America’s first sport | The Economist
by James Astill
When the removal van parked outside our new home in Maryland last summer, my six-year-old and I grabbed bat, ball and stumps and ran. On my sixth foreign posting, I found packing and unpacking more tedious than ever; my son had already worked out where the practice pitch should be. There was a patch of common ground next to the house – the meadow, we called it – which was flat enough and grassy enough for cricket.
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An hour or so later, and despite the sticky heat and clouds of tiny biting flies, we were still playing; so was one of the removal men. He had seen some Indians in his neighbourhood play our game, he said, and had often wondered about it. Patiently, but not without a certain smugness, we tried to amend his knock-kneed, big-swinging baseball stance. It might be good for hitting a fastball, with its roughly predictable height and trajectory; but in cricket, the ball is smaller, heavier and, because played off the pitch, less predictable in pace, height and angle. That calls for a more awkward, technical stroke, played with the bat perpendicular to the ground. Though we admired the removal man’s easier cudgelling swing, it was gratifying that he could not manage to lay bat on ball.
Cricket’s technical complexities make it especially delightful to its fans, and rewarding to coach. I learned my method from a Gujarati friend, Arvind Pujara, who, by tossing hundreds of balls a day to his son, Cheteshwar, helped him become one of the world’s best batsmen. My son does not need to reach anything like those heights for our practice to be deeply satisfying; in fact, Arvind swears he was always motivated by simple love of watching his son play, not by the prospect of the enormous wealth he has since made from the game. I find that easy to believe. To see confidence flood into my son’s driving off the front foot (Arvind says to forget about back-foot play for now) is an experience pretty much as good, I think, as fatherhood can be.
But there is another pleasure to our practice, and that is the reaction it draws from the dog walkers who cut across the pitch. Occasionally one gives a murmur of recognition, even approval. But, even in one of America’s more cosmopolitan suburbs, most have no idea what our game is. It is nice to be unusual, but this is astonishing: cricket is not only the world’s most popular game of bat and ball, by far; it also has a long history in America.
It was America’s first organised sport, played in New York, Boston, Philadelphia and elsewhere for much of the 18th and 19th centuries. The earliest surviving report of a public cricket match in America tells of an encounter between a New York XI and a London XI in 1751. Three years later, the game’s laws were formalised in America, after Benjamin Franklin, a keen cricket fan, brought a copy of them back from England.
America’s cricketers were for the most part well-heeled and Anglophile; yet they could gather a crowd. Cricket’s first international contest, a match between America and Canada in New York in 1844, was watched by an estimated 20,000 people. It was not until the civil war, when the army of the North spread baseball through its ranks, that that younger, simpler, more intuitive game clearly superseded cricket in America’s sporting affection. And then cricket’s demise was steep.
Philadelphia once had a hundred cricket clubs; by around 1910 almost all had folded. Politics probably had a hand in that, albeit to a much lesser degree than in Ireland, where cricket was violently extinguished by nationalists around the same time. Some Americans considered baseball best because it was home-grown. “It’s our game,” Walt Whitman said of it. “That’s the chief fact in connection with it: America’s game”. Yet that preference was typically based on an idea of America as a dynamic, thrusting place, which baseball reflected better than the leisurely cricket of the time; baseball captured the “snap, go, fling of the American atmosphere,” Whitman said. The result, in an introspective country with a genius for mythologising its culture, was a surging national enthusiasm for baseball that exterminated all rivals.
There is a surviving tradition of cricket writing from America; but it tends to focus on the game’s absence, sometimes in ways that are revealing of other national peculiarities. One historian describes the cricket played by West Indian immigrants to New York, before the civil rights movement, as a protest against the racism that then pervaded American sport.
My practices with my son, it pains me to acknowledge, have become tinged with protest too. For six months or so, he loved them, and for more than the joy of laying bat on ball. As for generations of cricketing exiles to America, he found in the game’s unappreciated excellence a way to feel confident about his own broader sense of unbelonging. But that feeling is fading with his English accent now. He likes his school and he likes his classmates much better. He is less into cricket. He even wonders if he might prefer baseball. Well at least he is happy.
‘America’s First Sport’: The Syracuse Lacrosse Propaganda Machine?
A little over two weeks ago, the New York Times published a front-page article about Albany’s Lyle, Miles, and Ty Thompson. The attack trio, who all hail from the St. Regis Mohawk Reservation, currently has a combined 113 points on the season. Jeremy Thompson played lacrosse at Syracuse, yet his brothers Lyle, the 2011 #1 overall recruit, Miles, the #6 attackman in the 2010 class, and his cousin Ty, the #35 attackman in the 2010 class, all went to Albany.
Syracuse University has a well-documented history of not only recruiting from the Native American reservations in upstate New York, but also recruiting the family members of former and current players. The Times’ write up briefly covered the Thompsons’ journey to Albany and further explored how the trio broke from tradition and attended Albany over the traditional destination for natives in the lacrosse world, Syracuse University. The article contained one particular paragraph that should have raised the eyebrows of Syracuse fans.
“As they were being recruited, though, the brothers began to feel like Syracuse was taking their allegiance for granted. ‘Syracuse honestly didn’t recruit both of us too hard,’ Lyle Thompson said. ‘I think they just expected us to go there.'”
Syracuse Lacrosse has a long history of bringing in Native Americans to fill the ranks of their team. However, when such a statement comes out on the front-page of a national publication, it raises serious concerns over Syracuse’s future ability to recruit on the reservations. Is this a trend that is likely to continue?
This weekend, ESPNU will broadcast a Syracuse-sponsored documentary entitled America’s First Sport. Although the film does not air until Saturday, Syracuse released the hour-long documentary on Cuse.com.
With great anticipation, I watched the film today, and it is definitely worth a look. While reviewing the history of the lacrosse, the documentary also covers every level of the game from high-school to professional and touches on both field and box lacrosse. The film’s narrative focused on the Native American roots of the game. While coaches and players from several different teams are featured in the documentary, there is an overwhelmingly heavy presence of Syracuse coaches, players, and alumni. In addition, famed Syracuse alum, Mike Tirico, is the narrator.
Overall, I thought the movie was well done, and I recommend it to anyone interested in the origins of the game. That being said, the timing is a little curious.
Considering the film ties the Native American heritage of the sport tightly to Syracuse University, one can’t help but wonder if this project was spurred by internal concerns regarding recruitment. While this theory may simply be speculation, the film, while informative, could easily be mistaken for SU lacrosse propaganda. Regardless, since the film intentionally focused on the SU/Native American recruiting relationship, America’s First Sport‘s national television debut on Saturday is a step in the right direction to re-securing the recruiting pipeline to the reservations.
Sports play an important role in American society. They enjoy tremendous popularity but more important they are vehicles for transmitting such values as justice, fair play, and teamwork. Sports have contributed to racial and social integration and over history have been a “social glue” bonding the country together.
Early Americans like Benjamin Franklin and President Thomas Jefferson stressed the need for exercise and fitness promoting for example running and swimming. In the 20th century, American presidents Theodore Roosevelt, Dwight D. Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy continued to encourage physical activity.
President Dwight D. Eisenhower founded the President’s Council on Youth Fitness in 1956 to encourage America’s youth to make fitness a priority. The Council later became the President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, including people of all ages and abilities and promoting fitness through sports and games. Today, the Council continues to play an important role in promoting fitness and healthy living in America.
