Gear Review: ICE and ICE Scandium Shafts by Gait Lacrosse
Company: Gait Lacrosse / Product: ICE and ICE Scandium Shafts / Price: $83.90
When I received these classic Gait shafts, I wanted to do a compare and contrast review. However, after using them for over a month and doing a little research online, I’m not quite sure this is much of a difference. Online retailers seem to use ICE and ICE Scandium interchangeably and don’t offer both. Another interesting note is that most of the sticks I found for sale online either said “Titanium Enhanced” or “Scandium Enhanced,” but I didn’t find any that merely said Gait ICE (see blue shaft above).
With this in mind, I did my best to find a difference between the two shafts. To test them out, I used both in several practices, played a lot around the house and used them for a part of my high school alumni game. In addition, one of my teammates at UCLA used the ICE Scandium for the entire Las Vegas Lacrosse Showcase after his stick broke the day before the tournament. Initial impressions of both- wow, these are extremely light!
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Fiddling with the Gait ICE shafts around the house and in the backyard.
Both shafts have clean one color looks with a subtle chain mail style finish that acts for both appearance and grip. In a lacrosse world where flashy gear often takes center stage, this simple design feels like a classic look to me.
A simple, “cool” look for the Gait ICE.
I love the shape of these sticks. As I mentioned when I reviewed the new Brine Scandium shaft, I’m picky about shaft shape. This is because my first two sticks were from Gait, and my favorite shaft as a youth player was the Gait Liquid Metal. That shaft had a distinct “T” shape, much like the Dragonfly X30. While the ICE has a similar shape, it also has additional ridges to decrease the amount of material in the shaft and thus making it lighter. There is also the chain mail finish that I mentioned before that provides just a little extra grip. In addition, Gait has a great end cap that also helps with grip while shooting the ball.
The ridges help create a light stick and a good grip.
As far as I’m concerned, Gait makes the lightest sticks around. The Liquid Metal was my favorite because of that, and the ICE doesn’t disappoint. I wasn’t able to acquire a balance to test the difference between the Scandium and regular versions, but just from playing with them, it’s impossible to tell a difference. Both are extremely light.
Light shafts are expected to break more easily, and I would have to agree with that expectation here. Although the Scandium version went through an entire tournament without denting and simply had a few scratches, I’m not sure how many seasons these shafts could last, and I’ve heard a few horror stories of players going through multiple of these sticks in a season. However, I think that may be an extreme case, and for younger players these shafts will last just fine for a few seasons.
Having a toss before my high school alumni game.
I expected to find this stick at a cheaper price than I did because it is a few seasons old. Besides that knock against it, I don’t have much else to take off for in the value department. It’s incredibly lightweight and really isn’t that expensive compared to other sticks.
OVERALL SCORE: 7.2/10
These Gait ICE shafts seem identical to me. I would guess that the Scandium version holds up a little longer, but both are extremely light and have a great grip and simple look. They’re a winner in my book.
This lax dog approves the Gait ICE!
Advanced, Budget, & Beginner Options
How to Decide Which Girls Lacrosse Stick to Buy
If you’re still not sure what girls lacrosse stick to buy, we’ve put together some things you should consider when choosing one to help out:
1) Complete Stick vs. Individual Heads & Shafts
All of the sticks in this guide include both a head and a shaft. You do have the option, however, to buy an individual head and shaft.
Unlike men’s complete sticks, women’s complete sticks often include a top tier head and shaft in one stick. Men’s complete sticks, on the other hand, are often targeted at beginner players, with more advanced players having to purchase separate heads and shafts.
For this reason, there is no right answer when it comes to whether a complete stick or individual parts is better.
Beginner and intermediate players, especially, may want to just purchase a complete stick to save on costs and the time of buying individual parts. More advanced players and those who already have a few sticks, may decide that buying individual parts makes more sense for them if they want to mix brands (such as an STX head and Maverik shaft) or if they only need a head or shaft upgrade, but not both.
If you decide to go with individual parts, just be sure the head and shaft are compatible. Most often, you will need to see if the head is specifically designed for a 10° shaft (see the STX Crux Pro Elite above) or a straight shaft.
You can see our picks for the best women’s lacrosse heads here and the best women’s lacrosse shafts here.
2) Head Face Shape & Offset
The face shape of your head is exactly what it sounds like: how the front of your head is shaped. Beginner heads are typically wider to allow for easier catching, while advanced heads are more pinched to allow for more control.
Similarly, defense heads are typically wider to allow for more surface area when checking and for intercepting passes while offensive sticks are more pinched to allow for more control and accuracy.
Another aspect to consider is the offset of your head. Most advanced offensive heads have a gradual downward offset for most of the head then cant back forward sharply towards the scoop. This allows for a deeper pocket and drives the ball into the sweet spot of the pocket, maximizing your hold on the ball and giving a quick, more accurate release.
On the flip side, this sharp offset may take some getting used to and is the reason why many beginner sticks are flatter with a more subtle offset.
3) Head Stiffness & Durability
When it comes to women’s lacrosse heads, the stiffer the better in most cases.
Having a stiff head helps keep your head from bending on groundballs and checks, and increases the longterm durability of your head. Defenders and players who take draws, especially, should look for ultra stiff heads.
