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2 LAX cargo handlers arrested, charged in theft of gold bars worth $224K
Two men who worked for a cargo handling firm at Los Angeles International Airport were arrested Tuesday morning to face charges that they stole $224,000 worth of gold bars being shipped to New York, prosecutors said.
South L.A. residents Marlon Moody, 38, and Brian Benson, 35, have been indicted by a grand jury on one count each of conspiracy and theft of foreign shipment, the U.S. Attorney’s Office in Los Angeles said in a news release.
They were taken into custody without incident by special agents with the FBI and were expected to make their initial appearances in federal court in downtown L.A. Tuesday afternoon.
The four gold bars stolen were part of a larger shipment from Australia, and Moody is accused of taking them after part of the cargo got separated from the rest when it arrived at LAX on April 22, 2020.
Both men worked for Alliance Ground International, which provides ground handling services at the airport.
A Canadian bank had shipped 2,000 gold bars, each weighing a kilogram and valued at around $56,000, via Singapore Airlines. During a layover at LAX, the gold was removed from the plane and secured, but an inventory check that evening showed one box of 25 bars had gone missing, prosecutors said.
The following morning, Moody allegedly discovered the missing box near the Singapore Airlines cargo warehouse and subsequently took four of the bars.
Benson picked Moody up in a company van, and the two exchanged texts about Moody’s stash of gold because others were in the van, officials said.
When they left work, the defendants met up at a nearby parking lot and Moody gave Benson one of the bars, according to the indictment.
Moody had allegedly left the box with the rest of the gold on a conveyor belt, and other cargo handlers found it later that day, prompting an investigation into the four missing bars.
Moody is accused of giving one of the bars he stole to a family member a few weeks later, asking them to exchange it for a car or money. Prosecutors say he buried the other two in his possession in his backyard.
The FBI was able to recover all four of the stolen gold bars within about two weeks, authorities said.
The defendants could each face up to 15 years in federal prison if convicted on both counts.Close Modal
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Paradise Lost: The Rise & Fall of Surfridge
“On down the coast lies Palisades Del Rey … where, legend says, pirate ships used to hide their booty and themselves for shelter from the fury of the sea and pursuing vessels. Palisades Del Rey is now a modern residence town unmindful of its stirring past.”
The last remnants of Los Angeles’ most exclusive ghost town are about to disappear. However, the ghost town known as Surfridge is not home to dusty saloons and tumbleweed. It was, at its heyday, known for Mediterranean estates with opulent courtyards where you could hear the scratchy echo of the Charleston.
Currently, Surfridge is a fenced-off boneyard that overlooks Dockweiler Beach. You may have noticed it as you travel north along Imperial Highway. A few desolate streets and random lampposts remain, wearily marking this forgotten seaside community.
As the popularity of historical dramas on television proves, there is something captivating in uncovering the past. The history of Surfridge offers enough nostalgia and drama to fill several seasons.
The evolution of a community and its civil politics will engage Vegas fans. The scenic locations are as lavish as those in Boardwalk Empire. At the core of the narrative is a diverse array of characters to rival the ensemble of Downtown Abbey. Our cast includes the early stars of Hollywood, displaced homeowners and the El Segundo Blue Butterfly.
SEASON ONE: THE EARLY YEARS
At the turn of the century, Playa Del Rey (known then as Palisades Del Rey) was aptly named King’s Beach. A beautiful coastline, oil-rich soil and miles of unspoiled dunes made it a destination for real estate developers, oil diggers and tourists.
In 1921, the firm Dickinson & Gillespie purchased a three-mile stretch they would develop into Palisades Del Rey, Surfridge Estates, Del Rey Hills and Surfridge. They constructed homes modeled after a Spanish aesthetic with the sensibility of a high-end resort. Every home had a red tile roof and ornate tile work, and featured an exterior and interior layout to enhance each home’s particular view.
Real estate developer Fritz Burns, a mastermind behind the project, also imported palm trees to flank the entrance. It was an easy sell; the rich and famous flocked to Surfridge for a piece of paradise.
The seclusion of the developments appealed to actors and directors, and their presence added cachet to the neighborhood. Residents included William de Mille, Cecil B. DeMille, Charles Bickford and Mel Blanc. In the early days, actress Mae Murray built a mansion on the beach, where she held lavish parties that lasted for days.
It was a community that embodied the good life in every way. Decades before celebrities were spotted on the bluffs of Malibu, stars of the silver screen took retreat in the dunes above Dockweiler.
A neighboring area east of this playground was also attracting the spotlight. Mines Field, a 640-acre parcel of farmland, had become a venue for people to enjoy air races and shows that were popular in the ‘20s and ‘30s. These events drew large crowds.
Along with participants Charles Lindbergh and Amelia Earhart, attendees included Marion Davies, Will Rogers, Bill Boeing and Donald Douglas. It was an exciting moment in 1928 when the Los Angeles City Council selected Mines Field as the site of a new airport for the city, and the farmland was transformed into dirt landing strips.
SEASON TWO: THE PRICE OF PROGRESS
Surfridge flourished from the late ‘30s through the late ‘50s. Dickinson & Gillespie suffered as a result of the Great Depression and sold their interests to the bank. Fritz Burns lost his own mansion and lived in a tent on the beach until he rebuilt his fortune.
But the economic stability of wartime and post-war industry allowed families to purchase parcels of land and build their dream homes. According to resident, local history buff and author Duke Dukesherer, Surfridge was “the castle on the hillside.”
Dockweiler was a popular surf spot while he was growing up, and he recalls that beach-goers would inevitably gaze up at Surfridge. Everyone dreamed of living there.
Meanwhile, the airport grew, and the scope of its rapid evolution overwhelmed the surrounding communities. It remained a relatively sleepy spot until World War II, when it was used as a manufacturing area for military aircraft.
By the 1950s, the jet age was underway, as advances in technology revolutionized air travel. Planes became much larger and significantly louder. International and domestic air travel was booming. There was a steady flow of construction to accommodate additional terminals and parking lots.
By the 1960s, it was evident that the airport’s expansion had taken a traumatic toll on its neighbors. The noise of the new jumbo jets was deafening, and the air was filled with soot from the giant engines. Families complained that they had to limit their time outdoors, and some experienced respiratory difficulties.
The airport was aware of these concerns, yet they needed to expand, so the city of Los Angeles decided to purchase or condemn neighboring houses by an act of eminent domain. By 1961, the acquisition process, described by the airport as a measure for “noise abatement,” began.
The first phase, Playa Del Rey, started in 1965. The second phase, Playa Del Rey Island, got underway in 1970. And by 1981, the third phase, North Playa Del Rey, was still in process. Residents faced selling their property to the city or relocating their homes.
According to Duke Dukesherer, Surfridge homes were transplanted all over the city—from Long Beach to Palmdale. He had several family friends who sold early and made out well, but apparently this was not typical.
Some homeowners were able to get acceptable compensation, relocate their homes and receive reimbursement for moving expenses. However, as the years passed, the entire acquisition process became inconsistent and problematic. Property values fluctuated, vacated homes invited vandalism, and neighborhoods were physically and emotionally ripped apart.
Residents sued the city of Los Angeles in 1968, claiming that their property value had decreased due to airplane noise. Studies showed that the noise levels were dangerously high.
But without the environmental considerations and standards we now have in place, the homeowners were easily overlooked. Judge William Levit ruled that the noise was not “of a substantial nature” and that residents “must bear a certain amount of inconvenience, unpleasantness and noise as the cost of living in one of our modern cities.”
The appraisals themselves proved to be contentious. An unidentified spokesperson from the real estate agency retained for the acquisitions stated, “As a public agency, we had to pay market value and retained outside appraisers to be sure there was no bias involved. Of course, market values went sky high between the beginning of the program and the end, and some homeowners might disagree that they were given fair market values.”
That was the case, as residents later discovered that homes were rated against property standards from the city of South Gate and that homes without views were appraised at the same rate as homes with views. Ken Haggstrom, a Playa Del Rey realtor, stated that most homeowners sold at prices averaging $5,000 under market value (in 1968). He summed up the community ire: “A man shouldn’t have to go to court to get a fair price for his house.”
The tensions continued, especially for homeowners who remained and waited for the axe to fall. Those who were part of the later phases or chose to wait it out (when market value had dropped) suffered the most.
One resident who lived by a home that was slated for removal summed up the challenges of that scenario: The construction company parked their trucks so they blocked the view by day and ran noisy equipment during the evening hours. And houses that were to be relocated had to be transported quickly because of looting. Residents reported that airport workers and vandals were often seen driving through the neighborhood, helping themselves to stray lumber and discarded lighting fixtures.
Some homes were broken into; it was common for windows to be broken and appliances to be damaged or missing before moving crews arrived. Residents noted how lonely it was to be stranded in a vanishing community.
Many residents eventually viewed Surfridge as a bitter landmark they could not forget. There were accounts of marriages ending and homeowners who left the state in order to get the bad taste out of their mouths. They also bemoaned the lack of support from local officials, noting a profound sense of disappointment in how the project was handled by the city.
It was certainly a tragic end for the families that called Surfridge home and for many of the historic homes that were destroyed. The entire community was fenced off by the ‘80s and became what you see today. It has been described as a ghost town, an eyesore—and has always remained an enigma.
A small piece of Surfridge remained open to the public—a patch of the dunes where locals would watch the planes take off and land. But the airport closed it after 9/11. The final piece of Surfridge was officially lost at last.
A colorful map showing the residential development at its prime.
SEASON THREE: RETURN OF THE BUTTERFLIES
The saga of Surfridge has a positive ending, or rather, a new chapter. In 1986, the airport created the Dunes Restoration Plan to return the dunes to their original occupants, the El Segundo Blue Butterfly—the first insect designated as an endangered species in 1973. The butterflies survive on coastal buckwheat that grows on 200 of the 300 acres of the remaining undeveloped land adjacent to the airport.
Some residents view the attention to a butterfly preserve with skepticism; some want the remaining 100 acres to be open to the public. And developers once submitted plans for a nine-hole golf course to share the property.
Dr. Travis Longcore of The Urban Wildlands Group, a non-profit organization that works to protect native species and habitats in urban areas, was a key player, along with the California Coastal Commission, in monitoring the butterfly colony and the airport’s activity on the site. The Coastal Commission sued the airport when they learned they had planted non-native palms and plants on the site without a permit.
As part of the settlement, the airport proposed several projects to counteract the environmental damage that lay in its past. They will allot $3 million toward air quality studies, increased soundproofing for surrounding areas and research into alternative fuel development.
Dr. Longcore advocates a restoration of the remaining acreage as well, stating “The El Segundo dunes are incredible, because there are these unique species there that aren’t found anywhere else. It’s not just the butterflies. There are some rare plant species; there are some rare insect species. It’s a real ecological treasure. The whole 300 acres needs to be in conservation.”
Another project allows the airport to remove the remaining infrastructure of Surfridge and restore it to its native habitat. Robert Freeman, environmental manager at LAX, says that upon approval of their restoration plan and granting of a permit by the California Coastal Commission, they can finally remove the asphalt and prepare the soil for seeding.
They hope to begin this phase by April or May of this year. The prospect of opening the property to the public once again is not on the horizon; Freeman claims it is too problematic. He does hope that perhaps they can build a wall around the perimeter as a space for public art and surround it with a trail.
And what about those plans for a golf course? Freeman asserts, “We quickly determined that was not a good idea. That’s not going to happen.”
Surfridge, a glamorous neighborhood that once lured starlets and became a wasteland of so much heartache, will once again be a home. Without the presence of developers, the ghosts of wasting infrastructure and non-native plants encroaching on this unique habitat, we should all hope that the butterfly population will flourish and grow. That is the way to end a good historical drama marked by so much loss … with the promise of a new beginning.
Lacrosse: West girls state bound after fending off Chattahoochee
The Wolverines came out on fire, starting the game on a 7-0 run. Kiefer said that the early lead to be so big was unexpected.
“It was surprising because Chattahoochee is a really good team,” Kiefer said. “We get out on top of people and then our depth gets in the way because we can’t sub in the people that we would like.”
However, Chattahoochee began to figure things out offensively, scoring two goals late in the first half to enter halftime down 9-2. The Cougars then started the second half on a 6-1 run to bring the game as close as 10-8.
Kiefer said he thought that the big lead knocked his team off-kilter to start the second half and that the Wolverines became complacent. However, he remembered saying before the game that if the defense could hold Chattahoochee to under 10 goals, West would win the game.
So, when Maggie Bruce scored the 11th goal of the game, Kiefer’s prophecy became reality. Chattahoochee scored one last-minute goal, but it was too little, too late.