The United States offers limitless pportunities to engage in sports – either as a participant or as a spectator. Team sports were a part of life in colonial North America. Native American peoples played a variety of ball games including some that may be viewed as earlier forms of lacrosse. The typical American sports of baseball, basketball ad football, however, arose from games that were brought to America by the first settlers that arrived from Europe in the 17th century. These games were re-fashioned and elaborated in the course of the 19th century and are now the most popular sports in the United States. Various social rituals have grown up around athletic contests. The local high school football or basketball game represents the biggest event of the week for residents in many communities across the United States. Fans of major university and professional football teams often gather in parking lots outside stadiums to eat a “tailgate” picnic lunch before kickoff, and for parties in front of television sets in each other’s homes during the professional championship game, the Super Bowl. Thousands of baseball fans flee the snow and ice of the North for a week or two each winter by making a pilgrimage to training camps in the South and Southwest to watch up close their favorate players prepare for the spring opening of the professional baseball season.
Individual competitions accompanied the growth of team sports. Shooting and fishing contests were part of the colonial experince, as were running, boxing, and horse racing. Golf and tennis emerged in the 1800s. Recent decades have given birth to a wide variety of challenging acitivities and contests such as sail boarding, mountain biking, and sport climbing, collectively referred to as “extreme sports”.
Lacrosse: America’s First Sport | Sports Destination Management
Lacrosse: America’s First Sport
30 Jun, 2009
By: Juli Anne Patty
Participation in lacrosse grew by 9.1 percent in 2008, with over 500,000 players involved as members of organized teams nationwide. That means if lacrosse isn’t on your radar yet, it’s headed there, and with speed. Fortunately, facilities for hosting lacrosse abound. You may not realize it, but you probably already have a perfectly suitable spot in your hometown right now. But even if you don’t know where it is, the kids with the sticks have probably figured it out. And they’re headed there right now.
America’s first sport
Lacrosse is considered the first American sport. Arriving Europeans discovered a number of stick-and-ball sports being played by American Indians across the coast, but lacrosse was unique because of its netted stick and prohibition against ever touching the ball. Even that earlier version of lacrosse must have been as enticing then as modern lacrosse is today because the new arrivals took to it immediately. Before long, the French had given the sport its name, and the Canadians had taken it in as their own and raised it into the sport it is today.
But despite this long history, lacrosse has remained a relatively minor sport in America until recently. Perhaps it was the prominent place lacrosse has played in several movies or maybe it’s the fact that the sport is getting national television coverage, but for whatever reason, more people are taking up the stick and loving it.
If you ask Colleen Sperry Aungst, public relations manager, US Lacrosse, that’s the real reason for lacrosse’s recent growth spurt. “It’s the fastest game on two feet. Once you get that stick in your hand, throw a ball and score a goal, there’s just no turning back.”
A combination of basketball, soccer and hockey, lacrosse is touted as the sport anyone can play. While strength and size are prized in other sports, lacrosse rewards coordination, agility and speed.
Lacrosse Across America
Lacrosse is one of America’s fastest growing sports, and that’s a title the sport has held for the last decade. US Lacrosse, the sport’s national governing body (NGB), has established chapters in 39 states as youth lacrosse participation has more than doubled in just seven years.
All that growth in such a short amount of time might create a dearth of facilities in some sports, but luckily, lacrosse can be played, as Aungst puts it, “wherever you’ve got a big enough square of grass.” After that, you just need goals, boundaries drawn in the right places and an official. Now, that’s not to say that there aren’t specifications that can create an outstanding lacrosse facility, because America also offers some exceptional places to play lacrosse. But many communities are finding that they’ve got fantastic facilities already, and they usually find them where they are already playing football or soccer- and in at least one case, polo.
What to Look for in a Lacrosse Facility
One of the great things about lacrosse, and perhaps one of the reasons for its growing popularity, is that it’s easy and relatively inexpensive to set up and play.
The first thing to consider is which sport you’re planning – women’s or men’s lacrosse. While the two versions of the sport have a lot in common, they’re also distinctly unique. According to US Lacrosse, the two versions differ in a number of ways, including rules, equipment, playing techniques and strategies. Another critical difference when you’re planning a lacrosse event is the field size.
A regulation men’s lacrosse field is roughly the same size as a football field, 110 yards from endline to endline. More consistent with the American Indian version of the game, women’s lacrosse is played on a longer field with the endlines as much as 140 yards apart.
When US Lacrosse goes on a search for the perfect facility for one of their events, they take into consideration the number of fields that a facility can provide for simultaneous play as well as another key specification – lacrosse goals.
“We’ve used some amazing facilities,” says Aungst. “We just got back from the Scottsdale Sports Complex, where we held the Women’s Division Intercollegiate Associates National Championship. For that event we were looking for four fields in close proximity, so we could have a bunch of games going on at the same time. And of course, the facility provided goals so we didn’t have to transport them.”
The most critical considerations for lacrosse facilities are the right size field and enough fields to accommodate your event. After that, you only need to ensure that the facility can provide goals, and then it’s game on.
Round Rock, Texas
Round Rock dubs itself the “Sports Capital of Texas” and they follow through on that promise in a major way. Their Old Settlers Park is a 570-acre sports complex with seven soccer fields, making it an ideal location for any tournament, but particularly a regional or national lacrosse tournament that would need several simultaneous fields of play.
“We have hosted lacrosse events in the past, and we’re really interested in hosting more,” says Nancy Yawn, director, Round Rock Convention and Visitors Bureau. “There’s been an influx of people moving to the Round Rock area, causing a huge growth in lacrosse. It’s not your typical Texas sport but we definitely like it, and it’s growing quickly in this area.”
Round Rock’s Sports Complex at Old Settlers Park received $18.9 million in improvements in 2008. The Park offers two lighted football fields and five regulation-size soccer fields, perfect for multiple fields of lacrosse play.
Long Island, New York
Lacrosse is huge in Long Island, with youth participation growing in the wake of several successful college teams, and they have the facilities to ensure that the sport has room to continue growing.
“We have a number of outdoor fields with about 12 fields altogether,” says Jennifer Rothman, sports sales manager, Long Island Convention and Visitors Bureau. “Many of them are at our colleges and universities, and they’re excellent facilities.”
One of those facilities, James M. Shuart Stadium at Hofstra University,played host to the 2009 NCAA Division I Lacrosse Championship Northern Quarterfinals.
Long Island is also home to Mitchell Field, the official stadium of the Long Island Lizards, a professional men’s lacrosse team. A centrally located 49-acre complex, Mitchell offers a new synthetic field ideal for football, soccer and lacrosse.
Long Island also offers options for taking lacrosse into the winter months at Southbay Sportsplex, a state-of-the-art indoor and outdoor sports facility. Southbay provides three 135 x 70-foot fields or one 210 x 135-foot full field, as well as a second floor viewing area and amenities like DirecTV and wireless Internet access.
State College, Pennsylvania
With Penn State at its heart, State College is definitely a sports town through and through. And like many other communities with a strong college lacrosse team, the sport is seeing enthusiastic growth and filling the area’s facilities.
“It’s definitely a growing sport here,” says Shirley Smith, director of sales, Central Pennsylvania Convention and Visitors Bureau. “We have a good team, and we’ve also hosted the Big 10 and NCAA in lacrosse. So for us, lacrosse is really moving up the ladder to be on the level with football, baseball and basketball in terms of popularity.”
Penn State’s Jeffrey Field, home to the University’s lacrosse team, received a 2003 face lift, giving the field a new surface, a press box and video booth, as well as bleachers that can accommodate up to 5,000 fans.