While the stiffness of the head is usually a good indicator of the durability, it’s also important to read customer reviews (as we’ve done to create this guide) to see how they hold up over time. You may find that some heads start off stiff but start to “noodle out” in hot weather or after extended use.
4) Mesh vs. Traditional Pocket
Starting in 2018, women’s lacrosse heads were allowed to have mesh pockets instead of just traditional pockets (leather + strings).
This was a big move for the game of women’s lacrosse as many players, parents, and coaches found it difficult (and expensive) to maintain the complex traditional pockets that were solely used for so long.
Now, girls have the option to choose from traditional pockets, mesh runner pockets (a strip of mesh in the middle with strings on the outside), fully mesh pockets, and more.
While no one option is necessarily the “best”, mesh pockets are much easier to maintain and less expensive to replace than traditional pockets. Beginners and younger players may want to consider a mesh pocket unless they are really committed to learning how to string their sticks and make modifications here and there when needed.
In my opinion, the head is the most important part of the women’s lacrosse stick. They come in various shapes, are made of different materials, and differ a lot between skill levels.
Shafts, on the other hand, are generally all the same shape and size, and have less of an impact on your performance.
This doesn’t mean, however, that you should just find the cheapest shaft possible and go with that. As with a lot of lacrosse equipment, shafts can ding, bend, and break. Also, very cheap shafts may be considerably heavier than advanced options, slowing you down, even if just a little bit.
When looking for a girls lacrosse stick, you should make sure that the shaft feels good in your hands in terms of the grip and shape of the shaft, isn’t too heavy, and has a good weight distribution with the head.
You will also have to decide what diameter shaft you want. Most often, shafts come in 7/8″ or 1″ diameters. Which is best for you will depend on what you feel more comfortable with. Before buying a stick, it may make sense to test out a few of your teammates shafts with different diameters to see what feels the best.
As briefly mentioned earlier, the weight of your stick is another important thing to consider. Heavy sticks can make it harder to shoot, dodge, throw checks, and move around the field.
While most sticks aren’t so heavy that they’ll significantly slow you down, a few ounces here and there can really give you that competitive edge or just feel more natural in your hands.
Look for complete sticks that use advanced materials in their heads (such as STX’s Enduraform plastic) and shafts (such as carbon fiber and other composite materials).
NAVY WOMENS LACROSSE SIGN WITH GAIT
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
Altamont, N.Y. (August 12, 2020) – Gait Lacrosse is proud to announce a multi-year partnership with the United States Naval Academy Women’s Lacrosse program beginning with the 2020-21 season.
The agreement provides a full suite of Gait Lacrosse hard goods to the NCAA Division 1 student-athletes for the opportunity to get to know the brand and to push forth their skills.
“Gait has the most innovative sticks and stringing in the game…the technology is unmatched in the industry; gait sticks, gait stick head, gait handles and gait pockets will separate your performance from the rest and take you to new heights,” said Naval Academy women’s lacrosse coach Cindy Timchal. “[the products] are performance driven, technology-advanced, and
fluid-enhancing. You have yet arrived at your destination, the journey to lacrosse excellence has just begun …be special, be brave, BE GAIT!”
Gait Lacrosse, a collaboration between lacrosse legends and brothers, Gary and Paul Gait, launched last fall. The company has a full line of women’s lacrosse gear, including heads, handles, gloves and eyewear, and men’s lacrosse heads, handles and gloves.
“We are extremely happy to team up with Cindy and the Naval Academy,” said Gait Lacrosse co-owner Paul Gait. “I personally have been working with Cindy and her programs for 20 years now and know there are not many coaches who can bring such a high level of experience and credibility to a lacrosse brand. She is a true legend and we are happy to partner with her again.”
Navy joins the University of Louisville women’s lacrosse as part of the Gait Family.
PG Lax Properties, LLC is a US based company created by Paul Gait and Curt Styres to produce the “Gait” brand of lacrosse products. The brand originally developed by Paul Gait, for Rawlings Sporting Goods, was contractually re-acquired by Gait in 2018. In September of 2019, Paul’s twin brother Gary, arguably the greatest player of all-time, joined the company to create one of the industry’s most dynamic duos in design and innovation. The Company is committed to use its legendary design experience and proven creativity to produce products with
game-changing innovation. Established partnerships with the NLL, WPLL, professional athletes
and NCAA programs have allowed the Gait brothers to prove that their performance design and technology is unmatched within the industry.
Jennifer Riitano Levy
Vice President of Product & Marketing 518-331-4012
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Gait Lacrosse Head Pocket Stretcher
Gait Lacrosse Head Pocket Stretcher
Model: Pocket Stretcher
Model Number: D38181
Lacrosse Pocket Accessory
Press-In Pocket Stretcher
Great for properly positioning your pocket
Slots in Stretcher allows for pocket depth adjustment
Stretches the pocket without the risk of tears or damage to the mesh
The Gait Lacrosse Head Pocket Stretcher is an awesome tool for any lax player looking to make some adjustments to their pocket. The Gait Pocket Stretcher is a press-in style stretcher and allows you to properly position or lengthen your pocket when applied. This Stretcher is great because it stretches the pocket without the risk of tears and damage to the mesh inside. The Slots in the Stretcher allows for pocket depth adjustment, so you can go deeper by placing the file into the slot and locking it in the sidewall. Overall, the Gait Lacrosse Head Pocket Stretcher has a ton of great benefits that you should take advantage of so don’t miss out on this sweet deal.
