Details Behind the Design of the 2021 Notre Dame Shamrock Series Jerseys & Helmets // UHND.com
Notre Dame released their uniforms that the Fighting Irish will wear when they face off against Wisconsin at Soldier Field in the 2021 rendition of the Shamrock Series. The details in the designs pay homage to the city of Chicago according to the video the University released as part of the unveiling. (By the way, if you plan on buying any Shamrock Series gear, use this link and UHND will get credited with a portion of the sales!)
- Helmet – Not a huge deviation from the traditional gold helmets which is sure to delight traditionalists. The addition of four stars on the neck pad area comes right from the flag of the city of Chicago (see below).
- Collar – Notre Dame’s new mission statement of “Graduating Champions” is sewn into the collar on the back of the jerseys. This is something I’d be fine with becoming a permanent part of the jersey.
- Numbers – The release states that the “block slab numbers” represent the “City of Broad Shoulders”.
- Arm sleeves – The three stripes are said to represent the rivers and waterways of Chicago that are also represented on the city’s flag.
- Pants – The pants are a direct throwback to the 1924 squad that won Notre Dame’s first national championship who also played at Soldier Field.
- Gloves – Like the sleeves and back of the helmet, the gloves use the city’s flag for inspiration with the three stripes.
- Shoes – Notre Dame didn’t give any exact details on the shoes, but Kyren Williams made mention of the new shoes during the unveiling video.
By cs:User:xfi- – according to en:User:John Reid’s (or T. E. Whalen’s) construction sheet (en:Talk:Municipal Flag of Chicago), Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=516184
*UHND makes commissions on all sales generated from links to Fanatics.
Notre Dame Fighting Irish Football Reveals 2021 Shamrock Series Uniforms For Soldier Field Game Against Wisconsin
Notre Dame’s Shamrock Series uniforms for this year’s game at Soldier Field have a Chicago touch.
The Irish released the jerseys for the Sept. 25 game vs. Wisconsin Monday in a video that recapped the intent behind the design. They resemble Notre Dame’s normal home uniform, but with a few Chicago-inspired tweaks.
The sleeves have two gold stripes sandwiched around a white one, which are a tribute to the rivers and waterways depicted on the Chicago flag. The Notre Dame logo is in the middle of the stripes. The “block slab-serif” number font represents the City of Broad Shoulders, a nickname for Chicago.
The gold helmet is unchanged from Notre Dame’s normal uniforms, but has a Chicago flag decal in blue and gold on the back. The team mission statement “graduating champions” is emblazoned on the back of the jersey collar.
The pants are a brighter, shinier gold than Notre Dame’s regular ones, with two blue stripes and a white one. They’re a nod to the 1924 Notre Dame football team that played the first game at Soldier Field and later won the program’s first national championship.
Lastly, the gloves have the same gold and white stripe pattern as the jersey sleeves.
Notre Dame last played at Soldier Field in 2012, a 41-3 win over Miami in that year’s Shamrock Series game. The Irish are 10-0-2 all time there.
Wisconsin and Notre Dame are meeting this year for the first time since 1964. The Irish lead the all-time series 8-6-2.
The 2021 game between the Irish and Badgers was supposed to be the back end of a two-game series set to begin last year at Lambeau Field in Green Bay, Wisc., but that was canceled due to schedule changes brought on by COVID-19. It will be made up in 2026 instead.
The Sept. 25 game is a noon ET kickoff on FOX.
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Oh Honey, No…a Bucky’s 5th Quarter Fashion Blog: University of Notre Dame Uniforms
Welcome back to a special, emergency edition of your favorite fashion blog. With Wisconsin’s Shamrock Series matchup with Notre Dame upon us, we thought it was best to dive into what the Fighting Irish will be wearing at Soldier Field.
Notre Dame released its Shamrock Series threads back in August and I was honestly so underwhelmed, I thought I would just leave it for closer to the game…
You may remember when Wisconsin dropped it’s uniform in June, we obviously rated it a YAASS QUEEN, as if there was any doubt, it’s so damn icy.
So let’s take a look at what Notre Dame will be wearing to the ball…game and see if it’s what Jesus would have done, or not done.
As a reminder, here is how we rate things:
Oh honey, no: Obviously, this is the worst rating. If I must explain this to you, you’re probably wearing socks with sandals right now, or a brown belt with black pants, either way, oh honey, no.
Ewww: Nice try, but no.
Werk it: You brought it.
YAASS QUEEN: Best of the best. Your proverbial milkshake brings all the proverbial boys to the yard.
School: University of Notre Dame
Mascot: Fighting Irish
Color Scheme: Blue and Gold
Official Brand Sponsor: Under Armour
As always, Notre Dame will be wearing its usual gold helmet, with a grey face mask. However, there is one small change, as the helmet will feature four stars on the back of the helmet, which honors the Chicago flag.
I would have liked to see Notre Dame take a bit more of a leap with its helmet for the Shamrock Series, maybe wear the gold helmet with a blue face mask? Something out of the ordinary…hell, Wisconsin threw the ‘Forward’ symbol from the Wisconsin state flag onto the motion-W on its helmet and is going with a white face mask.
In the past Notre Dame has included it’s logo, or even a shamrock on the helmet during the Shamrock Series games.
Ewww, simply for a lack of creativity.
Notre Dame’s uniform will be blue, per the usual, with some small adjustments.
The sleeve will feature two gold stripes, which resemble the rivers and waterways represented on Chicago’s flag. The numbers on the uniform will be white as usual, but will not feature the normal gold trim.
For reference, here is former Badger quarterback, Jack Coan wearing Notre Dame’s standard uniformGetty Images
The all-white numbers are considered block slab-serif, which represent the “City of Broad Shoulders.” The back collar of the uniform displays Notre Dame’s mission statement, which is to “Graduate Champions.”
The pants that the Fighting Irish will wear are a nod to the Notre Dame team that played the first football game at Soldier Field in 1924, the same year the school won its first championship. The pants are gold, with two blue lines with a white line in the middle, running down the side of the leg.
Lastly the gloves mirror the pants stripe, while being blue, with gold and white stripes, which is another nod to Chicago’s flag. Just like with the helmet, I am a little underwhelmed by these uniforms, just as I am with Notre Dame’s standard look.
In the past, Notre Dame as taken some chances with its uniform during this series. Going with a blue uniform, with a gothic-style design on the shoulders, with solid gold accents (shown above). Or the multiple times that they have worn various shades of green for the game.
Ewww, again, because of a lack of creativity. Take some risks. I’m not mad, I’m just disappointed.
Notre Dame Unveils Shamrock Series Uniform For Game Against Wisconsin – SportsLogos.Net News
The Notre Dame football program officially unveiled new alternate uniforms on Monday morning that will be worn during their Shamrock Series game against Wisconsin at Chicago’s Soldier Field on Sept. 25.
As we mentioned last month, the uniforms are actually inspired by the Green Bay Packers despite the game taking place in Chicago. That’s because they were supposed to be worn during last year’s scheduled matchup at Lambeau Field, but that game was cancelled due to the pandemic.
The uniforms were pushed back one season as a result, thus the Badgers will be wearing all-white as the designated home team next month. The Fighting Irish, meanwhile, were set to be the home team last fall, hence the navy blue jerseys for this year’s game.
As for an in-depth look at Notre Dame’s jerseys, they feature white numbers in a block font with a gold, blue and white striping pattern on the sleeves that mimic the Packers’ sleeve stripes. The Fighting Irish’s “ND” monogram has been placed on top of the stripes, while the phrase “Graduating Champions” can be seen on the back collar.