In addition to championships and tournaments, Penn State hosts an annual lacrosse summer camp, open to high school kids of any age who are interested in learning more about the sport.
Charleston, West Virginia
In Charleston, West Virginia, the lacrosse craze was actually started by two high school teams. George Washington High School had the first lacrosse team, but when Herbert Hoover High School wanted to get in on the game, that’s when the spirit of lacrosse came out.
“There was actually a donation of equipment from one school to the other to help the new team get started,” says Samantha Carney, sports sales manager, Charleston Convention and Visitors Bureau. “That’s the kind of support there is here for lacrosse.”
With coaches, parents and players banding together, they’ll be bringing more tournaments to the area soon.
“The parents and coaches are talking with the West Virginia Secondary Schools Activities Commissions to plan a state tournament,” says Carney. “They’re also reaching out at the middle schools and starting practices and programs at the YMCA.”
The University of Charleston Stadium will provide the ideal facility for these events and the many that are sure to follow. The stadium seats approximately 15,000, and a $1.4 million renovation gave the field a state-of-the-art makeover, including Momentum Turf 51 by Sportexe, purported to deliver the look, feel and safety of natural grass.
Palm County Sports Commission
Some communities make use of their soccer or football fields to make a place for lacrosse. Others get a bit more creative. Palm Beach County offers the ultimate location for a large lacrosse event at the International Polo Club in Wellington, Florida.
“They have seven polo fields at Wellington, which made the perfect location for the 2004 and 2005 US Field Hockey National Hockey Festival, and it would be just as perfect for lacrosse,” says Charlie Dunn, marketing director, Palm Beach County Sports Commission. “You can fit five to six soccer size fields on a polo field, so we were able to provide a total of 28 fields at one location.”
The Wellington fields feature Bermuda grass, which can be cut to any length depending on a sport’s specifications, as well as a clubhouse and a stadium that accommodates about 1,500 seats on the main field.
While Wellington is an extraordinary facility, Palm Beach has even more to offer, including a wide variety of fields in Wellington’s 114-acre Village Park, host to Spring Fling, one of the country’s most prestigious women’s lacrosse events.
Unless you’re playing box lacrosse, which has its own set of rules and facility needs, lacrosse is typically an outdoor sport. But in some locations, winter hangs around too long for the satisfaction of local lacrosse lovers. And Williamsport, Pennsylvania has the ideal facility for those winter lacrosse tournaments or practice camps.
Constructed in 2006, the Generation Sports Complex Dome (GSC Dome) offers 135,000 square feet of field space equipped with AstroPlay field turf. The facility hosts everything from indoor football and soccer to rugby and, of course, lacrosse.
Depending on your event’s needs, the dome can be divided into three separate fields or one large space and comes with amenities such as a conference room, concession stand and fitness area.
“Right now, our main lacrosse events include weekly practices for a club team from Lewisburg, and Lycoming College does a lot of preseason practices and scrimmages here,” says Dan Johnson, program director, GSC Dome. “Lacrosse is definitely a growing sport here. In the future we’ll offer adult leagues and kid’s leagues too.”
Lacrosse Gains Momentum
With professional and college teams leading the way, lacrosse is blazing a trail into the hearts of America’s young athletes. In 2008 alone, nearly1,000 new youth players picked up the game in Colorado. New Jersey’s lacrosse players have grown by more than 22,000 athletes in the last seven years, and Washington State logged a 46 percent increase in youth players last year. And that’s just a few examples.
Lacrosse facilities are not quite as numerous as its players, but still vast. It’s possible to find the perfect facility for your event’s needs, and America’s convention and visitors bureaus and sports commissions are ready to help.
US Lacrosse Participation Survey 2008. www.uslacrosse.org
America’s First Extreme Sport Attracts Fearless Warriors
Roles of Indian Relay team members explained
BILLINGS, Mont. – Indian Relay is touted as the “most exciting 3.5 minutes in Indian Country”. Wearing traditional regalia, Native American warriors ride bareback around the track at breathtaking speeds, leaping from one galloping horse to another, defying fear and gravity. Since the races are so high-speed and intense, many spectators may not realize how vital each team member is to having a successful relay; each person plays a huge part in this extreme sport, where one minor error can drastically change the outcome of the race.
Indian Relay appears to have developed independently in different tribes, leading to competitive relays between the nations and America’s first extreme sport. Today, Horse Nations compete against each other not in the spirit of warfare but for native pride and “bragging rights” of the individual nations. The races are not only a demonstration of bravery, courage and amazing horsemanship but also an important connection to a historical and spiritual element of their culture.
Indian Relay teams are comprised of four men: the rider (jockey), an exchange holder, a mugger (catcher) and a back holder. The rider must begin the race standing on the ground beside his first horse. At the gunshot start, he jumps on the horse and rides bareback around a half-mile track. As the rider completes his first lap and prepares to leap from one war pony to another, the exchange holder readies the second horse for the rider to jump onto while the mugger catches the incoming first horse released by the rider. During the exchange, holders must try to keep these strong, excited and unpredictable ponies from rearing up, flipping around or getting away, while the incoming horse may or may not stop for the mugger. The process is repeated two times to complete the relay – this is an intense relay where the rider is the baton! In each race, at least five teams work to execute these difficult bareback transfers, creating intense excitement among relay teams and spectators alike; this is why Indian Relay fans come back year after year.
The top teams representing 15 Indian nations will compete at the 2015 All Nations Indian Relay Championships for more than $75,000 in cash, travel, advance and prizes and the coveted Champions’ jackets and buckles. The teams come from Washington State, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, South Dakota and Canada. The tribes represented in relay include Oglala Lakota Sioux, Blackfeet, Crow, Shoshone-Bannock, Eastern Shoshone, the Colville Confederated Tribes and the Umatilla Confederated Tribes.
The All Nations Championships will also include Native American drummers and dancers, Warriors’ Races, Ladies Races and Kids Races, presentation of the colors, exhibits from artists and artisans, and traditional food to make for all-around entertainment experience in front of thousands of attendees.
For more information about PIHRA and the All Nations Indian Relay Championships, visit www.letsrelay.com, follow “Professional Indian Horse Racing Association” on Facebook or checkout Indian Relay videos on YouTube.
For reservations and tickets, contact the MetraPark Grandstands box office at 800-366-8538 or go to www.letsrelay.com.
For press information and media kit, visit www.adventuremedianews.com or call Nancy Harrison at 307.421.4473.
For event information and sponsorships contact Kris Keck at 908.303.5137.
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
Professional Indian Horse Racing Association
CONTACT: Nancy Harrison
EMAIL: [email protected]
#BeScene Featured Event: Detroit Historical Museum To Bring Back America’s First Sports Bar
Just in time for spring training fever, the Detroit Historical Society, together with its partners Melodies & Memories and the Butsicaris family, is bringing a storied downtown watering hole back to life in the new exhibit Lindell AC: America’s First Sports Bar, opening with a celebration on Saturday, March 16 from 6 – 10 p.m. at the Detroit Historical Museum.
The public is invited to relive the good times that the Lindell was known for during its 50+ years in downtown Detroit. Guests at the opening event will enjoy the original menu (burgers with cheese or without, grilled cheese and fries) re-created by Midtown burger destination Royale With Cheese, beer and soft drinks, a jukebox filled with classic tunes and sports trivia all night long. The evening will begin with a screening of the documentary Meet Me at the Lindell, and some of the celebrity athletes and entertainers who made the Lindell AC famous are expected to be on hand to share their stories with the crowd.