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“How to walk correctly”
“And I recognize a sweetheart by his gait”, or What is walking and gait
Walking is a natural way of getting around in space. We walk daily. But are we walking right? The question is not idle from the point of view of body biomechanics. After all, if our movements are not coordinated, we slouch, then the gait is ugly, there is an overload of muscles and joints, as a result, the spine and internal organs suffer. Dr. Alexander Ivanov talks about how to diagnose health problems by gait and learn how to walk correctly.
SELF-DIAGNOSTICS: STUDYING YOUR HIKE
Man differs from other representatives of the animal kingdom by upright walking. There is an opinion that we are paying for upright walking with diseases of the spine. A person gradually gets to his feet at the end of the first year of life. From this moment, a motor stereotype of movement begins to form – a gait.
Definition from the Great Medical Encyclopedia: “Gait is a set of signs that characterize a person’s walking.A number of motor components of the gait have an innate character and are included in the complex coordinated activity of muscles and limbs in the process of movement (locomotion). The regulation of gait in humans is carried out by the cortical, subcortical-stem and cerebellar structures of the brain. The gait is also associated with emotional (motivational) mechanisms of movement, which are controlled by the limbic system of the brain and cortical regulation of the static-dynamic balance of a moving person. All this gives the sinking expressive coordination, reflecting the personality traits of a given person (character, temperament) and creates a manner of walking.In the process of life, the gait acquires new features, which in a person are associated with the peculiarities of his labor activity, education, etc. ”
To determine if you are walking correctly, take a simple test. If, during a 30-minute walk with a regular step, you feel tired in your legs, you want to sit down, rest, or your calf muscles hurt, then, most likely, something is wrong with your gait. Then ask yourself the following questions: which foot do I start with, do my arms move in time with my body while walking, do I step on the heel where my gaze is directed.
Another tip: video your walk and carefully study the movement of your body while walking. This will help from the outside to see mistakes when walking and consciously correct them.
HOW TO WALK CORRECTLY
The golden rule of gait is healthy posture. It is necessary to keep your back and head straight, slightly raise your chin – look at the level of the third floor. In this case, the spine is straightened, and the diaphragm moves freely. The shoulders need to be straightened, the chest should be released.
While walking, use the calf muscles, for this you need to step on the heel, and then smoothly transfer the center of gravity to the toe. While walking, the feet should come off the floor – you cannot shuffle and drag your feet. Feet should be parallel to each other or slightly towards the outside.
For an osteopathic physician, the patient’s gait is of diagnostic value. As soon as a patient enters my office, I can judge his diagnosis and understand what worries the person.For example, often limping on one leg indicates problems in the lumbar spine and inflammation of the sciatic nerve.
Move your arms while walking – it’s natural. Normally, when walking, our hands describe semicircles. Avoid putting your hands in your pockets while walking, as you can walk faster with free hands.
A SCEED BELT, OR WHY ONE LEG IS SHORT THAN THE OTHER
The pelvis plays a key role in the biomechanics of walking. The pelvis is an anatomical structure that consists of several bones: the sacrum, pubic and iliac bones.All this is covered with muscles and ligaments. The pelvis is the seat of the internal organs – the genitourinary system (bladder, uterus, prostate) and the intestine (rectum).
The basin is the foundation on which the spine stands, like a tower. Disorders of the pelvic structure leads to diseases of the spine – impaired posture and gait. Osteopaths pay special attention to the pelvis, correcting its somatic dysfunctions (violation of biomechanics and rhythm).
In the course of osteopathic examination, we quite often reveal different lengths of patients’ legs.The difference in the length of the legs leads to an overload of the spine and joints, which provokes pain. Distinguish between true shortening of the leg (anatomical) and functional shortening. The task of the doctor – is to identify whether this shortening is anatomical or functional. For this, there are special diagnostic tests in osteopathy. In the case of a true shortening of the leg, caused, for example, by coxarthrosis of the hip joint or a fracture of the femur, orthopedic devices are used for correction – insoles or heel pad.Functional leg shortening can be successfully corrected. In literally one session, an osteopathic doctor can lengthen the leg and straighten the oblique pelvis. Thanks to this, the load on the joints of the legs and the spine will be even, which will help to avoid pain in the future.
Gait is to some extent a marker of our inner state, status, profession, and so on. The manner of walking or gait (like handwriting or a fingerprint) is different for everyone, but there are still criteria for a healthy, correct gait: posture, head position, coordinated movements of the arms and legs.
Walking informs the people around about the mood and even about the character traits of a person. There are male and female gaits, youthful and senile gaits, professional gait (the gait of a top model or a ballerina, the gait of a boss), an energetic gait and a lazy gait. Ideally, the gait should be light and springy.
WALKING AS DISEASE PREVENTION
Walking is an excellent way to prevent diseases of the spine and cardiovascular system.Make walking the main way to get around. Use every opportunity to walk – to work, home, to visit, to the store, just walking, and so on. Ideally, you need to take at least ten thousand steps a day. Forget the elevator and escalator in the subway. You can use smartphone pedometers and trackers to monitor your steps. A special type of walking is Nordic walking with sticks.
WHAT TO WALK
Shoes and clothes in which you walk are important. If the shoes are uncomfortable, narrow and with high heels, this interferes with normal gait.Avoid shoes with flat and thin soles in everyday life – they disrupt the cushioning of the foot and lead to overloading of the spine and joints.