Given the change in venue, Notre Dame has come up with some alternate explanations for the uniform’s design. The Fighting Irish claim that the two gold stripes on the sleeves represent the rivers and waterways that inspired Chicago’s city flag.
They’ve also swapped the helmet, which was supposed to be matte blue with a chrome gold facemask and a chrome gold shamrock on both sides, for their standard lid and added elements from the aforementioned flag to the back helmet bumper.
The gold pants, on the other hand, remain as planned with a navy blue and white Braisher stripe down the sides and the same logo that’s on the sleeves on the hip.
Kickoff for Notre Dame’s Shamrock Series game against Wisconsin is set for noon on FOX.
Photos courtesy of the Notre Dame Athletic Department.
Notre Dame showcases new unis for Chicago showdown vs. Wisconsin
Notre Dame will have special uniforms for Saturday’s game against Wisconsin at Solider Field in Chicago. The Fighting Irish rarely change their uniforms, but Saturday’s occasion is special enough to call for some changes. The game will mark the renewal of the “Shamrock Series,” which is meant to pay homage to the city of Chicago.
The uniforms pay homage to Chicago
While the changes to Notre Dame’s uniforms are subtle, they do carry meaning and represent the city of Chicago. The sleeves on the navy blue jersey are usually bare, but these special jerseys have two gold stripes that represent the rivers and waterways on Chicago’s city flag.
On the jersey, the numbers also represent the “City of Broad Shoulders.” Notre Dame’s helmets honor the Chicago flag with nearly the same design. The collar on the uniform displays Notre Dame football’s mission statement of “graduating champions.”
In addition to Notre Dame, Wisconsin will also be wearing special uniforms in the game.
Notre Dame’s history with Soldier Field, Chicago
Soldier Field’s first game actually didn’t see the Chicago Bears on the field. Instead, Notre Dame defeated Northwestern 13-6 on November 22, 1924 in the stadium’s inaugural game.
The Fighting Irish have played 12 games in Soldier Field to honor its ties and history with the city of Chicago. The last game of the Shamrock Series came in 2012, when Notre Dame dominated 41-3 over Miami. In those 12 games at Soldier Field, Notre Dame owns a 10-0-2 record.
Notre Dame will be without a key defender in defensive tackle Kurt Hinish against Wisconsin. Hinish was in the concussion protocol earlier in the week, and he has now been ruled out of Notre Dame-Wisconsin. Defensive end Jordan Botelho is in line to see more of a role this week after returning in limited fashion in Week 3.
Running back C’Bo Flemister remains out as well. The Irish should see true freshman linebacker and former five-star recruit Prince Kollie make his debut with the program.
Notre Dame and Wisconsin are set to kick off at 12 noon ET inside Soldier Field. The Irish are 6.5 point underdogs.
College Football fit check – A look at the best uniforms for Week 4
The college football season is already in its fourth week, and team style is making waves, as many schools have pulled out some fashionable uniforms early in the year.
Old Dominion University kicks off our uniform check for Week 4, and the Monarchs make a chilling case for the best outfits of the week. They decided to sport an all-light blue colorway that is crisp and clean. White is used as the accent color, which makes this hue of blue stand out even more. An all-white helmet, socks and cleats bring this ensemble together. Hopefully, these fresh fits can be the spark that gets this Monarchs team to .500 after a 1-2 start.
𝗪𝗲𝗲𝗸 𝟰: 🔷🔷🔷🔷 pic.twitter.com/P6Er7Jipfz
— ODU Football (@ODUFootball) September 22, 2021
“Icy Whites” is how the UNLV Rebels social media team described the uniforms for the football team’s upcoming game against Fresno State. With an all-white look complemented by traditional gray and Rebel red colors, this fit is top-notch. In addition, the white helmet with gray outlining the “UNLV” on the side is a dapper choice for the school. Nike made sure to hook up UNLV with these premium threads, and the Rebels hope they can play as good as they look.
Icy Whites 🧊
[email protected] @UNISWAG @usnikefootball @MeowWolf @OmegaMartUSA pic.twitter.com/mnJkheoZJi
— UNLV Football (@unlvfootball) September 22, 2021
The Louisville Cardinals continue to make a statement with their fantastic game-day wardrobe. This week, they are going with a solid white look, complemented perfectly with their hues of red. In addition, the black shadow used in the jersey numbers and text helps those parts of the uniform pop out against the white. Finally, a bold outline of the school logo in red is a subtle yet sleek addition to the white helmet.
⚪️⚪️⚪️#GoCards x #BeatFSU pic.twitter.com/wiKcHOtuza
— Louisville Football (@UofLFootball) September 23, 2021
Troy University is bringing the smoke with its uniforms — with the help of linebacker KJ Robertson. The Trojans have turned to the smoke gray helmet, which looks sleek with the rest of the outfit. The white jersey they selected contrasts nicely with the charcoal pants. Black shoes and gloves round out this uniform, a nice touch to the Trojans’ threads.
We present this week’s uniforms … as told by the 🧠 of @kjrobertson7 😂🤣😂#OurTime | #OneTROY ⚔️🏈 pic.twitter.com/3ReWrxIrw9
— Troy Trojans Football (@TroyTrojansFB) September 23, 2021
The Demon Deacons of Wake Forest are hitting the road for their matchup against Virginia in style. They decided on a black and white look, but it’s all about the details in this uniform package. The matte black helmet looks sharp, with the chrome gold used for the logo keeping your eyes fixated on the headgear. That pairs perfectly with the black pants that feature a similar finish. The white jersey is highlighted with gold trim around the jersey number, keeping things simple but modern. White shoes and accessories complete the package and have Wake Forest looking stylish on its road trip.
Hittin the road 🎩
Presented by https://t.co/XRSEamBY3X pic.twitter.com/6MBhmfzYGI
— Wake Forest Football (@WakeFB) September 23, 2021
No. 12 Notre Dame faces No. 18 Wisconsin at Soldier Field this weekend, and the Fighting Irish dropped some new uniforms that honor the city of Chicago in more ways than one. Fresh navy blue jerseys with the block sans-serif font give a nod to Chi-Town, also known as “the city of broad shoulders.” The two gold stripes on the shoulder represent the rivers and waterways shown on the city’s flag.
The new gold pants pay tribute to the first Notre Dame team that participated in the first football game at Soldier Field in 1924 — the same year the Irish won their first national championship as well. A flashy gold helmet and gloves also pay homage to Chicago’s flag. The Fighting Irish put a modernized spin on a classic look while also honoring the city hosting the neutral-site game for Week 4.
these uniforms 🔥🔥@___HG3 @Kyrenwilliams23 | #GoIrish pic.twitter.com/IcWGr4Ga6T
— Notre Dame Football (@NDFootball) September 23, 2021
The uniform details for @NDFootball Shamrock Series unis this week.#uniswag pic.twitter.com/AhWGmy7H6d
— UNISWAG (@UNISWAG) September 23, 2021
The No. 22 Fresno State Bulldogs’ uniform selection this week is calm but very smooth. Navy blue is the dominant color, being used as the primary for the jersey and pants. White is used for the numbers outlined by a bright red. That splash of vibrancy adds some spunk to this outfit, brought together by a red helmet. It might not be the flashiest uniform combo, but the precise color coordination creates a slick look for the Bulldogs’ contest against UNLV.
Friday night’s threads 👀#GoDogs | #PrideOfTheValley pic.twitter.com/WGhbymyWZq
— Fresno State Football (@FresnoStateFB) September 23, 2021
No. 20 Michigan State’s Week 4 fit has one significant change that people will immediately recognize. The traditional Spartans logo on the helmet is ditched for a block letter “S,” best associated with the George Perles era. He coached the Spartans from 1983 to 1994, leading them to seven bowl appearances and two Big Ten titles during his tenure.