Tickets are $75 for Detroit Historical Society members and $100 for guests and are available at https://detroithistorical.org/shop/tickets/night-lindell-ac. Proceeds from this event will benefit the Detroit Historical Museum, helping to keep programs and exhibitions affordable and accessible for all.
About the exhibition: Known as America’s First Sport’s Bar, the Lindell AC opened in 1949 and became a favorite of athletes, entertainers, hometown heroes, blue and white-collar workers alike before it closed in 2002. The Detroit Historical Museum exhibit will document the history of the place and the personalities that made it one of Detroit’s best-loved gathering spots, featuring the original photos you remember from the bar, along with selected artifacts and memorabilia from the charismatic Butsicaris brothers and the legendary community who frequented Detroit’s infamous watering hole.
After the opening event, the exhibition will remain on display through September 30, 2019.
It’s The World’s Oldest Sport With Native American Roots: Everything You Need To Know
Long before the first European thought of colonizing North America, northeastern Indigenous tribes along the New York-Canadian border played a game they called stickball. As one of the first Europeans to meet with the Iroquois people in the early 1600s, French missionary Jean de Brebeuf watched games, and later referred to the sport as crosse when telling others about it. The name stuck, and today we know it as lacrosse. While it long remained a popular sport with northeastern Native Americans, today, Americans of all backgrounds enjoy playing the sport, which has a loyal following on both college and professional levels.
I watched my first lacrosse game about 10 years ago. While waiting for a college hockey game to start on TV, my wife and I caught the conclusion of a college lacrosse game. Impatient as I can be when it comes to my favorite sports, the lacrosse game ended regulation in a tie. So, overtime it was. Then more overtime. The game between Maryland and Virginia ended up being the longest in college history — seven overtimes. The top-ranked Cavaliers defeated No. 9 Maryland 10-9.
A funny thing happened: As we watched the game, hoping for it to end so we could watch hockey, I developed an interest in the sport.
History Of Lacrosse
Considered a gift from the Creator, stickball contests would involve hundreds, if not thousands, of players. While most people credit the Iroquois for inventing the sport, others believe the game was developed by the Cherokee in the southeastern United States. The sport was played across Turtle Island — the indigenous name for North America because of the shape of the land — with the Dakota and Ojibwe popularizing it on the plains.
Played in open areas, fields could be miles long, with trees and other natural landmarks serving as goals. Using sticks that players found comfortable to hold and flexible enough for action, players added nets at the end, often made from animal leather, to catch the ball. Balls were originally made from wood before transitioning to animals such as deerskin.
Games tested a player’s strengths and were key in a young boy’s transition into manhood. Tribes used games to help develop warriors for battle.
Rules were fairly simple. The ball would be tossed into the air to start play, and players scrambled to be the first to catch it. Players couldn’t touch the ball with their hands. There were no playing field boundaries and the field could run for miles. Contests could be played for days, but some tribes would play from sunrise to sunset.
Stickball contests served a variety of roles, such as healing. Games were part of ceremonial events involving the birth and naming of a child. They were also played to settle disputes or prepare for battle.
European Development Of Lacrosse
Though European fur traders had arrived at Turtle Island long before the pilgrims settled along the east coast in 1620, Europeans started arriving more frequently afterward. French missionaries were a common sight among tribal territory beginning in the 1600s.
They explored the area alongside guides, observing and seeking to convert Indigenous people to their religions. In 1630, Jean de Brebeuf, a French missionary, watched a game of stickball played by Iroquois in Canada. In a letter home, he mentioned the game, referring to it as crosse (French for stick). It eventually became known as lacrosse — the stick — as more people learned about the sport.
As Europeans settled in North America, people picked up playing the game, which was popular with the French. In 1856, more than 20 years after the first exhibition stickball game played by Indigenous tribes in Montreal, William George Beers formed the Montreal Lacrosse Club. As an original member of the Montreal Amateur Athletic Association, the team played a major role in establishing the first written rules of lacrosse (which didn’t include the first rule of Fight Club), such as a game’s time length, field size, and number of players. It also introduced the rubber ball, which continues to be used today.
Canadians fell in love with the sport. It became the national game for summer in the 1860s, and it remains one of the most popular sports in the country.
Three lacrosse teams participated in the 1904 St. Louis Summer Olympics. The Shamrock Lacrosse Team from Canada won the gold medal, while St. Louis’ Amateur Athletic Association squad received the silver medal. A second Canadian team — featuring all Mohawk tribal members — took the bronze medal. At the 1908 London Games, Canada defeated Great Britain for the gold medal, as they were the only countries to field teams for the summer Olympics.
James A Boardman / Shutterstock
Popularity Of Lacrosse
Lacrosse caught on with non-Indian Americans in 1867, where it was primarily played at private schools. The sport grew in popularity in the northeast, with high schools and even colleges playing the sport mainly in New York, Pennsylvania, and a couple more states.
Today, lacrosse is considered one of the fastest-growing sports across the United States. Roughly 750,000 Americans play the sport today. Reasons for its popularity are that players don’t have to be tall or have a large body to play, and it’s not a full-contact sport, creating a safer playing environment.
About 70 colleges play the sport, according to the National Collegiate Athletic Association. While primarily an East Coast sport with schools from Maine to Georgia fielding teams, the sport is played as far west as Colorado and Utah, where the University of Denver and University of Utah field teams. Each of the military academies play Division 1 lacrosse.
Syracuse has won the most national championships with 10, closely followed by Johns Hopkins with nine. Princeton and Virginia have each won six national titles. The University of North Carolina is fifth with five championships.
More than 120 colleges field women’s lacrosse teams. Maryland dominates the trophy case with 14 national championships. Northwestern has captured seven national titles.
Professional Lacrosse Leagues
One of the fastest-growing sports, the National Lacrosse League is the third most popular professional indoor sport behind the National Basketball Association and National Hockey League. The NLL has 14 teams, stretching from Halifax, Nova Scotia, in the east to San Diego in the west. The league — known as a box league because it plays indoors — averaged 8,035 fans per game during the 2019 season. Unlike other box leagues, the National Lacrosse League is a winter-spring sport, while others prefer to play during summer.
While there were two professional outdoor leagues at one time, the Major Lacrosse League and Premier Lacrosse League merged, with the new organization known as the Premier Lacrosse League. While the MLL was city-based, the eight-team Premier Lacrosse League will perform as a traveling organization, staging a series of exhibitions across North America, playing 43 games over 11 weekends from June to September.
Beginning with four teams in 1967, Canada celebrated its 100th season of lacrosse by hosting the first World Lacrosse Championship. The United States defeated Australia for the championship, while Great Britain joined Canada as the other teams participating in the tournament. Seven years later, Australia hosted the event, with the United States again winning the international championship. Since the 1974 competition, the World Lacrosse Championship has been played every four years. The United States has won 10 of the 13 WLC titles, while Canada has won the other three world championships. Almost 50 countries competed at the 2018 World Lacrosse Championships.
While the sport hasn’t been played at the Olympics since 1908, the International Olympic Committee has granted provisional recognition to the Federation of International Lacrosse, which is a major step in bringing the sport back to the Olympics. The FIL is targeting the 2028 Games as an opportunity to have lacrosse as an Olympic sport.
