guy whose hands get cold at the sight of your beloved girl, there is a heating pad for you too. Let’s start!
10 best hand warmers, or how to save your hands from the cold
In this collection we have collected a variety of devices for every taste and wallet – from simple disposable heating bags to the most advanced reusable heating pads – and divided them into several categories:
We ourselves are already thinking of buying a couple of such gadgets – after all, the chilly autumn and frosty winter are almost at the doorstep!
Electric Hand Warmers
Electric Handy Heater
Another original way to warm your hands is the HANDY HEATER portable warmer. This device is unique in its compactness and functionality. Works from the mains, not taking up any free space at all. The minimum dimensions of the device and its weight, which is 450 grams, allows you to carry it even in your purse. The ability to install the unit in any place where there is an outlet: at home, in the office and other places, distinguishes it from other devices by its mobility.
Using the Handy Heater is quite simple: just plug in the plug and select the desired temperature with the regulator.Just a few seconds – and your hands will feel a comfortable and inviting stream of warm air, and the room will be filled with coziness and warmth.
- Reliability and safety. The device has a built-in ceramic heater and a cooling element, which prevents overheating and ignition of the unit.
- Low noise level;
- Power and economy – 400 W;
- Compactness and practicality – length 15 cm and weight up to 500 g;
- direct connection, no additional wires needed;
- the presence of a thermostat – there are two modes, which allows you to maintain the temperature from +14 – + 30 degrees. ;
- digital control, display available;
- energy consumption class A ++;
- not expensive.
But there are also disadvantages, and the main one is that this hand warmer is directly connected to an outlet using a cord. Such a heating pad can hardly be called portable, and it is almost impossible to carry it with you. But for hand warming at home, this is a great option.Real Buyer Review The only inconvenience is that it works from an outlet.But I, for example, carry it with me to work, put it on the windowsill and warm myself. By the way, they can warm not only hands but also the room.
Price: ₽ 2490
Reusable hand warmers
Catalytic heating pad Kovea VKH-PW04S Pocket Warmer
The undisputed leader of any such rating is a heating pad from the cult manufacturer Kovea. This gadget is an example of a great gift for yourself and any friend. However, unlike lighters, there is no open fire here.This is a catalytic heating pad that generates heat as a result of the flameless oxidation of vapors of a gasoline-containing liquid upon contact with oxygen. There are ventilation holes in the heating pad for oxygen supply. In order for the heating pad to work, you just need to fill the heating pad with a special liquid (it is not included in the kit) – and you will receive from 6 to 12 hours of pleasant and safe heat from the stylish accessory. The heating time depends on the model you choose – and they are available in 5 colors – from juicy orange to brutal camouflage.
Price: ₽ 1830
Pocket heating pads for smartphones
A budget option of reusable heating devices for those who do not need long-term heat. Inside these small inserts there is a gel, which, after activation, is capable of giving off heat for 20 minutes. However, after each use it will have to be kept in boiling water for 5 minutes – which is not very convenient. But these stylish earbuds not only keep your hands warm. Users share their life hacks: in severe frost, they put them in their pocket with their smartphone – and the battery does not die from the low temperature.Some of the models can also, if necessary, be used as “coolers” in the heat – pre-cooled in the refrigerator, The most popular models of gel warmers: For Pro Hand and Body Warmers, Hotsy! and Hand Warmers – HotSnapZ Reusable Round & Pocket Warmers.
EnergyFlux Enduro 7800mAh – Rechargeable double-sided hand warmer
This is a must-have for any geek with a double-sided heating function.A heater, USB charger for gadgets and a flashlight get along in one device – and all this for $ 40! EnergyFlux Enduro is also equipped with a charge indicator and the ability to adjust the temperature – lower or higher, which will give up to 7 hours of heat. Conveniently, you can turn off the gadget when you no longer need warmth. Even postmen use this thing, they already know what extreme weather conditions are!
Rechargeable Double-Sided Hand Warmer & 4,400 mAh Power Bank For Most Cell Phones & Mobile Devices
Stylish feminine heater model that hides a useful set of functions under a striking design.For only $ 30, you get a hand warmer + gadget charger + flashlight. This model resembles the previous one, but if it is unisex, then everything is obvious. Depending on the temperature settings, you will get from 4 to 5 hours of heat, and you can recharge the heating pad either from the USB port or from the outlet (there is an adapter in the kit). Judging by the reviews, this is also a cool gift for the holidays, the main thing is not to lose one in your bag – well, it is very compact. The heating pad also received a lot of good reviews from people suffering from Raynaud’s syndrome – in their case, it effectively removes symptoms such as pain in the palms and severe chilliness of the fingers.
Heated Gear Gloves Kit
This is not only a hand warmer, but a whole system including special gloves with reusable batteries inside – starting at $ 86. Option for those who don’t want to mess with any gadgets. I charged the batteries, put on gloves – and throw yourself in the rain or in the snow – they are waterproof! True, the charge only lasts for 4 hours – plan your outdoor adventures more precisely. The design of the gloves is unisex, so it will suit everyone, but the size must be chosen as accurately as possible.