“Our girls are used to being in chaotic environments because we work on it at practice,” Kiefer said. “We do better in chaotic environments rather than no chaos.”
Five separate Wolverines scored double-digit goals in Tuesday’s win. Cami Merkel had a team-high three goals and Jenna Burrow led the Wolverines’ offense with two assists, along with two goals. Bruce, Noelle Kirley, and Madison Houlberg each scored two goals.
“This is unreal,” Burrow said. “It’s still processing.”
Tuesday’s win marks West’s 20th victory of the season and the team’s 17th in a row. Their last loss came March 2, when they first played Chattahoochee, losing 13-12.
The Wolverines will now get a chance at revenge against the only other team they have lost to this season, Georgia high school girls lacrosse powerhouse, Milton.
West’s first loss of the season was a 10-9 loss to Milton. Milton is undefeated on the season, but their next closest margin of victory was an 18-12 win over Hillgrove, so West has been by far their most formidable opponent.
“We have to put everything into the game,” Burrow said. “I think that we made it this far says so much already. Whatever happens, we worked hard for it.”
The Class 6A-7A state championship game is scheduled for 2 p.m. Saturday at Denmark.
“It’s all about being accountable and being responsible for yourself,” Kiefer said. “Since we’ve played them before, we know what they can do. Let the best man win now.”
3-3 pressure zone ride – LAXPlaybook
The 3-3 Pressure Zone Ride is a set that triggers prearranged responses from the riding team as the clearing team makes decisions with the ball.
– The first objective for the riding team is to make sure everybody is back to prevent fast breaks.
– As the clearing team starts, everyone should sluff over to the side of the ball as if connected by a string or like in the way a foosball table works.
– Once everybody riding is back and in position the Attacker A1 can jump the ball carrier. Since A2 and A3 are sluffing over to fill for A1 the team is purposefully leaving the far side of the field open.
– A1 should take special care to use proper angles, sort of like a shepherd dog or a hunting wolf or lion, and use the sideline as “an 11th man”. Notice that A1 should not run directly at the ball-carrier but rather should play the LS inside out ensuring that if the LS runs he will have to go up the sideline.
– A1 should have his butt to the sideline when he addresses the ball carrier.
-If A1 is playing the ball carrier the long pass for the LS far side would be extremely difficult to execute. If the long pass is made the riding Middie should be able to step up and the riding LSM would sluff over to fill for the middie who jumped.
– If the ball carrier instead throws a shorter pass to the goalie, A3 runs forward to pressure the goalie and prevent a quick pass up the field. A2 sprints hard across the field at a good angle to contain the far side and A1 drops back preparing to reset back in to the 3-3, which will fully happen when the goalie makes the easy, logical pass to one of the defensemen to his left or right and A3 can drop back.
– The result is we are right back where we started… almost — the clearing team now has burned a few seconds and has less time to advance the ball. The process can be repeated again and again until the clearing team runs out of time, the referee calls a failure to advance penalty, and the riding team is awarded the ball.
Chicago Daily News and Carl Sandburg Report the Chicago Race Riot of 1919
“Says Lax Conditions Caused Race Riots”:Chicago Daily News and Carl Sandburg Report the Chicago Race Riot of 1919
As U. S. soldiers returned from Europe in the aftermath of World War I, scarce housing and jobs heightened racial and class antagonisms across urban America. African-American soldiers, in particular, came home from the war expecting to enjoy the full rights of citizenship that they had fought to defend overseas. In the spring and summer of 1919, murderous race riots erupted in 22 American cities and towns. Chicago experienced the most severe of these riots. On Sunday, July 27, white bathers attacked several black youths swimming near one of Lake Michigan’s white beaches, resulting in the death of an African-American boy. Five days of intense racial violence followed, claiming the lives of 23 black and 15 white Chicagoans, with more than 500 others wounded and thousands of black and white citizens burned out of their homes. A plethora of news reports and editorials offered instant analysis and helped shape local and national attitudes. On July 28, 1919, the Chicago Daily News printed this article by noted poet Carl Sandburg on its front page. Unlike most white reporters, Sandburg relied on black sources in researching his articles. The Chicago Daily News‘s reporting on the riot was generally considered the most evenhanded of the city’s daily newspapers, yet even it inflamed tensions by printing unsubstantiated stories. For example, the same front page included a “bulletin” that recounted supposed African-American plans to retaliate against white rioters.
Says Lax Conditions Caused Race Riots
Dr. George C. Hall Blames Politicians for State of Affairs
Charges that colored officials have not properly protected their race and have permitted lax conditions which resulted in the race riots of to-day and yesterday were made to-day by Dr. George C. Hall, 3488 South Park avenue, one of the best known colored men of the city.
Dr. Hall declared that an unwise police policy was at the bottom the cause of the outbreaks. He said that a serious political situation exists in the ward by reason of the fact that the two colored aldermen are responsible to white politicians rather than to the voters who elected them.
“In the first place, the police had no business to undertake segregation, of bathers with no ordinance or warrant of law or any form of consultation of the people concerned” said Dr. Hall. “The action of the police in this instance may be traced back to the same conditions that permit to flourish at the present time to an extent never before known in recent years. The segregation line on the bathing beach was drawn by the police. Then when a boy got over the line and trouble arose, the police immediately spread their men out through the district. Wherever colored people were in the habit of congregating peacefully squads of policemen were placed. They drew the color line and followed a policy precisely as the authorities do in Georgia.
“The colored people have simply been sold out by colored leaders. Our leaders are in the hands of white politicians. That is the whole situation in a nutshell. We need representatives who are strictly representative, who are responsible first of all to the people of the ward. ”
Ministers to Meet Alderman.
The two colored aldermen from the 2nd ward, Maj. R. R. Jackson and Louis B. Anderson, have been invited to appear before a joint meeting of Baptist and Methodist colored ministers this afternoon. There will be a discussion and an inquiry as to responsibility for the affair of yesterday.
In several churches in the colored residence district of Chicago the congregations were dismissed last night without services being held. The cabarets and clubs, however, did business up to the limit of 1 o’clock in the morning. Dreamland, 3518 South State street; the DeLuxe, upstairs at 3503 South State street; the Entertainers at 209 East 35th street, and the old Elite at 3030 South State street, all had bright lights and big crowds. At 12:30 Monday morning two white men and three white women in various stages of intoxication made merry for the squads of police at 35th and State streets. Complaints made to the police that the action of mounted police squadrons patrolling the colored district was not having a quieting effect apparently had results as at 2 a. m. the mounted squadrons were withdrawn.
Sent Parishioners Home.
“When I went to my church I saw squads of police officers on the streets and learned there was trouble,” said the Rev. J. F. Thomas, pastor of the Ebenezer church, 3629 Vernon avenue. “I was a little fearful of what might happen after dark and told the members of my church to go to their homes while it was still daylight and to be quiet.
“To me and to most of my people this trouble comes very suddenly. Among our people and over the city in general, as we knew about it, we did not expect an outbreak of violence. On Sunday just a week ago I preached a sermon on a circular issued by the I. W. W. I told my people we must stand against violence in every form that we must stand by law and order no matter what happens. I don’t care what the past has been; it won’t help us to jump in for revolutionary ideas.”
Dr. L. K. Williams, pastor of the Olivet church, at 31st and South Park avenue, where squads of mounted police clattered by while religious services were being conducted, said that attendance was the smalled last night of any night in the last year. A joint meeting of Baptist and Methodist colored ministers from the entire city is being held this afternoon at the old First church of the Livet congregation, at 27th and Dearborn streets. They represent 35,000 church members.
Caused by Racial Prejudice
“It appears to me that the best information at hand indicated that this had its origin in or was occasioned by the same old thing, race prejudice, race restriction, which essayed to express itself by stopping two colored boys from bathing or swimming in a certain locality supposed to be pre-empted by white bathers,” said Dr. Williams to-day. “It was but another expression of force to take away from the members of my race the right granted to us by law. Let the best white and colored people come together and form a program that will protect us all and save this city’s fair name.”
Charles E. Fox, president of Kenwood and Hyde Park Property Owners’ association which had been dealing with problems in connection with the influx of colored people in white residence districts of the south side, prepared the following statement on the recent occurrences: “The rioting of yesterday emphasizes the need of intelligent co-operation on both sides. Both can be blamed for this unfortunate occurrence. Violence will not help to solve the problems of the races. Some real constructive action at this time tending toward the creation of a commission to adjucate differences arising from time to time will do much toward solving the problem. Both races have rights and the rights of each should be respected by the other.”
Carl Sandburg, “No Protection Is Given,” Chicago Daily News, 28 July 1919.
300 Armed Negroes Gather; New Rioting Starts; Militia Next
Chief Garrity Promises Delegation to Give All Possible
Protection; Colored Passengers Dragged from
Cars and Chased by Mob.
Peron on 26th Street and in Stockyards District; Police Say
Drowned Boy’s Body Shows No Evidence of Violence; Beach Deserted.
Three hundred negroes were reported at a late hour this afternoon to have congregated at South State and 35th streets. Many of them are armed and it is believed that they intend to start an immediate attack on whites of the neighborhood.
Promise Negroes Protection.
Chief of Police [John J.] Garrity this afternoon promised a delegation of prominent colored men, headed by Former Alderman Oscar DePriest and Dr. George C. Hall, that he would call in the state militia if new outbreaks of race warfare in the “black belt” should prove to be beyond the control of the police department and the reserves. He assured them that he would do his utmost to protect the negroes.
Two stabbing affrays this afternoon ushered in what the police said would be a renewed outbreak of rioting, which began with the coming home in groups and gangs of colored and white workers. Preparations were being made by the police to cope with any new violence in the south side districts.
Henry Lee, colored, was assaulted and stabbed in the back at Throop and 31st streets by three white men. Policemen found him lying in the street with three wounds in his back. He was rushed to the People’s hospital.
A short time later the police were called to South State and West 35th streets where a gang of negroes had attacked Thor Schneiderbeck, white, 4319 6th avenue. Schneiderbeck suffered serious injuries in the abdomen. He, too, was taken to the People’s hospital.
Riots Break Anew; Raid Cars.
Numerous new outbreaks of race warfare, following in the wake of last night’s clashes between whites and negroes in the “black belt,” were reported to the police stations in the south side district to-day. One riot call after another was received, and patrol wagons were kept busy all morning.
A gang of white men who had gathered at Canal and West 26th streets held up street cars on the 26th street line and compelled colored passengers to get off, chasing them out of the neighborhood. Their attitude toward the negroes became so menacing that street car conductors warned colored passengers from riding beyond Wentworth avenue for fear they would be seriously injured.
Negro Hit with Brick.
Thomas Byrd, colored, 3332 South Park avenue, was pulled from a street car and struck with a brick. He suffered bruises on the head. A call for the police was sent in and three men were arrested. Charles Hammerstein was charged with having hurled the brick, while J. Milosvice and Sam Morelli were charged with disorderly conduct.
Several white men attacked three colored passengers of an east bound 31st street car at South Halsted street this afternoon, injuring all three of them. Michael Laffey, 19, 2945 Loomis street, was arrested as the ringleader. Those attacked were: John Davis, 503 Aldine square, scalp wounds; Mrs. Charles Williams, 4564 South State street, and Verlaine Snyder, 3002 South Park avenue, bruised about the body.
Dr. J. U. Turner, a colored health department inspector, living at 1926 Winnemac street, was attacked by five white men at south Halsted and 35th streets. He was reading a newspaper when they charged. However, when the men saw his star they turned around and tried to get away.
Dr. Turner chased them and captured one of the men, who gave his name as Henry Rosin, 19 years old, 1404 Fuller street. A riot call was sent to the Deering street station and Rosin was taken into custody.
Mayor Thompson May Take Hand.
It is expected that Mayor Thompson will confer this afternoon with south side political leaders who are supposed to be in close touch with the racial situation in the 2nd and 5th wards, and it is possible that if the disorders continue he will have a statement to make before the day is over. It is known that one city hall leader considers the situation so critical that he intends to make a special appeal to the mayor to take action.
George F. Harding Jr., city comptroller, who is believed to enjoy the confidence of the colored people on the south to perhaps as great an extent as any white man, said he considered the situation serious, though he believed the reports of rioting had been exaggerated. When asked what he would suggest as the best means of quelling the disturbances, he replied:
“Let the police do their duty. They should handle the situation firmly and show no favoritism toward white or black people.
Arrest All Who Violate Laws.
“If a colored man or a white man disobeys the law he should be arrested. I think that if the police department does its duty, the outbreaks will not be serious.
