Drug Shortage Report for LAX-A-DAY PHARMA
Drug Shortage Report for LAX-A-DAY PHARMA
|Drug Identification Number||02453193|
|Brand name||LAX-A-DAY PHARMA|
|Common or Proper name||LAX-A-DAY|
|Company Name||PHARMASCIENCE INC|
|Active Ingredient(s)||POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL 3350|
|Dosage form(s)||POWDER FOR SOLUTION|
|Route of administration||ORAL|
|ATC description||DRUGS FOR CONSTIPATION|
|Reason for shortage||Disruption of the manufacture of the drug.|
|Anticipated start date|
|Actual start date||2019-11-01|
|Estimated end date||2019-12-16|
|Actual end date||2019-12-20|
|Health Canada comments|
|Contact Address||6111 ROYALMOUNT AVE
CANADA h5P 2T4
|Company contact information|
Click on “Compare” below to view the full report history and compare to other
Over-the-counter laxatives for constipation: Use with caution
Over-the-counter laxatives for constipation: Use with caution
Laxatives can help relieve and prevent constipation. But not all laxatives are safe for long-term use. Overuse of certain laxatives can lead to dependency and decreased bowel function.
By Mayo Clinic Staff
If you’ve ever been constipated, you may have tried over-the-counter laxatives. A number of factors — including a poor diet, physical inactivity and some medications — can disrupt normal bowel function and cause constipation.
Many safe, effective over-the-counter laxatives are available to treat occasional constipation in a variety of ways. However, it’s very important to read the label directions carefully and to use them as directed. Overuse of laxatives may cause serious side effects.
Call your doctor immediately if you have:
- Bloody stools
- Severe cramps or pain
- Weakness or unusual tiredness
- Rectal bleeding
- Unexplained changes in bowel patterns
- Constipation that lasts longer than seven days despite laxative use
Before trying laxatives
How often you have a bowel movement varies, but people normally have as many as three bowel movements a day to as few as three a week. You may be constipated if you have fewer bowel movements than are normal for you. In addition, constipation may involve stools that are difficult to pass because they’re hard, dry or small.
However, before turning to laxatives, try these lifestyle changes to help with constipation:
- Eat fiber-rich foods, such as wheat bran, fresh fruits and vegetables, and oats.
- Drink plenty of fluids daily.
- Exercise regularly.
Lifestyle improvements relieve constipation for many people, but if problems continue despite these changes, your next choice may be a mild laxative.
How laxatives relieve constipation
Laxatives work in different ways, and the effectiveness of each laxative type varies from person to person. In general, bulk-forming laxatives, also referred to as fiber supplements, are the gentlest on your body and safest to use long term. Metamucil and Citrucel fall into this category.
Here are some examples of types of laxatives. Even though many laxatives are available over-the-counter, it’s best to talk to your doctor about laxative use and which kind may be best for you.
|Type of laxative (brand examples)||How they work||Side effects|
|Oral osmotics (Phillips’ Milk of Magnesia, Miralax)||Draw water into the colon to allow easier passage of stool||Bloating, cramping, diarrhea, nausea, gas, increased thirst|
|Oral bulk formers (Benefiber, Citrucel, FiberCon, Metamucil)||Absorb water to form soft, bulky stool, prompting normal contraction of intestinal muscles||Bloating, gas, cramping or increased constipation if not taken with enough water|
|Oral stool softeners (Colace, Surfak)||Add moisture to stool to allow strain-free bowel movements||Electrolyte imbalance with prolonged use|
|Oral stimulants (Dulcolax, Senokot)||Trigger rhythmic contractions of intestinal muscles to eliminate stool||Belching, cramping, diarrhea, nausea, urine discoloration with senna and cascara derivatives|
|Rectal suppositories (Dulcolax, Pedia-Lax)||Trigger rhythmic contractions of intestinal muscles and soften stool||Rectal irritation, diarrhea, cramping|
Oral laxatives may interfere with your body’s absorption of some medications and nutrients. Some laxatives can lead to an electrolyte imbalance, especially after prolonged use. Electrolytes — which include calcium, chloride, potassium, magnesium and sodium — regulate a number of body functions. An electrolyte imbalance can cause abnormal heart rhythms, weakness, confusion and seizures.
Combination laxatives: Check labels carefully
Some products combine different types of laxatives, such as a stimulant and a stool softener. But combination products don’t necessarily work more effectively than single-ingredient products. In addition, they may be more likely to cause side effects.
A single-ingredient laxative may work better for you. Read labels to make sure you know what you’re taking, and use with caution.
Risks of laxative use
- Interaction with medications. Your medical history and medications you’re taking may limit your laxative options. Laxatives can interact with some antibiotics, and certain heart and bone medications. Read labels carefully. If you’re not sure whether to try a particular laxative, ask your pharmacist or doctor. Don’t exceed recommended dosages unless your doctor tells you otherwise.
- Complicating conditions. Laxative use can be dangerous if constipation is caused by a serious condition, such as appendicitis or a bowel obstruction. If you frequently use laxatives for weeks or months, they can decrease your colon’s ability to contract and actually worsen constipation.
- Precautions for pregnant women and children. Don’t give children under age 6 laxatives without a doctor’s recommendation. If you’re pregnant, ask your doctor before using laxatives. Bulk-forming laxatives and stool softeners are generally safe to use during pregnancy, but stimulant laxatives may be harmful.
If you’ve recently given birth, consult your doctor before using laxatives. Although they’re usually safe to use during breast-feeding, some ingredients may pass into breast milk and cause diarrhea in nursing infants.
Take laxatives with caution
If you’re dependent on laxatives to have a bowel movement, ask your doctor for suggestions on how to gradually withdraw from them and restore your colon’s natural ability to contract.
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June 06, 2017
- Over-the-counter laxatives. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2014;312:1167.
- Constipation. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/constipation. Accessed Jan. 18, 2017.
- Constipation and defecation problems. American Gastroenterological Association. http://patients.gi.org/topics/constipation-and-defection-problems/. Accessed Jan. 18, 2017.
- Wald A. Management of chronic constipation in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Jan. 18, 2017.
- Laxative (oral route). Micromedex 2.0 Healthcare Series. http://www.micromedexsolutions.com. Accessed Jan. 18, 2017.
See more In-depth
Products and Services
- Book: Mayo Clinic on Digestive Health
Lax-A-Day – Utilisations, Effets secondaires, Interactions
Comment ce médicament agit-il? Quels sont ses effets?
Le polyéthylène glycol 3350 (PEG 3350) appartient à la classe des médicaments appelés laxatifs. Le PEG 3350 est utilisé pour le soulagement de la constipation occasionnelle. Il agit en amollissant les selles et en retenant l’eau dans les intestins. Cela amène le côlon à se contracter et à produire une défécation plus rapidement. Ce médicament peut prendre 2 à 4 jours pour agir.