USB hand warmers
For gamers and those who spend a lot of time at the computer, we have found 2 more cute and funny, but no less useful hand warmers – especially for those who are cold even at home. Which do you choose – gloves or mouse pad?
Smoko Toast USB Handwarmers – Tato & Butta
Nice thing, isn’t it? Especially for those who have cold hands while sitting at the computer. But guys, you have to make room: Tato & Butta is a hot water bottle rather for girls, because they are too small for men’s hands.Each “toast” can be connected separately, which is very convenient – and if you want, there are also wireless models for you. Fans of super cute gizmos – go for it: Tato & Butta are just made to cheer you up!
VIVISKY (TM) Cute and Lively Minions Despicable Me 5 Watt Underpower USB Heated Mouse Pad, Warming Hand & Keep it Warm
He copes with the task: your hand really does not freeze anymore.Just plug in this soft USB device and unplug it if it gets too hot. It adds fun to the usual process of working at a computer: as users say, the effect of novelty appears in the usual actions! True, some are a little upset that with such a device, mouse movements become limited. But if you are not a gamer, then this should not be a hindrance. In total, there are 2 variants of the device with one-eyed and two-eyed minion.
Hand Warmer Comparison Chart
Kovea Catoletic Warmer
Operating time up to 10 hours, maximum temperature 70 degrees, runs on gasoline from lighters.
You may also be interested in: Review of the best winter gadgets: how to keep warm during the cold season?
How to sew on your own, selection of materials
Wedding accessories are integral parts for creating the image of your holiday.Specialty salons sell a variety of décor to give your celebration a unique flair. Souvenirs for guests, decorations for glasses, locks, towels, car decor – nice little things will create a festive atmosphere. But the first place among the most favorite accessories, the choice of which is taken very seriously, is occupied by the pads for the rings. This very recent tradition came to us from the West, where a child most often endures such a cute pillow. Our pillow or box serves to create a beautiful photograph and replaces the standard golden saucer in the registry office.
If you want to add uniqueness to your holiday, then the pillow can be made by hand. Do not be afraid to experiment, because by creating something on your own, you are applying love to it. Not sure where to start? We will show you how to make a pillow for rings with your own hands.
Workshop on making pillows for wedding rings
The technology of making a pillow is so simple that you can easily make one for yourself in 10 minutes. A little patience, thread and fabric – and your masterpiece is ready.The classic size of a pillow for rings is 15×15 centimeters. If you make it larger, the rings will be lost among the decor. Therefore, you will not need a lot of materials.
- Options for flower decor pillows
Below we have described step by step for beginners how to make a pillow for rings:
- Making a pattern. For convenience, make a template on the fabric 15×15 centimeters. Cut 2 blanks from the fabric along it, adding 1 centimeter each.
- Stapling.Do this from the inside out, leaving the face inside the future pad. Sewing is not necessary on a typewriter, you can also use your hands. But leave one corner unstitched.
- Turn the pillow right-side out through the unstitched corner so that all seams are hidden inward.
- Stuff the pad with cotton wool, padding polyester or any other filler. Then sew the corner.
- Decoration. At this stage, everything depends only on your imagination. For example, tie a ribbon around the pillow and make a bow out of it.
What materials to sew a pillow for rings
If you are thinking of a more extravagant option, then do not deny yourself a variety of materials to create a unique pillow for wedding rings. You can sew it yourself from almost any fabric, or even knit it from woolen threads.Lace cushions for rings
The main thing is not to forget about the decor. Here is a complete freedom within the framework of your imagination:
- Rhinestones and beads are used to write initials or a meaningful phrase on the pillow.
- Pebbles and pearls, in addition to their attractiveness, can become a fastener for rings. The bride will not worry about the rings falling off. Pearl pyramid is the best holders after ribbons.
- Want to add some vintage feel? Use cameos and old brooches. But don’t overload the pillow, because cameos are a very catchy accessory.
- Handmade embroidery or lace appliques will add charm and spontaneity.
- Do you like fresh fragrant flowers? Add plants: buds, leaves, petals.
- Buttons, bows and feathers add a playful touch to the pillow.
Alternative to the cushion for rings
The opportunity to show imagination and make a unique wedding accessory is available to everyone. It is not necessary to follow the standard and make a pillow, you can make a stand for rings with your own hands. It can be in the form of a plate, which you yourself will decorate. Acrylic paints are perfect for this – they dry quickly and hold well. You can use templates and stencils if you are afraid to spoil the idea.Also, to create a special charm, use the popular technique of “spot painting”. This is the creation of contours with dots, due to which the effect of embossing appears. And do not deny yourself the pleasure of gluing beads, rhinestones or shells to the plate – what if your wedding is a nautical theme?Unusual stands for wedding rings
Box for rings with your own hands for a wedding is a great way to do something together for future newlyweds. Boxes or caskets for rings are popular with those who want to keep their wedding rings a secret from everyone as long as possible.The most popular type of box is a book with a secret. You can take your favorite beautiful book, cut out a notch in the middle and decorate the back cover. You can cover the recess with a satin cloth, put a flower or fold a symbolic bird’s nest out of wire.