The 2022 World Games in Birmingham, Alabama, will feature an Iroquois lacrosse team. Recognizing the sovereignty of the Iroquois Nation, the World Games reconsidered its initial decision to exclude the North American team because it didn’t meet the IOC’s definition of a nation for competition.
VDB Photos / Shutterstock
Located on Cornwall Island on the Akwesasne (Mohawk) reservation along the New York-Canada border, Mohawk manufacturing companies have long played a role in manufacturing lacrosse sticks. Back in the days of wooden sticks, the Akwesasne Nation accounted for 97 percent of all of the lacrosse sticks used in North America. As Lacrosse moved to plastic sticks, Mohawk Lacrosse saw an opportunity to gain a foothold in the industry.
Learn about the Akwesasne citizens who have been named at the Akwesasne Lacrosse Hall of Fame at the A’nowara’ko:wa Arena, aka Turtle Dome. Photos and plaques honor the best players from the Akwesasne Nation.
A statue honoring Native American lacrosse players is located near La Crosse, Wisconsin. The sport has long been popular with Ojibwe and Ho Chunk (Winnebago) nations in the upper Midwest.
Difference Between Lacrosse And Field Hockey
People often confuse lacrosse and field hockey. While both sports use sticks and a ball, the style of play differs. Lacrosse players move the ball downfield by running with it in the stick’s net or throwing it to another player, who catches in the netting at the end of their stick. In field hockey, the ball — hockey ball — is pushed downfield on the surface by a player’s stick, similar to ice hockey.
90,000 The most popular sports in the USA (TOP-10)
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Sports in the United States is a whole entertainment industry and a well-established business in a purely American way. As in any business, you can be inside the system, and also participate as a spectator. Sports are an integral part of American culture, attracting immense attention from fans and the media. TheBiggest magazine travels with you to the Americas to remind readers of the most popular sports in the United States.
Mixed martial arts relatively recently began to gain global recognition, but in the early 1990s it firmly established itself as the leading position among the most popular sports in the United States.
The UFC, the world’s largest MMA promotion, has begun its work in the United States. The most significant battles, gathering huge armies of fans of mixed martial arts, are held in New York and Las Vegas.
MMA is one of the most dynamically developing sports.The UFC makes money from sponsorship contracts, tickets, but also from the sale of broadcasting rights to the most exciting and spectacular fights.
Since its inception, tennis has gained popularity overseas, and today more than 14 million US residents are professionally engaged or just play tennis.
The country has presented the world with outstanding tennis players and tennis players who have won the main prizes of prestigious tennis tournaments. It is worth remembering Andre Agassi, Martina Navratilova, Keith Sampros, who shone on the courts in the 80s and 90s.
The US Open Grand Slam Series is held annually in the United States, which brings together the world’s leading tennis players to identify the strongest on the courts.
This sport, which is unusual for Americans due to the lack of entertainment, has nevertheless gained popularity in the United States. This is more of a tribute to fashion, as well as a great pastime for those who are used to relaxing in a small company.
Excellent golf courses have been created throughout the country, and in 2016 the magnificent TopGolf complex was opened.Here, amateurs realize their need to drive the ball into the hole.
Businessmen, politicians, just amateurs play golf. Statistics show that out of the 180 million US population, 20 million play this aristocratic sport.
American racing enthusiasts pay little attention to the world races of Formula 1 cars, but they enjoy watching their racing car competitions.
Two prestigious races are held in the United States.These are prestigious NASCAR and IndyCar competitions. The first NASCAR races took place in 1948, and were initiated by the leading racers of the time.
IndyCar races are not inferior to the Formula 1 stages in terms of speed and entertainment. Races have a long history, as the first races took place in 1911.
Read also: 10 talented racers who died in auto racing.
The sport popular in the second half of the 20th century is gradually losing its leading position in the world, including the United States.
There is only one reason, the fights of MMA fighters are becoming much more popular among fans than boxing fights. The days of Mohammed Ali and Mike Tyson are a thing of the past. Boxers from other countries have seized the palm from American boxers, and therefore Americans are gradually losing sympathy for boxing.
MMA fights are more spectacular than boxing, and therefore boxing loses its fan, but still remains quite popular on the American continent.
Americans call classic European football in their own way Soccer.It is inferior in polarity to purely American sports, but every year it adds an army of fans.
The professional MLS football league is created, in which clubs from different regions of the United States take part. Soccer is especially popular in Los Angeles, New York, Atlanta.
In the 1970s, the sports leadership actively promoted classic football, but it began to gain popularity after the 1994 World Cup in the United States. The national team then stopped at the round of 16.
Ice hockey is not as popular in the United States as in neighboring Canada, but it is still one of the five popular sports. The USA clubs have been successfully playing in the Stanley Cup for many years.
The widespread development of hockey is hindered by the fact that in the United States it is a very expensive sport. Children and youth sections available to ordinary Americans are poorly developed.
Hockey in America is a lucrative business, and the NHL games, wherever they take place, always gather full arenas of fans.TheBiggest highly recommends visiting one of them, even for those who are far from this game.
A truly national sport, and many experts say that it is the most American. This is a whole culture that began to form in the 20s of the twentieth century.
Baseball in America began its journey from the city of Cincinnati, where the first professional baseball team was created in 1869. Before the widespread development of television, this sport was the most popular, but now it is losing its position.
The main competitor in terms of entertainment is basketball, and these two sports are fighting for their fans in the United States. But the American sport will never lose its relevance.
Basketball is firmly in the second place. Boys begin to play the game from childhood, dreaming of getting into the eminent NBA club.
In any American city there are many sites with billboards with baskets, and these sites are never empty.Besides professionally, university basketball is widely developed in the country. A league has been created, a national championship is being held.
A new generation of talented players has grown up in professional basketball, which only contributes to the popularity of this spectacular sport.
Without a doubt, American football is the number one sport from the West Coast to the East Coast of the United States. This is not just popularity, it is a real cult, a state within a state.
There is a professional league as well as a student league. Student league matches are on par with professional league games, gathering tens of thousands of fans in stadiums.
The NFL Professional League organizes the national championship, followed by millions of Americans. The leading players in the league are as popular as Hollywood stars.
Americans love sports.It is a means for them to prove the superiority of the American way of life. In the entire history of the Olympic Games, it was the US athletes who won the largest number of medals of various denominations. Previously, their main rivals were the GDR and the Soviet Union, and since the beginning of the 21st century, Chinese athletes have become the main competitors in the fight for awards.
TheBiggest editors ask you to write in the comments about what other sports are very popular in the USA, and which of them you personally like or dislike.
90,000 Most Popular Sports in America
There are only 4 sports in the United States that attract the attention of more than 70-80% of Americans. They are all pretty tough competitions and athletes need to be in top shape to be successful. Breaking into the big leagues is the dream of every professional American athlete. Then the player will face millions in royalties, advertising contracts, the sale of TV broadcasts and the release of his own clothing line.
Sports in America – we name the most popular
Baseball – the calling card of the USA
The most popular sport in America is baseball.Baseball is played by children from an early age. Almost no school can do without its own team. Playing baseball is prestigious and if you get into the MLB Major League, you can make millions. Every basketball fan knows the names of the legends of this game. Baseball’s Hall of Fame includes Alex Rodriguez, Joe Mauer, Mark Teishera, Carlos Lee, Kevin Brown, Derek Jeter and many other celebrity athletic millionaires who play for world-famous MLB clubs like the Los Angeles Angels.