The white pants accompany the usual green jersey, but with a bit of twist — the uniform sports a fancy geometric design along the shoulder and within the green stripe on the pants. The Spartans logo isn’t completely removed from the fit, as it’s located on the outer part of the right pant leg.
𝐒𝐀𝐓𝐔𝐑𝐃𝐀𝐘 𝐍𝐈𝐆𝐇𝐓 𝐓𝐇𝐑𝐄𝐀𝐃𝐒 #GoGreen pic.twitter.com/p9ttzY95y5
— Michigan State Football (@MSU_Football) September 23, 2021
The Washington State Cougars took a fierce approach to their game-day look for this weekend. A white jersey is sandwiched between gray pants and helmet. The helmet features a maroon Cougars logo, a fitting color for the dark helmet. The number and decals on the jersey are in the same hue, acting as the accent color. A combination of red and gray comes together for the gloves, with white cleats to finish off the fit. A polished yet edgy look for the Cougars this weekend.
🧼⚫️⚪️🔴#GoCougs | #BackHome pic.twitter.com/fxoJr5GYXB
— Washington State Football (@WSUCougarFB) September 23, 2021
Utah wraps up our fit check of the college football landscape with some throwback uniforms. The white helmet with the interlocking U’s highlights this outfit, and the bright red jersey is bold. White pants, socks and shoes carry a red trim, and the curved font for the numbers provides a vintage aesthetic for the Utes’ Week 4 threads. It’s homecoming week, so what better way to honor the university’s history than with these vintage uniforms.
Game 4 pic.twitter.com/4tpEip31tR
— UtesEquipment (@UtesEquipment) September 23, 2021
Bringing back the throwbacks for Homecoming 🙌@UtesEquipment pic.twitter.com/qDBkAyFgSJ
— Utah Football (@Utah_Football) September 23, 2021
College Football Uniform Watch: Grading Notre Dame’s New Unis | Bleacher Report
0 of 5
Notre Dame is entering today’s game with new uniforms for the second time this season. The Fighting Irish donned “throwback”-style uniforms against Michigan earlier this year for the first night game in Michigan Stadium.
Notre Dame is labeling this uniform set the “Shamrock Series.” It will be a change of pace uniform that the Irish use in the future for the “Shamrock Series” games. The uniform changes and future series details were listed here by und.com.
Notre Dame is one of the most tradition-filled teams in the country and some see the changes as a strike against the tradition-rich program. At times, a little change doesn’t hurt as these uniforms appear to be pretty sharp. Adidas and Notre Dame have come together for a good compilation for tonight’s game.
Some changes have been experienced before, like the throwback green jersey top, but others like the gloves and helmets will be a new change. Here are the changes and the grades for the new look of the Notre Dame Fighting Irish.
1 of 5
Notre Dame will don the green jersey top with gold letters that were worn against Army in Yankee Stadium in 2010. The recent green jersey success has been limited for the Irish, but they did find success last season, winning the game 27-3 against Army.
Green tops are not anything new for the Irish as they have worn the color previously throughout their history. Most recently, the memories have not been so great in green as the Irish carry a losing record since they have shifted to the occasional use of the green jersey.
The Irish are 1-5 in their last six games donning the green tops. Hopefully for the Irish the win column begins to shift for the better if these are in the plans for the future. Outside of the bad luck they seem to bring, the green jersey is a good change on rare occasions.
2 of 5
Notre Dame will wear their third different helmet combination for the season today against Maryland. The helmet will feature the large shamrock that was worn against Michigan earlier this year.
There will be two new features appearing on this games lid. The paint for the helmet will be laced in 24-carat gold and has a brushed metal look to the finish. Notre Dame traditionally has gold mixed in with the helmet paint, but this style of polish is a first.
To add one more twist, there will be a leprechaun decal on the back of the helmet. One would assume it to be the traditional boxing variety.
All being considered, these helmets have taken a beating over the message boards and comments sections of various websites announcing the move this week. I actually like the brushed metal look and think the Irish have hit a home run with the new gold domes.
3 of 5
Notre Dame used designed gloves for the game against Michigan earlier this season that featured the boxing leprechaun when the two hands were brought together. The design on the palm has become the craze it seems in the past few years for numerous teams.
The new set of gloves listed for the “Shamrock Series” games will have gold palms and a shamrock logo that appears when the hands are brought together. It doesn’t appear to be anything too over the top or extremely unique.
Nonetheless, it will be a fun addition for the players and fans. After all, these uniform changes are for the current players, but more importantly to draw the attention of recruits.
4 of 5
The white cleats were first worn this season by Notre Dame in the “Under the Lights” game against Michigan. Nothing is rumored to be changed with the cleats, but it is worth touching on the subject just the same.
The white cleat is a good look that adds to the uniform. It isn’t overly flashy and touches with just enough green. The avoidance of gold here is a positive.
5 of 5
The Notre Dame Fighting Irish have scattered some tradition with new age looks this season. It has brought some criticism from the Notre Dame traditionalists while others have liked the moves. Today’s game against Maryland will launch the official change of pace uniform for Notre Dame’s future.
Notre Dame has partnered with Adidas to make the new changes and for all intents and purposes the changes look to be a win for the Irish. Notre Dame hasn’t been overly productive on the field or on the recruiting trail recently so these changes should be looked upon as a positive.
Now if the Irish can break the curse of the green jersey, the fans will likely follow the administration and buy into the changes. Until the Irish win in the green consistently, however, these unis can’t be rated better than “B”.
Overall Grade: B
90,000 In Paris, completed work on strengthening the burnt cathedral of Notre Dame
In Paris, completed work on strengthening the burnt cathedral of Notre Dame
In Paris, completed work on strengthening of the burnt cathedral of Notre Dame – RIA Novosti, 09/19/2021
In Paris, work was completed to strengthen the burnt cathedral of Notre Dame
Work to strengthen and ensure the safety of Notre Dame Cathedral, destroyed by fire more than two years ago, has been completed, restoration is planned… RIA Novosti, 19.09.2021
notre dame (notre dame cathedral)
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PARIS, 18 Sep – RIA Novosti. Work to strengthen and secure Notre Dame Cathedral, which was destroyed by fire more than two years ago, has been completed and restoration is scheduled to begin this winter, according to a communiqué from the government agency for the restoration of Notre Dame. which began on April 16, 2019, were successfully completed in accordance with the established schedule, “says the communiqué, quoted by BFM TV.This phase included the dismantling of scaffolding, the installation of timber frames and the cleaning of lead-contaminated rooms. The statement emphasizes that the first restoration work is scheduled to begin this winter. The largest fire in the history of Notre Dame Cathedral occurred on 15 April 2019. of the year. The cathedral spire collapsed, the supporting structure was engulfed in flames. The fire destroyed a unique wooden roof frame made from 800-year-old oak beams, each made from a single tree trunk.According to firefighters, the structure of Notre Dame and the main relics stored in the cathedral survived. French President Emmanuel Macron has announced an ambitious goal of rebuilding Notre Dame in five years, although many experts say the renovation will take 10-15 years.