Il se pourrait que votre médecin ait suggéré ce médicament contre une affection qui ne figure pas dans cet article d’information sur les médicaments. En outre, certaines formes de ce médicament pourraient ne pas être utilisées pour tous les troubles mentionnés dans cet article. Si vous n’en avez pas encore discuté avec votre médecin, ou si vous avez des doutes sur les raisons pour lesquelles vous prenez ce médicament, consultez-le. Ne cessez pas de prendre ce médicament sans avoir consulté votre médecin au préalable.
Ne donnez pas ce médicament à quiconque, même à quelqu’un qui souffre des mêmes symptômes que les vôtres. Ce médicament pourrait nuire aux personnes pour lesquelles il n’a pas été prescrit.
Sous quelles formes ce médicament se présente-t-il?
La poudre pour solution contient du polyéthylèneglycol 3350 à 100 %.
Comment doit-on employer ce médicament?
La dose recommandée est 17 g (1 sachet ou une cuillère à soupe pleine) de PEG 3350 une fois par jour. On doit ajouter la poudre à 250 mL (1 tasse) d’eau, de jus de fruit, de boisson gazeuse, de café ou de thé et la remuer jusqu’à ce que le contenu soit dissous. Buvez la solution immédiatement après l’avoir préparée.
Ce médicament peut prendre 2 à 4 jours pour agir. N’utilisez pas ce produit plus de 7 jours à moins que votre médecin vous recommande de le faire.
Plusieurs facteurs peuvent entrer en ligne de compte pour déterminer la dose dont une personne a besoin : son poids, son état de santé et la prise d’autres médicaments. Si votre médecin a recommandé une dose autre que celles indiquées ici, ne modifiez pas la manière de prendre le médicament sans le consulter au préalable.
Il est important d’utiliser ce médicament conformément aux indications de votre médecin.
Conservez ce médicament à la température ambiante et hors de la portée des enfants.
Ce médicament est disponible sous divers noms de marque ou sous différentes présentations, ou les deux. Une marque de ce médicament pourrait ne pas être disponible sous toutes les présentations énumérées ici. Vous trouverez les diverses présentations sous lesquelles cette marque particulière est mise à votre disposition dans la section : « Sous quelles formes ce médicament se présente-t-il ? »
Ne jetez pas de médicaments dans les eaux usées (par ex. pas dans l’évier ni dans la cuvette des cabinets) ni avec les ordures ménagères. Demandez à votre pharmacien comment vous débarrasser des médicaments inutilisés ou périmés.
Dans quels cas ce médicament est-il déconseillé?
Le PEG 3350 ne devrait pas s’employer dans les circonstances ci-après :
- une allergie au PEG 3350 ou à l’un des ingrédients du médicament ;
- une occlusion intestinale.
Quels sont les effets secondaires possibles de ce médicament?
Beaucoup de médicaments peuvent provoquer des effets secondaires. Un effet secondaire est une réponse indésirable à un médicament lorsqu’il est pris à des doses normales. Il peut être léger ou grave, temporaire ou permanent. Les effets secondaires énumérés ci-après ne sont pas ressentis par toutes les personnes qui prennent ce médicament. Si les effets secondaires vous inquiètent, discutez des risques et des bienfaits de ce médicament avec votre médecin.
Au moins 1 % des personnes prenant ce médicament ont signalé les effets secondaires ci-après. Un grand nombre de ces effets secondaires peuvent être pris en charge et quelques-uns peuvent disparaître d’eux-mêmes avec le temps.
Consultez votre médecin si vous ressentez ces effets secondaires et s’ils sont graves ou gênants. Votre pharmacien pourrait être en mesure de vous donner des conseils sur la conduite à tenir si ces effets secondaires apparaissaient :
- des crampes abdominales ou un ballonnement ;
- de la diarrhée ;
- une fréquence excessive des selles ;
- des flatulences (gaz) ;
- de la nausée.
Cessez de prendre le médicament et sollicitez immédiatement des soins médicaux s’il se produit une réponse comme :
- des symptômes d’une grave réaction allergique (par ex. de l’urticaire, une difficulté respiratoire, une enflure de la bouche, de la langue, du visage ou de la gorge).
Certaines personnes peuvent ressentir des effets secondaires autres que ceux énumérés. Consultez votre médecin si vous remarquez un symptôme qui vous inquiète pendant que vous employez ce médicament.
Existe-t-il d’autres précautions d’emploi ou mises en garde?
Avant d’employer un médicament, ne manquez pas d’informer votre médecin des troubles médicaux ou des allergies que vous pourriez avoir, des médicaments que vous utilisez et de tout autre fait important au sujet de votre santé. Les femmes devraient mentionner si elles sont enceintes ou si elles allaitent. Ces facteurs pourraient avoir une influence sur la façon dont vous devriez employer ce médicament.
Crampes, ballonnement ou diarrhée : en cas de crampes, de diarrhée ou de ballonnement inhabituel, communiquez avec votre médecin.
Fièvre, nausée, vomissements, douleur abdominale ou ballonnement : si vous subissez l’un ou l’autre de ces symptômes, ne prenez pas ce médicament avant d’avoir parlé à votre médecin.
Utilisation à long terme : ce médicament ne doit pas être pris quotidiennement pendant plus d’une semaine à moins qu’un professionnel de la santé vous indique de le faire.
Surdose : ne prenez pas plus de PEG 3350 que la dose recommandée, car cela peut provoquer une diarrhée et une déshydratation importantes.
Grossesse : ce médicament ne devrait pas s’utiliser durant la grossesse à moins que les bienfaits priment les risques. Si une grossesse advient pendant que vous utilisez ce médicament, prenez contact avec votre médecin immédiatement.
Allaitement : on ignore si le PEG 3350 passe dans le lait maternel. Si vous prenez ce médicament pendant que vous allaitez, votre bébé pourrait en ressentir les effets. Consultez votre médecin pour savoir si vous devriez continuer l’allaitement.
Enfants : ni l’innocuité ni l’efficacité de ce médicament n’a été établie en ce qui concerne les enfants. Ne donnez pas ce médicament à des enfants âgés de moins de 18 ans.
Aînés : en cas de diarrhée, suspendez la prise de ce médicament et communiquez avec votre médecin.
D’autres agents peuvent-ils interagir avec ce médicament?
Ne prenez pas d’autres médicaments dans les 2 heures qui suivent ou qui précèdent la prise de PEG 3350. Le PEG 3350 peut réduire l’efficacité des autres médicaments.
Si vous prenez l’un de ces médicaments, consultez votre médecin ou un pharmacien. Dans votre cas, votre médecin peut vous demander de :
- cesser la prise de l’un des médicaments,
- remplacer l’un des médicaments par un autre,
- modifier la manière dont vous prenez l’un des médicaments, ou les deux,
- ne rien changer du tout.
L’interférence d’un médicament avec un autre n’entraîne pas toujours l’interruption de la prise de l’un d’eux. Demandez à votre médecin quelle est la conduite à tenir en cas d’interactions médicamenteuses.