“I heard of the trouble yesterday and started out for a personal investigation. I was surprised at the order that seemed to prevail everywhere I went, and concluded that the trouble was not as serious as reported. I walked from 39th to 22nd street along the breakwater and did not see one fight.”
At to-day’s session of the city council’s police committee Ald. John H. Passmore of the 3rd ward introduced a resolution that would empower the police in districts where race riots occur to search all suspicious individuals for weapons and disarm them. He said that only by preventing the promiscuous use of firearms could the city be guarded against the recurrence of riots of a serious character.
The Stock Yards police station received a riot call from Halsted and 51st streets, where it was reported negroes had been attacked by white men. When a patrol wagon reached the scene, no disturbance was in evidence, but Robert Barchton, colored, 5019 Princeton avenue, was found lying in the street. Four of Barchton’s front teeth were knocked out and his face was bruised.
He told the police that a crowd of twenty whites had attacked him, and had escaped after beating him. He was taken to his home.
Another disturbance was reported at West 23rd street and Wentworth avenue, where Robert Reynolds and George Martin, two negro boys employed by the Postal Telegraph company as messengers were attacked by a group of ten white men. They fled to a bicycle shop at 2331 Wentworth avenue, where the proprietor, Edward Jackson, sheltered them in a rear room, while he notified the Deering street police.
Bathing Beach Deserted.
The bathing beach at East 29th street, where the riots started yesterday with the appearance of several negroes on the beach used by the whites was deserted to-day. Not a single swimmer was in the water, and the only persons in evidence were two policemen patrolling the water front.
A careful examination of the body of the unidentified colored boy—who was drowned, it is said, when he was thrown from a raft by rioters yesterday—showed no bruises indicating that he had been attacked, the police announced. They declared they believed the boy drowned when he got into deep water.
While feeling was reported running high between the races, the first battles of to-day, centering around West 35th, West 36th and West 37th streets and Wentworth avenue, were reported to be minor in character and the police said the situation was under control.
Five hundred policemen were being held in reserve to check any rioting, while fifty mounted policemen and 100 patrolmen have been assigned to special duty in guarding the district.
Negroes Attack White Men
The first report of trouble after daylight to-day was that a white man, walking along Wentworth avenue near West 35th street had been attacked by negroes. Other white persons in the vicinity joined in the fight.
When the Deering street police arrived they found the situation quiet, but Policeman Philip Groak had in custody Moses Thomas, colored, 3002 South State street. He was said to have started another disturbance by drawing a revolver and firing several shots at white men passing by in a truck on their way to work. No one was hit. Groak heard the shots and rushing to the place, saw Thomas with a revolver in his hand. The crowd had disappeared when the police arrived.
Five riot calls kept the Deering street police on the run, disturbances being reported also in the neighborhood of 36th and South State streets and West 36th and Wallace streets. Police of the Cottage Grove avenue station were given orders to search every colored man on the street for revolvers and not to allow whites or negroes to congregate in groups of more than three persons. Three patrol wagons and an ambulance are being kept parked in front of the cottage Grove avenue station today, ready for any emergency.
“Everything is ready to meet any emergency,” said Capt. Mullen of the Cottage Grove station. “We do not expect any further serious trouble, and with the special police that have been assigned to the district any disturbance that might arise would be easily overcome.”
Source: Chicago Daily News, 28 July 1919.
See Also:”A Crowd of Howling Negroes”: The Chicago Daily Tribune Reports the Chicago Race Riot, 1919
“Ghastly Deeds of Race Rioters Told”: The Chicago Defender Reports the Chicago Race Riot, 1919
“The Problem” and “Family Histories”: Charles Johnson Analyzes the Causes of the Chicago Race Riot
“Chicago and Its Eight Reasons”: Walter White Considers the Causes of the 1919 Chicago Race Riot
The Veteran Leadership of Hampden-Sydney’s Mike Daum
(Submitted Photos/Design by Matt Cain)
Mike Daum was sitting on the side of a mountain in Northern Afghanistan when he shared a dream that seemed a world and a lifetime away.
“You know what’d be really cool right now? I’m pretty sure it’s Memorial Day Weekend rolling around,” Daum recalls. “How cool would it be to strap it up for a national championship? Those guys are living life.”
Daum is now 25 and a proud veteran of the U.S. Army’s 82nd Airborne Division. He’s a husband. He’s seen combat and taken enemy fire and jumped out of airplanes.
He’s also a sophomore for the Hampden-Sydney lacrosse program, a shorstick d-middie and a psychology major.
“What made me want to play again was the guys I served with. They were a lot of former athletes. A lot of them could have played in college or did a little bit. We’d joke about me getting out and how cool it’d be if I can go play,” Daum says. “Me being a competitive guy, I wanted to play again, but those guys I served with are a huge reason for why I play. It’s a game, but doing something that a lot of people don’t get the chance to do, I see it with a different light.”
Daum says he has “the knees of a 90-year-old man.” He jokes he’s two inches shorter —only 5-foot-9 to start — than when he enlisted. Jumping out of airplanes in a combat zone will do that to you.
He’s humble to the point of self-deprecating; he defers praise to the fellow members of the 82nd. He loved his service and the opportunity to see combat, but he doesn’t glorify his role or share the details of hardship and tragedy.
“I don’t want it to sound like we’re a bunch of Vikings over there in the Middle East,” he says. “I know a lot of pretty badass guys. We did some pretty cool stuff that will come out 30 years from now. A lot of it’s still under wraps, but some really cool stuff.”
He enlisted in the Army in 2016, completing Basic Training at Fort Benning in Georgia, then went to Airborne school, joining the 82nd in Fort Bragg, not far from where grew group up near Raleigh, N.C. He was put in a recognizance company and went to Northern Afghanistan in 2017.
“Our role was to facilitate, to keep the peace. We did a lot of security operations, controlling territory, facilitating. We were mainly quick reaction force, or QRF. If anything popped off in our area, we would go handle and diffuse that situation. That was our day-to-day. Being prepared, doing patrols. We ran other security missions, and we transported and protected some high up people in the government and NATO,” he says.
There was combat, and like most who come out, he’s taken a physical toll. He’s got a bad shoulder, his knees are in rough shape. He’s been a part of close calls and come out the other side, but those physical scars still exist.
“We rolled around in the sand a little bit,” Daum says. “We weren’t in a friendly place. I was fortunate to come out of there without too many scratches. Other guys weren’t as fortunate.”
He found organized lacrosse in elementary school, the day after he was kicked out of Little League for running over the catcher at home plate. From there, he had issues of Inside Lacrosse Magazine plastered to his wall while athletics dominated his childhood.
He was a two-time captain at Apex (N.C.), a product of a military family with numerous uncles, cousins and grandparents serving in the Army. So, it was peculiar when he didn’t enlist or go to a school where he could play college sports, instead enrolling at East Carolina University, trying to “kinda be a normal kid.” John Hayden, his coach at Apex and one of the architects of the youth lacrosse scene in the area, knew right away it was a mistake and that his tenure at ECU wouldn’t last long without some sort of higher goal.
“I knew it wasn’t going to be enough for him. He’s wired for a lot more. I knew he was going to miss the team stuff. I was the least surprised person in the world when he told me he was enlisting. He has a lineage of service. He really wanted to aim for something high,” Hayden says.
“I always had some sort of mission, objective, working toward something, whether that was in sports or something else,” Daum says. “When I was in limbo land in [college], I stopped going to class and all that stuff. I felt lost, without a purpose.”
Hayden saw first-hand Daum’s impact on a team, from youth lacrosse to a state championship at Apex. His sophomore year, it was a talented team, but the leadership wasn’t there. Daum came in and shook things up.
“There are certain guys who are just, if you can get a few guys like this, it can set the whole thing up for success. Mikey was always one of the guys. Everybody liked him. But his agenda was not to make friends. … He was just unapologetic. When some guys were trying to coast — it was one of those years — he would just put it out there every day, every minute. He rubbed guys the wrong way, and he just didn’t give a crap,” Hayden says. “Mikey was chest out, look anybody in the eye, ‘I don’t care if you’re a senior or a sophomore.’ He’s just instinctually known what a team needs. The next year, we won a state championship with a talented group, but real good leadership.”
In the summer of 2018, Daum was back at Fort Bragg, having made the decision to transition out of the Army. He joined Hayden in coaching at Apex, and more and more the conversation shifted to “I’d love to play again. I’ve got more in me.”
Hayden’s son, Jack, is two years younger and had just finished his junior year at Hampden-Sydney. He was the Tigers’ second-leading scorer in 2020, behind Jared Medwar. Both are returning for 2021.
At lunch during a camp one day, John Hayden suggested he put in a call to coach Jason Rostan — and soon after, Daum was a Tiger.
The Army gave Daum another chance to earn an education — and to be a part of a team.
“One of the beautiful things about the Army is you’ve got the GI Bill. That’s Uncle Sam paying your way. I looked at it as, ‘If I’m going to school, I’m going to go to the best school I can.’ Hampden-Sydney was definitely up there,” Daum says.
Daum was familiar with Hampden-Sydney, having been recruited a little bit out of Apex in his summers with the Tar Heel Lacrosse Club. When he visited the day after Hayden made contact, he decided right then that he was going to attend.
He was impressed by the Wilson Leadership Center and by Rostan. The admissions process moved swiftly despite it being the summer, and soon after Daum and his fiancé, Kimberly, were moving.
“I chose Hampden-Sydney for a lot of reasons — the academics, the really good athletic history, but also I love the culture here. A lot of the schools, people say they produce skillsets. You’re going to learn a skill. You’re going to do great and make a ton of money. At Hampden-Sydney, they develop leaders. I remember them saying that to me on my visit,” he says. “The Wilson Leadership Center here focuses on creating good men and good citizens and preparing people to lead in all aspects of society.”
That fall of 2019, Daum was a 24-year-old freshman with a beat-up body, out of lacrosse shape and playing a sport that has significantly changed since he last played competitively in 2014.
“You don’t have U strings anymore?” he recalls. “I was getting away with murder back in the day with a pinched Proton Power and two U strings.”
The speed was shocking. He could walk 20 miles in Afghanistan carrying heavy baggage, but sprinting back and forth at lacrosse speed was completely different. He was slated to be a shortstick d-middie, a departure from his offensive role in high school.
“I definitely had moments where I thought, ‘I’m a little over my head.’ Playing shortie, I’m the target for everybody. I felt responsible, being in a D role, being the guy who’s going to get dodged at. There’s a lot of pressure and responsibility. I can’t get burned when I step out onto the field, I’ve got to do something about this,” he says.
But he got to work, earning a significant role. He played in six games before the 2020 season was shut down.
“I remember he moved up to Hampden-Sydney a few weeks before school started with his fiancé,” Rostan says of Daum. “He’s got a service dog with him, and I’d look out my window, and there he is with no shirt on sprinting up and down the hill. He was a little raw Day 1, but he worked and worked and worked.”
For Daum, his heart is wherever he can be a part of a team. From 6 years old playing peewee football, it’s where he’s felt most comfortable and had the most success.
“I’m not the smartest guy in the room, I’m not the most athletic, but there’s something about being on a team and working to a collective goal. Whether athletics or in the military. I thrive in those environments,” he says.
He loved the military. He loved his combat service. He loved the grunt work, like being a private and a heavy machine gunner, having to carry all the heavy stuff as the new guy. He rose to a senior team leader in his platoon, in charge of six to eight soldiers within a platoon system.
The patch on the 82nd Airborne uniform says “AA.” That stands for All-American, because when the division was constituted in 1917, it had members from all 48 states. It was a unit filled with all kinds of former athletes, and it was his fellow soldiers who looked up the eligibility rules and got him down the path to playing back home.
“I enjoyed the military, and I did well because I’m a team guy. There are tons of parallels. A lot of the guys I served with in the military played college sports, were All-Americans, were team captains, the military attracts those kinds of individuals,” he says.
“The U.S. military is, in my opinion, the best and highest level of teamwork you can get to. My high school, growing up playing sports, prepared me for the military. But I think the military really prepared me to come back and play again. Which is something I never thought I’d get the opportunity to do. I’m definitely starting from the bottom, being a role player. I’m a shorstick d-middie. I have no glory. I was a hot-shot offensive guy in high school. Now, I’m 40 pounds heavier and seven years older than I was. I’m not the same guy I was. But the military taught me how to get in where I fit in, find what I need to do right now.”
He fills a unique role for Rostan’s team. A veteran newcomer and someone who wants to be one of the guys, but who also has a house, got married in August and has life experience no one else on the team understands.