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in the world, france, emmanuel macron, reconstruction, notre dame (notre dame cathedral), culture news
14:18 09/18/2021 (updated: 10:59 09/19/2021)
Paris completed work on strengthening the burnt cathedral of Notre Dame
Notre Dame de Paris in literature and poetry
published 13/05/2009 Last update 13/05/2009 17:50 GMT
Descriptions of Paris by writers and poets, both French and and poets of other countries and peoples, the topic is complex and extensive.How did they see the city, how does it appear in their works? The most complete and detailed description of the Cathedral Notre Dame de Paris we find in Victor Hugo, who called it “a symphony of stone”. For a resident of the French capital, the cathedral is a part of everyday life. Therefore, both in novels and in poems, it is often only a background, a decoration.
Paradoxically, there are few descriptions of Notre Dame Cathedral in French literature. An exception is the famous novel by Victor Hugo, where a separate chapter is devoted to the cathedral, but the novel begins not with a description of the cathedral, but with a description of what the Palace of Justice looked like in the 15th century.At the same time, Victor Hugo mentions the novel by François Rabelais, namely the episode when Gargantua, sitting on the collection towers, watered a crowd of Parisian onlookers. For Victor Hugo, the cathedral is not an object of worship or admiration, it is a place of action. Many Parisians also treat him in the same way.
Facade of the Cathedral Notre Dame de Paris
N. Sarnikov / RFI
An explanation of this attitude of French writers to the main cathedral of France can be found in Marcel Proust’s novel “Time Retrieved”.The writer tells about his servant Françoise and her attitude towards the cathedral: “Even within the framework of these anomalies, human nature (as it happens in passions, during travels), by the need for truth, reveals its thirst to believe. Françoise, when I told her about a church in Milan, a city where she probably will never go, or Reims Cathedral, and even about Arras, which she will not see now, because they are in one way or another destroyed, envied those to whom the spectacle of these treasures was available, the rich, and exclaimed with nostalgic regret: “Oh, how beautiful it must have been!” – she is something who has lived in Paris for so many years and has not become interested in the Cathedral of Notre Dame.The fact is that Notre Dame was a part of Paris, the city where Françoise’s everyday life proceeded, where, therefore, the dreams of our old servant – and mine, if the study of architecture had not corrected my Combrée instincts – would have been difficult to fit in. A certain dream is inherent in our beloved, and we strive for it, although we are not always aware of it. ” (Marcel Proust. Time Regained, 1927)
The attitude of the servant Françoise to Notre Dame Cathedral is quite typical for a resident of the capital of France. The cathedral is part of his daily life for him.Therefore, in novels, he is most often the background. It is mentioned as a matter of course. For example, the cathedral is mentioned in the memoirs of Cardinal de Retz, in connection with the dispute over the absentee wedding of Marie-Louise Gonzagh with the Polish king Vladislav IV Sigismund. The cathedral is often mentioned in those historical novels that tell about the marriage of Henry IV with Marguerite de Valois (Queen Margot). Madame de Sevigne describes the funeral service for the Prince of Condé, which took place on March 10, 1687 in Notre Dame Cathedral, but when describing the ceremony, she does not mention a word, either about the decoration or about the architecture of the cathedral.Chateaubriand mentions the cathedral in the same way, when he describes the coronation of Napoleon Bonaparte on December 2, 1804 in his “Memorial notes” – a significant event, which is also reflected in painting.
Fragment of the roof of the cathedral Notre Dame de Paris
N. Sarnikov / RFI
The most complete and detailed description of the cathedral we find in Victor Hugo. An entire chapter is devoted to him in the novel. This description is so textbook that we will not dwell on it in detail. We only note that in 1830, when Victor Hugo was writing his novel, the cathedral had not yet been restored by Viollet le Duc.Let us only note what has become a textbook: “Notre Dame Cathedral is still a noble and majestic building. But no matter how beautiful the cathedral, decrepit, it may remain, one cannot help grieving and not be indignant at the sight of the countless destruction and damage that both years and people have inflicted on the venerable monument of antiquity, without the slightest respect for the name of Charlemagne, who laid the first stone, and for the name Philip Augustus, who laid the last one. On the forehead of this patriarch of our cathedrals, next to the wrinkle, you invariably see a scar.Tetrus edax, homo edacior, which I would gladly translate as: “Time is blind, but man is ignorant.”
Further, Victor Hugo writes: “First of all, in order to limit ourselves to the most striking examples, it should be pointed out that there is hardly a page in the history of architecture that is more beautiful than the one that is the facade of this cathedral, where three lancet portals appear successively and in aggregate; above them a jagged cornice, as if embroidered with twenty-eight royal niches, a huge central rosette window with two other windows located on the sides, like a priest standing between a deacon and a subdeacon; a tall graceful arcade of a gallery with stucco moldings in the shape of a trefoil, supporting a heavy platform on its thin columns, and, finally, two gloomy massive towers with slate awnings.All these harmonious parts of the magnificent whole, erected one above the other and forming five giant tiers, calmly unfold before our eyes the infinite variety of their countless sculptural, carved and embossed details, in a single powerful impulse merging with the serene grandeur of the whole. It’s like a huge stone symphony; a colossal creation of both man and people, single and complex, like the Iliad and Romancero, to whom it is related; the miraculous result of the unification of all the forces of an entire era, where every stone sprinkles the worker’s fantasy, taking hundreds of forms, guided by the artist’s genius; in a word, this creation of human hands is powerful and abundant, similar to the creation of God, from whom it seemed to borrow its dual character: diversity and eternity. “
Chimeras Notre Dame de Paris
N. Sarnikov / RFI
Victor Hugo owns famous epithets that do not get tired of citing, describing Notre Dame Cathedral and Gothic architecture in general. In particular, this is the expression “a symphony made of stone.” At the same time, we emphasize that the leitmotif of destruction runs through the entire description of the cathedral. It is no coincidence that Victor Hugo was included in the commission for the restoration of the cathedral. After the restoration, the cathedral was treated differently. At the end of the 19th century, motives of admiration and worship emerged.It is precisely this magnificent, proud and great that the cathedrals appear in the verse of Paul Verlaine
Leaving Paris, you come to Notre-Dame,
There the street noises merged into a barely audible chord,
And the bright sun in the shade goes numb there ,
Passing colored windows the pattern is wonderfully lush.
This house is filled with calm silence:
It is clearly ruled by a single king – the Almighty.
Vespers departed; over the black altar
Only six candles flicker; but it breathes with aroma,
Where wax, dripping in the rain, is poured with incense.
Here the hours have been read; in the bluish darkness,
Like a good thunderstorm, a stern chorus sounds:
And the ancient vaults correspond to cantatas.
And the whole gloomy cathedral is full of singing,
Where is the day, weakened by the Saints, Kings,
Sway in height its shadow pattern.
And everything here speaks of the world, in the words of
By the Saints of the banished, night passions; from the columns
Hope stretches out with invisible hands.
Oh unearthly delight! he shines with light,
Concentrated in the ray of the one Truth!
Yes, your ecstasy is infinitely right, Simeon!
So let us hand over the spirit into the hands of the God of Truth!
We find the same admiration and awe in the poems of Osip Mandelstam.
Absides (rear view of the cathedral)
N. Sarnikov / RFI
Where the Roman judge judged a foreign nation,
There is a basilica, and, joyful and first,
Like Adam once, spreading his nerves 9000
The cross light arch plays with muscles.
But the secret plan betrays itself from the outside,
Here the force of the supporting arches took care,
So that the mass of the heavy wall does not crush,
And the vault of the impudent ram is idle.
A spontaneous labyrinth, an incomprehensible forest,
Souls of the Gothic rational abyss,
Egyptian power and Christianity shyness,
With a reed next to an oak, and everywhere the king is a plumb line.