Nobody forbade the use of ready-made coasters, which you will emphasize with decorations. For example, it can be a seashell, a basket, a flashlight, or a living plant.
In any case, whatever stand you make with your own hands – it will reflect your wedding style, your mood.After all, a homemade ring pillow will mean your attention to detail, which is a very important plus in family life.
Article author: Alexandra Naumenko
Dry skin of hands and cracked fingers: causes and treatment
A problem with which thousands of people (not only diabetics!) Around the world are familiar. It is relevant both in winter and summer. Both children and adults suffer from it.
Parchment-dry hands and rough fingerpads that crack, ache, and bleed over time.A real attack that causes incredible discomfort. What is the reason and what to do?
Why the skin of the hands dries up and the fingers crack
DecompensationNaturally, we put this reason first! When diabetes is poorly controlled, metabolism is impaired, the body becomes dehydrated, and the skin dries up, becomes sensitive and fragile.
Lack of nutrients in the dietAny malfunctions in the work of the body are first of all displayed on the outside. If the skin is dry, “sticks” appear in the corners of the mouth, there is significant hair loss, and nails are flaking and breaking, perhaps your diet lacks healthy fats, vitamins A, E, C.Add unrefined oils, nuts, fatty fish, offal, citrus fruits to the menu. If you cannot fill the deficit with food, then you should pay attention to vitamin complexes.
Use of household chemicalsLet’s be honest: Not many people wear gloves when washing dishes and cleaning up. But household chemicals are sometimes so aggressive that they can corrode the skin and cause burns. In any case, the skin of the hands is not very comfortable from daily fiddling in soapy water.
WeatheringWind and cold also lead to dry skin and dehydration of the upper layers of the skin. Remember how in childhood parents scared us with “tiptoes” on their hands and forced us to wear gloves?
Glycerin creamsYou’ve probably heard how well glycerin moisturizes the skin. Only its optimal proportion in the composition of the cream is no more than 5%, otherwise there will be the opposite effect. The role of glycerin in the cream is to attract moisture from the air to the surface of the skin and keep it there. When there is too much of this component, it draws water molecules not only from the air, but from the epidermis, thereby dehydrating it.
Favorite finger100% do you have a favorite finger that you most often use to puncture your blood sugar? And this poor fellow gets day after day … And even more your beloved finger gets upset when you use the same lancet week after week. Dozens of punctures, black spots on the pad, non-healing microdamages, dryness …
Sanitizers with alcoholToday, even those who did not know what a sanitizer was 3 months ago carry it in a bag.Alcohol sanitizers, which are recommended as a means of fighting coronavirus infection, are very drying to the skin.
How to restore dry hand skin. 7 actionable tips
- All household chores and contact with household chemicals only with gloves!
- Keep track of sugars, drinking regime and diet.
- Wear gloves during the cold season.
- Use regenerating and repairing creams every time you wash your hands.It is convenient and economical in this case to use a large package with a dispenser, for example, Diaultraderm hand and elbow cream (700 ml)
- Before going to bed and in the morning, the use of creams with urea will be effective. There are many of them on the market, but it is better to give preference to professional products for diabetics, since it has long been known that it has the richest composition among others. And yes, foot creams can be applied to hands too. Pay attention to creams with 10% and 15% urea in the composition.These are such products as Diaultraderm® AQUA 15 foot skin cream in a small tube and in a professional package of 700 ml.
- In case of punctures, alternate fingers and change lancets in time, i.e. every puncture. Always pay attention to the lancet thickness designation when purchasing a lancing device. The lancing devices with the thinnest lancets on the Russian market are now the OneTouch Delica Plus lancing device and the Accu-Chek FastClix drum lancing device.
- Apply alcohol-based sanitizer to skin if absolutely necessary. Wear gloves when treating objects or surfaces with alcohol antiseptic.
Below you will find a selection of the most effective creams for treating dry hands. They can always be purchased in our online store. 90,000 Wrinkled finger pads without water cause. Wrinkles on the pads of the fingers – recipes for the most effective home masks
Why does the skin wrinkle on the hands? For a long time, people believed that the reason for this lies in the specific effect of water on it, which, getting under the skin, causing its cells to increase in volume, and the skin itself to wrinkle.However, more recently, scientists have established that this is not entirely true.
Why does the skin wrinkle?