What is the baseball uniform, which favorably emphasizes the lean bodies of athletes. By the way, the well-known baseball cap was developed in 1954 by New Era to protect players from the sun. The cap with a visor gained worldwide recognition in the 70s and 80s, when fans, following the players, began to wear baseball caps with the logo of their favorite team at matches.
A baseball movie is watched by millions of Americans. The painting “The Man Who Changed Everything” with Brad Pitt in the title role is one of the most popular films about this sport.It is also worth watching the movie “The Million Hand” or “The Fan”.
Baseball Rules were developed in 1845 by a New York salesman and fireman Alexander Cartwright. A year later, the first US national championship took place. If you are interested in placing bets on Major League Baseball, then it is better to do them on the official websites of bookmakers allowed in Russia, like the League of Betting.
Basketball is a sport made in America
Basketball – from the English basket – basket and ball – the ball was invented in the USA in 1891.Its creator is a resident of Springfield, college teacher James Naismith, who decided to diversify boring physical education lessons, which consisted only of monotonous gymnastic exercises.
The resourceful teacher fixed two fruit baskets on the railing of the sports hall and dividing the students into two teams (9 players each) urged the children to score as many goals as possible into the rivals’ “goal”. Initially, Naismith developed 13 rules of the game, they changed until 2004, when it was decided to leave them alone and not touch them anymore.
Currently, no more than five people from each team are on the basketball court during the game. There should be no more than 12 players in a team together with substitutes. You can only play with your hands.
Millions of fans around the world idolize NBA players such as Michael Jordan, Magic Johnson, Larry Bird, and Drazen Petrovic. These outstanding athletes, members of the famous US basketball clubs, have also contributed to making basketball one of the most popular sports in the US.
Basketball has been an Olympic sport since 1936. The most popular tournament in the world is the competition held under the auspices of the National Basketball Association (NBA). Among the cappers and bettors who make reasoned predictions on the NBA, betting on the NBA is now a professional occupation that brings good income. You can legally bet on American basketball in Russia at Leonbets and League of Betting bookmakers.
American football is not for the faint of heart
American football in the United States is based on traditional football and rugby.The task of American football players is to bring the ball to the end of the zone, or to put it into the opponent’s goal. Unlike European fubol, they play here with their hands. Kicking is also allowed, but only in certain situations. It is allowed to hold the ball and pass to other players. Also, unlike other sports, athletes during a match are not prohibited from using power techniques such as pushing or sweeping.
NFL American football ranks in the top 5 most traumatic sports along with ultimate fighting (MMA).Although athletes from NFL clubs wear reliable protective clothing, this does not save them from injury and injury. Also, players often lead unhealthy lifestyles to build mass.
Hockey – rough but spectacular
The strongest and most prestigious in America is the National Hockey League (NHL). This sport is shown in the United States on all cable TV channels in the country. Curiously, almost every NHL team has so-called animal mascots or mascots. The Vancouver Canucks chose a killer whale as their mascot, the Calgary Flames use the image of Harvey the dog, and the Florida Panthers mascot the panther.
The Russians also managed to break into the NHL. Ovechkin, Malkin and Datsyuk are some of the most successful players in the National Hockey League and are even in the top 20 hockey players. On them, by the way, Russian bettors like to give their predictions for the NHL. It should be noted that legal Russian bookmakers, such as the League of Bets, accept bets on the NHL from players from Russia. Their site is not blocked.
Soccer is a sport for American students
It is worth saying a few words about football.This sport is not the most popular in the United States and is called soccer. MLS is a major league. This is how Americans distinguish it from their national sport, American football. Soccer, that is, European traditional football, is a game for student teams as well as college students. It can be added that MLP betting is not so popular among those who professionally make money on the most popular sports in America.
90,000 US Sports Without Department of Sports – US Information
I think that among the reasons that at many international competitions it is US citizens who come to the awards ceremony are the popularity of sports as such in American culture, the developed sports industry, as well as the attraction of a huge number of children and young people to sports and the support of parents. who finance the promotion of their descendants to victories, writes Henryk Karpinsky on the pages of the Voice of America.
All these factors provide a large number of young people who go in for sports and among whom there will certainly be future champions.
Children’s sports in the USA is a massive phenomenon. Almost every child is involved in some kind of sport in one way or another, and most of them have tried some of the sports. Many children are involved in two or even three sports.
Football fields and basketball halls are not empty. Children and adults always train or play here.Each school district will have a minimum of 1-2 martial arts schools.
Children’s sports are an integral part of everyday life here. On the street or in the store, you will always see children in sportswear. At work or at parties, sooner or later, people begin to discuss the latest children’s games or sports achievements. Sooner or later, a family with children is somehow involved in sports life. Children can start playing sports somewhere from 2-3 years old. The most popular sports for the little ones are gymnastics and martial arts.
Of course, the main driving force behind all this is the parents. The United States does not have a Department of Sports, a central government sports system, and not even close to any government funding for sports.
There are sports that can only be played by children from wealthy families or those who can find a sponsor, such as yachting or equestrian sports. A family with an average income can send a child to gymnastics, skating or hockey, but this can be a significant financial burden on the family.
At the same time, most of the children’s sports organizations where children learn to play football (European and American), basketball, volleyball, rugby, lacrosse are volunteer. They are organized and run by volunteers who do not receive any money for it. The administration and coaches are the parents of those children who are involved in these sports and “have time and inspiration” to work with children. And it is these clubs that are the base for most of the children who start their sports career.They start playing European football from 3-4 years old, American – from 7.
As a child grows up and moves into a top-level team, playing sports for the family can cost a little more. Professional coaches are already being hired for them, young athletes participate in various tournaments, trips to which and tools are paid by their parents.
But the sponsors of such clubs are often small and medium-sized businesses, the owners or employees of which are somehow connected with the club.
Despite this seemingly “unprofessional” and “decentralized” approach, these clubs attract a lot of children.In our suburb of Washington, where about 50 thousand people live, there are three children’s sports clubs where children can learn to play football, basketball, volleyball, field hockey, lacrosse, baseball. For example, in our club, only in teams from European football in the age categories from 4 to 17 years old there are about 2500 players. For parents, a season in the simplest “home” league will cost $ 80-100 per player.
The club reserves up to 5000 hours of field time for the season. Professional clubs cooperate very closely with children’s clubs.For example, children’s sports teams are given discounted tickets to games, open trainings are organized for volunteer coaches, and children can take part in bringing the team’s flag onto the field or “take out” the players of a professional team.
Also in the USA, children can try their hand at different sports and find the one that suits them best, without overwhelming themselves with two or three sections at the same time. This is because many sports in the United States are seasonal. An entry-level team plays one season, which lasts 2-3 months.
For example, in the spring they play American and European football, in the winter they play basketball and go in for wrestling, in the spring they connect to European football, flag football (a variant of American football without contact), lacrosse and baseball. And in the summer you can sign up for the “yard” swimming team. If the child has decided on sports, then he can do it all year round.
High schools play a very important role in children’s sports life. Each school has teams that protect the sporting honor of the school ”- Varsity teams.For example, our typical suburban school has one American football field, which is also used for European football and lacrosse, two European football and lacrosse fields, two baseball fields, and a large basketball court.
Our school has teams in American and European football, basketball, volleyball, lacrosse, baseball, athletics, swimming, shooting. Trainings there are free, but to get there you have to qualify, and it’s very difficult. For example, about 100-120 players come to the selection for a team from European football with 8-10 places.