But the more attentively, the stronghold of Notre Dame,
I studied your monstrous ribs, –
The more often I thought: from the severity of the unkind
And I will create something beautiful someday …
But in the 20th century in poetry, like Victor Hugo, the theme of destruction reappears.In the poem “Whose Turn” (1961), Raymon Keno wrote:
“They demolish Notre Dame
And people say
What to do there is a program
They demolished Saint Symphorien
And Old Saint-Germain
And Saint-Denis du Pas, and Saint-Martial
And Saint-Jean-en-Rhône, and it has existed since 1754
Isn’t it time to start something bigger. ”
Indeed, at that time the cathedral needed restoration.
Mysteries of Notre Dame de Paris
The cathedral was built from 1163 to 1345 on the site of an earlier church on Site – the first Christian basilica of St. Stephen, which, in turn, replaced the Gallo-Roman temple of Jupiter.
Paris Notre Dame is one of the most famous churches in the world, if not the most famous, its façade combines Romanesque power and Gothic beauty of architectural decor. The temple still stands firmly on the ground and does not burst upward, like the churches of “flaming” Gothic, its powerful tectonics is not hidden under the abundance of sculpture, but its designs have already applied innovative principles of load distribution, which were well described by Osip Mandelstam in the poem “Notre Dame”, the poet is quite aware of the design features of Gothic architecture:
“But the secret plan betrays itself from the outside,
The proportions of the facade are perfect and correspond to the principles of the golden ratio. Whether this was the result of the creative flair of its authors or the result of the use of secrets brought by the Templars from distant countries, as some believe, it is not known for sure.
Notre Dam is praised by Victor Hugo, he described the facade of the church as a great writer can do, in poetic language, but filled with semantic content.
“… hardly in the history of architecture there will be a page more beautiful than the one that is the facade of this cathedral, where three lancet portals appear in succession and in aggregate; above them there is a jagged cornice, as if embroidered with twenty-eight royal niches, a huge central window – a rosette with two other windows on the sides, like a priest standing between a deacon and a subdeacon; a tall graceful arcade of a gallery with stucco decorations in the shape of a trefoil, supporting a heavy platform on its thin columns, and, finally, two gloomy massive towers with slate awnings.All these harmonious parts of the magnificent whole, erected one above the other and forming five giant tiers, calmly unfold before our eyes the infinite variety of their countless sculptural, carved and embossed details, in a single powerful burst merging with the serene grandeur of the whole. It’s like a huge stone symphony; a colossal creation of both man and people, single and complex, like the Iliad and Romancero, to whom it is related; the miraculous result of the unification of all the forces of an entire era, where every stone sprinkles the worker’s fantasy, taking hundreds of forms, guided by the artist’s genius; in a word, this creation of human hands is powerful and abundant, like the creation of God, from whom it seemed to borrow its dual character: diversity and eternity.”
Hugo regrets that the cathedral has lost over the centuries:” Today, its facade lacks three important parts: first of all, the porch with eleven steps, which raised it above the ground; then the lower row of statues that occupied the niches of three portals; and, finally, the top row of statues that once adorned the gallery of the first tier and depicted the twenty-eight ancient kings of France, starting with Childebert and ending with Philip Augustus, with power in hand. ”
Hugo was mistaken, these were the kings of Israel and Judah, the Old Testament kings, this common mistake cost the kings their heads, by order of Robespierre in 1793 during the revolution, the statues were beheaded like a king and queen who ended their lives on the guillotine.
There are actually much fewer ancient kings, the number 28 is tied to the number of days in the lunar calendar, it is symbolic.
The Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris was less fortunate than the Cathedral of Chartres, which has come down to us in the most unaltered form.
Roman Hugo came out in 1831, at this time the cathedral was ready to be demolished, it was not in its best condition, dilapidated and lost a lot. However, after the release of the novel, a movement for the preservation of the Gothic heritage began, the neo-Gothic style appeared in architecture, architects used the motives of Gothic architecture in the construction of new buildings.Is Victor Hugo exclusively involved in this? I think no. Rather, the book corresponded to the era of romanticism, hit the mainstream. This was the time when there was an interest in Gothic: partly out of love for mysticism, partly because of the desire for the sublime, because it was the Gothic temples that were so “torn off” from the earth and directed to the sky. The idea of a wall occupied with a stained-glass window was the best suited to the new possibilities of popular metal architecture, in which the wall practically disappeared and became glass, and the load of the coating was carried by metal columns.The book came in time.
Mysticism is now associated with Gothic more than with any other style. This is facilitated by the complex world of Gothic symbolism, which is not entirely clear to modern man.
Starting from the 17th century, various researchers – Gobino de Montluisan and Cambriel – and already in our century – Fulcanelli and Ambelain tried to uncover the secret meaning of the symbolism of Gothic architecture. Fulcanelli, who wrote the famous book “The Mysteries of the Cathedrals”, has already become an authority in this area.The book was published in 1926 and is still popular today. Fulcanelli himself was a mysterious person, his real name and year of death remained unknown, there were even versions that three writers worked under the pseudonym of Fulcanelli.
Fulcanelli saw many alchemical symbols in the sculptures of Notre Dame Cathedral. The bas-reliefs on the facade of the large portal, which is called the Doomsday portal, according to Fulcanelli, represent a series of allegorical images of medieval knowledge. Alchemy is depicted as a woman whose head touches the clouds.She sits on a throne and holds in her left hand a scepter – a symbol of the monarch, and with her right hand supports books: closed (esotericism) and open (exotericism). The nine-rung ladder is sandwiched between her knees and rests on her chest. This is the scala philosophorum, the symbol of the patience that the alchemist must possess during the nine successive operations of the hermetic making.
Another figure – “alchemist”, Fulcanelli finds on the north-eastern tower.In Fulcanelli’s book, many sculptures are recognized as alchemical symbols, such as the raven at the foot of the columns. However, the raven was not only a symbol of alchemy, but also an attribute of Saint Vincent. And the sculptures of the alchemical lady and the old alchemist were restored by Eugene Viollet le Duc, who approached the restoration of the sculptures quite creatively. The restoration of Notre Dame, which he began, lasted 20 years and in the process a lot of things that had not existed before emerged: the famous chimeras of Notre Dame, the statue of Saint Thomas, which is considered a “self-portrait” of Viollet le Duc by the sculptor Geoffroy-Deschamps and many, again made instead of the lost , fragments of the sculptural decoration of the cathedral, which were made based on the previous sculptures.
Chimeras, however, have now made friends with the gargoyles-gutters, which have been located here since ancient times and have become darlings of tourists.
At the level of the gallery of the Virgin, statues of Adam and Eve appeared, which were not there before.
Researchers believe that initially only the figure of the Mother of God stood there.
Viollet le Duc’s methods terrified many of his modern scientists. In our time, there would have been demonstrations of defenders of the architectural heritage in front of the cathedral.
By the way, in 1977, during construction work on Highway d Street, Anten, fragments of destroyed statues were found, including the heads of the kings. It turned out that the remains of the statues during the French Revolution were bought by a monarchist on the pretext that he wants to use them as the foundation for his home. Stone kings were solemnly buried, and the foundation was erected over them. Now you can admire them in the Cluny Museum.
On the central portal there is an image of one of the favorite subjects of Gothic artists – the Last Judgment.On the pilaster dividing the portal into two parts, there is the figure of Christ, and in the openings there is a panel with images personifying Vices and Virtues, as well as with statues of the apostles. In the bend of the arch there are scenes of Heaven and Hell, executed with great skill. On both sides of Christ are the figures of his disciples, 12 apostles, 6 on each side. The original statues were also destroyed during the revolution and these are already the product of the restoration by Viollet le Duc. On the archivolts of the portal are the inhabitants of paradise: prophets, angels, martyrs, church fathers.Archivolts and tympanum date back to the 13th century.