Choose clothing that is comfortable and free of movement. Tight clothing, such as jeans, can interfere with natural body movement when walking.
Walk correctly and be healthy!
Ivanov Alexander Alexandrovich – Candidate of Medical Sciences, osteopath, neurologist, naturopath, member of the Russian osteopathic association, popularizer of a healthy lifestyle and a conscious approach to health.
Personal site www.osteopat-ivanov.ru
The opinion of the author may not coincide with the position of the editors
Impaired coordination of movements (ataxia) in Yekaterinburg
Impaired coordination of movements (ataxia) is a symptom that accompanies many diseases. This condition is accompanied by impaired coordination of movements and motor skills. The person looks awkward, movements are not coordinated, balance is often disturbed.
The central nervous system is responsible for the coordination of movements; if this department is damaged, there is a violation in movements and coordination.
Causes of ataxia
There are many reasons why ataxia occurs:
- congenital malformations of the brain;
- damage to arteries in the brain, spinal cord;
- brain tumor;
- hormonal diseases;
- poisoning with medicines (anticonvulsants in large doses, hypnotics, potent drugs), chemical agents;
- vitamin B12 deficiency.
90,092 genetic diseases;
Species and types
They are classified for reasons that lead to its development and by the nature of the manifestation.
1. Sensitive. It can occur due to polyneuropathy. With diseases of the spinal cord (multiple sclerosis, tumor), with a deficiency of vitamin B12. The patient’s movements are characterized by a high rise of the leg, lowering the leg with force (“stamping gait”). Balance worsens when the eyes are closed, sensitivity is disturbed. The patient tries to walk carefully, controls each step with his eyes.
2. Vestibular. Disturbance in the organ of balance, characterized by ataxia, dizziness, nausea, vomiting. When turning the head and changing the position of the body, the dizziness increases.
3. Cerebellar. The patient cannot coordinate movements with his eyes closed and in the dark, but movements remain normal if the patient can see. There may be falls when walking. Speech may be slurred, slowed down, and the reaction worsens. The handwriting is deteriorating.
4.Cork. Dysfunction of the anterior cerebral cortex. Symptoms typical for this type of ataxia are unstable walking, difficulties arise when you need to turn, difficulty to move, take a step (“tangled legs”). There is a violation of the ability to stand and walk. Patients note mental disorders. There may be auditory hallucinations, loss of the grasping reflex, the patient cannot sit without help.
5. Psychogenic (hysterical). Change in walking (along a broken line, skater walking, braiding, walking on stilts).Such changes, as a rule, are not observed in organic pathology of the central nervous system.
With ataxia, movement is disturbed when walking, the gait becomes wider, with swaying from side to side, there are falls. The gait is uncertain, precise movements are difficult to perform. It is difficult for patients to bring a spoon or cup to their mouth without spilling the contents, speech is disturbed, breathing becomes irregular. Dizziness develops, the patient complains of nausea, gag reflex, headaches.Symptoms are varied, depending on the type of violation.
Static-locomotor and kinetic ataxia
Violation of the statics of the body (the ability to maintain a stable position) occurs due to damage to the brain, namely the cerebellum. The patient cannot maintain a stable body position, tries to spread his legs wide, help balance the body with his hands. It is easy to diagnose Static ataxia in the Romberg position. There may be a loss of balance, up to a fall. With its severity, the patient completely loses the ability to control movements, loses coordination, cannot stand, walk and sit on his own.
Kinetic ataxia is manifested by impaired coordination of movement of the limbs (arms, legs), it is impossible to perform precise movements.
To diagnose the disease, the neurologist takes a family history. Performs neurological tests and functional tests (Romberg test, tandem walking). This allows you to see the picture of symptoms in more detail.
Instrumental diagnostics includes:
- CT, MRI of the brain;
- duplex scanning of cerebral vessels;
- biochemical and general blood test;
- genetic analysis.
A neurologist can refer you to an otolaryngologist and neurosurgeon for consultation if necessary.
The consequences of ataxia depend on the cause that caused the disorder. If this is alcohol poisoning, then with the exclusion of alcohol, most often the physiological functions of the body are restored. With hypothyroidism, brain tumors or vitamin B12 deficiency, it may decrease if the causes are eliminated.
If these are hereditary disorders, then they cannot be corrected.Treatment is then necessary in order to relieve symptoms and improve the patient’s life.
With the help of physiotherapy exercises, the patient will be able to improve body balance, posture and coordinate movements as much as possible in his case. Devices are used to help and facilitate the patient to eat, perform daily activities, and walk.
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Weakness in the legs – symptoms of illness, treatment
This symptom can be associated with a number of different diseases, including serious ones. What can weakness in the legs indicate, what symptoms can accompany it and what to do in such situations?
Causes of the condition and accompanying symptoms
Weakness in the legs, like any other muscle weakness, is not an independent disease, but only one of the signs of a huge number of pathological conditions. In most cases, this is an alarming symptom that cannot be ignored. It can be caused by the development of various serious diseases, and often the patient needs urgent medical attention.Let’s list the common causes of weakness in the legs.