D’autres médicaments que ceux énumérés précédemment peuvent interagir avec ce médicament. Signalez à votre médecin tout ce que vous prenez, qu’il s’agisse de médicaments sur ordonnance ou en vente libre et de remèdes à base de plantes médicinales. N’oubliez pas de mentionner tout supplément que vous absorbez. Si vous consommez de la caféine, de l’alcool, de la nicotine ou des drogues illicites, vous devriez en avertir votre médecin prescripteur puisque ces substances peuvent modifier l’action de nombreux médicaments.
Tous les contenus sont la propriété de MediResource Inc. 1996 – 2021. Conditions d’utilisation. Les contenus présents ne sont destinés qu’à des fins d’information. Demandez toujours l’avis de votre médecin ou d’un autre professionnel de la santé qualifié sur des questions relatives à une affection médicale. Source : santecheznous.com/drug/getdrug/Lax-A-Day
INESSS: Extrait d’avis au ministre
Dénomination commune / Sujet : Polyéthylèneglycol
Nom du fabricant : Pendopharm
Forme : Poudre
Teneur : 510 g
Recommandation de l’INESSS
Ajout à la Liste du RGAM – Médicament d’exception/et à la Liste Établissements
Description du médicament
Lax-A-DayMCest une poudre orale de polyéthylèneglycol qui fait partie de la classe des laxatifs osmotiques. Il est indiqué pour le traitement de la constipation occasionnelle. Actuellement, une autre poudre orale contenant du polyéthylèneglycol et des électrolytes (PegLyteMC) est inscrite à la section des médicaments d’exception de la Liste de médicaments du régime général. L’indication reconnue pour ce produit est le traitement de la constipation liée à une condition médicale. La présente évaluation porte sur l’utilisation de Lax-A-DayMC pour ce dernier usage.
L’utilisation de Lax-A-DayMC pour le traitement de la constipation chronique est principalement documentée par les deux études randomisées et contrôlées de DiPalma (2007). Ces études ont pour objet de comparer l’efficacité et l’innocuité de Lax-A-DayMC à celles d’un placebo chez des individus souffrant de constipation chronique, durant une période de 6 mois pour la première étude et de 4 semaines pour la seconde. Le succès clinique est évalué sur la base de l’amélioration de différents symptômes de constipation définis par les critères du système de classification de ROME, notamment la présence d’au moins trois défécations par semaine et l’absence de laxatif de secours.
Dans l’ensemble, les résultats de ces études démontrent que Lax-A-DayMC apporte des bénéfices cliniques quant au soulagement des symptômes de la constipation chronique. La valeur thérapeutique de Lax-A-DayMC est donc reconnue.
Aspects économique et pharmacoéconomique
Le prix de Lax-A-DayMC est de 11,65 $ pour le format de 238 g et de 21,19 $ pour le format de 510 g. Le coût du traitement avec le format de 238 g est supérieur à celui de PegLyteMC, peu importe la durée d’utilisation. Cependant, il en coûte moins cher d’utiliser le format de 510 g de Lax-A-DayMC que PegLyteMC.
Du point de vue pharmacoéconomique, le Conseil a réalisé une analyse de minimisation des coûts comparant Lax-A-DayMC à PegLyteMC, selon l’hypothèse qu’ils procurent des bénéfices cliniques similaires. Il conclut que le format de 510 g de Lax-A-DayMC permettra d’économiser quotidiennement de 0,05 $ à 0,09 $ par rapport à son comparateur. Par contre, le format de 238 g est plus coûteux que PegLyteMC. Ainsi, seul le format de 510 g satisfait aux critères économique et pharmacoéconomique.
En tenant compte de l’ensemble des critères prévus à la Loi, le Conseil a recommandé d’inscrire Lax-A-DayMC, en format de 510 g, à la section des médicaments d’exception de la Liste de médicaments du régime général. Toutefois, il a recommandé de ne pas inscrire le format de 238 g, car celui-ci ne satisfait pas aux critères économique et pharmacoéconomique. L’indication reconnue pour Lax-A-DayMC, en format de 510 g, est la même que celle des autres laxatifs inscrits, soit :
- pour le traitement de la constipation liée à une condition médicale;
Il est à noter que Lax-A-DayMC sera également inscrit sur la Liste de médicaments – Établissements, sans indication reconnue.
Principales références utilisées
DiPalma JA, Cleveland MB, McGowan J, et coll. A randomized, multicenter, placebo-controlled trial of polyethylene glycol laxative for chronic treatment of chronic constipation. Am J Gastroenterol 2007; 102(7): 1436-41.
DiPalma JA, Cleveland MB, McGowan J, et coll. A comparison of polyethylene glycol laxative and placebo for relief of constipation from constipating medications. South Med J 2007; 100(11): 1085-90.
Note – D’autres références publiées ou non publiées ont été consultées.
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Really Neat Photo Shows A Day’s Worth Of Take-Offs At LAX
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It was a clear day in sunny, beautiful Los Angeles and photographer Mike Kelley didn’t want to waste it. So he decided to camp out at LAX for a day to take a photo of as many planes taking off as he could; the result is the amazing composite photo you see above.
Kelley took 400 photos over the course of seven hours. (Creating the composition with 75 photos when he got home took even longer.) He writes:
My intent was to capture only planes that flew out of LAX – highlighting and emphasizing what an incredible airport that this city has. It’s really fascinating to look at all the planes heading in different directions, ferrying people all over the world, all originating from Los Angeles. In this shot alone, there are planes heading to destinations on six continents – either direct or via multi-stop routes on the same flight number. Guangzhou, Auckland, Frankfurt.
In order to capture the shot, I set up a tripod and photographed every single plane that flew across my frame anywhere from 3 to 10 times. Using sandbags to ensure that the camera didn’t move and coming as close to peeing myself as I ever have in my 26 years of existence from not wanting to leave my camera unattended, this resulted in over 400 images from which the composition is built, but not all of them were used.
He took some liberties and moved some of the planes around a bit, but he said that the angles and takeoff sequences remain accurate. He told the Huffington Post, “I thought it was interesting how incredibly accurate and precise every single takeoff was. I didn’t change the angle of the planes in the photo– every plane takes off in exactly the same manner, no matter how big it is. I think that speaks to the technical proficiency of the pilots.”You can find more of Kelley’s work
here and here. Below are some of the unedited photos he used to make his masterpiece:
CBP and LAWA Advise International Travelers to Prepare for Peak Summer Demand at LAX
CBP at LAX expects the passenger count to reach
18,000 a day, compared with 4,500 a day in the
summer of 2020, an increase of over 300 percent.
LOS ANGELES — U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) in partnership with Los Angeles World Airports (LAWA) announced today the implementation of proactive measures in anticipation of an expected three-fold growth in international passenger volume for the 2021 summer season at Los Angeles International Airport (LAX).
CBP expects the passenger count to reach 18,000 a day, compared with 4,500 a day in the summer of 2020, an increase of over 300 percent.
The expected reemergence of international travel is the result of the current vaccination levels, and subsequent lifting of local COVID-19 restrictions bringing more international tourists as Southern California attractions gradually open.