He makes time to go out with his teammates, to be their friend but also be a mentor and leader. Hayden describes him as both a vocal leader but a servant leader. He sets an example, he takes care of the young guys, and he will do anything to win. Daum says he has plenty of nicknames, from “the old guy,” to “uncle Mike” to “Blue” from Old School.
“He provides a really good balance of, he’s not out all night. We’ve had older guys in the past on the team, and those guy who were in that different phase weren’t participating in that social stuff and maybe a little bit of an outcast. Mike understands the balance,” Rostan says.
“This is their team. Their journey is my journey. Why would a 25-year-old want to be friends with an 18-year-old? When you’re on a team, it’s different. It’s important for the guys to see me as one of them, rather than some old guy they’ve got around,” Daum says.
He aspires to be a head coach at a good program, and his dream is to be on staff of the U.S. National Team. In the meantime, he doesn’t have allusions of being the leading scorer, or the star player whose name is in lights. But he has his role for a team that can compete for an ODAC championship.
He has his team, and when adversity hits, they have him.
“I learned what actual physical hardship is. What being tired is. Having to perform under harsh circumstances. When things get tough, we’re in a close game or working through an injury, it’s a walk in the park compared to northern Afghanistan,” he says. “We’re playing CNU, not the Taliban on Saturday.”
Photos courtesy of Daum and Hampden-Sydney. Above, Apex alums Jack Hayden, Tommy DeLuca, Mike Daum and coach John Hayden.90,000 Asia Coming to Russia?
The end of April and the first days of May 2021 were marked by a new war in the post-Soviet space. On April 28, on the Kyrgyz-Tajik section of the border in the village of Kok-Tash, Batken region of the eponymous region of Kyrgyzstan, there was a clash between citizens of the two countries. The conflict began at the Golovnoy water intake section. Bishkek assures that the node is an important strategic object of Kyrgyzstan, Dushanbe is convinced that it is built on Tajik territory. The clash escalated on April 29 into large-scale battles between the border guards of Kyrgyzstan and the military of Tajikistan, with attacks on border posts and settlements in the Batken region of Kyrgyzstan.12 border villages of Kyrgyzstan were subjected to artillery bombardment. The fighting took place on April 30 and May 1.
On the evening of May 1, the parties signed a protocol on a ceasefire and the withdrawal of troops. According to fergana.ru, during the border conflict, 36 people died and 183 were injured. More than 33 thousand people were evacuated from the conflict zone. The Internet edition Asia-Plus, citing its sources, reported 19 dead and 88 injured from the Tajik side. On the territory of both countries, dozens of residential buildings and public buildings were destroyed.According to the decree of the President of Kyrgyzstan, May 1 and 2, 2021, were declared days of national mourning in the country.
What is the reason for this small war? Could destabilization of Central Asia begin? Are post-Soviet autocracies sustainable? How does Russia see its role in the region? How is Russia’s borrowing of authoritarian practices going?
Discussing Professor of the European University in St. Petersburg, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Orientalist Sergei Abashin , political scientist Arkady Dubnov.
The program is broadcasting Mikhail Sokolov .
Video version of the program
Mikhail Sokolov: In our Moscow studio of Radio Liberty we have a guest from St. Petersburg, professor of the European University in St. Petersburg, Sergei Abashin, and on Skype, political scientist, specialist in Central Asia, Arkady Dubnov. The question is, in fact, about these events that took place before our eyes for the May holidays, what are the roots of this small war in Central Asia?
Sergey Abashin: In fact, the roots of these events are quite old, ancient, one might even say.These are the regions where there are some conflicts, now the conflict unfolded around water, conflicts around water have always been here. Because it is an arid region where water is the main economic resource. Sources record conflicts at the beginning of the twentieth century, even before the national demarcation, in Soviet times they continued from time to time, they were in the 1970s, and there were victims. It cannot be said that the Soviet era settled all these problems. In the post-Soviet period, they continued and even began to grow.From time to time there were casualties, that is, people died quite regularly. The current situation, on the one hand, is a continuation, reproduction of the old conflict, on the other hand, it has acquired a certain new level and scale.
Mikhail Sokolov: Speaking specifically about this point, from where the conflict began. I know that you were once in this region, you saw it with your own eyes. What is it, what is this bone of contention in this case? There is a large Tajik village Vorukh, a road that both sides, as I understand, consider theirs, some kind of water distribution center, for which people fought, roughly speaking.
Sergey Abashin: The main problems are not only at this point, there are several points where the problem is, firstly, the exclave or enclave nature of some settlements. In particular, Vorukh is in fact now an exclave, that is, this is the territory of Tajikistan, which is separated from the main mother body of Tajikistan by a small gap, which is formally controlled by Kyrgyzstan. This road is a place of controversy. It is clear that the Kyrgyz border guards or the Kyrgyz police can always close it, there are some problems.Plus, the road in Kyrgyzstan itself from the western to the eastern part just passes through the Tajik territory, there is no other way to go.
Mikhail Sokolov: In Soviet times, this did not matter, of course, but now there is a border.
Sergei Abashin: Plus, these infrastructures, roads that are connected with customs, border guards, and crossing these roads are overlaid with the problem of water. There is a lack of water, water from one river is distributed to different countries, not only Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, but even Uzbekistan.Therefore, there are constant disputes, firstly, who controls this distribution, how fair this distribution is. Maybe you remember that the conflict began due to the fact that Tajikistan tried to hang cameras in order to watch when they close, when they open this water intake, so that water goes either to the territory of Tajikistan or Kyrgyzstan, whether those who are in charge of this lid, water. And water is the main resource of the region. All the peasants live, apricots, apricots in our markets – this is just from that area, grown on this controversial water.This camera was supposed to follow, some country didn’t like it. Apparently, water was distributed there not in the way it was written in some documents.
Mikhail Sokolov: Arkady, your view of this situation, how did it start? Was it in some way provoked by some bright statements or in some other way?
Arkady Dubnov: Firstly, I want to express my condolences, dozens of those killed, a lot of wounded, a huge number of people have lost their homes, tens of thousands of people just turned out to be evacuated, internally displaced persons, refugees.The tragedy, one of the most significant, the most dramatic over these 30 almost post-Soviet years.
I’ve just been working on this region all these years, I think this is one of the most significant tragedies in Central Asia these years. In the late 1980s, such a wonderful poet Naum Korzhavin came to Moscow from emigration, once I met with him, complained that perestroika had gone wrong in the Soviet Union. He looked at me condescendingly and with such the wisdom of an old Jewish poet says: “You know, Arkady, where people live, it never happens well.”
What Sergei Abashin was talking about, very elegantly, very simply, very exhaustively said, what is the problem there – people live there who always need water for life, need land for life, they are trying all the time to somehow solve the arising Problems. In Soviet times, they solved these problems in one way or another. Yes, there were clashes, we did not know about them then, and those who knew do not remember. Now this is superimposed on the relationship of the residents of the two countries, which have become independent sovereign states with their own borders, the saddest thing is with their ambitious leaders, who, unfortunately, often use these conflicts to assert their absolute power, increase falling ratings, or to finally establish the power they have just acquired, which must thus gain popularity among the population by confirming the right to be a sovereign and responsible leader.
You asked if the statements of some leaders contributed to this. I know that people there are jealous of the statements, take offense, but the truth is, in my opinion, that this is not just a conflict – it is a conflict that was provoked by the careless statements, on the one hand, of the new Kyrgyz leaders, on the other hand , the categorical reaction to these statements from the Tajik side. People whose intolerance is simply unusually high, the level of tolerance, the level of tolerance is practically zero, there is nothing to say, not just to react with stones, but to use weapons, he is monstrous.
This enormity of immediate reaction leads to this war. I’ll just give you one fact: on April 29, the second day of the conflict, when a war with the use of weapons actually began, as a result of only one mortar strike from Tajikistan, 25 people died on Kyrgyz territory near the water distribution point. Such a massive blow was made either pointwise, or accidentally, but the main thing is that it was not a blow with stones – it was just mortar fire. And if we add to this the air raid, helicopters from the Tajik side, this inadequacy of the reaction, of course, is extremely indicative of the level of aggressive hostility from both sides.
Yes, of course, it should be noted that this is the desire of the new Kyrgyz leaders to very quickly show their effectiveness, I just remind you that Sadyr Japarov came to power only a few months ago, and his main colleague Tashiev, the head of the State Committee for National Security, the National Security Committee, took over a very difficult mission, we must pay tribute to him, to resolve border conflicts, disputes not only with Tajikistan, but also with Uzbekistan. He seems to have brought the dispute with Uzbekistan to serious success, but the residents of Kyrgyzstan, those settlements that, according to these agreements, had to give some plots of their land for a reservoir as an element of exchange, they rebelled.He backed down, refused the promises given to Tashkent.
This weakness of a person who is considered the highest, the most notorious defender of Kyrgyz sovereignty in Kyrgyzstan, suddenly made a strong impression, firstly, on the Kyrgyz, and on the other hand, it gave reason, apparently, as an attempt to correct it, to make very inadequate statements. which became a trigger for the already Tajik side. He said that Kyrgyzstan is ready to build a reservoir that will save water for the Kyrgyz and prevent this water from being used on the Tajik and Uzbek sides.This, of course, sounded completely unintelligible. Such a statement can be considered a trigger for the Tajiks, who finally decided to put an end to such allegedly irresponsible behavior of Tashiev. But it was a rhetorical statement after all, not an action. I don’t think it would have come to construction.
In the same way, Tashiev made a mistake in the national ardor, saying that the Vorukh enclave has long been the place where Tajiks lived, there are about 40 thousand of them today, and is subject to exchange. That is, he offered the Tajik side an exchange for another territory.This angered the Tajiks now, and can also be considered a trigger. This intolerance, which instantly became a reason for the Tajik side to resolve the issue on earth once and for all, to some extent even reminds me, sorry for the liberty of analogies, the recent situation with the Karabakh war, when the careless statements of the Armenian leader made it possible for the Azerbaijani side to use these rhetorical exercises as a basis for full-scale military action, solve the problem already on the ground.
This readiness to fight in the 21st century is, of course, amazing. This suggests that we will have to witness a lot of such tragic conflicts. In a sense, I am beginning to think that Central Asia is becoming a powder keg for Eurasia, just as the Balkans were for Europe at one time. We are witnessing very dangerous events. The wisdom of these leaders has not yet been sufficiently demonstrated to somehow stop this slide.
I really did not like, very alarming statements from, say, the Prosecutor General’s Office on the part of Kyrgyzstan and on the part of Tajikistan, of course, aimed primarily at the internal audience, in which the other side is accused of aggressive actions, external aggression, and so on.At this point, the rhetoric should be muted at all, but here a certain pretext is created for accusations at the highest international level – this does not contribute to reconciliation. I don’t know what would be better to do, but it certainly doesn’t contribute to peace.
Mikhail Sokolov: I read that the border of Kyrgyzstan with Tajikistan is 972 kilometers, 519 are agreed, 375 are not agreed. Are these really insoluble problems to find a common language, to change something? Some small areas are one thing, but on the other hand, when a Kyrgyz politician said that an entire enclave needs to be resettled or exchanged, but it probably looks too bold?
Sergei Abashin: I agree that this was not just a bold statement, but it was provocative, not diplomatic.Such things, even if they are being discussed, perhaps they can be discussed in some narrow circle, a question raised, but they are not made public. Those who followed the reaction not even of the Tajik leadership, but of the common population, the elite, the cultural elite – it was like a bomb explosion, these statements about Vorukh’s exchange. Everyone considered it a declaration of war. I agree that this was a rhetorical formula, it was not a real declaration of war, but it immediately raised the degree of mutual claims and hatred by many points.
As for the solvability, unsolvability of these issues, I think that technically all issues can be resolved, and in different directions. There are questions where you just need to settle that the border is one hundred meters here or one hundred meters here, to lay out some kind of infrastructure, for example, to lay a road through the territory of Kyrgyzstan so that it does not cross into the territory of Tajikistan. Or really some small villages.
By the way, this happened between Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan that there were such villages, they were controversial, they lived there in a checkerboard pattern, they decided what was transferred to this country, all residents of another country who retain their citizenship were evicted.This is, perhaps, about tens, about hundreds, but when it comes to tens of thousands, this is, of course, impossible.
There is another way of solving – this is the strengthening of integration, generally removing the problem of borders. This is the most radical solution, but it is beneficial to everyone. Removing the problem of borders, when, as in Soviet times or in the European Union, the border does not become something that divides people into friends and foes, and this is such a place of free movement. This, of course, is an ideal option, but it is also possible in principle, because Central Asia lived in such a regime.You can actually strive for this ideal option, but it is also technically possible to solve the issue.