Muscular dystrophies – a group of genetic diseases that includes more than 30 pathologies in which muscle fibers are damaged and weakened. It is associated with a deficiency in the protein dystrophin, which is essential for normal muscle function. The disease can manifest itself at any age, although most often its symptoms become evident in childhood. Boys get sick more often than girls. The symptoms of muscular dystrophy depend on its type.However, the appearance of weakness, including in the legs, difficulties in walking, and decreased reflexes, becomes common to all pathologies. Over time, other symptoms join, such as impaired breathing, swallowing, and so on 1 .
Myasthenia gravis – an autoimmune disease in which the body attacks acetylcholine receptors, which leads to impaired neuromuscular transmission. The main signs of myasthenia gravis are weakness and fatigue of the striated muscles, including the muscles of the limbs.Manifestations of myasthenia gravis also include difficulty climbing stairs, facial paralysis, difficulty breathing, difficulty swallowing and chewing, hoarseness, drooping eyelids, and other symptoms 2 .
Peripheral neuropathy – a condition in which damage to nerve fibers occurs against the background of various diseases and conditions, for example, trauma, systemic disease (diabetes mellitus, hepatitis), infection, congenital pathology. Today, more than 100 types of peripheral neuropathies are known, each of which has features of its course and treatment.Weakness in the legs appears when motor neurons are damaged – nerve cells that provide motor coordination and maintain muscle tone 3 .
Pompe disease is a rare hereditary disease that can occur at any age: from 0 to 75 years old and even older. It is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and manifests itself in a complex of symptoms. The characteristic signs of Pompe disease are general muscle weakness, weakness in the legs, decreased muscle tone, impaired breathing, shortness of breath even with light exertion, hyperlorodosis, change in gait, instability when walking.sometimes – disruption of the heart (cardiomyopathy), In addition, patients may complain of drowsiness, increased fatigue, hearing loss. Late-onset Pompe disease can manifest in adulthood, and the onset of symptoms is usually gradual. Since the pathology is rare, it is often difficult to establish a diagnosis. Sometimes it takes years. To speed up the diagnosis and choose the right treatment, it is important to be attentive to your condition and to analyze the entire complex of symptoms 4 .
Graves’ disease is an autoimmune disease in which the thyroid glands are affected. Often, Graves’ disease leads to the development of hyperthyroidism. The symptoms of the disease are specific. Along with weakness in the legs and general muscle weakness, patients are worried about irritability, sleep disturbance, frequent heartbeat, heat intolerance, diarrhea, and unexplained weight loss. External signs of Graves’ disease are bulging and the appearance of a bulge in the neck (due to an enlarged thyroid gland) 5 .
Guillain-Barré Syndrome is a rare autoimmune disease in which the immune system affects part of the peripheral nervous system. Usually the syndrome develops after a bacterial or viral infection, sometimes vaccination or surgery is the trigger. It can develop at any age, but symptoms appear more often in adults. The first symptoms of the disease are weakness and tingling in the legs, which then spread to the face and hands.This sometimes leads to paralysis. In some patients, the respiratory muscles are affected, due to which breathing is impaired, difficulties with speech and swallowing appear 6 .
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic progressive disease in which various parts of the central nervous system are affected. The reason remains unknown. It is assumed that the disease develops under the influence of genetic and external factors. In multiple sclerosis, the immune system attacks the protective sheath of nerve fibers called myelin.The disease manifests itself in a complex of symptoms. Among the most common are muscle fatigue, spasms, tremors in the muscles, difficulty walking, pain 7 .
Sciatica develops due to pinching (compression) of the roots of the lumbar spine. This occurs against the background of disc lesions or narrowing of the spinal canal. The main symptom is sharp pain that spreads from the lower back to the limbs, usually on one side of the body. In addition, weakness or numbness in the legs may develop 8 .
Weakness in the legs can also appear in other diseases and conditions.
How is the disease diagnosed?
The appearance of weakness in the legs is a reason to consult a general practitioner. He will conduct a clinical examination, study the anamnesis and, if necessary, refer you for consultation to narrow specialists, for example, a geneticist, a neurologist.
Since weakness in the legs can be caused by a number of diseases, in order to understand what exactly caused the clinical picture, a comprehensive examination is necessary.It may include:
- Neurological examination;
- Laboratory diagnostics – general and biochemical analyzes of blood, urine, etc .;
- Genetic examination – if you suspect the development of hereditary muscular dystrophies;
- Instrumental diagnostics – ultrasound examination, radiography, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, electroencephalography, electromyography, etc.
What treatment is prescribed for weak legs?
Therapy is prescribed after a thorough examination and diagnosis.So, in chronic diseases (myodystrophy, myasthenia gravis, multiple sclerosis), the goal of treatment is to improve the patient’s quality of life, alleviate the condition and slow down the progression. With Guillain-Barré syndrome, the nervous system recovers on its own, and the efforts of doctors are aimed at maintaining body functions.
In peripheral neuropathies, the task is to optimally control the underlying disease, if necessary – pain relief with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Severe pain and weakness in the legs caused by a pinched nerve goes away on its own after rest. Sometimes drugs are prescribed to alleviate the condition – non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anticonvulsants, and others.
Forecast and prevention
The prognosis depends on what disease caused the weakness in the legs. Preventive measures are based on compensation of diseases, against the background of which damage to peripheral nerves develops, especially diabetes mellitus, and prevention of injury.
- Doronin V. B., Doronina O. B. Hereditary muscular dystrophies // Bulletin of Siberian Medicine – 2009. – T. 2. – No. 2. –S.72-76.