“CBP is proactively mitigating any potential impact in wait times by maximizing our available resources, said Carlos C. Martel, CBP Director of Field Operations in Los Angeles. “In order to improve the traveler experience this summer, we are realigning personnel during the peak hours and will be constantly adjusting those resources based on passenger demand.”
CBP officers utilize facial biometrics making the
international arrivals process a safer more
efficient traveler experience.
“As travelers return to our airports this summer, they’ll find that LAX and U.S. Customs and Border Protection have integrated the very latest in touchless technology to create a safer, cleaner and more efficient experience,” said Justin Erbacci, Chief Executive Officer, Los Angeles World Airports. “Whether it’s the use of biometric identification or the fast and easy-to-use Mobile Passport app, passengers entering the country through LAX have many options to ensure a faster and smoother journey.”
Starting immediately CBP at LAX will compound available resources to staff primary inspections during peak times, while maximizing the use of biometric technology to expedite passenger processing. CBP will be also working closely with industry partners and stakeholders on passenger flow efficiencies and will keep the traveling public informed about how to prepare to avoid unnecessary delays.
Travelers can upload CBP’s Mobile
Passport Control App to streamline
their entry into the U.S.
“We are advising travelers to be prepared to experience high volume of passenger traffic and to avoid unnecessary delays,” said Cheryl M. Davies, CBP Acting Area Port Director Los Angeles International Airport. “Just downloading the CBP Mobile Passport Control App (MPC) on their smartphones would allow travelers to skip long lines by using MPC dedicated lanes.
Quick Guide to Planning Ahead for Travel at LAX:
- Wear a face mask. Face masks remain mandatory for employees and passengers, regardless of vaccination status.
- Take all the travel documents required for the countries you are visiting, as well as identification for your U.S. reentry. U.S. citizens need passports to reenter the country by air. Go to www.state.gov/travelers for destination information.
- Use your smartphone and skip the long lines. Available to download on Google Play Store or Apple App Store CBP Mobile Passport Control App streamlines a traveler’s entry into the U.S. Once your QR code is obtained, look for MPC dedicated processing lines.
- Declare everything you bring in from abroad, even if you bought it in a duty-free shop. Be cautious when buying something from street vendors. Items brought abroad for personal use or as gifts are eligible for duty exemptions. If you are bringing them back for resale, they are not eligible for duty exemption.
- Be aware of U.S. prohibited merchandise, such as ivory, tortoiseshell products, and counterfeit items.
- Many foreign-made medications are not approved for United States use and are not permitted in the country. When traveling abroad, bring only the medication you will need. Make sure the medication is in the original container.
- Travels to and from Cuba – Before departing on your trip, check the latest information for the full list of prohibited and restricted items on the U.S. Department of the Treasury Cuba Sanctions website, as well as other related government resources.
- Before bringing food to the United States, please check the list of prohibited items. All live animals, birds and bird products may be restricted, quarantined or require certification.
- CBP officers can inspect you and your belongings without a warrant to enforce U.S. laws.
- For transit passengers, give yourself enough time in between connection flights due to possible delays.
- Check parking options ahead of time: Real-time parking availability within the LAX Central Terminal Area (CTA) parking structures is available here.
- Parking and traffic updates are available 24/7 via the automated @FlyLAXstats Twitter feed.
- Consider alternative ground transportation, FlyAway® bus service is available to and from Union Station and Van Nuys, with parking available at both locations. www.LAXFlyAway.org. Municipal buses, LA Metro Green Line (light rail) at Imperial Highway and Aviation Boulevard. Read more on our website. Guests who are leaving LAX via taxi or ride app vehicles (Uber, Lyft, Opoli) can walk to the LAX-it lot located at 9610 Sky Way, across from Terminal 1, or take one of the LAX-it shuttles from stops located on the Lower/Arrivals Level.
- Check in online with your airline before you leave for the airport. This prevents the need to interact with a check-in kiosk. If you are traveling without checked luggage, you can skip the ticket counters entirely this way.
- Picking someone up? Curbside pickup and drop-off is permitted on the Upper/Departures and Lower/Arrivals levels. All parking structures are free for the first 15 minutes, and the Terminal B (Tom Bradley International Terminal) pickup area is also free to use.
- Know the rules. Many destinations, both international and domestic, have implemented travel restrictions or rules for visitors. Knowing the current rules for your destination is essential this year. Non-vaccinated guests arriving at LAX from other countries or states, as well as California residents returning from out-of-state travel, are required to complete a mandatory form acknowledging that they have read and understood the state’s travel advisory. The form can be found here, or for more information click here.
To get familiar with federal laws and regulations visit the travel section of the CBP main website.
For more information, read the CBP brochure, “Know Before You Go.” Request printed copies or view it online at www.cbp.gov/newsroom/publications/cbp-publication-catalogue.
Office of Field Operations (OFO) is the largest component in CBP and is responsible for border security—including anti-terrorism, immigration, anti-smuggling, trade compliance, and agriculture protection—while simultaneously facilitating the lawful trade and travel at U.S. ports of entry that is critical to our Nation’s economy.
Los Angeles World Airports (LAWA) is the City of Los Angeles department that owns and operates Los Angeles International (LAX) and Van Nuys (VNY) general aviation airports. Both play an integral role in helping to meet the Southern California regional demand for passenger, cargo and general aviation service. Both airports make a distinct contribution to the strength of the system as it provides a high level of safety, security and service for its customers, communities and stakeholders.
As the aviation authority for the nation’s second largest city and hub of one of the world’s most populous metropolitan areas, Los Angeles World Airports (LAWA) is faced with the challenges of providing an airport system to serve a major portion of the Southern California market. LAWA has met this challenge, and at no cost to taxpayers.
90,000 aday style – music, video, blog, poster, photo, reviews
Rhythm and Blues
- Page address
- https: // www.realrocks.ru/aday_style
- Rap Hip-Hop
azzy crazy MC
- NON-NORMATIVE Vocabulary
- Somewhere in 2003, Ezzy tried to record one track on a tape recorder, it kind of turned out great, since then I got the idea to do rap.After a trial recording on a tape recorder, I got into rap and started writing. At the end of 2006, I turned the idea into reality, my brother Joker brought home one good backing track and offered to try to come up with words for it and sing. I thought and thought and suddenly EUREKA! An idea appeared! I came up with such a rather weak text on the topic of REPRESENT, well, there blah blah blah, etc., my brother and I sang (read) rap and it kind of turned out fine! During the recording, my brother Joker suggested calling us ADAY STYLE, I liked the name and we started with the first track called Intro.We started to promote this track throughout the college, almost everyone liked it :)! The name comes from our last name – Adai. And so my brother and I began to record and record, at first we got very weak tracks, but then, as they say, “If you suffer for a long time, something will work out” we began to gain experience and are already making pretty good songs (according to the listeners). In the fall of 2007, producer Shakur met us and began to promote us in full, many thanks to him for that! At the first show we screwed up a bit, but everyone liked it anyway :).There are more than 20 of our songs in the archive, but we will only upload some of them to the Internet :).