Mikhail Sokolov: The border can still be economically beneficial for certain groups – these are customs, security forces, and so on. They are probably less interested in the free movement of people and goods.
Sergey Abashin: The problem is precisely that the solution to these problems, which for sure exists, either technical or political, it collides with a mass of various interests of a different kind.It is clear that this border forms its own flows, firstly, control over resources, some country wants to control some resources, not only a country, certain groups of politicians, businessmen who gain access to resources through this control. Then the border itself is beneficial. I want to remind you that this border between Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan is also the border of the Eurasian Union. Accordingly, these two territories create different customs regimes. Therefore, movement, including illegal movement of goods both in one direction and in the other, is very beneficial in fact to the population, which largely lives on this movement, and to some business and political groupings.
In addition to these interests, which hinder the solution of the problem, there are political interests. Because the struggle for sovereignty, for the borders is part of any modern national ideology, the ideology of different political regimes. In the case of Tajikistan, this is the ideology of an authoritarian regime that is trying to mobilize the population, maintain its authoritarian power, and mobilize the population against external enemies in defense of their own land.
In the case of Kyrgyzstan, this is a new government that came recently, very populist and nationalist-minded, which, too, feeling some kind of weakness, because it is new and not accepted by everyone, also wants to show its popular character, the nature of the struggle for popular interests , outside the territory, outside the borders.Political regimes at the moment, of course, benefit from confrontation, at least on a rhetorical level.
Mikhail Sokolov: Probably one of the parties, I mean the Kyrgyz one, did not expect such events to take place. I read how it all happened: about 30 Tajik servicemen, three armored personnel carriers, a massive shelling of the position from mortars and armored personnel carriers accumulated at the border post. Then 200 infantry from the Tajik side attacked with shouts of “Allah Akbar”, the Kyrgyz border guards retreat.These are elements of such a local war. I think that those people who were engaged in rhetoric, as you say, the populist regime, they clearly did not expect such events. This raises the question: did Tajikistan, the Rakhmon regime want to demonstrate such real strength that they have an army, they have troops, if anything, they can capture something like that?
Sergey Abashin: Certainly. These tragic events with the death of people, destruction of property, refugees and so on, for Tajikistan it was a demonstrative action.Now no territories have been captured, even the disputed territories Tajikistan does not hold, has not seized and has not established its control. He returned to his previous positions. That is, it was an aggressive military redundant demonstrative political action. It was a show of strength, which, by the way, Rahmon managed to do. He showed that all these statements are bold by the Kyrgyz leadership, no real forces are behind them. Rahmon achieved a demonstrative effect.
Moreover, he not only achieved a demonstrative effect, but he put these populists at the negotiating table.The Kyrgyz leadership was forced to sit down at the negotiating table with the Tajik once again. They promise some kind of progress, we are waiting for what kind of progress they will have. The situation turned around like this the way it turned around. We saw that there is often no real force behind populism, it often exaggerates its own capabilities, thinking that it is playing on the internal field, mobilizing its own population, but not realizing that there are external forces that are not always tolerant, not always ready for some tolerant gestures in response.
Mikhail Sokolov: Arkady, in your opinion, how does the political regime in a particular country in Central Asia affect behavior in external relations? Rakhmon’s regime is considered a very harsh authoritarian almost tyranny, and in Kyrgyzstan something completely different, already a revolution is taking place with incomprehensible results. Which mode produces which behavior, in your opinion?
Arkady Dubnov: He gave a very precise description of these elements of the difference in political regimes that contribute to fierce confrontation.Firstly, about the bitterness that leads to ethnic clashes, in recent days there have been characteristic reports that in a number of Tajik regions with a compact population of the Kyrgyz population in the Palmyra region, attempts by local authorities to force citizens of Kyrgyzstan were recorded, there are mainly young people , they received Kyrgyz citizenship, left for Kyrgyzstan, returned back, continued to live there, because they especially have nowhere to go, they have their own land there. The Tajik authorities tried to pressure them to either renounce Kyrgyz citizenship or be deported to Kyrgyzstan.This is an extremely dangerous tendency, it threatens with a domino effect. We understand that there are regions in Kyrgyzstan with a compact settlement of the Tajik population.
This chauvinism, elements of chauvinism, xenophobia that appear in some Tajik regions, I hope that this is an initiative of the local authorities, and not the official Dushanbe, should simply be stopped at the root, otherwise it will blaze and blaze.
Regarding the question you asked, of course, look at the nature of this conflict.From the very first days, we knew from the Kyrgyz side, where freedom of information is relatively high, social networks, even newspapers work completely freely, they allow themselves to criticize the authorities, we knew about the number of victims from the very first day among the Kyrgyz, among the Tajiks we knew nothing until the last days, there were only informal messages.
This, by the way, again throws us back to the times of the Karabakh war last year, when the Armenians constantly reported about their victims due to the fact that freedom of speech in Armenia is much higher, the level of democracy is higher than in neighboring Azerbaijan, in Azerbaijan we did not know anything at all , moreover, according to the official statements of Baku: we will give the number of those killed only after the end of the war.
Therefore, this is a victory, unfortunately, both in that Karabakh war on one of the sides, and on this side, they are very identical and are determined precisely by the nature of such an authoritarian-totalitarian regime. This also leads to other consequences. Pay attention, in Kyrgyzstan, the level of civil mobilization even these days turned out to be quite high compared to the Tajik state, the level of attempts to help, send humanitarian aid, dump money, send volunteers to the disaster area, and we know about this.This characterizes the level of mobilization of the Kyrgyz, the beginnings of a civil nation, which, despite the mistakes of its authorities, is trying to somehow solve the problem, incomparable with what is happening in Tajikistan, firstly, because we do not know anything of the kind, and secondly are simply afraid to report on independent attempts by Tajiks, despite the actions of their government, to do something.
One more thing worries me, the purely foreign policy aspect of this conflict. I am afraid that this may become a kind of Rubicon, a dividing line in Central Asia, when one side will be helped by certain external forces on an ethnic or confessional basis, and the other side will be helped by other forces.We see how the brothers in the Turkic-speaking world, for example, from the United Arab Emirates, are ready to help Kyrgyzstan, on the principle that the Sunnis help the Sunnis. Iran is ready to help Tajikistan, because the Shiites, and some of the Afghan tribesmen, are also Shiites. I may be wrong, God forbid that I am wrong, but so far the situation does not seem so universal that everyone is helping everyone.
Mikhail Sokolov: Here I saw such thesis that the Kremlin stopped the escalation of events in this conflict.Is this true or not, is there a role for Russia?
Sergey Abashin: I want to say that there are also Sunnis in Tajikistan, so that the audience does not have any misunderstandings. There are loyalties based on the ideas of pan-Turkism, not belonging to the Sunnis, Shiites. I would not exaggerate, appeals to Iran and Turkey are more likely rhetoric too, and not even official, they say something on social networks, there are some statements.
Rather, now the key element is Russia, its position in this region is very important, if only because both countries are members of the CSTO.The irony of this situation, sad irony, tragic irony lay in the fact that during these events themselves in Dushanbe, which is now the chairman of the CSTO, there was a meeting of the Secretaries of the Security Councils of the CSTO countries, including a representative from Kyrgyzstan. The CSTO has not made any public statements, except for what we are observing. Both the CSTO and Russia, by the way, are not the first time, it was in 2010 during the tragic events in the south of Kyrgyzstan, when hundreds of people died, although this was an internal problem of Kyrgyzstan, they also did not use either their forces or their political opportunities, nor an official tough position in relation to these events.
Mikhail Sokolov: That is, there is an organization, but the sense from it is not visible.
Sergey Abashin: She withdrew herself. And most importantly, the Kremlin has publicly withdrawn itself. The Kremlin has made statements that we are watching, we are not for those or others. The Kremlin is interested in maintaining relations with both parties, it is not interested in solving the problem, but in maintaining its control and influence on both sides, and not quarreling with one side or the other.We see such a strange position of the Kremlin.
I disagree with those who say that the Kremlin is behind Tajikistan, others say that it is behind Kyrgyzstan, and there are even those who say that it was Biden who unleashed the conflict. I do not support such conspiracy theories, I believe that this is a man-made work of the two regimes for different reasons, with a different scale, with different consequences. We understand that here the guilt is rhetorical, diplomatic, here the guilt is military – these are different types of guilt. This tragedy is the work of two regimes.If you think about the outside world, then the outside world just demonstrates its powerlessness in the face of solving these problems. America and Europe in general have withdrawn themselves: this is Russia, which says that this is its territory, let Russia do everything there.
Mikhail Sokolov: But what about the thesis voiced by Arkady about the powder magazine in Central Asia? Moreover, the situation in Afghanistan is seriously changing, American troops will leave, then suddenly everything will catch fire next to the borders of Russia.
Sergey Abashin: I am not a supporter of such a slightly alarmist view of the situation. Because in general, to one degree or another, similar problems have always existed in this region. We remember the events of 1991 in southern Kyrgyzstan, and 2010, and the Andijan events, the rather bloody civil war in Tajikistan in the 1990s, where the order of bloodshed was an order of magnitude higher. Nevertheless, it was all somehow settled, decided, people came to a compromise.
It is necessary to understand the things that prevent such an explosion of a powder keg.First, the countries, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, do not have the resources for a serious war. They have the resources for demonstrative military actions, but they do not have the resources for war. It is incomparable with Azerbaijan, which is based on oil, receives huge funds. Secondly, it is not clear here what will be a victory. What victory can Tajikistan win over Kyrgyzstan, will it send troops to Bishkek? Or is it just victory to seize the water distribution channel, to control it? There is no victory here, all the same, all these demonstrative actions lead to the fact that all the same, the parties must sit down at the negotiating table, somehow settle.
Mikhail Sokolov: Is the internal stability of such regimes sufficient now to retain power? There is an authoritarian Uzbekistan, there is a more authoritarian Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan is a totalitarian regime. I’m not sure if they are stable enough. Something may happen at some point, this house of cards will collapse, one revolution, relatively speaking, will set fire to the next. Can this happen?
Sergey Abashin: I would not consider this now as a scenario so realistic.Anything can happen, our life has now become generally unpredictable, very uncertain. There are external factors, firstly, a new geopolitical war, we see an aggravation, and secondly, a weakening of international institutions, not only global, but also Russian ones.
Mikhail Sokolov: I would also add the pandemic factor, since a huge number of people who left for work in Russia from the Central Asian region, they now remain there, young, energetic people are also a subversive element.
Sergey Abashin: They are now slightly opening the tap, people are starting to slowly return to migration or find some other options for migration. This is a good question, but a little separate.
I would also like to say from the spheres of destabilization, remember 2014, when all the experts said that violations of the rules that were established in the 1990s, relations between countries over borders, would lead to the fact that everyone else would also want …
Mikhail Sokolov: Azerbaijan wanted.
Sergey Abashin: We see that this decision of 2014 destabilized the entire legal political situation. Now all countries thought: why shouldn’t we also use military force as an argument in some political or rhetorical disputes. We see that this creates a new situation of uncertainty.
Nevertheless, for 30 years, Central Asia, apart from the civil war in Tajikistan, has been in a more or less stable situation.Power in Uzbekistan was transferred more or less stably, in Turkmenistan it is the same. Revolutions are repeated in Kyrgyzstan, but this has also become a special kind of political system, we expect that the government will change there again, but this will not lead to the fact that Kyrgyzstan will somehow disappear or explode.
Mikhail Sokolov: In neighboring Kazakhstan, some incomprehensible transit is taking place.
Sergei Abashin: In Tajikistan, too, the regime, despite the fact that it was predicted death many times, it also has some kind of safety margin.We’ll see now, transit starts there too. This may be the most problematic country, but it will be problematic not for some kind of external aggression, but for internal conflicts. Although, apparently, most likely, with the support of the Kremlin, everything will be calm there.
Mikhail Sokolov: We will now show a survey on the situation, how people look at what is happening in the post-Soviet countries and their wars.
Mikhail Sokolov: By the way, on the Internet, the item on the risk of participation of the Russian army in these conflicts came to the fore as a threat, and in second place was the question of refugees, that refugees could flood into Russia.Arkady, you wanted to react to the previous one, apparently, to the survey too.