Home games for school teams are always a big deal. The most school sport is American football. In our school, about 2-3 thousand spectators come to the home game of American football only from our side. If the school we are playing against is somewhere nearby, then we can expect up to two thousand fans from that side too. During the break, the school orchestra always plays. The teams have their own fan clubs, which sometimes even engage in “hooliganism”. For example, as the “parent committee” proudly told us, that year the fans of our and a neighboring school before the game of the teams caused damage to both schools for about 5 thousand dollars.
Such a sporty atmosphere from childhood leads to the fact that many children try to become professional athletes. And even if they do not reach great sports heights and do not have a collection of medals from prestigious sports competitions, they continue to participate in the sports life of the country and join the sports life of their own children.
Sports School “Start” | Sports
Powerlifting (English powerlifting; power – “strength, power” + lifting – “lifting”) or powerlifting is a power sport, the essence of which is to overcome the resistance of the heaviest weight for an athlete.
Powerlifting is also called powerlifting. This is due to the fact that as competitive disciplines it includes three exercises (squats with a barbell on the back (more precisely, on the upper part of the shoulder blades), bench press lying on a horizontal bench and barbell deadlift), which together determine the athlete’s qualifications.
These three exercises in bodybuilding are called “basic” or simply “base”, since when they are performed, several joints are involved in the work at once, and, to one degree or another, almost all muscles.These exercises are recommended for beginner athletes to gain overall muscle mass and develop strength.
In powerlifting, unlike bodybuilding, strength is important, not body beauty. But many famous bodybuilders started out with powerlifting or went in for both sports at the same time – Arnold Schwarzenegger, Ronnie Coleman, Franco Colombo.
During the performance, the indicators of athletes of the same weight category are compared. The assessment is based on the total maximum weight taken in all three exercises.With the same indicators, the victory is awarded to the athlete with the lower weight. When comparing athletes of different weight classes, the Wilkes formula, the Glossbrenner formula (WPC-WPO) or the Schwartz / Malone formula (NAP-National Powerlifting Association) can be used.
Powerlifting originated from exercises that weightlifters used to increase performance in basic movements. Initially, the set and order of exercises differed from modern ones – in addition to the now usual squats, bench press, deadlift, powerlifting included curls with a barbell standing (lifting for biceps), sitting, press from behind the head, etc.n. These “strange”, from the point of view of weightlifting, exercises, at the turn of the 40-50s. XX century. gained popularity in the West, competitions began to be held. And in the 50s – 60s, powerlifting began to form in its modern form. By the mid-60s, the rules of the competition were defined and national championships were regularly held.
In the late 1950s the UK had a form of powerlifting called the Strength Set, consisting of biceps curls, bench press and squats performed in that order.And in 1964, the first unofficial US championship was held (York, Pennsylvania). The Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) hosted the first national championship in 1965, in which the bench press, squat and deadlift were already competitive movements.
In November 1972, the International Powerlifting Federation (IPF) was founded, and a year later, in November 1973, the first world championship was held. In 1980, in Lowell, Massachusetts, USA, women competed for the first time in the World Championships, and in 1989 the IPF combined the men’s and women’s championships.
In 1986, the World Powerlifting Congress (WPC) was founded, later other alternative international organizations appeared.
The number of international powerlifting organizations is constantly growing, but despite the decentralization that is inherent in world powerlifting, the most famous and popular is the International Powerlifting Federation (IPF). IPF is the only international powerlifting organization that is a member of the World Games Association and the General Assembly of International Sports Federations.In 2004, after a long process, the IPF was recognized by the IOC and signed the WADA code; since 1963, powerlifting has been included in the Paralympic Games program as “weightlifting”, since 1992 – as powerlifting. In the Paralympics program, one type of exercise is the bench press without equipment. The number of participating countries is 115, women took part in the 2000 Paralympic Games for the first time.
90,000 Physical Education of America: Development History
Physical exercise and sports games were a necessary part of the harvest festivals among the ancient peoples of the American continent, the Indian tribes of the Incas and Mayans.Particularly popular among the Incas were the so-called “chaskis” – competitions for ultra-long distances, during which the participants ran and walked a quick march of 200 kilometers or more. The most widespread among the Maya peoples was the ball game – “tlachlu”, the rules of which were very reminiscent of today’s basketball.
The European conquest of America required the ability to ride quickly and shoot accurately. With the development of animal husbandry, there is a need for equestrian shepherds-cowboys, and endless clashes with the Indians – skillful use of cold steel and firearms.Shooting and various types of horse riding, including smooth racing, overcoming obstacles, shooting at full gallop, throwing a lasso, dressing up wild horses (mustangs), etc., become an indispensable attribute of the festivities held at that time.
Modern sports appeared on the American continent in the 19th century and soon reached a sufficiently high development for their time. It should be borne in mind that physical culture and sports developed faster in the most colonized part of the American continent – on the territory of the United States of America.This gap in the development of sports from the rest of the countries and peoples of the American continent remained essentially until recently. The United States was the first and for some time practically the only (not counting Cuba) participants in the Olympic Games from the American continent.
Complex regional games appeared in America earlier than on any other continent of our planet. A well-developed calendar includes a large number of regional and continental championships (Pan American, Central American and South American) in a variety of sports, as well as complex competitions separately for the countries of Central America, a number of countries in South America and continental ones for all states of the American continent.We are talking about the Games of the countries of Central America and the Caribbean, the Bolivarian Games and the Pan American Games.
The most representative competitions of the American continent are undoubtedly the Pan American Games. The idea of holding these competitions arose in 1948 in London, where the next Olympic Games were held at that time. Representatives of the American continent created the Pan American Athletic Organization (ODEPA) and elected Buenos Aires to host the 1st Games. The 1st Pan American Games were held in 1951.Most of the prize-winning places in the sports included in the Games program went to American athletes who were head and shoulders above their rivals.
For a long time, US athletes remained unattainable leaders in all the Pan American Games. Their undivided domination could be broken only by the athletes of Cuba, who since 1959 have been a worthy competitor to the permanent leaders.
As for the Olympic Games, the USA and Chile, the only countries in the American continent, have participated in the Olympic movement from the very beginning.At the Games of the 1st Olympiad in Athens, the USA were second, losing the overall team championship to the hosts of the competition. At three other Olympiads (Paris in 1900, London in 1908, and Stockholm in 1912), the United States lost the overall team championship to the hosts of the Games. Since the Games of the VII Olympiad in Antwerp (Belgium), US athletes have come out ahead and retained their leading position until the 15th Olympiad, when athletes from the Soviet Union appear on the Olympic arena for the first time, ending the unchallenged dominance of the United States at the Games.But even now, US athletes are rightfully included in the world sports elite and regularly take the podium at any Olympic Games.
History of the development of the theoretical foundations of physical education in the USA
Here are some facts and dates that make up the history of physical education in America:
1749: Benjamin Franklin writes a pamphlet that leads to the founding of the Academy of Youth Education (now the University of Pennsylvania). The work, in particular, says: “In order to maintain good health in young men, to strengthen and make their bodies energetic, they need to be frequently trained in running, jumping, wrestling and swimming”;
1825: Professor Beck opens the first American School in Northampton, Massachusetts.At this school, exercise becomes an integral part of the class schedule;
Phrenologists of that time noted the importance of physical activity for the educational process. At the famous Dr. Troll’s College of Hygiene and Therapy (New York), students are required to begin training in physical exercise;
1852: Troll publishes Family Gymnasium and a series of articles with illustrations of exercise;
1860: Troll’s colleague Dr. J.Taylor publishes the book Description of the Swedish Correction Movement;
1885: Taylor’s “Treatment of the Pelvis and Hernia” is published, containing recommendations for therapeutic exercises. A little later, he publishes the book “Health for Women”;
America is under the influence of schools that have spread to Western Europe. So, in 1882: F. Oswald publishes the book “Physical Education”, which is based on the German system. Physical education teachers expelled from the country after the German revolution are promoting the inclusion of physical exercises in educational courses of educational institutions.After 1889, attempts were made (albeit with a rather modest result) to introduce the Henrig Ling (Sweden) system in US schools, which by that time had already gained fame in Europe.