Joker – Adai Azat Torekhanovich born on October 27, 1988
Ezzy – Adai Aziz Torekhanovich, born 01.04.1990
- Tools and equipment
- Bit & Bass
Read “Prince without a clan 2 (SI)” – Alekseev Yevgeny Artemovich – Page 1
The head of the Adai clan was sitting importantly in a place of honor in a twelve rope yurt, laid out near one of the few water sources in the Mangystau desert.The icy moisture of a small stream was barely enough to quench the thirst of the close ones and the nukers of the guards, so the shepherds and cattle were forced to migrate downstream, there was more water, but it was gaining salt and unpleasantly bitter. This was Mangyshlak’s biggest problem, water! She was always lacking here.
– Hey, who, eskerler, what did the Koreans decide there?
– Honorable Emir, Taeso Penhwa did not accept our people.
– What!?! How dare this catacpas? This is the land of the Adai clan, and he is only a guest here!
– His camp is perfectly defended and about three thousand more soldiers joined the eight thousand infantry with whom he originally arrived.
– Where do so many people come from?
– Refugees from Korea, emir, and I suppose mercenaries from Hyrcania.
– Who allowed the soldiers of a foreign clan to strengthen on our land? Are you with a howling mind?
– Lord, you yourself ordered not to interfere with him, then the threat from Jinhwa and his allies Uisunei was still too strong.
– Ah … exactly. Who knew that one of the richest clans in the world would perish so ingloriously in civil strife. What is going on around their thirty thousandth army?
– They have fortified their positions and are sitting in the camp all the time.
– Did you offer them to hire? Such soldiers in skillful hands could greatly change the balance of power in the Turkic triangle.
– Yes, sir, but they leave all appeals unanswered.
– Damn all these obscure Koreans. The plague is on their heads and why are they so drawn to the lands of the Adai?
Chapter 1 Storm
A huge military camp, which has not been seen in the steppe for a long time, is spread out in the foothills of Arharly. Hidden from possible air raid in serpentine canyons and gorges, it looked like a disturbed wasp hive.Here gathered two full-blooded tumens of Dulats and only five thousand fewer than the Karakeseks. A formidable, well-trained army.
Under the banner of the united army of Usuns and Argyns, fighters flocked from all over the steppe. The Turks were eager to restore their former power, the avengers who lost their relatives and friends in the war with the empires, the dehkans groaning under the heel of the conquerors … all who could hold weapons responded to the call of the two most powerful clans of the steppe.
Bai and merchants with a generous hand opened their money-boxes, giving away what they had acquired for equipping the army.It is clear that neither China, nor Russia, and even more so Britain were not interested in the supply of modern weapons to the steppe. But the world did not end with three empires, and for money French rifles, German tanks and cannons, Korean missiles and even Japanese attack helicopters poured into the expanses of Desht-i-Kipchak.
Never before has the steppe gathered such a strong army. A large army was armed with the latest technology, and hired specialists in electronic warfare, work with unmanned aerial vehicles, sappers and an engineer perfectly complemented the formidable turdahauds and kaskyrs.
– Where ( swat in Turkic ), what do you think to do?
– Abulkhair, brother, we must wait, I believe in this boy, he could not just disappear.
– Time passes, and Askerzade’s nukers are getting more and more impudent. And then, the resettlement of the Karakalpaks, stopped by Chholm, is about to start again.
– What does Emir Mirzali say?
– His relatives accepted the words about the coming of the Emperor’s successor, but want to see him with their own eyes.
– A legitimate desire, especially considering how many failed trials and impostors history knows.
– Tyr, can we start all by ourselves? Your turdahauds and my kaskars can do a lot.
– You saw the relatives, neither the Turfans, nor the Yakuts, nor the Buryats … could not come to a final agreement. Without them, the new state is doomed. And all agreements are tied to the knowledge of Chhol.
– But maybe just start by fighting the Adai? And there …
– This is an option, but I hoped that Chinhwa would stop the wave of the Karakalpaks, imagine that as soon as our tumens leave their nomad camps, a two hundred thousand horde will rush to the lands of the east.What will your kaskyrs do?
– They will leave the army and return to defend their homes.
– My turdahauds will do the same, no matter how loyal the warriors are to the clan, the duty to the family and native land will outweigh everything.
– Then what is left?
– Wait, the forces are gathered, and we are ready, as soon as he appears, we will immediately begin.
– I’m afraid now we are like a bow with a stretched bowstring, but there is rain ahead and will we have time to shoot before the veins get wet? Wouldn’t the late hit be weak?
– Maybe, brother, maybe.But I see no other way out.
The territory between the possessions of the Argyn Clan Union and the Adai clan.
– Emir Mirzali from the subjects of the Emperor came the promised cargo.
– What did the Jinhwa brothers give us?
– Military equipment of the finest quality. Warm platoon tents, stoves, field kitchens, plastic wall molds, barbed wire and mines. There are many products, basically all of a long shelf life: stew, canned fish and vegetables, cereals, pasta, dried and canned vegetables and fruits …
– And what about weapons?
– There is not so much of it, so far only small arms: automatic rifles, machine guns, hand grenade launchers, anti-tank guns.They promise artillery, some tanks and infantry fighting vehicles. But here we ourselves are a little to blame, Son Woo previously asked how many prepared artillery crews and crews for armored vehicles we have. Our headquarters was delayed in answering, so the composition with heavy weapons is still in the formation stage.
– Punish those responsible for the hitch, in which century someone gives the clan a heavy weapon, and we cannot organize?
– I will, lord. We need money to hire a team of repairmen and form a mobile maintenance station, we also need trucks with tanks for fuel, tractors, cranes …
– What is all this for?
– Chinhwa threw off the staff of the armored brigade, we act on their orders, they have a fairly well-thought-out system for organizing combat units.
– Well, let’s rely on them, we have no experience in using such large formations of armored vehicles.
– But our people gave Jinhwa recommendations on the use of jeeps in the steppe.
– How could you help them there, they have excellent equipment?
– Something on the choice of models, and dustproof.
– I see. How many fighters are under arms?
– Three thousand infantry, but its number continues to grow at the expense of congeners from Kokand who flock to us. Many have heard of the successful test and want to be the first to join the Emperor.
– Well, there are not so many of them.
– Some of the clans believe that the mangyts invented everything, ha-ha-ha … fools.
– As always, people are ready to believe anyone except the true ruler, until he took the land into his strong hands, and then they will say that almost their clans raised the Emperor on a white felt … about Chol Jinhwa.
– Emir, Jinhwa lost the battle.
– What is known about the Emperor?
– Nothing, but he is not among the dead.
– They cannot keep the mentat, so soon the true ruler will be at home. Strengthen the work with our relatives in Kokand, let the videos of the test of Chhol Jinhwa reach every Karakalpak.
– In addition to videos with his tests, we thought to do interviews with eyewitnesses, for example, many people know Aman’s bagatur as an honest person, few would doubt his words.