Left and right you can see the image of ten prudent and foolish virgins, this plot from the Gospel of Matthew was quite popular. The Virgins were also recreated in the 19th century.
The tympanum with a relief image of the Last Judgment is divided horizontally into three parts. At the top – the figure of Christ surrounded by the Mother of God, St.John and the angels. Christ raised his hands, showing his wounds, and the angels at his sides hold the cross, spear and nails from the cross.
Next, two kneeling figures of Mary and John praying for humanity.
Below – images of souls: on the one hand – the chosen ones who deserve salvation, ascend to heaven, on the other – the damned; they are chained and dragged into hell, to the last retribution. Directly above the large figures of the apostles on the right side, they bear hellish torment.If you look closely, you will notice a difference in the color of the stone, by which you can identify the original sculpture on the right and the one restored on the left, which is lighter.
Devils look according to the medieval tradition: with a wide mouth, a flattened nose, a low acute-angled forehead, a donkey’s tail.
At the very bottom – the plot of the Resurrection. Among those who have risen from the graves are the king, and the pope, warriors, women, there is even one African, which means that no one will escape the Last Judgment.Above the figures stands Archangel Michael with the scales on which he weighs the souls of the dead.
The large statue of Jesus Chris, the Good Lord ( Le Beau-Dieu ) is considered the most famous creation of the French sculptor Geoffroy-Deschom (it was created from a drawing by Viollet-le-Duc).
It is also worth mentioning the famous doors of the cathedral, which are located behind Jesus’ back. Their beauty gave rise to a legend, frequent in the Middle Ages, when everything incomprehensibly surprising for human capabilities was attributed to a deal with the devil.The doors are adorned with a wonderful wrought iron pattern by a blacksmith named Biscorne. When the blacksmith heard that he would need to forge figured locks and patterns for the gates of the most beautiful cathedral in Paris, he was very frightened. Thinking that he could never cope with this, he tried to call the devil for help. The next day, when the canon of Notre Dame came to look at the work, he found the blacksmith unconscious, but in the smithy a real masterpiece appeared in his eyes: figured locks, overhead forged patterns, which were openwork intertwining leaves.However, when the gate was finished and the locks were cut in, it was impossible to open the gate! I had to sprinkle them with holy water. No one knows how this forged drawing was made, by casting or forging, the blacksmith soon began to languish and took his secret to the grave.
Right portal, called the portal of St. Anna, built between 1160 and 1170. On it – relief images of the XII-XIII centuries; on the pilaster is a statue of St. Marseille, bishop of Paris in the 5th century.
On the tympanum – the Virgin surrounded by angels, on her sides – images of Bishop Maurice de Sully and King Louis VII.The depiction of representatives of spiritual and secular power: the bishop – standing, the king – kneeling, emphasizes the superiority of the “city of heaven” over the “city of the earth.”
The son of a poor wood-picker from Sully-upon-Loire, a man of unknown origin, Maurice de Sully was a very devout man and led a truly Christian life. Thanks to these qualities, in 1160 he was elected bishop of Paris, 74th in a row, and remained in this post for 36 years. It was he who began the construction of a new church of the Virgin on the site of the old basilica.
The third – left – portal, called the portal of St. The Virgin is perhaps the most beautiful of the three in terms of splendor of the sculptures.
The high lancet tympanes of the Gothic temples of France were filled with large reliefs. Above the main entrance was usually placed an image of the “Last Judgment”, above the portal of the Mother of God – “Dormition and Coronation”, above the portals dedicated to the saints, episodes from their history were depicted.An early example of Gothic relief is the sculpture of the tympanum of Notre Dame Cathedral of the Assumption and Coronation of Mary (1210–1220).
The tympanum field is divided into three tiers. The lower one is occupied by six Old Testament kings and prophets sitting in a row. On average, the scene of the Assumption is presented. In the center, two angels, bending over the sarcophagus, gently lower the body of Mary into it, Christ stands behind the sarcophagus, and on its sides are the twelve apostles who have appeared to accompany Mary on her last journey.The upper tier is occupied by the coronation stage. An angel descending from heaven puts a crown on the head of Mary, who is seated on a throne next to Christ.
Beautiful, standing in the middle of the figure of Mary – the queen of heaven with the baby Jesus in her arms and with a rose bush. Roses were a symbol of Mary, white ones symbolized the Virgin’s innocence, scarlet ones – mercy.
The cathedral still has many secrets, solved and unsolved.It is difficult to judge whether he keeps the secrets of esoteric knowledge, but he undoubtedly keeps the secrets of many masters who created him.
First hundred lines – Teachers’ newspaper
If you get up early in the morning, while the Parisians are watching their last dreams, and the tourists have just settled down after nightlife, and after drinking a cup of strong coffee, go out to the Seine embankment, you will hear the birds waking up in the dense foliage of plane trees over the river, how massive oak trees creak doors in old mansions and old barges are barely audible talking among themselves, slapping with weary sides on wooden berths.Then you have to go slowly, slowly towards the Louvre. After passing its walls, you will soon find yourself on the Isle of Cite. One more turn, and suddenly Notre Dame soars up in front of you. “Who invented this abyss and threw it into the depths of the heights?” – you are surprised after Julian Pshibos. “Three lancet portals; above them is a jagged cornice, as if embroidered with twenty-eight royal niches, a huge central rosette window with two other windows located on the sides, like a priest standing between a deacon and a subdeacon, a high and light arcade of a gallery with stucco moldings in the shape of a trefoil, bearing on its light columns a heavy platform, and, finally, two gloomy massive towers with slate awnings.All these harmonious parts of the magnificent whole, erected one above the other in five giant tiers, in an infinite variety, serenely unfold before our eyes their endless sculptural, carved and embossed details, powerfully and inextricably merging with the calm grandeur of the whole. It’s like a huge stone symphony, a colossal creation of both man and people … ”- Victor Hugo,“ Notre Dame Cathedral ”. And what about Sena? “The lucky Seine, – sings Jacques Prévert, – No worries or hassles By the banks in passing On a walk she will cling to the Shine of her dress instantly Illuminate the parapet And the grave walls Where, as a strict neighbor, Notre Dame haughtily Looks after her sideways”.Sena coquettishly ran on to the sea, not even noticing how time and people made fun of the great creation. Scars appeared on his stone body not only from the winds and bad weather, people smashed statues, changed stained glass windows, painted over the walls, and carried out coffins. “Tempus edax, homo edacior” (“Time is gluttonous, but man is even more gluttonous”) – said the ancients. Although Hugo once remarked that he would willingly translate this catch phrase as “Time is blind, and man is ignorant” …
Violets are sold in Montmartre.Here that morning they offered tickets to the evening concert – “Chants of the Gregorian Monks.” And again the same path, but only in the evening – from a tiny hotel a stone’s throw from the Champs Elysees to the Ile de la Cité. The cathedral seemed to float over the square. I know only one church – Andreevskaya in Kiev, which seems to fly over the city when you look at it from Podil. The cathedral was full. Only one large chandelier burned in the center, concealing numerous arches and enfilades, you cannot see the ceiling, as if you are sitting under a heavenly abyss, ready to swallow you in an instant.Ten very young guys came out, the harpsichord took the first chord, the cello sang – the voices rang, intertwined, rushed off somewhere in the heavens like larks, and then returned echoing from the side naves. It seemed that the entire space of the cathedral was singing, ringing with tension. These were not prayers, but a declaration of love to the Almighty, boundless, like the soul itself, fragile, tender. The voices turned into crystal bells, and it was scary that they would suddenly crack with tension. Tears flowed by themselves. I wanted to close my eyes and pray: “God, forgive me …” And when everything calmed down, the long-forgotten lines suddenly surfaced: “Oh God, because I am your stem.Why did you give me to the crowd? God, what have I done to you? What haven’t I done to you? ”
90,000 A year after the fire. Restorers are still debating the future of Notre Dame – Society
PARIS, 15 April. / Corr. TASS Dmitry Gorokhov /. An interdisciplinary team of French experts is finalizing a digital platform to help advance the restoration of Notre Dame Cathedral. By the first anniversary of the fire on Wednesday, the debate about the future look of the historic building is still ongoing.