Arkady Dubnov: Sergei rightly said that the Kremlin will most likely play a decisive role in pacification. Of course, on May 8, the President of Tajikistan, Rahmon, is coming to Moscow, conversations with Putin will primarily concern, of course, the current situation, the collision. We remember that Tajikistan could not at one time solve the problem of the civil war without strong pressure on the same Rakhmon, still young and inexperienced, from Moscow and Tehran.The same, apparently, will happen now.
If we also take into account that the President of Kyrgyzstan will arrive in Tajikistan in 12 days, the President of Kazakhstan will come to the same place, then I do not exclude that the President of Uzbekistan will somehow take part in this, then, of course, Central Asia should be consolidated here. This simultaneously says that these two countries are really the poorest, which we recently called failed states, I would not want to repeat this formula anymore, it is generally offensive, nevertheless, they are not yet able to independently solve their problems.
I know that it is in Kyrgyzstan that a lot of people would like Russian peacekeepers, military ones, to arrive there at the borders and become a barrier. I am sure that this will not happen, not because they are not capable, but simply because then the situation becomes even more stigmatized when, without Russia, this region is not able to live independently and politically sovereign.
Mikhail Sokolov: Still, how do you see the influence of Central or Central Asia on today’s Russia? Eastern authoritarianism weighs on us.I see that United Russia has submitted to the Duma a package of laws that repress citizens for complicity in “extremist” organizations, want to prevent them from taking part in elections, and imprison them for four years for cooperation with “undesirable organizations”. Has Russia approached Central Asian standards of repression or not?
Arkady Dubnov: I think that Russia is so sovereign in its independent policy of pressure on its own opposition, or on those to whom it attributes extremist designs, that in Central Asia they can only take an example from it.
I do not see such analogies in Central Asia, so that one can be equal to it. No, I don’t see such a connection. Unfortunately, Russia today in its internal political development is setting a bad example for its allies and partners in Central Asia.
Mikhail Sokolov: Sergey, how do you see this influence of Central Asia on Russia? I still think that the examples of these states, from Turkmenistan to Kazakhstan, are examples for the Kremlin as well. These non-European practices have become established there, in the end, politicians are watching in Moscow: why not try it all, why not apply these methods?
Sergey Abashin: Here I would rather agree with Arkady Dubnov that we are more likely to observe the opposite process.The Kremlin, firstly, actively supports authoritarian tendencies, authoritarian regimes, it creates them, it supports them politically, morally, rhetorically, officially, propagandistically, with weapons and so on.
Mikhail Sokolov: It is impossible to say that these are some kind of subsidiaries, they are independent.
Sergey Abashin: Each country has its own logic. We see that authoritarian regimes are not getting stronger everywhere.For example, Kyrgyzstan, the latest authoritarian constitution, the role of the president is strengthening, but Kyrgyzstan does not yet demonstrate the establishment of a strong and strong authoritarian regime. Moscow, of course, is more interested in dealing with authoritarian regimes, so it is actively strengthening them there. Moreover, the local regimes are very actively guided by the repressive policy pursued by the Kremlin, they immediately repeat all repressive laws, ascribe some kind of logic and rhetoric.
Of course, there is also the opposite influence.You mentioned migrants, one of the problems now is, of course, this is not some huge problem for Russia, but the problem is how migrants from Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan will behave in Moscow. By the way, many migrants, both Tajik and Kyrgyz, have already received Russian citizenship, tens, hundreds of thousands of people. Therefore, how this will affect relations, some conflicts in Russia, in Moscow, how the authorities will be able to prevent or regulate the situation of hatred – this is one question.
The second question is, of course, some external forces, for example, some Islamic groups. Because we understand that various radical Islamic groups use these conflicts to build up their networks, to build up their contacts. Because disadvantaged people are thrown out, they are good victims of these networks that recruit some radical ideas. Therefore, there may also be some effects here. We observed such an effect after 2010, the strengthening of radical networks associated precisely with the events of 2010 in the south of Kyrgyzstan.This is not a destructive effect for Russia, but it can be painful problems. Refugees are also one of the problems.
If the conflict, as in the 1990s in Tajikistan, is large-scale, although I do not think that it will be, but if such a scenario suddenly unfolds, then, of course, it will be tens of thousands of refugees who will largely go to Russia, Russia needs will do something about it.
Mikhail Sokolov: I’ll still ask you head on: today’s Russia is closer to whom in terms of its political standard and style, when, it seems to me, it even copies the style of its former colonies in some way? Turkmenistan, Tajikistan or Kazakhstan, who is the closest conditional partner? Who will the current Moscow coincide with?
Sergei Abashin: The fact is that all these regimes, even our Russian regime in the 1990s, are different in the early 2000s and now…
Mikhail Sokolov: I understand, there was Uzbekistan under Karimov, but now it has also changed a lot.
Sergey Abashin: I think that the closest parallels in Russia can be drawn with Kazakhstan. This is such a regime of soft authoritarianism, which is rather repressive for the internal political system, an electoral regime that somehow depicts elections, there is some kind of small freedom of speech under a tough authoritarian regime, which nevertheless tries to interact with the world.Russia has been close to Kazakhstan for a long time. We even know that in some ways it was oriented towards Kazakhstan, Kazakhstan did some things earlier than the Kremlin, the Kremlin then followed this path. What is happening in Russia now is a difficult question. It is possible that there is some kind of evolution of a new character.
Mikhail Sokolov: We will study this evolution.90,000 Turkey condemned Greece’s reaction to prayer at Hagia Sophia
Turkey condemned Greece’s reaction to prayer in Hagia Sophia
Turkey condemned Greece’s reaction to prayer in Hagia Sophia – RIA Novosti, 03/15/2021
Turkey condemned Greece’s reaction to prayer in Hagia Sophia
Turkish Foreign Ministry official Hami Aksoy condemned the reaction of the Greek authorities to the first prayer in the Hagia Sophia turned into a mosque in Istanbul and the action … RIA Novosti, 03/15/2021
2021 -03-15T14: 26
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ANKARA / ATHENS, July 25 – RIA Novosti. Turkish Foreign Ministry spokesman Hami Aksoy condemned the reaction of the Greek authorities to the first prayer in the mosque-converted Hagia Sophia in Istanbul and the rally in Thessaloniki, the participants of which burned the Turkish flag. Earlier, Greek Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis said that the transformation of Hagia Sophia into a mosque is not a manifestation of strength, but a proof of Turkey’s weakness.Turkey is disturbing the calm by “challenging the sovereign rights of Greece and Cyprus and insulting the culture of the 21st century through such actions,” he said. “. During the march, the flag of Turkey was burned. He compared the Greek authorities “to a capricious child who fell into hysterics because prayer rugs were again laid in Hagia Sophia.” According to him, “these nationalist heads have failed to learn lessons from history.”The representative of the Turkish Foreign Ministry also recalled that Athens is the only capital in Europe where there is not a single mosque. The Hagia Sophia (Hagia Sophia) was founded by the Christian emperor Justinian and opened on December 27, 537. The cathedral was the largest temple in the Christian world for about a thousand years. After the capture of Constantinople by the Ottomans and the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453, the cathedral was converted into a mosque, but since 1934, by decree of the founder of the modern Turkish state, Kemal Ataturk, it became a museum and was subsequently included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.On July 10, Turkey’s Supreme Administrative Court overturned the 1934 decision to turn the cathedral into a museum. Immediately after that, Turkish President Tayyip Erdogan announced that he had signed a decree on the transformation of the cathedral into a mosque and the beginning of Muslim services there. On Friday, the first Friday prayer since 1934 was held in Hagia Sophia.
Hagia Sophia Cathedral in Turkey
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in the world, Istanbul, Greece, Cyprus, Turkish Foreign Ministry, Unesco, Kyriakos Mitsotakis, Hami Aksoy, the situation around Hagia Sophia Cathedral, Hagia Sophia Cathedral in Turkey, religionANKARA / ATHENS, July 25 – RIA Novosti. Turkish Foreign Ministry spokesman Hami Aksoy condemned the reaction of the Greek authorities to the first prayer at the Hagia Sophia converted into a mosque in Istanbul and the rally in Thessaloniki, the participants of which burned the Turkish flag.Earlier, Greek Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis said that the transformation of Hagia Sophia into a mosque is not a manifestation of strength, but a proof of Turkey’s weakness. According to him, Turkey is disturbing the calm, “challenging the sovereign rights of Greece and Cyprus and offending the culture of the 21st century through such actions.” July 15, 2020, 08:00 Why this monument is valuable
On Friday evening in Thessaloniki, a protest against the opening of a mosque in the Hagia Sophia, organized by the extreme right-wing organization “Sacred Squad”, was held in Thessaloniki.During the march, the flag of Turkey was burned.
“Greece has reiterated its hostility towards Islam and Turkey under the pretext of a reaction to the opening of the Hagia Sophia mosque for prayer. Aksoy’s statement.
He compared the Greek authorities “to a capricious child who fell into hysterics because prayer rugs were again laid in Hagia Sophia.”According to him, “these nationalist heads have failed to learn lessons from history.” The representative of the Turkish Foreign Ministry also recalled that Athens is the only capital in Europe where there is not a single mosque.14 July 2020, 15:36 Religion Turkey responded to the EU criticism of Hagia Sophia
“No country can teach Turkey about national sovereignty. protection “, – said Aksoy.
Hagia Sophia (Hagia Sophia) was founded by the Christian emperor Justinian and opened on December 27, 537. The cathedral was the largest temple in the Christian world for about a thousand years. After the capture of Constantinople by the Ottomans and the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453, the cathedral was converted into a mosque, but since 1934, by decree of the founder of the modern Turkish state, Kemal Ataturk, it became a museum and was subsequently included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.
The Supreme Administrative Court of Turkey on July 10 annulled the decision of 1934 to turn the cathedral into a museum.Immediately after that, Turkish President Tayyip Erdogan announced that he had signed a decree on the transformation of the cathedral into a mosque and the beginning of Muslim services there. On Friday, the first Friday prayer since 1934 was held in Hagia Sophia.
11 July 2020, 15:22Hopes collapsed. The ROC suggested the future of the Hagia Sophia 90,000 Aunt of a three-year-old boy told how she returned her nephew from Iraq
At first, the boy Ali was identified by a relative who lives in another region. She saw him on TV and immediately called her grandmother.”This is yours, this is Arthur’s child! They look like two peas in a pod. Although I have not seen this child, but he is a copy of Arthur,” said a relative after she saw the story on TV.
When Khadizhat found out where her nephew was, she hired a lawyer, knocked over the doorstep of the Iraqi embassy, but a miracle came from where they did not expect. After she wrote to the page of the head of Chechnya, Ramzan Kadyrov, on the social network Instagram, she was immediately contacted.
“I hired a lawyer, sent documents to the embassy.On the second day, I called the embassy myself, because after watching the video I wanted to return it as soon as possible. There I was told: “Why did they go there. Do you know how many Iraqi people died there.” I told them that I just wanted to get my nephew back. In response, they hung up. And I realized that this way I will return my nephew for a very long time. Then I went to Kadyrov’s page, and they answered me, “Khadizhat recalls.
According to her, now the process of returning children has begun to get complicated.”Now the whole world is interested in these children and creates obstacles. Now everyone needs them and everyone cares about them,” she said.
According to Khadizhat, the boy Ali returned to her is now feeling well, although after examining the doctors he was diagnosed with a sore throat, the child had general weakness, fever, he was very scared.
“He is still in a very stressful state. Now we are treating him. He is gradually adapting, playing, today he even talked to children.On the first day I asked him: “Do you at least recognize me?”, And he nodded his head then. And then a couple of days later he says to me: “I recognized you, my mother showed you on the phone.” I also showed him the photographs that my sister sent me. He remembers everything, tells where they were, recognizes everyone, “says Khadizhat.
According to Aunt Ali, it will take a long time for the boy to fully recover, to get used to a peaceful life, where nothing is burning around and no one is being killed.
“Now he is very afraid of adults. And when we walk on the street and a bird flies, he points at them and says that it is a bullet flying. I tell him that this is not a bullet, this is a bird, there are no bullets here. at home there is a railway crossing, there are electric trains. He points at them and asks what it is. I explain to him that this is an electric train, people are driving there. And he asks if it will explode, “Khadizhat says.
The news of the creation of a corridor through which women and children can return to Russia from Iraq made Khadizhat very happy, because this is an opportunity to save her sister, who is so awaited at home.
76 days to the 75th anniversary of the Great Victory!
76 days before the 75th anniversary of the Great Victory!23 February 2020, 00:00
Alexey Astapov, Leading Specialist of the HR and Labor Relations Department of the Human Resources Directorate:“75 years ago, when there was no me or my parents, on June 22, 1941 At 12:15 pm Moscow time, People’s Commissar for Foreign Affairs of the USSR V.M.Molotov announced the beginning of the Great Patriotic War on the radio.At that very moment, everyone realized that a terrible disaster had knocked on the door, but no one knew yet that this was a long exhausting and bloody war – the most brutal war in the entire history of mankind.