– Yes, and the aksakals have authority among the clans, a good idea. Just pick up real eyewitnesses, carefully check the biography and glory of those who will defend the honor of the Emperor.Not a shadow of doubt should fall on your videos, no editing, no adjustment, the way the picture will not be so perfect, but no one doubts its truth.
– Everything will be done, Honorable Emir.
– Before you start the videos, bring them to me for viewing.
Somewhere in the Pacific Ocean.
EQUIPMENT / RENT Atyrau The first in Atyrau Computer Studio “ORYS-ADAY” Olegzhan Atanasov
Atyrau, Guryevskaya st., 5 (House of Trade Unions) office 12, opposite the trading house “Azhar”
Everything related to sound.
We will record any musicians and singers, professionals and even amateurs can, we will provide any help,
we will record those who can play musical instruments: dombra, guitar, kobyz, button accordion, accordion, violin and many others,
we will record high-quality phonogram (backing track) of any complexity of songs on CD or mini-discs,
for singers and musicians a huge selection (about 85000) of original phonograms (backing tracks)
we will record your voice, even if you sing poorly, we will edit and make yours voluminous voice (as if you are singing in a concert hall),
we will record any national melodies or arrange for any of your songs or compose any melody,
we will record for you any Kazakh songs for KARAOKE in Kazakh with video image,
we will record on a CD your congratulations and wishes with any songs for any holiday,
we will record a commercial for radio and television, with the use of various effects (sounds of nature, birds singing, animal sounds, wind, thunder, rain, noise of the sea, explosive, screeching and much more),
we will record a choice of disco music on CDs or mini discs, we have about 35000 cafes and restaurants,
we will write down any congratulations and wishes, as well as declarations of love on CD (CDs) and mini-disks,
for computers there are Kazakh, Russian, foreign songs and video clips in MP3, WAV, MID
we will rewrite any songs of your choice from any audio or video cassettes to any CD (CDs) and mini-disks,
we will rewrite any songs of your choice from any cell phones to any CD (CDs) and mini-disks or vice versa ,
we will rewrite songs of your choice from mini-discs to any blank CDs (CDs) and mini-discs,
we will make musical greeting cards with your photos and wishes in different languages,
we will restore recordings of noisy songs or recordings and voices from any old records and even from reel-to-reel, dictaphone, square, audio and video cassettes, we will cut out noises, filter and record on CDs,
we will restore quiet and weak recordings in video cassettes, increase the volume and record high-quality sound,
will restore scratched, soiled, shuffled, stopping in places, not playing and even erased CDs (compact discs).
We do everything related to video.
we will record on any CD, VCD and DVD any video films and TV broadcasts of any TV channels,
we will shoot any family videos, stories, documentaries, weddings, anniversaries and any other celebrations and we will record on any videotapes or CD, VCD and DVD, professional digital video shooting,
we will make from any of your videotapes a short film about the bride and groom, about the hero of the day or the birthday man, we will make professional computer editing using computer graphics, titles, special effects, overlaying any songs, photos, commentary behind the scenes, inserting video clips from several different videotapes and much more and burn it on CDs in the following formats: CD, VCD and DVD,
we will make from your even old, torn black and white photographs and turn them into a color short film with commentaries and lyrical songs about the memory of a deceased person ,
we have special screens, size 3 x 2 and our very a large screen in the city of 6 x 4 meters, a high-contrast video projector, amplifiers, speakers and radio microphones, in any halls of cafes and restaurants we install our equipment and show our short films at weddings, anniversaries, commemorations and other events,
we show our short films or humorous videos about the bride and groom, about the hero of the day or the birthday person, and after watching the film, we can connect our video camera and during video shooting for the guests present, the entire process of the event is immediately shown on the large screen we have installed – live broadcast, the effect is stunning ,
we will remove and make any of your video clips and burn them to CDs in the following formats: CD, VCD and DVD,
we edit any of your damaged video tapes: cut out bad spots, restore a bad image, make color from black and white, delete various noises, increase the sound, and more.etc.,
we will edit any video still frame from any videotapes and from any hidden video cameras, we will enlarge and print any color photo,
we will rewrite from any of your videotapes to VCD and DVD or vice versa – from VCD and DVD to any videotapes,
we will rewrite video files of any format from any of your cell phones or from any digital cameras to any VCD and DVD discs,
we will rewrite any of your finished computer presentations to different CDs, VCDs and DVDs, or we will make them ourselves,
we will rewrite finished videos, video clips or different computer programs to a blank CD,
we will rewrite from any small ones to any videotapes or CDs: CD, VCD and DVD,
we will record for you any Kazakh songs of your choice for KARAOKE in Kazakh with video image,
we will restore scratched, soiled, scratched, stopping in places, not playing and even erased DVD (compact discs)
9000 2 All samples of our products you can see in our Computer Studio “ORYS-ADAY”
Our First computer studio in Atyrau is located in the House of Trade Unions on the street.Guryevskaya, 5
opposite the Azhar trading house.
Ethno-confessional council under the Governor of the Astrakhan region
(Based on materials from A. Syzranov “Ethnic groups and ethnic groups of the Astrakhan region.” Reference book, Astrakhan, UMC NK 2008, – p. 72)
, who moved to the interfluve of the Volga and Ural rivers in 1801 (resettlement continued until 1803). The main initiator of the Kazakh migration was Sultan Bukey, the son of the Khan of the Younger Zhuz Nurali.
He brought 5 thousand wagons (families) to the Volga-Ural interfluve, and then another 1,265 wagons arrived. This is how the Internal, or Bukeevskaya Horde (also Kirghiz-Cossack, Kirghiz-Kaysak ) was formed. This state entity, although it enjoyed internal autonomy, was directly dependent on the Russian Empire. The territory on which the khanate was located was the property of Russia, and the khan was considered to be in the service of the Russian emperor. In 1812 Sultan Bukey, who had already been proclaimed as a khan by representatives of the clan nobility in compliance with the ancient ritual of being raised on a white felt mat, was officially approved in this status by the imperial administration in St.Uralsk.
After the death of Bukei in 1815, the khanate was ruled as regent by Bukei’s young son Dzhangir, Sultan Shigai, Bukei’s brother. In 1824, Dzhangir, who ruled the Horde until his death in 1845, was elevated to the khan’s rank. And although the khan’s power was not restored after him (the “Provisional Committee for the Management of the Kyrgyz Horde” was created to govern the Kazakhs), the question of appointing a new heir to the khan did not act in government bodies until the mid-1850s. Since that time, we can talk about the final abolition of the Bukeev Khanate and the beginning of a new period in the history of the Bukeev Horde.From the middle of the XIX century. and until 1876 the Bukeevskaya Horde was administratively subordinate to the Orenburg Governor-General, and from 1876 to the Astrakhan Governor.