What happens when the skin is under water? The nerves underneath it instantly instruct the blood vessels to narrow, causing the tissue to dramatically decrease in volume. A similar process, most likely, was developed evolutionarily, but its exact purpose has not yet been established. According to one hypothesis, such a mechanism makes it possible to more effectively hold slippery and wet objects in the hands.Despite the fact that she received experimental confirmation, the question “what exactly gives wrinkled skin such an advantage is still open. It is possible that wrinkles allow excess water to drain away from the contact point of two different surfaces, which allows them to contact directly. Also, wrinkled skin of the hands increases the area of contact with the object.
However, there are a number of other factors that cause the skin of the hands to wrinkle. It has been noted that significant shrinkage occurs after prolonged exposure to the open air during the cold season.And, despite the fact that at first it does not cause visible discomfort, over time, microcracks and dryness may appear on the skin. To cope with this unpleasant phenomenon, you can use nourishing creams and ointments designed specifically for use in the winter season. Cosmetics enriched with nourishing oils and vitamins, as well as homemade masks and scrubs are also effective. Scrubs allow you to remove the upper stratum corneum from the skin, allowing it to successfully renew and look healthier, masks – to restore the acid-base balance of the skin and provide it with additional protection and nutrition.In such cases, the skin wrinkles quickly enough, and the consequences of this are quite easily eliminated.
Wrinkled skin on the hands is often the result of prolonged exposure to aggressive chemicals. In this case, treatment should begin with identifying the root cause of irritation and, if possible, minimize contact with it. After that, it is important to consult with a specialist to determine further treatment.
How to prevent wrinkling?
Skin wrinkling is also an irreversible process associated with the natural aging process of the skin.Both genetic factors and external conditions, which include the environmental situation, the need or absence to engage in physical labor, and the level of stress, can affect the intensity of this process. The type of skin also plays an important role: it has been noticed that dry skin of the hands ages much faster due to the reduced amount of sebaceous glands in it and their less intensive work. In such a case, efforts should be directed mainly to prevent the excessive loss of moisture and other nutrients by the skin.
Scrubs with coarse exfoliating particles are not suitable for dry skin; they must be used with extreme caution and no more than once a week. To maintain the moisture level of the skin, it is recommended to apply special masks and creams to it; for additional care, special Spa Belle cosmetic gloves are also suitable, allowing the skin to stay dry and allowing the woman to feel maximum comfort and confidence throughout the day. Each silicone massage glove is made of hypoallergenic material, which makes it possible to use it on absolutely any type of skin.The impregnation contains only natural, valuable ingredients that significantly enhance the intensity of the treatments. Oily skin of the hands is much less exposed to age-related changes, but this does not mean that cosmetic procedures are not mandatory for it.
Worried about marbled skin?
Marbled skin on the hands is a separate specific problem that many women have to face today.Most often, it is a consequence of a violation of the work of blood vessels, which occur with marbled skin, are visible almost to the naked eye. There is no radical remedy for correcting violations of this type, however, experts recommend reducing physical activity to a minimum and using cosmetics with special moisturizing ingredients.
In general, marbled leather is one of the lightest forms of reticulated livedo. One of the reasons for the development of such a deficiency is a congenital disorder of the structure of the vessels of the skin.Most often, such a violation is diagnosed in people with thin fair skin, as well as in many children. Marbled leather also often makes itself felt after being chilled. Outwardly, the skin has a bluish tint and is often covered with reticular changes. You can see them on many open areas of the body, but most often the changes are localized on the arms and legs. The manifestations of marble disease most often disappear after exposure to the affected area of heat.
There are several varieties of marbled leather.Heat livedo occurs in the majority of cases in the elderly in areas most frequently exposed to heat. As a result, areas of increased pigmentation appear on the skin. Cold Livedo manifests itself when exposed to low temperatures. The bends of the limbs become the place of its localization. Most often, such marbled skin is characteristic of young girls with thin skin who dress too easily in the cold season (for example, do not wear gloves or tights, etc.).etc.).
Another species of livedo – tree-like – was described back in 1907. It manifests itself in the form of spotted formations of a cyanotic hue; for a day, which are translucent veins through the skin. This type of change can be triggered for many reasons. The most common of them are changes in the walls of blood vessels, collagenoses, tuberculous diseases, rheumatism, lupus, late stages of syphilis. This form of livedo is not a cosmetic pathology and belongs to a different category of diseases.
Chronic nervous and physical fatigue, alcohol abuse, disruption of the endocrine system, past infections, injuries, chronic diseases, hormonal changes are most common as additional factors provoking the development of manifestations of marbled skin in humans. Despite the fact that it is extremely difficult to change the patient’s state of health, there are a number of recommendations that allow you to effectively control it. The main recommendations include a rationally organized daily regimen, which includes good sleep, a rational distribution of both mental and physical exertion, and a balanced diet.
Wrinkles on the pads of the fingers tell a lot about a person and his health. The beauty of hands fades over the years. The formation of wrinkles on the hands and fingertips is not only a sign of aging.