On this topic
Exactly one year ago, on April 15, 2019, a fire broke out in the scaffolding above Notre Dame de Paris. One of the first to notice the flame on the roof of the cathedral from the window of his study was the mayor of Paris, Anne Hidalgo, who mobilized the city authorities, firefighters and the police to save him.
Main House of France
“I was in Paris that evening and was shocked by what was happening,” Jean-Marie Rouard, a member of the French Academy, historian and writer, told TASS on the anniversary of the event.“The main building of France was on fire, a symbol of connection with the past, part of the French soul.” Notre Dame is not only history, all distances in France, the scientist recalled, and today are measured from the square in front of the cathedral.
For a long time, the rescue teams were unable to extinguish the fire. A little more than an hour after the start of the fire, the 93-meter spire that crowns the cathedral collapsed. At the time of the fall, he broke through the stone vault in several places. The firefighters focused their special efforts on saving the north tower, which had already reached the flame.The head of the rescue operation, General Jean-Claude Galle, warned: “If one tower collapses, the other may collapse half an hour later.”
The Archbishop of Paris, Monsignor Michel Opety, in the Saint-Aignan chapel located not far from the cathedral, prayed for the salvation of the towers of the temple and the relics stored in it, among which is the crown of thorns of Christ.
Millions to recover
The relics were saved, but the cathedral, which is a masterpiece of Gothic architecture of the 12th century, was badly damaged by the flames.”We will definitely rebuild this cathedral and make it even more beautiful,” said French President Emmanuel Macron. “I want the restoration to be completed in five years, and that is within our power.”
Notre Dame, like other major cathedrals in France, is owned by the state. In the past months, in the course of discussions in the National Assembly and in the Senate, a bill was passed on the conservation and restoration of the building. Everything that died in the fire is subject to restoration. A significant part of the roof, ceilings and vaults is to be reconstructed.
The first donations for restoration began to flow immediately. Among the major sponsors are the families of famous industrialists and financiers Arnault, Bettencourt-Meyer, Pinault, who decided to allocate a total of half a billion euros for reconstruction. Industrial group Total announced a contribution of € 100 million.
A year later, the department responsible for the conservation and restoration of the cathedral can rely on promises and commitments totaling € 902 million.
Hypotheses and Lessons
Historians from the Research Laboratory for Historical Monuments and the Center for Museum Restoration are participating in the ongoing investigation into the causes of the fire, along with the police research unit.Forensic scientists and civilian experts initially worked with three hypotheses, according to which a fire could have occurred from an unextinguished cigarette, a short circuit in the power grid, an accident in a builder’s elevator. Depending on the beliefs, experts adhere to one of these hypotheses.
On this topic
“Whatever the cause of the fire, it happened due to an oversight,” says Academician Ruard. “There are many ancient cathedrals in France, urgent and effective measures must be taken to ensure their safety.This is one of the lessons to be learned from this fire. “
The restorers plan to combine the interests of parishioners and tourists. Former director of the Louvre, historian Henri Loirette, suggests “to think about improving conditions for tourists, to facilitate their access to Notre Dame.” The search for optimal solutions is in progress. The idea of building an underground entrance gained adherents. It should have started under the porch, at the site of the current parking lot.
With such a solution, visitors would climb into the cathedral from a spacious underground room, bypassing the narrow entrance doors of the temple.The clergy does not agree with such a project: “You can enter the temple only through the doors.” “The cathedral is a place of worship, it is its own and only goal,” they say, surrounded by Archbishop Michel Opeti. “There are no tourists in Notre Dame Cathedral, they come to God here.” According to his vicars, “the monsignor would like to remind you that the power of Notre Dame is not in what was built, but in what is happening within these walls.”
The chief architect of historical monuments Philippe Villeneuve is now thinking over the appearance of the future spire.”After restoration, it should have the same appearance,” he is convinced. He is supported by many representatives of the scientific community who support the position of the Venice Charter (1964). It requires the restoration of historical monuments in their known form.
Minister of Culture Frank Riester promised to hold detailed consultations with specialists. “I think it is important to preserve the historical appearance of the cathedral, including its spire,” says academician Ruar. “This is the wish of the church, but also the opinion of many historians.”
There is no consensus in the plans of the restorers, the French media state. The comparison of different points of view has not yet been completed. The Elysee Palace listens carefully to the discussions.
“In a country capable of arguing for months about what shape should be given to the spire of the Cathedral of Notre Dame, nothing has been lost,” the president’s entourage recalled the words of the head of state
But won’t the task of restoring the cathedral fade into the background now, when all the attention in France is drawn to the fight against the coronavirus pandemic? Theologian Alain Thomasse does not share these concerns.
“Stones will always be less important than people, but the church is a people’s home,” the theologian remarked.
In three years, Notre Dame Cathedral will be 860 years old. The first stone in its foundation was laid in 1163.
90,000 Shamrock (symbol) is … What is Shamrock (symbol)?
This term has other meanings, see Trefoil.
Trilist (Irl.Seamróg, eng. Shamrock ) is a symbol of Ireland and a registered trademark of the Republic of Ireland,  is a graphic representation of a three-lamellar white clover leaf, usually of the form Trifolium repens (white clover, white clover, Irish seamair bhán), but more recently time is more often of the species Trifolium dubium (doubtful clover, Irish seamair bhuí).
The Irish word seamróg , meaning shamrock, is a diminutive form of seamair (clover).And the English word shamrock is the phonetically closest rendering of the Irish equivalent.
White clover has long been known for its medicinal properties, and in the Victorian era it became a very popular motif in ornaments. Also, the shamrock is a well-known symbol of the celebration of St. Patrick’s Day.
Symbol of Ireland
Airplane of the Irish airline Aer Lingus with the trefoil symbol on its tail.
Shamrock is used informally as the emblem of many Irish sports teams, government organizations, military units, universities and other organizations, for example: Irish Rugby Union, Cliftonville Football Club, Shamrock Rovers Football Club, Aer Lingus Airlines, University College Dublin, University of Notre Dame and many others.However, it should be noted that in accordance with the Irish constitution, the trefoil, along with the Gel or Celtic harp, is the state symbol of Ireland, depicted on postage stamps, state and military insignia, seals and other insignia. In the register of the World Intellectual Property Organization, the trefoil is a registered symbol of Ireland. In accordance with the so-called “late tradition”  (the first entry dates from 1726) the white clover plant was used by Saint Patrick to illustrate the dogma of the Holy Trinity.The posthumous nature of this legend (which arose 1200 years after the death of St. Patrick), as well as the lack of appropriate confirmation in the records of the saint himself, raise certain questions of authenticity  .
The shamrock is depicted on the seal of the passports of the British overseas territory of Montserrat, many of whose inhabitants are of Irish descent. Finally, the shamrock image, as well as its English or Irish name, is often used by Irish pubs around the world.