Bukeevsk Kazakhs led a nomadic life and were mainly engaged in nomadic cattle breeding. Auls roamed, which numbered from 5 to 10 or more wagons, making up one family. Each aul had its own travel routes and wintering places (kystau). Sheep, horses, camels, goats, cows, rams were raised. Hunting and fishing played an auxiliary role.The Kazakhs were often engaged in transport fishing, hired on fishing boats. Trade with Russians, Armenians, Tatars, Germans occupied an important place in the economy of the Bukeev Horde. Trade centers were fairs in the Khan’s Headquarters, in the village. Bolkhuns of the Chernoyarsk district of the Astrakhan province, in Guryev, Uralsk and in Astrakhan. The Kazakhs traded in cattle, leather, wool, sheepskins, goat down, animal skins, and immediately at these fairs they bought bread, morocco, silk, cloth, furs, canvas, coarse calico, sugar, tea, iron products, etc.
The “capital” of the Bukeevskaya Horde was the Khan’s Headquarters (present-day Urda settlement, West Kazakhstan region of the Republic of Kazakhstan). The origin of this village was laid by Khan Dzhangir, who built himself a large house in Ryn-Pesky. The ruler’s example was soon followed by some bai (rich) and sultans. In the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries. the population of the Headquarters consisted of Kazakhs (nobles, scribes, servants, day laborers), Russians (Astrakhan and Ural Cossacks, officials, merchants), Tatars (merchants), Armenians (merchants).The Headquarters had a mosque, an Orthodox church, a men’s school, shops, residential buildings, and a fair.
The Kazakh society of the Bukeev Horde was divided into two main classes:
1. “white bone”, which included the khans and their descendants, the sultans, who trace their clan back to Genghis Khan. They ruled over the people, were free from paying taxes and corporal punishment. Khojas, the descendants of Muslim saints freed from taxes, were also considered to be the “white bone”;
2. “black bone”, t.that is, common people, nomadic pastoralists (sharua). They paid taxes in favor of the khan; only those who had special tarkhan letters given for merit, family foremen, Kyrgyz shepherds who were hired by the Ural Cossacks did not pay. The “black bone” was heterogeneous in its social and property status: the poor and the rich bai stood out.
Representatives of the Muslim clergy – mullahs – stood somewhat apart.
Kazakhs since ancient times adhered to the Sunni Islam of the Hanifi madhhab.However, many researchers of the Bukeev Horde have repeatedly noted the weak position of Islam among the nomads. Khan Jangir pursued a consistent policy of Islamizing his subjects. So, in particular, during his reign, Tatar mullahs were actively invited to the Horde, the number of mosques and Muslim schools – mektebs – increased. At the beginning of the XX century. in the Kyrgyz steppe of the Astrakhan province, there were 120 mosques (although most of them were located in nomadic dwellings – yurts) and 84 mektebs for teaching Kazakh children.However, along with the consolidated positions of the “official” Islam, the Astrakhan Kazakhs still have a wide range of ideas and customs rooted in or closely intertwined with pre-Islamic traditions that were influenced by the Muslim religion. These are, first of all, Islamized shamanism (baksylyk), animistic beliefs, the cult of ancestors, the cult of saints and their graves (aulya, avliya), rituals of making rain (kudai zhol), etc.
Kazakhs were divided into tribes, clans (ru), clan divisions.The clan composition of the Bukeevsk Kazakhs as a whole resembled the clan composition of the Younger Zhuz, in which there were 27 divisions. But out of the three main tribal groups of this zhuz – “bai uly”, “alim uly” and “zhete ru” – in the Volga-Ural interfluve mostly Bayulins moved – 14 clans, incl. adai, alacha / alasha, baibakty, berish / bersh, zhappas, issyk, mascar, issentemir, kyzylkurt, nogai, tana, Circassian / sherkesh, taz, tylengut. Ru Alimulins (in particular, the whale) are found to a lesser extent, and from the last group of “zheteru”, the most frequent are representatives of rubyns and tama.
At the end of the XIX century. there were 205 820 Kazakhs in the Astrakhan province. After most of the Bukeevskaya Horde went to Soviet Kazakhstan (from 1920 – the Kazakh ASSR, from 1936 – the Kazakh SSR), the number of Astrakhan Kazakhs naturally decreased as well. However, during the second half of the XX century. its steady growth was observed: in 1959 there were 70 thousand Kazakhs, in 1989 – more than 126 thousand, in 2002 – more than 142 thousand. Today Kazakhs are the second largest population group in the region.They live in the city of Astrakhan and in all districts of the Astrakhan region, numerically prevailing in Volodarsky and Krasnoyarsky. The best traditions of the Astrakhan Kazakhs are being revived and developed.
In 1990, the Astrakhan Regional Society of Kazakh Culture and Language “Zholdastyk” (“Partnership” or “Commonwealth”) was formed. N.S. Iskakov, who has been the head of the society for many years. The society began to work actively in the following areas: the development of the national language and culture, the promotion of Kazakh traditions and holidays, work with young people, the creation of mass media in the Kazakh language, etc.Thus, from 1990 to 2006, the local television program “Atameken” (“Land of the Fathers”; originally called “Zholdastyk”). There were broadcasts in the Kazakh language and on the radio. Since 1991, the company has been publishing the newspaper “Ak Arna” (“Clean Spring”).
The Society has done a great job to awaken national consciousness among the masses, revive the customs and traditions of the Astrakhan Kazakhs. So, in particular, since 1991, the spring holiday Nauryz has been celebrated annually in the Kazakh villages of the region.The youth sections of the society are actively working at the Astrakhan State Technical University and the Astrakhan State Medical Academy.
Since 1991, the Astrakhan Pedagogical School has been training teachers of the Kazakh language for primary classes. In 65 schools of the region, in places of compact residence of Kazakhs, the Kazakh language is taught by subject or optional. In 2003, the specialty “teacher of the Kazakh language and literature” was opened at the Astrakhan State University.
The Society regularly holds “Days of Kazakh Culture” and other events dedicated to the memory of the Kazakh composer Kurmangazy Sagyrbaev (1823-1896, or 1806-1879), his student, dombra player Dina Nurpeisova (1861-1955), writer and poet Abai Kunanbayev (1845- 1904), writer Mukhtar Auezov (1897-1961).
In 1996, in the village. Altynzhar, Volodarsky district, the grand opening of the Kurmangazy mausoleum took place. Almost ten years later, in 2005, the Interstate Cultural Center named after V.I.Kurmangazy, which became a good base for the development of the cultural heritage of the Astrakhan Kazakhs and the strengthening of friendly relations between the Astrakhan region and the Republic of Kazakhstan. And on December 13, 2008 in Astrakhan, in the center of the square formed at the intersection of Sovetskaya and Kalinina streets, a bronze monument to Kurmangazy was unveiled. The monument was a gift to the Republic of Kazakhstan for the 450th anniversary of Astrakhan.
 Traditionally, the Kazakh people consists of three zhuzes (Kazakh.zhuz – “hundred”, “part”, or “union”): Senior (Uly zhuz), Middle (Orta zhuz) and Younger (Kishi zhuz). The Kazakh zhuzes had the following features 1) internal regional unity; 2) ethnic unity; 3) cultural and economic community; 4) community of political leadership. Also, each zhuz had its own historically developed space, territory. The Senior Zhuz has Semirechye (Zhetysu) and South Kazakhstan, the Middle Zhuz has Central, Eastern and Northern Kazakhstan, the Younger has the lower reaches of the Syr Darya and Western Kazakhstan.