As a result of the Great Patriotic War, fascist Germany exterminated about 13 684 700 civilians of the USSR, 11 444 100 soldiers did not return from the battle, millions were tortured in concentration camps.
Among the participants in the Great Patriotic War from the Kursk region was my grandfather. I want to tell you about him.I am the grandson of the man who gave me life by conquering the world in the 1840s.
My grandfather – Nasedkin Alexander Pavlovich, born in 1910. Before the war, he worked on a collective farm in the fertile fields of the Kursk Territory, his work was not easy, honorable. In the spring, the whole village sowed wheat, in the summer they harvested bread, prepared hay for livestock, in the fall they harvested and plowed the fields before winter. Before the war, he met my grandmother, they built a house, acquired an economy, and God gave them three wonderful children.Grandfather and grandmother were ordinary people who peacefully worked for the good of our people, for the good of their future and their children. Life went on as usual, and nothing boded trouble. But in 1941, like everyone else, war knocked on the door of my family, and my grandfather was mobilized in October of the same year to defend the Fatherland.
I was still very little, but everyone close to me, including myself, knew that he did not like to remember and talk about the war, about the horrors and trials that he had to endure.This topic was taboo in his house. I remember well one incident that I witnessed. Every summer, traditionally, my cousins and sisters gathered at the house of our grandparents. One day, when my grandmother was setting the table, my older brother, forgetting about the ban or out of stupid childish curiosity, inadvertently dropped the question of the war. Grandfather looked at him sternly, silence froze in the air. Everyone knew that the topic of war was forbidden in this house, but a curious boy violated this ban. Grandfather silently got up from the table, went out onto the porch, sat down on a bench and looked for a long, long time in a field of wheat ears … What he was thinking, I began to guess only now.
Many years later, when my grandfather was gone, I began to ask my older uncles about the history of my grandfather’s participation in the war. After mobilization, grandfather was a machine gunner, took part in hostilities near Kharkov and Lugansk, in 1942, shell-shocked, was captured by the troops of Nazi Germany. Was in a concentration camp in Poland. Due to severe exhaustion and weakness, he was thrown into a heap with corpses, but was soon rescued by the troops of the Soviet army, who had come to free the prisoners.He was very lucky, as a soldier passing by noticed signs of life and provided assistance. Many of the former prisoners died, because food intake was destructive for them. Grandfather was in no hurry to eat, he just took one crust of bread and chewed it for a long, long time.
When he was lying in a heap with dead bodies, he dreamed of a house that had not yet been burned by the Germans and three birches nearby – one large and two smaller, before his eyes the largest birch was drying up. From weakness, he did not attach importance to this vision, he only remembered his native land, home, loved ones, about his children and hoped that everything was fine there.When I returned home, my grandmother burst into tears from the joy of meeting, but she prayed for forgiveness for not saving her eldest son, who died of scarlet fever after the retreat. The village in which they lived was captured by the Germans, in order to survive, they were forced to retreat. They walked in winter, in the fields, through drifts and snows. The grandmother was pulling the sled, on which her mother was sitting, holding two younger boys in her arms, and the eldest, 6-year-old Vova, the grandmother was leading the hand, the child could not stand the transition, fell ill and died …
I am grateful to the generation that was forced to sacrifice itself, For the sake of the future of my children and grandchildren, I am proud that the blood of a participant in that terrible war flows in my veins, I am proud that it was the Soviet Union that liberated the whole world from the fascist infection and I wish that this will never happen again! My grandfather had six children, eleven grandchildren, ten great-grandchildren, and five great-great-grandchildren.All this could not have happened if the outcome of the war had turned in the opposite direction … ”
From which the Iron Dome does not save. The United States has set a course for the dismantling of Israel
Pictured is Maher Bitar. Photo site georgetown.edu
For several days, the massive shelling of the central regions of Israel from the Gaza Strip did not subside. Hamas and allied groups shelled dozens of cities, including Jerusalem.For the first time, significant infrastructural objects were damaged, including the Eilat-Ashkelon oil pipeline, on which Israel and friendly Gulf states have pinned special hopes, and the Ben Gurion International Airport was shelled. Other players are also threatening to join. The media reported on the mobilization of the Lebanese Hezbollah. Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan and Iranian leaders are making threatening statements. Israel is conducting air attacks against Hamas military infrastructure, often located in the center of residential areas, and targeted killing of militants.The military-political leadership of the country declares its readiness for a large-scale air operation in the Gaza Strip.
At the same time, riots and civil strife within Israel are escalating. In Lod, several synagogues were burned down, pogroms took place. As of the evening of May 11, according to the mayor of Lod, control over the city near the international airport, where Jews and Arabs live, had actually been lost, and a border police battalion transferred from Samaria (West Bank) was preparing to enter the city.Riots continue in Jerusalem, Lod, Ramla, Akko, Haifa, Jaffa and other cities. Local observers are already calling what is happening a civil war, which undermines the foundations of coexistence between Jews and Arabs in Israel.
It is not known what the current round of the conflict will result in. But it is obvious that both internal and external forces will try to use it in their own interests and have already received certain results. Hamas and allied groups have demonstrated the military capabilities of prolonged massive shelling in the face of opposition from Israeli aviation and targeted liquidations.Israel’s highly effective Iron Dome air defense system intercepted the vast majority of missiles, but the psychological effect has already been achieved. In Israel, the chances of the creation of a government by the opposition to incumbent Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu have sharply diminished. It is political suicide to enter coalitions with Arab parties under the current conditions, and it is unlikely to assemble a government without their support. Therefore, either you will have to negotiate support with Netanyahu’s Likud, or go to the fifth election.Iran has also sharply strengthened its position, which became aware of the weakness of the Jewish state in the conditions of simultaneous external aggression and internal unrest throughout the country. In these conditions, the weight of the Iranian trump card in the form of the Lebanese Hezbollah, equipped with more modern missiles, and the Lebanese Hezbollah, passed through the Syrian millstones. Considering Tehran’s seemingly successful negotiations with the administration of US President Joseph Biden to renew the “nuclear deal” and lift sanctions, the Iranians may well try to use the “threat from the north” to weaken Israel’s real opposition to its Iranian-American accords.
At the same time, the whole tangled tangle of local and regional interests and contradictions could hardly have led to such a large-scale and organized attack on Israel, which challenges the very Jewish statehood. Over the years, Israel has successfully coped with the challenges: it has managed to build and normalize relations with a number of Arab states on its own and with the help of the administration of US President Donald Trump, and to lay the foundations for the full participation of a large Arab Islamic party in the country’s political life.However, the coming to power in the United States as a result of an acute crisis and internal struggle of the renewed Democratic Party could not but lead to fundamental changes in the Middle East.
After the failure of the “American Maidan” and Biden’s inauguration, Democrats began to quickly and decisively destroy Trump’s legacy in domestic politics. At the same time, they obviously did not touch Israel – Biden only defiantly did not speak for a month with Netanyahu, the leader of the “main country – the US ally in the Middle East”.Many immediately considered this a “black mark” for the Israeli prime minister, which, in general, is not surprising. He was an outspoken and close ally of Trump, the ideological antipode of the left-wing Democrats who came to power in the United States. The Israeli elites have received a clear signal, which partly explains their incapacity to negotiate in coalition negotiations and their almost successful attempt to oust Netanyahu from the post of prime minister. However, the matter is not only and not so much in the personality of the Israeli prime minister, his political views and orientations and the desire to replace him, but in Israel itself as such.The ideological rejection of Israel by the left-wing establishment of the Democratic Party is well known – suffice it to recall the democratic stars in Congress like Ilkhan Omar, Rashida Tlaib and others.
However, it is more important to look at the appointments of the iconic “workhorses” in the new administration, which also work in the Middle East. For example, in April it became known that Biden had appointed Maher Bitar, the senior director of intelligence programs of the National Security Council of the Palestinian Arab, to one of the key posts in the American intelligence community.In his post, he accumulates classified information and, during covert operations, ensures interaction and coordination between the secret services and the White House. Under President Barack Obama, in the same Security Council, he was responsible for the Israeli and Palestinian directions, and before that he worked for the UN agency for Palestinian refugees in Jerusalem. Rima Dodin, a Palestinian Arab woman who was close to the Council on American Islamic Relations and the Muslim Student Association, also became deputy director of legislation in the Biden administration.These organizations largely focused on the Muslim Brotherhood (a movement banned in Russia, of which Hamas is an offshoot).
Sarah Margon, former head of the Washington office of Human Rights Watch and US foreign policy adviser to the Open Society Foundations of George Soros, was named an anti-Israel activist by American conservatives. Special mention should be made of the US special envoy for Iran, Robert Mally, who has been involved in the development of American policy in the Middle East since 2000 and is known for his public statements, which can be regarded as sympathy for Hamas, too.At the same time, it is clear that the Americans retained a significant influence on the special services of the Palestinian Authority, which they trained intensively in the 1990s and 2000s.
“I am not afraid of the vaccine, if I get it, I will inject myself”: the story of one vaccination from Tula
In the Tula region, officials report, the rate of vaccination is growing. In clinics, queues are gathering, somewhere there is not even enough medicine. This was facilitated, of course, by the introduction of compulsory vaccination for certain categories of citizens.And while some of them are trying to get a medical rejection or even break the law by buying a certificate, someone goes on vaccination voluntarily.
Among them is Anastasia Chudakova, editor-in-chief of Biznes-Zhurnal, who a few days ago finally threw away all doubts, as well as jokes about chips, and decided to inject herself.
What came of this? Spoiler alert – it wasn’t easy.
Next, Anastasia’s story from the first person.
I was going to be vaccinated in the spring of this year. Then the epidemiological situation was more or less calm, and I decided not to wait for the next rise. My father and many acquaintances have already received a portion of the vaccine. Everything went fine for everyone, the maximum – the temperature rose to 38, but generally without any aches and other symptoms. The temperature was knocked out with half a pill of paracetamol. I have not seen any severe cases of vaccination transfer.
And, yes, I prefer to listen to the opinion of experts, people who understand this, and not Vasya Pupkin from the next doorway, who worked as a turner yesterday, and today suddenly sharply understood all of medicine and explained in terms of concepts why vaccination against covid is evil, genocide and chipping.The measles vaccine was invented 250 years ago. But her opponents are still found and do not give this vaccine to their children. So there will never be a consensus among everyone about the safety of vaccines. Therefore, I am not guided by word of mouth in the yard, but by the opinion of experts.
In the spring, I didn’t get vaccinated. Although I trusted the experts about the safety of the vaccine, I decided to check my health to avoid complications. In general, this should be done before any vaccination! Having donated blood for a lot of indicators – from general to biochemistry, I accidentally discovered antibodies in myself.When and how I fell ill with covid, I still did not understand … I suspect that the infection was brought into the house by a child from the garden, when his group was quarantined due to the infection of one of the children. Therefore, the vaccination was postponed.
Many new strains have emerged now. They say that the antibodies of a person who has recovered do not always save them from them. So I thought about vaccination again.
Plus, we’re going on a seaside vacation with our family. Last year we did not limit ourselves to travel either.They just stayed away from people, chose nature and small villages. And this year, I don’t even want to stay in a stuffy city. And then there was also a rule introduced in the Krasnodar Territory – to accept only the vaccinated. We were not going to stay in hotels and hotels where the rule is in force, we could easily do without it in the private sector, but still safety, health and life are more important. It was decided not to postpone the vaccination any more.
But then the difficulties began.They say that our people do not want to be vaccinated? Something I did not notice the empty corridors. Having signed up for vaccination at the place of registration in the outpatient clinic of the village of Rassvet on the State Services portal, I decided to call the clinic itself and make sure that the record was made. You never know … And it was not in vain that I called. It turned out that the entry in Breaking Dawn had been out of date for a long time. Vaccination is done in a live turn! And all because of the huge number of applicants. And the confirmation of these words was the line of 30 people in the hospital corridor at 9 o’clock in the morning, when I arrived there.At the entrance, the head physician of the hospital met, who personally measured the temperature and oxygen saturation, wrote the indicators on a piece of paper and sent them for a questionnaire and consent to vaccination. After filling out all the documents, I stood in line … An hour passed …
There were 5 or 7 people in front of me. And then a nurse comes out of the office with a statement that the vaccine is over! But we were asked not to disperse and wait for someone to call Tula and find out if they would get a vaccine.We got through. And the patients in the queue, which had grown by another 20 people during this time, were told that there was no vaccine, not only in Rassvet, but in general in Tula! And it will be only tomorrow, when it will be delivered from Moscow.