However, Dr. Joe Lewis had the greatest influence on the development of the physical education system in the United States. As a result of his activities in lecturing, publishing articles, books, school leadership, in America, interest in physical education is sharply increasing. Lewis’s work “New Gymnastics”, published in 1867, was reprinted many times in the United States itself, and also published in England, Australia, Africa, India.Lewis founds the Boston Normal Institute for Physical Education in 1860 and teaches his system there. And by 1868, its graduates were teaching in most of the United States, as well as in England. He is rightfully called the “father of physical culture” in the United States.
English (Topics / Works): Sport in the USA – Sport in the USA (3)
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Sport in the USA (3)
Americans are very fond of sport. The most popular sports in the USA are football, which is played from April to October, baseball, played from September to December, basketball, played from October to April and ice hockey, played in most northern cities from October to March.
American football derives from the English game of rugby.It started at Harvard University in the 1870’s. It is a game for two teams of eleven men on the field. The object of the game is to have the control of the ball and to score points by carrying it across the goal-line.
Baseball is a teamgame derived from the English game of cricket. It is played with a bat and ball by two teams of nine players each, on a field with four bases. Baseball is the national game in the USA and it is very popular in Canada too.
Basketball is a game which nowadays is popular all over the world.It was invented in 1891. During the 20’s the first US league championship was organized. In the 70’s-the American Championship was divided into two leagues: the ABA (American Basketball Association), which does not exist any longer and which played with a blue, red and white ball and the NBA (National Basketball Association).
The NBA is a professional league which still plays.
There are more activities which Americans take part in such as golf, swimming, tennis, aerobics, wrestling, etc.
Sports in the USA (3)
Americans are very fond of sports. The most popular sports in the United States are football, which is played from April to October, baseball (September to December), basketball (October to April), and ice hockey, which is played in northern cities from October to March.
American football is derived from English rugby. The game was first played in the 1870s at Harvard University. This is a game for two teams of 11 people. The goal of the game is to take control of the ball and earn points by sweeping it across the field or by scoring a goal.
Baseball is a team game derived from English cricket. It is played with a bat and ball on a field with four bases by two teams of nine players. Baseball is an American national game that is also very popular in Canada.
Basketball is a game that is now popular all over the world. It was “invented” in 1891. In the 1920s, the first American League Championship was organized. In the 70s, the American championship was divided into two leagues: the ABA (American Basketball Association), which no longer exists and which played with a red-blue-white ball, and the NBA (National Basketball Association).The
NBA is a professional basketball league that is still playing today.
There are many more sports that Americans play, such as golf, swimming, tennis, aerobics, wrestling, etc.
field – field
invented – invented by
90,000 English sports: what has Britain given to the world?
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Football is the most popular and massive sports game in the world.Ball games have existed since antiquity in many countries, including Ancient China, Sparta and Ancient Rome, but the rules of football in their modern form took shape only in the 19th century. In 1863, the Football Association of England was formed, which formulated the basic rulebook. It was based on the rules that existed in prestigious private English schools, in which football was incredibly popular.
- The full name of the game is association football, which means football according to the rules of the association.There are other versions of the game, for example, rugby football or rugby for short – football according to the rules of the Rugby School (a prestigious private school in Warwickshire County).
- In Ireland, New Zealand, Australia, the USA and Canada, “football” is a game with very different rules.
- Soccer (soccer) – the name used in the above-mentioned English-speaking countries to denote the football we are used to. The term originated in England in the 80s of the 19th century, but modern English fans perceive it as outdated and even dismissive.
- The 2014 FIFA World Cup was the worst for England in 56 years. For the first time since 1958, the British, who donated this game to the world, were unable to leave the group and left the championship after two matches.
- Linguistic Facts:
- In Russian, the word “football” is a direct borrowing from English. In Spanish (fútbol), Portuguese (futebol) and Norwegian (fotball), the name of the game is also directly borrowed from English.
- In German (Fußball), Finnish (jalkapallo) and Polish (piłka nożna), the corresponding word is a tracing paper (literal translation) from English.
- In Italian, the name of the game is derived from “kick”, “kick” – calcio.
Tennis is perhaps the second most popular sport invented by the British. Some historians believe that the progenitor of tennis was France in the 12th century, but the game took shape in Birmingham in the 1860s in its modern form.
For a long time, tennis remained an entertainment for the elite and did not have mass fans. The reason for this was both the origin of the game (the privilege of the hereditary English nobility and later students of prestigious universities and colleges), and the limited space for spectators on the court.
Until the 1920s, tennis was a non-commercial game, and French tennis player Suzanne Rachelle Flora Lenglen received the first royalties for playing in public. During her thirteen-year tennis career, she became a two-time Olympic champion and was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame.
Badminton – “the younger brother of tennis” – was also invented by the British. He was brought to England by British soldiers serving in India. The Indian game “puna” was taken as a basis, and badminton acquired modern features through the efforts of the famous sports enthusiast, the Duke of Bosfort.The Duke’s residence was Badminton House, from which the name of the game comes from.
- The average speed of a shuttlecock from a blow of a professional athlete is 414 km / h. This is the speed record for a sports equipment.
- Professional badminton players run up to 10 km per match. Football players run a little more than 10-12 km, depending on the match and position in the team.
Cricket and Baseball
The first mentions of cricket date back to the Tudor dynasty (1485–1604), and the first professional cricket players appeared after the Stuart restoration in 1660.
Cricket is not as widespread as football, tennis or badminton, but it is still popular in English-speaking countries.
Baseball is perhaps the main national sport in the United States, which begins to be played from early childhood. Baseball is also popular in Cuba, Venezuela, China, Japan and South Korea.
Baseball is considered an “invention” of the Americans and a kind of adaptation of the rounders or cricket, the rules of which are very similar to those of modern baseball.Some historians claim that baseball originated in England after all. As evidence, quotes from Jane Austen’s “Northanger Abbey” are cited, in which baseball is mentioned as one of the hobbies of the main character of the novel.
Looking at the players rubbing the ice in front of a special granite projectile, one might think that this fun sport has recently appeared for the amusement of the public. However, the origins of curling are in 16th century Scotland. The Scots, of course, will mortally offended you if you call them English, but we decided to include curling in this list, since they live with the British in the same country.
By the way, the oldest curling club Kilsyth Curling Club was opened in 1716 and still exists today.
Darts, Table tennis / Ping-pong
What else have the inhabitants of Foggy Albion come up with? Think of any popular sports game and you are unlikely to go wrong. These are darts, golf, table tennis, snooker (a kind of billiards), squash and many other team and single sports games.
We hope that now it will be a little more interesting for you to learn English.After all, it is one thing to comprehend the intricacies of the use of the indefinite article and the times of the Perfect Continuous group simply because it is “necessary”, and quite another – because it is the language of the people who invented your favorite sport.
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