- Shkolnik V.M., Kalbus A.I., Shulga O.D. Myasthenia: what do we know today? // Health of Ukraine (neurology, psychiatry, psychotherapy) – 2010. – № 3. –S. 14.
- Peripheral neuropathy. Mayo clinic. URL: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/peripheral-neuropathy/symptoms-causes/syc-20352061.Date of treatment 04/12/2019.
- Nikitin S. S. et al. Late-onset Pompe disease: the first clinical description in Russia // Neuromuscular diseases – 2014. – No. 1. –S.62-68.
- Menconi F., Marcocci C., Marinò M. Diagnosis and classification of Graves’ disease // Autoimmunity reviews –2014. – T. 13. – No. 4-5. – S. 398-402.
- Guillain-Barré Syndrome. World Health Organization. URL: https://www.who.int/ru/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/guillain-barr%C3%A9-syndrome.Date of treatment 04/12/2019.
- Gusev E. I., Demina T. L. Multiple sclerosis // Consilium medicum –2000. – T. 2. – No. 2. – S. 76-84.
- Sciatica. MSD Reference. URL: https://www.msdmanuals.com/ru. Date of treatment 04/15/2019.
Friedreich’s ataxia (AF) is an autosomal recessive disorder, i.e. sick children are born to a pair of parents who are both clinically healthy, but carry the pathological gene.The disease affects the neurons of the central and peripheral nervous system: Gaul’s bundles are mainly affected, to a lesser extent Burdakh, Fleksig, Govers bundles, as well as pyramidal pathways, dorsal roots, spinal ganglia and peripheral nerves, cells of the cerebellar cortex, basal ganglia, cerebral cortex pathways of the spinal cord. In other systems, no less important organ cells are affected by the disease, these are myocardial cells, β – cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, cells of the retina and bone tissues.Causes progressive degeneration of the central and peripheral nervous system. Most patients are homozygous; their mRNA content is so small that sometimes it is not detected at all (in contrast to healthy individuals and carriers of the Friedreich’s ataxia gene). AF occurs equally often in men and women, does not occur in representatives of the Negroid race, and almost never occurs in indigenous Asians. It is named after the German physician Nikolaus Friedreich, who first described it in 1860. It is the most common of the hereditary ataxias: the incidence of Friedreich’s ataxia is about 2-7 cases per 100 thousand people.
Symptoms of Friedreich’s ataxia appear more often in the first, second decades of life, occasionally in the third and fourth decades. Uncertainty, staggering, stumbling when walking, frequent falls appear, handwriting is disturbed due to tremor, dysarthria appears, weakness in the legs, hearing impairment. Tendon and periosteal reflexes (primarily Achilles and knee reflexes) disappear. Rheumatic heart disease can sometimes be an early symptom. Patients do not perform the calcaneal-knee test, swaying appears in the Romberg position, which intensifies when the eyes are closed, and sitting disorders.Babinsky’s symptom. Often nystagmus.
Gradually, deep sensitivity is disturbed, muscle atrophy increases, at the initial stages it is more pronounced on the lower extremities, with the course of the disease it also captures the upper ones. Total areflexia is formed. The optic nerve atrophies, cataracts develop, leading to blindness, the function of the pelvic organs is impaired, and dementia develops.
Endocrine disorders develop: diabetes mellitus, hypogonadism, infantilism, ovarian dysfunction.Cardiomyopathy. Skeletal deformities: curvature of the spine, kyphoscoliosis, “Friedreich’s foot” (high concave arch of the foot with overextension of the fingers in the main phalanges and flexion in the distal ones), deformity of the fingers and toes, clubfoot.
The course of the disease is steadily progressing, in the absence of adequate treatment, the duration of the disease usually does not exceed 20 years. The immediate cause of death can be heart and lung failure, infectious complications.In rare cases, in the absence of diabetes mellitus and heart disorders, patients live up to 70-80 years. The prognosis is more favorable in women: 100% of women and only 63% of men live more than 20 years from the onset of the disease.