Reasons for the appearance
Take a closer look at your fingertips. Are there wrinkles or dryness? Wrinkles on the fingers: causes of the problem:
What doctors say about wrinkles
Doctor of Medical Sciences, plastic surgeon Morozov E.A .:
I have been doing plastic surgery for many years. Many famous personalities have passed through me who wanted to look younger. Currently, plastic surgery is losing its relevance because science does not stand still, there are more and more new methods for rejuvenating the body, and some of them are quite effective. If you do not want or do not have the opportunity to resort to plastic surgery, I will recommend an equally effective, but most budgetary alternative.
NOVASKIN, a miracle drug for skin rejuvenation, has been on the European market for more than 1 year. Get FREE . In terms of effectiveness, it is several times superior to Botox injections, not to mention all sorts of creams. It is easy to use and you will see its most important action instantly. Without exaggeration, I will say that fine and deep wrinkles, bags under the eyes disappear almost immediately. Thanks to the intracellular effect, the skin is fully restored, regenerated, the changes are simply colossal.
Learn More >>
- Wear gloves at low temperatures. Already at 8 degrees Celsius, you should think about protection from the cold. Moisturizing is the surest way to preserve your skin.
- Use sunscreen in summer. The sun at lunchtime is bad for the whole body.
- Dryness requires moisturizing even after contact with water.
- Use gloves when cleaning.
- Make masks and hand baths.
- Hand massage will help to normalize blood circulation and avoid wrinkles. The skin and nails will be healthier.
- Review your diet. It is important to eat in a balanced way. Include foods that have nail and skin health benefits.
- Drink vitamins A and E to prevent wrinkles.
Wrinkles on the fingers will help to remove masks, baths and creams prepared by yourself.
Regular treatments will moisturize and nourish the skin.
Several proven and favorite recipes especially for you.
A mask of several oils will help transform and smooth the skin, remove wrinkles and creases. Buy gloves made of cotton material. Add a small spoonful of jojoba and avocado to the peach oil. Everything should be stirred. Warm up using a water bath before use. Apply the mask to your hands and wear gloves for 30 to 40 minutes. At the end of the procedure, remove excess oil from your hands.
Butter with cream
Take in equal parts (half a dessert spoon) almond oil and avocado oil. Then add a couple tablespoons of cream. Warm up the composition and apply to hands. The average procedure time is up to 40 minutes. Use gloves or a towel.
You will need vitamins A and E in capsules (3 pcs.), Egg yolk, sea salt, moisturizer. Mix all ingredients. After 25 minutes, rinse with mineral water and apply the cream.
Cream with berries
Squeeze out the red currant juice, add a couple of tablespoons of sour cream. Avocado oil and jojoba oil should be added in half a dessert spoon. The cream can be used at night to remove redness, dryness, and wrinkles.
Cream with flakes
Use a blender to grind the oatmeal. Add a couple of tablespoons of honey and yolk to them. The cream is applied at any time of the day against wrinkles.
Tray with starch
Dissolve a couple of tablespoons of corn starch or potato starch in water.Dip your hands into the container for 20 minutes. Then wipe off and apply the cream. Baths will help eliminate cracks and dryness. Steaming with further application of the cream will smooth out wrinkles, nourish with vitamins and make it more elastic.
Potato broth tray
Boil the potatoes, and drain the water from them into a bowl. Soak your hands in it for 15 to 20 minutes and use a moisturizer.
If you are reading these lines, we can conclude that you are still looking for a method to rejuvenate your face and get rid of wrinkles, at the sight of which you feel uncomfortable in the mirror.
We conducted an investigation, studied a bunch of materials and, most importantly, tested most of the ways and means against wrinkles, ranging from traditional methods to the procedures that doctors can offer. The verdict is:
All funds, if they did, were only a minor temporary result. As soon as the procedures were stopped, after a few days everything came back.
The only drug that gave a significant result is NOVASKIN …
This serum is the best alternative to botox.The main feature is that NOVASKIN acts instantly, i.e. in just a few minutes you can see significant improvements!
This drug is not sold in pharmacy chains, but is funded by the Ministry of Health and distributed FREE . You can read reviews about NOVASKIN here …
Do not rush to resort to expensive procedures. Make effective creams and masks at home at no extra cost.
Remember that wrinkles on the pads of the fingers may indicate diabetes.Check your health.
Certain parts of human skin that do not grow hair have a unique reaction to contact with water. Unlike the rest of the body, the skin on the fingers and toes, palms and feet wrinkles when wet. Usually five minutes are enough for this.
But why do these areas of skin wrinkle? Some believe it is a biochemical reaction, an osmotic process in which water pulls chemicals out of the skin, and as a result, the skin dries out.
But a hundred years ago, scientists knew that this reaction was not explained by a simple reflex or the result of osmosis.
Surgeons have found that when certain nerves in the fingers are cut, the wrinkled skin effect disappears. Hence, this effect is associated with a working nervous system. As a result, this effect was even proposed to be used as a test for the efficiency of the sympathetic nervous system in patients who do not respond to other stimuli.