 In the past, there was confusion in the Russian ethnic terminology in the use of the names “Cossack” (“Kazakh”) and “Kirghiz”; Kazakhs from the beginning of the XVIII century. they called them “Kirghiz-Kaisaks”, later “Kirghiz-Cossacks” or, more often, “Kirghiz”, and the Russians called the real Kirghiz “Kara-Kirghiz”. In addition, the ethnic name “Cossack” could be mixed with the name of the Russian military class (Don Cossacks, Siberian, Astrakhan, etc.). The true self-name of the Kazakh people – “Cossack” – remained in the Kazakh language and in the language of other peoples of Central Asia (while the two ethnic names – “Cossack” and “Kirghiz” – were never mixed).In the Russian language since the 1930s, in order to avoid the previously existing terminological confusion, the name of this people began to be pronounced and written as “Kazakh”.
NOVOSILTSEV Luka (Lukyan) Zakharovich
NOVOSILTSEV Luka (Lukyan) Zakharovich
Prominent diplomat, messenger to the Crimea, envoy to the Empire and Poland.
Repeatedly carried out important diplomatic missions.
On November 28, 1567, together with Semyon Alyabyev, delivered to Moscow the first message about the contacts of the Mari rebels with the Crimean Khan Devlet-Giray. In it, Russian diplomats A. Nagoy and F. Pisemsky reported to Ivan the Terrible that in April 1567 “came from Nagai to the tsar in the Crimea [Ko] be an ulan and his brother Koshtevlei Uhlan, and with them from Kazan people from Sotsky from Adai Yes, from Kachak Mamichberdeev’s son and from all the meadow cheremis, Adayev’s brother Togilday was sent to the king with a letter. And the dei wrote to the tsar of the sottsk, Adai da Kochak, the son of Mamichberdeev and the whole meadow cheremis so that the tsar would send the tsarevich with military men to them. And how the prince will come to them with the military people, and they de want to retreat from the tsar and the grand duke.And they want to proceed to the prison of Kazan, and around the village in all, the Moscow servicemen will be ours. And we have sixty thousand meadow cheremis in our collection. And like de Kobe the ulan and his brother Koshtevlei the ulan and the Adaev brother Togilday came to the Volga and taught how to tinker and they came on the transport of the fugitive Nagai murza Kaziyev people and de smashed them. And Kobe Uhlan and Koshtevlei Uhlan left, and Togilday de Adaev’s brother on the Volga drowned. And the letter to the king from the Kazan people was on him. ” Therefore, the Nogai ambassadors could not present the Kazan charter, but only told the Crimean Khan about its existence.
In the mid-70s of the 16th century, Ivan the Terrible was among the contenders for the Polish throne and NOVOSILTSEV in August 1575 carried several royal letters to Vilna. But the main task was to “find out firmly” the mood of the gentry, what kind of “intent” they had on the Livonian and electoral issues, about which there were “links” with Turkey, Crimea, Sweden, etc. It was also instructed to conduct separate consultations with the leaders of the Lithuanian nobility – Y. Hotkevich, M. Radziwill and others. Thus, Novosiltsev’s actions within the framework of the “election campaign” of the Russian tsar can be regarded as intelligence.The tsar still could not decide on real participation in the struggle for the Polish throne and continued to test the waters.
In 1585 he went to Prague with secret instructions from Boris Godunov and Shchelkalov. Godunov was well aware that the death of Tsar Fyodor, who was weak in health, would lead to an instant collapse of his power. In search of a way out, he entered into negotiations with the Austrian court. According to Y. Zaborovsky, a member of the embassy, in Prague the ambassadors learned about the fatal illness of Tsar Fyodor and were imbued with the confidence that upon returning to Moscow they would not find him alive.As a result of the Prague negotiations, the ambassador secretly agreed with the Austrians that in the event of Fedor’s death, the widow Queen Irina Godunova would marry one of the brothers of the Austrian emperor, who would become the prince and crowned king of the Muscovites.
Yassine Bunu won Girona over Valencia – Rambler / sport
All four representatives of Spain in the Champions League played their 11th round match on Saturday. Valencia’s rival was Girona.
Minutes of the game
49 ‘Pons Pere (0: 1)
Neto Murara • Wass Daniel 85′ (Torres Ferran (85 ‘) • Garay Esequiel • Gabriel Paulista 78’ • Gaia Jose 28 ‘• Soler Carlos 73’ ( Bachuayi Misci (73 ‘) • Coquelin Francis 36’ 84 ‘(Gameiro Kevin (84’) • Condogbia Geoffrey 80 ‘• Guedes Goncalo • Rodrigo Moreno • Santi Mina
03 November.Mestalla Stadium (Valencia).
“Bats” in the new season show amazing statistics. Denis Cheryshev’s team drew eight times out of ten in the national championship and twice more in the Champions League. A more peaceful team cannot be found. And then Marcelino Garcia Toral’s wards have only one victory in the Spanish Championship. Hence the 14th line of La Liga, weak chances of continuing the fight in the Champions League. Bad results, to put it mildly. This week we managed to get hold of the second Victoria of the season.Santi Mina’s double in the Spanish Cup beat the modest Ebro.
Girona is higher than Valencia in the standings, two points ahead of the bats. But to the match with “bats” Eusebio Sacristana came up with colossal personnel losses. Lozano was disqualified, Mojica, Adai, Grandel, Porto, Iraisos, Haunpe and, most importantly, Christian Stuani were injured. “Valencia” at the home arena set a goal at all costs to beat “Girona” in order to overtake her in the standings.“Bats” could not help the Russian midfielder Denis Cheryshev.
But the Portuguese Gonçalo Gedes, who recovered from an injury, appeared at the base. The first dangerous moment of the match was not created by him. Francis Coquelin, 15 minutes after the start of the match, unloaded his cannon from a long distance. The shot of the Frenchman on the corner was transferred by Yassine Bunu, making the first save of the match. In the next attack, “Valencia” excelled, but Rodrigo’s effective strike was made from an offside position. The Spaniard took advantage of Garay’s discount, but the offside position was indeed canceled and the goal was correctly canceled.
Valencia continued the pressure and failed to score phenomenally in two situations. First, Rodrigo closed the flank cross, checking the reaction of Yassin Bunu, but the goalkeeper again played at the highest level. And then Gedesh declared himself for the first time. But with a minus sign. Carlos Soler fired a great shot from the flank, Gonçalo shot the goalkeeper in touch, but Bunu deflected the shot with his feet. Yassin managed to get up and finish off Santi Mina when the ball hit the crossbar.
A little earlier there was another canceled goal of “Valencia”.Jose Luis Gaia shot at Kondogbia, who rebounded from a defender and sent the ball into the net. Everything would be fine, but the Spanish defender was already shooting from outside the field.