Diagnostics: Computed tomography of the brain, which remains the main diagnosis of ataxia in this disease, is ineffective, because detects changes only in the later stages. It is possible to detect only a weak degree of cerebellar atrophy at an early stage and atrophy of the hemispheres, expansion of the stem cisterns, lateral ventricles and subarachnoid space of both hemispheres at later stages.Early diagnosis of Friedreich’s ataxia is performed using MRI, which makes it possible to detect spinal cord atrophy and a decrease in the transverse size of the spinal cord, especially increasing in the caudal direction at the expanded stage, and moderate atrophy of the pons, cerebellum and medulla oblongata. At the initial stage, an electrophysiological study is necessarily carried out, with such studies, the severity of damage to the sensitivity of the nerves of the extremities is established. The electroneuromyographic pattern characteristic of this disease is the absence or significant decrease in the amplitude of the action potentials of the sensory nerves of the extremities, with a relatively small decrease in the speed of impulse conduction along the motor nerves.For a complete diagnosis, load tests of glucose tolerance are performed (to exclude diabetes mellitus), an X-ray examination of the spine. On the ECG – rhythm disturbance, T wave inversion, changes in conduction, with echocardiography, conduction disturbances, up to complete blockade, and hypertrophy of the interventricular septum are especially often noted. In some cases, the clinical and electrocardiographic symptoms of heart disease sometimes precede the appearance of neurological disorders by several years.Patients are observed for a long time by a cardiologist or a local therapist, most often with a diagnosis of rheumatic heart disease. To assess mitochondrial disorders using the cytochemical method, it seems most appropriate to determine the activity of a number of lymphocyte dehydrogenase enzymes: succinate dehydrogenase (SDH),
Differentiation of the diagnosis: A similar symptomatology is characteristic of cerebellar tumors, hereditary metabolic diseases: Gm 1- and Gm 2-gangliosidosis and galactosialidosis (for differentiation, a study of the activity of β-galactosidase and hexosaminidase A is carried out), neurosyphilis deficiency, funicucleus vitamin E, Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome, hereditary metabolic diseases such as Krabbe’s disease (diff.- study of the enzyme galactosylceramidase) and the late variant of Niemann-Pick disease (for differentiation, the content of sphingomyelins in the cerebrospinal fluid is determined, the sternal punctate is examined for the presence of “foamy” cells), Louis-Bar disease (or otherwise ataxia-telangiectasia: clinically it differs by the presence on the skin telangiectasias (excessive local expansion of small vessels, mainly precapillaries and capillaries), absence of skeletal abnormalities, frequent and severe respiratory tract infections, absence or extremely low levels of IgA, high levels of α-fetoprotein.MRI reveals hypoplasia of the cerebellum, more often of its worm.), With multiple sclerosis (differential diagnosis usually does not cause difficulties, because for multiple sclerosis symptoms such as tendon areflexia, muscle hypotension, amyotrophy, extraneural manifestations are uncharacteristic, as well as in connection with the absence of remissions and focal changes in the density of the brain matter during CT and MRI in Friedreich’s disease). To differentiate the disease, DNA testing and medical and genetic counseling, blood lipid profile research, blood smear analysis for the presence of vitamin E and acanthocyte deficiency are performed.DNA testing should be prescribed not only to the patient, but also to relatives to determine the heredity of the disease, this is necessary for the purpose of prevention, and the appointment of preventive therapy. Molecular genetic examination of patients with clinically typical manifestations of AF for an increase in the GAA trinucleotide does not reveal the allele expansion in all. In this case, a point mutation or deletion in the BP gene on both chromosomes is possible. In these cases, it may be a phenocopy of AF, since an increase in the triplet has been described in many patients with atypical ataxia and in patients with generalized chorea.
Treatment of Friedreich’s ataxia does not lead to complete recovery, but timely prevention makes it possible to avoid the development of many symptoms and complications. To slow the progression of the disease, mitochondrial drugs, antioxidants and other drugs are prescribed that reduce the accumulation of iron in the mitochondria. The general principle of treatment with these drugs is the combined prescription of drugs that synergistically affect different levels of energy metabolism.The simultaneous administration of at least three drugs from the first three groups is recommended. (Drugs that increase the activity of the respiratory chain of mitochondria, cofactors of enzymatic reactions of energy metabolism, antioxidants). Antioxidants such as vitamins A and E, as well as a synthetic substitute for coenzyme Q 10, idebenone, are prescribed, which inhibits the neurodegenerative process and the development of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Usually, drugs are prescribed that improve myocardial metabolism: riboxin, cocarboxylase, preductal, etc.5-hydroxyprofan is also prescribed, which gives good results, but requires further research. In general, treatment is symptomatic, aimed at symptoms such as diabetes mellitus, diseases of the cardiovascular system. General strengthening treatment (vitamins) is carried out, as well as drugs that affect tissue metabolism (piracetam, aminalon, acefen, cerebrolysin), the treatment of which should be repeated periodically. Surgical correction of the feet and the introduction of botulinum toxin into the spastic muscles are also performed.Physiotherapy and physiotherapy exercises are procedures without which the treatment of Friedreich’s ataxia is most often ineffective. Constant exercises make it possible to keep the body in good shape and eliminate painful sensations. Children with AF can stay active as long as possible with physical therapy and corrective exercise programs that should focus on training muscle balance and strength. With this exercise program, cardiomyopathy does not develop. Patients feel better when limiting carbohydrates in food to 10g / kg, since their high consumption is a kind of “provocation” that enhances the defect in energy metabolism.Patients need social adaptation, as many have to live in a state of complete helplessness. Loss of vision, the ability to move independently, impaired coordination creates psychological disorders that must be eliminated with the help of specialists and the support of loved ones.
Prevention of Friedreich’s ataxia – DNA testing at the early presymptomatic stage in order to prescribe preventive therapy is of particular importance. First of all, the patient’s relatives are examined.
The prevalence of Friedreich’s autosomal recessive ataxia among the Yakut population of PC (Y) is 2.8 per 100 thousand population. The molecular genetic cause of AF in Yakuts is the expansion (GAA) of n-repeats in 1 intron of the FRDA gene. In the ulus of Vilyui and central Yakutia, isolated cases of autosomal recessive Friedreich’s ataxia without accumulation in separate ulus were recorded. An interesting fact is that the disease was registered in the Yakut ethnic group, which is a representative of the Asian race, among which there were no previously recorded cases of Friedreich’s ataxia…. This can be explained by the introduction of the European component into the Yakut gene pool; therefore, the elucidation of the causes of the emergence and spread of Friedreich’s ataxia among the Yakuts requires further study.