Note that the vaccine ended somewhere around 10 am, although the vaccination should have been carried out before 1 pm!
Men and women immediately began to run out of the line asking to be vaccinated “at least with something, if only there was a certificate, otherwise they would be fired from their jobs.”So … People would like to be vaccinated, but there is nothing. They also threaten at work … I doubt it’s legal …
Colleagues phoned the regional Ministry of Health, where they said that there is a vaccine in the city. And all of the Breaking Dawn nurse’s claims are groundless. Well, well, on reflection, I decided that this is our usual “village” problem, when the district center has everything, but nothing in the “region”. I decided to go for vaccination at the Gostiny Dvor shopping center. After all, the center of Tula, there is probably initially more vaccines than in the village! But when I went up to the third floor of the shopping center, I was stunned… There were obviously more vaccines, as well as people who wanted to get it.
I tried three times to count the number of people in front of me. The first time it turned out 37, then around the corner I noticed another, it turned out 45. Then it turned out that the queue turned further. As a result, I read 60. As time went on … There were about the same number of people behind me, that is, another 60. The queue stretched almost from the escalator, along the windows, along the wall, across the entire floor in a circle!
An hour has passed …
Then the second one….
Someone of my friends on social networks joked that the vaccine would run out on me here too. And then … in turn, a whisper went that the vaccine was really over! At the same time, the administrator of the vaccination center walked past us many times, checking the observance of the distance and mask regime. But she didn’t say a word about the end of the vaccine … Someone stood in line for 2 hours (like me), someone for 4, and someone for 5 or more!
Of course, people’s nerves could not stand it.More than a hundred people literally rushed to the door of the vaccination station, demanding an explanation. Honestly, I thought the crowd would tear down all the walls. It was like madness, screaming all around, crush …
The administrator of the center and the nurses tried to explain that it was not their fault, but people did not care. They demanded a vaccine by any means! The arguments, by the way, were the same as in Rassvet – I need a certificate to work, otherwise they will be fired. Plus, of course, the scale of the queue and the many hours of waiting also did their job.No one wanted, after standing for several hours, to leave in the end with nothing …
Human anger has done its job. They called someone from the center, and then told the crowd that they would bring 50 doses of the EpiVac vaccine, they say, whoever doesn’t agree to Sputnik, stay. Of course, while there was a crush and showdown, most of the queue had already left, the mother of everyone in her path. The most patient ones began to line up again. There were just 48 of us left! Can you imagine? And now the line began to move again… When I approached the reception desk, I had the feeling that I was not going to do the vaccine, but that I was going to fly into space! The wait was so painful and long …
Registered, and then back into the queue! Vaccinations were given by one nurse, and three were registered at once. Of course, there was another line of those who were already going to the doctor’s office with the necessary papers. By the way, we ended up injecting Sputnik! We could not understand why, and whether they brought us a vaccine at all or got this one from their stocks, so long as the people did not rage… And then a superficial questioning of the doctor, without any examination and a painful injection – 15 minutes in the corridor after the vaccination, we observe the condition.
Regarding the condition after vaccination, it was normal. Two hours … Not counting the pain at the injection site. They said that someone’s shoulder just aches. My shoulder hurt like hell … I couldn’t even lift my hand, only my fingers moved. In the evening, I took the child from the kindergarten, and we went for a walk. On the playground, I realized that the reaction to the vaccine was not long in coming.Immediately there was a weakness, it was as if I was getting sick, my body was breaking, my arm hurt, I wanted to lie down on the bench right there and not go anywhere else.
When we got home, the condition got worse. It was as if I was “smeared”, I don’t know how else to describe it. Even feeding a child for dinner was torture. Moreover, I did not want to sleep, I was not tired. There was just the wildest weakness, it was hard to do everything, even raise a hand. At night I slept very badly, woke up 4 times. And at 3 o’clock in the morning I woke up completely.Until 6 in the morning I could not sleep. Everything hurt, the temperature rose. At 6 in the morning I wrote to work that I could not come. I just couldn’t even take the child to the garden. As a result, I decided that I would work at home for a day. Falling asleep for another couple of hours, it seemed to me even felt better. But soon, as I woke up and went to work on the computer, it covered again.
The temperature rose to 37.5. Not tall, yes. But it ached terribly, my head ached. However, I noticed that the appetite was still there! Not that I was constantly eating, just in the morning, when I woke up, I felt hungry, just like at lunch.And when you are sick with a temperature, a piece does not fit in your throat. Here the picture is different. The arm was still wildly aching. I had to take a pill. But neither an hour later, nor two hours later, she did not help. The temperature has not subsided, the condition has not improved.
Only in the evening, as they say, was released. The temperature dropped to 37, but was no longer felt. I went to bed calmly, and in the morning I easily went to work. And even the hand stopped hurting. It turns out that the symptoms from the vaccination tormented me for only a day.
I’m fine now.I work, I do not mutate. Probably, the chip has already taken root.
Haha.90,000 Burnt Poem. or Three tutors of Pushkin – Teachers’ newspaper
When Alexander Pushkin was nine years old, he was invited to be the tutor of the Count of Montfort, a French emigre. Togo was recommended to the aristocrats Pushkin by their friend, the Sardinian Count Xavier de Maistre. The Count of Montfort, a royalist with fine manners and an aquiline profile, played the piano, sang in a pleasant voice, skillfully painted shepherdesses in albums, and was inexhaustible in jokes in conversations with the ladies.Nadezhda Osipovna was very pleased with the amiable Frenchman, Sergei Lvovich, on the contrary, for some reason suddenly disliked the royalist, constantly engaging in heated polemics with him.
We all learned a little, Something and somehow, So education, thank God, We have no wonder to shine. A.S. Pushkin. “Eugene Onegin”
Alexander lived quite freely in the society of the count. Up to one incident. It happened that the boy went into his father’s library and began to read Voltaire, with a volume of which the tutor found him.In the evening at dinner, when Alexander was already in bed, the count told his parents about his act. Sergei Lvovich just shrugged his shoulders. Then the Frenchman reminded the Russian aristocrat that this writer prepared the revolution in France – and in general, the boy should not have taken books from the library without asking. Although Sergei Lvovich was not a fan of Voltaire, for some reason he suddenly set out to defend him.
“You are a Jacobin, monsieur,” the count said in French.
– You are a fool! – cut off, jumping up from the table, pale Sergei Lvovich.
The fate of the Count of Montfort was decided. The noble Frenchman left the Moscow house of the Pushkins, having received a substantial bill instead of the due salary.
The new mentor, the Jesuit Monsieur Rousslot, carefully followed Alexander’s every step and annoyed the pupil with long lectures. Monsieur Rousslot, it is true, had one more weakness besides eloquence. He loved to write poetry: long, instructive content. He wrote a thick notebook of poems – a deep poem “On Education” and handed it to the master. Sergei Lvovich kept the poem for three months, but never expressed his opinion.
The Jesuit soon found out that his pupil was studying poetry and got angry. It seems that his pride was hurt by the boy’s secret infatuation.
“Your son, madam, dared to write poetry,” he once complained to Nadezhda Osipovna with a sour expression. “I’m afraid this activity will interfere with his lessons.
However, most of all Monsieur Ruslot would like to know what kind of poetry his pupil is composing, but he, alas, stubbornly hid his poetic experiments from his idle curiosity! And he wrote his first poetic poem, named after the main character “Toliada”.The action took place at the court of the French king Dagobert from the Merovingian dynasty: the dwarf of King Toli is passionately in love with the beautiful dwarf Nitush. He has a rival, also a dwarf, an insidious Maturin, who constantly slanders him, trying to denigrate him in the eyes of his beloved. Tolley summons a slanderer to single combat. The whole yard gathers to watch the duel between the dwarfs …
The boy, smiling, was finishing the sixth song of the poem at the arithmetic lesson, where opponents ride into the arena on donkeys: it was scary and funny …
Father Belikov, who taught both arithmetic and the Law of God, knocked on the board with chalk, starting to divide fractions.Sister Olenka, as always, diligently wrote down his calculations. And Miss Balie’s governess, who was sitting by the window, had been watching Alexander intently for a long time and … suddenly, resolutely going up to the boy, she snatched the notebook from him.
Unfortunately, at that very moment a Jesuit appeared at the door, to whom she handed the notebook. Miss Bali took Olenka for a walk. And Monsieur Ruslot stared into Alexander’s notebook. Turning the pages of the notebook, he twisted his mouth, grimaced, nagged at every expression. What a plot, what a picture!
The boy could hardly restrain himself: tears came to his eyes.
Finally, the Jesuit gave him a notebook with contempt:
– Read it yourself, only loudly, your work!
Alexander, on a grand scale, threw the notebook into the open oven, right into the fire. Covering his face, all in tears, the boy ran into the corridor. The torture mentor was dumbfounded with amazement! ..
The author of the burnt Toliada was crying bitterly on a chest in the corridor. From resentment! He hit the chest with his fists and bit his fingers …
Meanwhile, Monsieur Ruslot told about Alexander’s insolent behavior to Nadezhda Osipovna, who was outright angry.She decided to put an end to his poetic fun. What is this exorbitant pride in a boy of his age?
Support came from an unexpected direction. For some reason, Sergei Lvovich suddenly became proud of his son, was interested in the content of the poem and expressed great regret that it was burned. After the Toliada story, the Jesuit stopped lecturing and only smiled ironically. And soon he left as a Latin tutor to a rich boarding house in the northern capital …
The third tutor, Monsieur Schedel, turned out to be a crook and stayed in the house for a very short time, since he was soon exposed by the master.The Frenchman was polite, good-natured, treated the boy surprisingly gently and gave him enough freedom. He had excellent recommendations, but Alexander noticed that the Frenchman himself was not particularly firm in the sciences: he did not study Latin, but asked French grammar from a book. Monsieur Schedel was fired and … read in the “Moskovskie vedomosti” the message about the opening of the Lyceum in Tsarskoe Selo …
Alexander did not want to change anything: he was pleased with the last tutor, since he now managed to leave home without asking.He put on white trousers with strips, “Sunday”, as his nanny Arina Rodionovna called them, shoes with buckles, a gray jacket and brushed his hair up with a wet brush so that it would not hang over his forehead. He had invented this walk long ago, this escape from home. The boy knew that at this hour the pretty Sonechka Sushkova, “a friend of the golden age,” was walking in the Yusupov Garden – not with a stern Englishwoman who was now ill, but with an old nanny, from whom it would be easy for them to escape. The girl, you guessed it, was the whole point !….
Alexander last saw Sonechka at his birthday on May 26, 1811, when he danced cotillion with her. He was so busy with his young lady, a lovely girl with fair-haired curls and big gray eyes, that he almost forgot about the dance – he confused the figures and made something completely different with his feet. He danced well only the waltz, despite the lessons of Yogel, to whom the boy and Olenka were taken every Thursday …
True, he met Sonechka in the same garden in April. Sunny. It’s clear.He walks with his sister and mother, and Sonechka with the governess, a skinny and tall miss. Even at the fountain, he sees a girl in a blue hat with ribbons walking along the side path towards him. Alexander runs up, greets, thinks of what to say. But everyone interferes with him: his mother, sister, and the strict governess. Sonechka looks back at his awkward words, smiles at him, as if understanding what the matter is …
Now all the time it seemed to him that he had failed to talk to Sonechka, that something else had to be said, the most important – and certainly alone!
Everything turned out, perhaps even better than he expected.The old nanny dozed off on the bench, and Sonechka got tired of embroidering with a cross on the canvas next to her.
Meanwhile they went farther and farther, and when it suddenly poured rain, they hid from him in a grotto. They sat on a marble bench under a wide vault.
“I’m bored that you’re leaving,” Sonechka says hesitantly.
– I will write to you from the Lyceum, – Alexander answers.
– Only by all means verses …
… The coachman Ignatius climbed onto the box of Vasily Lvovich’s Parisian carriage.Blaise, the cook, sat next to my uncle. Alexander was sitting with his trunk, squeezed into the very corner. The stroller started to move. It was eight in the morning. Behind several times the golden tops of Moscow churches flashed.
“Oh, if only we don’t leave,” thought young Alexander …
Petersburg will greet Alexander and his kind uncle with the scorching July sun and a weak breeze from the bay. Until October 1811, before being assigned to the Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum, they will live in a house somewhere on the Moika..