So the scientific community has reached a consensus on this issue.But the reason why, in the course of evolution, the effect of wrinkling the skin when wet, and whether it is associated with any adaptation mechanism, remains a matter of debate.
Neuroscientist Mark Changizi of 2AI Labs believes this effect is an adaptation. Think of the pattern on the tire surface. In dry weather, smooth tires grip better on the asphalt, which is why racing cars have smooth tires without a pattern. But when driving in the rain, patterned tires become safer.
In 2011, Changizi and colleagues found evidence that wrinkled fingers do work in a tire-like fashion, dragging water away from fingers and toes in wet conditions, and allowing primates – specifically humans and macaques – to maintain a secure grip.
In other words, wrinkles caused by exposure to water can be considered as tiny systems for draining fluid. The river consists of streams flowing into it, and the areas of land between the streams are not connected with each other.
To test if the wrinkled skin on the fingers looked like a branching river system, Changizi and his team examined 28 photographs of human fingers. They found that the wrinkled toe pattern is an inverted copy of river systems – in it, the raised areas are connected, and there are unconnected tubules between them.
In this case, the rises are not located anyhow; their drawing is quite meaningful. Rivers accumulate water, and the canaliculi on the fingers must drain it. “Pressing the tip of a finger on a wet surface drains fluid from under it through the tubules, and then the entire finger gets in contact with the surface,” the researchers described the effect.
In addition, wrinkles do not appear within the first five minutes after getting wet, so accidental contact with water disappears without a trace. Such a reaction occurs only in the rain or during dew.In addition, freshwater wrinkles appear faster than sea water – perhaps echoes of the conditions in which such a mechanism first arose in primates.
Even if this mechanism did not arise directly to enhance the grip, it may persist for this very reason. A 2013 study by British neurologists found evidence that wrinkled fingers help people handle wet objects.
In the experiment, 20 people had to move 45 objects of different sizes – pebbles and sinkers – from one container to another.In some cases, they were dry, while the skin of different subjects was both smooth and wrinkled. In other cases, the objects were wet. Wrinkled fingers were found to be easier to transfer to wet objects, and there was no difference for dry objects.
However, a similar study conducted in 2014 by German researchers found the opposite effect. 40 people transferred 52 balls and cubes of various sizes and weights between containers. Scientists found no difference in the ability to handle these objects, regardless of whether the subjects’ fingers were wrinkled or not, and the objects were dry or wet.
Similarly, a group of Taiwanese researchers conducted experiments with the help of a volunteer. They measured the friction between a smooth surface and his smooth or wrinkled fingers. They also tested the subject’s ability to bring the ends of the spring together. They found that in each of the tests, the results were worse when working with wrinkled fingers.
Of course, if the shrinkage effect appeared as a result of adaptation, it was tested under more natural conditions than laboratory ones.
Changini believes that this effect is beneficial for maintaining whole body weight and not for manipulating small objects. “If you’re going to run tests where the effect matters, you need to grab onto trees or heavy objects, not balls,” he says. “[When transferring balls between containers] Hydroplaning does not threaten you.” You should associate this effect with movement, not agility.
It turns out that the ideal experiment, in his words, is to hire parkour amateurs, showing their tricks with both smooth and wrinkled skin, alternately in dry and wet conditions.“You just need to somehow ensure their safety,” he adds.Why do fingers wrinkle in water. In life you will not guess
Each of us from early childhood knows that from a long stay in water, the skin on the fingers begins to wrinkle. Parents were even allowed to bathe in the bathroom before, as long as the fingers are not covered with wrinkles. They said that since the fingers were already swollen from the water, it was time to get out. But is it really so?
At first, scientists really explained this phenomenon in this way.In their opinion, due to the absorption of moisture, the area of the upper layer of the skin increased, while the lower layers remained the same size. And supposedly because of this, our skin was going in waves.
But this version had several flaws. After all, if our skin really absorbed moisture, then the whole body would be covered with wrinkles, and not just fingers. In addition, as early as 1935, several doctors noticed that in patients with damaged nervous systems, the skin did not wrinkle from the water. Therefore, an explanation for this phenomenon must be sought in the field of neurology.
Doctors have come to the conclusion that wrinkling of the skin on the fingers and toes is an involuntary reaction of the body to a long stay in water. But what exactly is this reflex caused by?
Biological scientists believe that this reaction of the body was developed in the process of evolution. Thus, nature has taken care that a person has a better grip on various wet surfaces.
Wrinkled leather acts as a kind of tread on tires. Thanks to wrinkles, the adhesion to the surface increases.So it is much easier for a person to catch fish in the water or move on wet grass.
And although we no longer walk barefoot, and we take wet objects (for example, when washing dishes) with rubber gloves, this reflex is still useful. The next time you take a shower or bath, notice that it is much easier to hold a bar of wet soap when your fingers become wrinkled.