Flag of Montreal
On the flag of the Canadian city of Montreal, the shamrock is placed in the lower right part. It symbolizes the ethnic Irish, one of the four main groups that made up the city’s population in the 19th century, when the flag was officially adopted.
Shamrock was also present on the Northern Ireland Police flag  .
The Erin Go Bragh flag depicts a medieval Celtic harp surrounded by shamrocks. This flag, symbolic of Irish nationalism, is often seen in parades around St. Patrick’s Day.
The four-leaf clover is often confused with the three-leaf clover for its symbolism. The four-leaf clover is a symbol of good luck, while the three-leaf clover is a symbol of Ireland and the Irish in general and Irish Christianity in particular.
- Nelson, E. Charles; Loughin, Bernard, Shamrock: Botany and History of an Irish Myth: A Biography of the Shamrock in History, Literature, Music and Art .Boethius Press. ISBN 0-86314-199-4. A detailed history of the shamrock, including a debate around the symbol’s identity.
- Soldiers of the Royal Irish Regiment of the British Army wear the shamrock ornament as their emblem for St. Patrick’s Day, and these decorations always accompany the regiment wherever they are on duty around the world. Queen Victoria decreed a hundred years ago that soldiers from Ireland should wear such ornaments in recognition of the achievements of Irish soldiers during the Boer War.This tradition continues to this day by soldiers of both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, despite the division in 1921.
- During the Russian Civil War, a British officer, Colonel Philip James Woods of Belfast, formed the Karelian Regiment, the emblem of which was the shamrock on the orange field  .
In Dahl’s Dictionary
Reconstruction of Notre Dame: what ecologists are not satisfied with | Culture and Lifestyle in Germany and Europe | DW
Rarely have trees been cut down with such pomp than in the former royal forest of Beers, two hundred kilometers southwest of Paris, when in March, surrounded by numerous journalists, the Minister of Agriculture and Food of France Julien Denormandy and the Minister of Culture of this country, Roslyn Bachelot, in a solemn atmosphere, nailed small plaques with numbers to centenary oak trees, and then made a speech.
“I think Notre Dame, a symbol of our past, will demonstrate the extent to which forests write modern history,” said Denormandy. Roslyn Bachelot spoke more prosaically: “We need all these trees, since the decision has been made to restore Notre Dame Cathedral in its original form – to make it what it was before the fire and how it was recreated by Viollet-le-Duc ( French architect, restorer, art critic Eugene Viollet-le-Duc. – Ed. ) “who has been carrying out restoration work since 1843”.
Notre Dame Cathedral on fire, April 2019
Oaks from the Berset forest were among the approximately 2,000 trees cut down in France for the reconstruction of the spire and supporting structure of Notre Dame Cathedral, destroyed or badly damaged during a devastating fire 15 April 2019. However, the plans to restore the famous temple were not accepted by everyone with enthusiasm – and not at all because the promise of French President Emmanuel Macron to rebuild Notre Dame in five years can hardly be fulfilled.
Century oaks for a monument of history and culture
A fire that happened two years ago shook the whole of France and the whole world. Thousands of people gathered that evening at this UNESCO World Heritage Site, watching in horror as flames engulf the medieval building and how, in the end, the ignited temple spire collapses, a significant part of the roof is burned and the vaults of the central nave are severely damaged.
President Macron then promised that the monument of history and culture would be restored in five years.At first, the head of the French state advocated making the new spire of the cathedral more modern, but, in the end, gave way to experts who called for the preservation of the style of Ville-le-Duc. Shortly after the fire, both large companies and small investors pledged to allocate a total of about a billion euros for the reconstruction. Since then, 833 million euros have already been received from this amount.
To restore Notre Dame Cathedral with historical accuracy, oak wood is needed.According to the agreement, half of the trees needed for the reconstruction are transferred by state-owned forestry enterprises, and the other half – by the owners of private forest lands. After felling, the trunks must be dried for 12-18 months – until the moisture contained in the wood has evaporated by about 30 percent.
We are talking about centuries-old trees, which sooner or later would still be on the list of oak trees to be cut down, emphasizes Guillaume Larrier, spokesman for the French National Forestry Administration (ONF).“We regularly cut down large, old trees – partly to secure wood supplies, and partly because this creates space for younger trees that need a lot of light,” he explains. Anticipating criticism from conservationists, Larrier recalls that France is one of the countries with the most stringent forest management rules and careful control over how trees are felled.
Environmentalists sound the alarm
However, the felling of trees for the benefit of Notre Dame cathedral has angered ecologists – in particular, Jacqui Bonmain, chairman of the environmental organization Robin des Bois.”We are amputating our forests with oak trees, which are important for their regeneration, because they are a habitat for a huge number of insects and birds,” Bonman said indignantly in an interview with DW. His opinion is supported by more than 40 thousand French people who signed a petition to stop deforestation.
The decision to restore Notre Dame in its original form Jacques Bonmain calls “absolutely obsolete.” “I never thought that the government would decide in favor of this hellish mixture of wood and lead, the presence of which provided the possibility of fire and subsequent lead pollution,” he says.The fact of large-scale lead contamination of the territory of the cathedral and the surrounding quarters was also confirmed by experts. On this basis and because of the threat to human life, the Robin des Bois organization filed a lawsuit in 2019. However, a few months ago, the proceedings were terminated.
According to Bonman, the reconstruction of Notre Dame should use more modern and safer building materials. In this regard, he cites the example of the Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul in Nantes, which in July 2020 also suffered from a fire, but suffered less damage than Notre Dame Cathedral in April 2019 – since during the previous reconstruction its supporting structure was made of concrete.
Lead and wood – the perfect combination?
However, in the case of Notre Dame Cathedral, concrete is not an option, the spokesman for the Notre Dame Cathedral administration objects to Bonmain and explains why: “In order for a temple building to remain stable, its roof structure must have a very specific weight, and the combination of lead and wood is ideal in this case, “he explains to DW.
Of course, the administration of the temple attaches great importance to the health of people, just to ensure safety in the cathedral, it is necessary to increase the number of personnel and install fire doors, assures the representative of the administration of the famous temple.According to the press secretary further, preparations for the restoration of Notre Dame Cathedral are in full swing, and reconstruction will begin in late 2021 – early 2022. Well, the famous church will open as planned in 2024, he said.
The Abbot of Notre Dame, Patrick Chauvet, also admits that the temple will be partially reopened in three years for Mass, as well as for visitors. At the same time, as the clergyman said in an interview with the AP news agency, he does not exclude that Notre Dame will remain a construction site for a long time: it is quite possible that its full restoration will take at least 15-20 years.And French ecologists have no doubts that the reconstruction “will take many years.” By the way, the Robin des Bois organization is going to re-file a lawsuit against the authorities due to lead contamination after the fire of Notre Dame.
Notre Dame in painting
Paul Signac, “View of the Ile de la Cité”, 1912
Notre Dame in painting
Quay Armand Guillaumene, ” in Paris.View of Notre Dame (circa 1880)
Notre Dame in painting
Albert Marquet, Notre Dame in the Snow, 1905
Notre Dame in painting
Pablo Picasso, “Notre Dame de Paris”, 1954
Notre Dame in painting
Henri Rousseau, “View of the Ile Saint Louis”, 1909
Notre Dame in painting
Maximilien Luce, “Notre Dame, view from the Embankment Saint-Michel” (1901 – 1904))
Notre Dame in painting
Edouard Gertner, “Paris, street Neuve-Notre-Dame”, 1826
Author: Daria Bryantseva