This is how Mother Nature made sure that man could adapt to different conditions as best as possible.If this information comes as a surprise to you, then be sure to share it with your friends.
Everyone knows that after taking a bath, your fingertips wrinkle. Why?
A short answer is the following: this type of wrinkles occurs due to deformation of the upper layer of the skin and the disappearance of the natural oils that protect it. According to Dr. Marianne O “Donoghue, professor of dermatology at the University of Chicago Rush, when we immerse ourselves in the bath,” the top layer of the skin absorbs a lot of water.The lower layer is not able to grow, so the upper one is forced to wrinkle, forming folds. Fortunately, this effect is reversible. “
But you can ask another question: why do we wrinkle like an old dried fruit, and not swell like a sponge? The fact is that without the oil that protects our skin, the palms of the hands and feet would become dehydrated by immersion in water, and not vice versa. It happens like this.
About 75% of our body is water. This percentage varies depending on the amount of fat that is found in the tissues of the body.Dehydration occurs when protective oils are washed off the skin’s surface. Water begins to seep out of the cells. These cells have semi-permeable membranes, which means that they easily release water, but are not able to absorb it just as easily. If the skin loses oil, after 15 minutes in water, the cell membranes open outward, the water leaves the cells and wrinkles form.
The tips of the fingers and palms wrinkle faster than the back of the hands, as they contain additional sebaceous glands.These glands continually replenish the supply of protective oil at almost the same rate as water washes it away7.90,000 Why does the skin on our fingers wrinkle when we take a bath
- Jason Goldman
- BBC Future
Photo Credit, Getty Images
Have you ever wondered why our does the skin wrinkle only on the fingers? BBC Future columnist is researching possible answers to this question.
Hairless areas of the skin react in a special way to water. Unlike other parts of the body, the skin on the fingers and toes, palms and feet becomes wrinkled after being in water. This usually takes five minutes.
But why does this phenomenon affect only these areas of the skin?
It is believed that this is the result of a biochemical reaction, an osmotic process in which certain substances are “washed out” of the skin, and it is deformed.
However, scientists knew a hundred years ago that this curious reaction was not a simple reflex or the result of osmosis.
Surgeons have noticed that if certain nerves are damaged in the fingers, the skin on them does not wrinkle.
Thus, bumps on the fingers are a sign that the nervous system is intact.
Scientists have even proposed using this reaction to test how well the sympathetic nervous system of patients is functioning if they do not respond to other influences.
Photo author, Getty ImagesPhoto caption,
Usually, the skin begins to wrinkle after about five minutes in water
The scientific community has already reached a consensus on all these issues. Nevertheless, the debate about the origin of this reaction and whether it is the result of adaptation is still ongoing.
Neuroscientist Mark Changizi of the 2AI Labs research laboratory is confident that this is the result of adaptation. Take a tire tread as an example.
Smooth tires provide better grip on dry roads. This is why racing cars tend to use non-grooved tires. However, when it rains, tread tires are indispensable.
Thus, fingers with wrinkles and bumps are best at gripping both dry and wet objects.
However, it is very difficult to prove that a particular biological feature is the result of adaptation, and it can be even more difficult to determine the causes of its occurrence.Scientists can only look for clues and make assumptions about what is the result of adaptation and what is not.
In 2011, Changizi and his colleagues found evidence that wrinkles on the fingers act as a kind of protector.
With excess moisture, they channel water away from the fingers and toes, allowing primates – more precisely, humans and macaques – to better grip objects.
In other words, these wrinkles resulting from water exposure can be compared with a river basin, where many small streams merge into larger channels that flow into a river channel, or with a tree, where small branches grow on large branches that, in turn originate in the trunk.
The land areas between the canals and streams are not interconnected.
To test whether the wrinkled toes of primates have a structure similar to a river basin, Changizi and his colleagues analyzed photographs of 28 fingers belonging to different people.
They did find the similarity of these diverging and non-intersecting grooves to the river network.
Scientists have also come to the conclusion that the location of the folds obeys a certain logic.The river collects water, while the grooves in the wrinkled finger are designed to divert it.
“When you press the pad of your finger on a wet surface, the water flows through the channels, ensuring optimal contact of the finger with the surface,” the scientists write.
One more fact should be taken into account: wrinkles appear only after five minutes of continuous contact with water.
Author of the photo, ThinkstockCaption to the photo,
Why do we need these bumps and wrinkles?
This means that to start this process, accidental contact with water is not enough, and this feature of the body becomes useful only in rainy or wet weather.
In addition, the reaction proceeds much faster in fresh water than in salt water. This may indicate the conditions in which we evolved into primates.
It is possible that the irregularities on the fingers are not directly related to the evolutionary processes associated with the improvement of grip, but fingers with wrinkles still cope with this task better.
For example, a study conducted by British neuroscientists in 2013 showed that bumps on the pads of the fingers help to hold wet objects more tightly.
During the experiment, 20 people moved 45 objects of various sizes – glass balls and fishing weights – from one container to another.
In some cases, objects were dry and participants’ fingers were smooth or wrinkled. In others, objects were submerged in water.
Scientists have found that participants with wrinkled fingers move objects faster under water, and dry objects at the same speed as the rest.
Nevertheless, a similar study by German scientists in 2014 showed the opposite.
Researchers asked 40 people to move 52 glass marbles and dice of various sizes and weights from one container to another.
All participants – with both smooth and wrinkled fingers – moved dry and wet objects and showed approximately the same results.
A group of Taiwanese researchers conducted a series of their own experiments with a 24-year-old man.
They measured the friction of the skin of his fingers in contact with a flat surface in a smooth and wrinkled state, as well as the strength of his hands when sliding on a bar.They also evaluated the subject’s ability to compress the spring.
Oddly enough, they found that all exercises were performed worse when the skin on the fingers was wrinkled.
Photo author, Getty ImagesPhoto caption,
The appearance of bumps on the skin under the influence of water is a natural process
What follows from this? Regardless of whether the uneven skin of the hands is a product of evolution or not, laboratory conditions are unlikely to be suitable for such tests.
Changizi believes that bumps on the skin are needed to keep the body in balance, and not for manipulating small objects.
“To do a really demonstrative experiment, ask participants to grab onto trees or heavier objects, not small balls,” he says.
The expert notes that when moving balls between containers there is no risk of slipping through the water.
At the same time, it is important to assess the effect of unevenness in the skin on a person’s physical activity, and not on his sleight of hand.
Which experiment does he think is ideal? For example, you can involve in the study parkourists – urban acrobats who could show their tricks with different skin conditions and in different weather conditions.
“Of course you have to take care of their safety,” he adds.
In general, we continue to sit in the water, admiring our wrinkled fingers and not understanding why we need it.
Palm and hand (pain in the palms and hands)
A common question asked by people with painful sensations in the palms and hands is when and to which doctor should you seek help?
If you have a hand injury and after a course of appropriate treatment the painful sensations do not go away, most likely, this is the beginning of the development of joint disease or the possible consequences of vascular disorders.
Pain syndrome arises from prolonged work at the computer, perhaps you are a musician, or your work is associated with a monotonous movement of your hands, after which swelling appears? This constant stress on the joints of the hands can lead to pinching of the nerve endings in the wrist. The cause of painful sensations can be diseases of the spine – intervertebral hernia, osteochondrosis.
You can start taking pain relievers, which, of course, will bring you relief, but this is temporary.Without eliminating the cause of the pain, you will not be able to enjoy life as before, continue to work, play with children. The pain will return sooner or later!
Neglecting your own health and letting the disease take its course, you open the way for serious joint diseases!
Dear patients! If you are diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis , you need to see a rheumatologist. With a rheumatological profile, in addition to joints, internal organs (heart, kidneys, etc.) can also suffer.), therefore rheumatoid arthritis should be treated by a rheumatologist. The treatment of allergic, gouty and infectious arthritis is carried out by specialists of the appropriate profile (allergists, rheumatologists and cardio-rheumatologists).
Orthopedic doctors are successfully treating all other types of arthritis in children and adults (caused by sports and household injuries, overweight, age-related changes in the joints).
New finger wet pads
23.04.2016Komus OPT presents new pads for wetting your fingers Attache!
Facilitates work with various types of paper and foil. Convenient for sorting and counting ballots and other documents.The gel used does not leave marks and stains.
Gel finger damper for paper handling. Non-sticky, hygienic gel. Has an enhanced antibacterial effect. Simplifies the procedure for counting, sorting and organizing documents and money. Suitable for paper and foil. Recommended to apply to fingertips. Effectively moisturizes the skin of the hands, easy to apply, does not dry out.The anti-slip cushion is comfortable to use.
Gel finger damper for paper handling. Non-sticky, hygienic gel. It has an antibacterial effect. Simplifies the procedure for counting, sorting and organizing documents and money. Suitable for paper and foil. Recommended to apply to fingertips.
Gel finger damper for paper handling.Non-sticky, hygienic gel. It has an antibacterial effect. Simplifies the procedure for counting, sorting and organizing documents and money. Suitable for paper and foil. Recommended to apply to fingertips. The gel effectively moisturizes the skin of the hands, is easy to apply, does not dry out. The anti-slip cushion is comfortable to use. Gel with aloe vera scent.
Gel finger damper for paper handling.Non-sticky, hygienic gel. It has an antibacterial effect. Simplifies the procedure for counting, sorting and organizing documents and money. Suitable for paper and foil. Recommended to apply to fingertips. The gel has effective moisturizing, easy to apply, does not dry out. The anti-slip cushion is comfortable to use. Gel with a pleasant chamomile scent.
You can get additional information on the price and product from the managers of your region.
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