- DNA diagnostics of Friedreich’s ataxia with clinical and genetic analysis. // V.V. Pugachev, S.N. Illarioshkin, L.V. Prokutsha, B.D. Markova, 0. V. Evgrafov, I. A. Ishnova -Smolenskaya // Collection “Molecular diagnostics of hereditary diseases and medical genetic counseling.”- M – MOlIHKll – 1QS3.
- Hereditary ataxia and paraplegia // S.N. Illarioshkin. // “Medicine”, 2006.
- Hereditary diseases of the nervous system. // Yu.E. Veltischev, P.A. Temin. // “Medicine”, 1998.
- Pediatric neurology // A.S. Petrukhin. // “Medicine”, 2004.
- Neurology. Handbook of a practitioner // D.R. Shtulman, O.S. Levin // Publishing house “MEDpress-inform”, 2005.
- Detection of a polymorphic marker in the region of the gene responsible for the onset of Friedreich’s ataxia.// O. V. Evgrafov, V. V. Pugachev, L.B. Strelchenko. // 2nd All-Union Symposium “Theoretical and Applied Aspects of Molecular Biology”. Samarkand. – 1991.- theses house. – S. 68.
- Search and study of microsatellite repeats in the area of the putative localization of the FRDA gene // O.V. Evgrafov, V. V. Pugachev, A. V. Polyakov, L B. Strelchenko // II Congress of VOGIS, Minsk, 1992, Abstracts. Part 1.s.25
5 evidence that your gait is unsafe / AdMe
Gait gives not only a psychological state of a person, but also shows real health problems.You may think that sweeping hips are talking about the sensuality of a passer-by. In fact, she most likely has problems with the muscles of the back and a sedentary lifestyle.
Bright Side collected 5 proofs of how gait can diagnose and demonstrate diseases in our body.
First of all, pay attention to your shoes. If she stumbles evenly in the middle, then everything is in order. If the sole is rubbed from the inside or, conversely, from the outside, the foot is deformed.This can cause problems with the choice of shoes, fatigue when walking, and arthrosis.
This is how it looks:
It is also worth watching your own feet or those of your fellow travelers. There are a number of signs that make you think about the correct gait. For example:
- The steps are too short. A possible cause is damage to the knee joints.
- Hip swing. A possible cause is weak back muscles.
- Loud stomp. A possible cause is loss of sensation in the legs.
- Shuffling. A possible cause is a weakening of control over movements, weakness of the leg muscles.
- Rocking when walking. A possible cause is a pinched lumbar nerve.
- Bouncing. A possible cause is tension in the calf muscles.
- Limping. A possible cause is the presence of an injury or different leg lengths.
Correct stride technique:
- The first impact on the ground falls on the heel, then a smooth roll over the foot, and the weight is transferred to the toe.
- Legs should be parallel to each other. Model gait “in one line” leads to violations.
- The stride length of both legs should be the same – 1.5–2 cm longer than the length of your foot. To speed up the pace, it is better to increase the take off, not the length of the stride.
- The body must not overtake the foot.
The easiest way to recognize an incorrect gait is the posture. Ideally, we should walk with our back straight, belly in in, shoulders relaxed and laid back.Slouching, round or, conversely, too arched back will inevitably lead to pain in the muscles, fatigue, and impaired blood supply. In addition, the curvature of the spine betrays insecurity and depression in a person.
Everything is simple here – you need to keep your head straight. Most people already experience excessive stress on the cervical spine. If you tilt your head even when walking, then headaches cannot be avoided. When walking, the head should be on the same axis with the spine.It is better to direct only the gaze downward.
Active waving of the arms or complete inactivity of the arms at least looks strange. When walking, the hands should help the movement, but not restrain it or urge it on.
Correctly like this:
- Simultaneously with the right leg, the left hand should be in front, and vice versa.
- Swings should be symmetrical, arms should be relaxed.
- It is not recommended to keep your hands in your pockets – it interferes with the correct twisting of the body.
- It is better to distribute the load on both arms evenly to avoid curvature of the spine. Experts recommend choosing a backpack, not a bag.
Benefits of walking
Well, do not forget that with a correct gait, walking brings many benefits.
Genetic features of fragile X syndrome
Genetic features of fragile X syndrome
Among the group of hereditary diseases, there are two diseases belonging to the most common causes of intellectual disability .The most famous and most common pathology is Down syndrome, associated with the presence of an extra 21st chromosome in the human genome. In this article, we will talk about the second most common hereditary disease that leads to mental retardation, and can also be accompanied by 90,071 other clinical manifestations .
Fragile X-chromosome syndrome or Martin-Bell syndrome is the result of a violation in of the gene FMR1 (fragile X mental retardation-1), which is located on the X chromosome and plays an important role in the appearance and development of nerve connections, learning and memorization.The incidence of this syndrome among boys is 1: 4000.
The so-called “fragility” of the X chromosome is manifested in the fact that the chromosome looks atypical with special staining, as if one piece has separated, although physically it remains intact. The genetic basis for this phenomenon is an increase in the number of trinucleotide repeats CGG in the gene FMR1 located on the X chromosome.
In healthy people, the number of repeats in this gene ranges from 5 to 54 .If repeats are more than 200 , then the production of protein from the gene FMR 1 is disrupted, which leads to the development of Martin-Bell syndrome and the clinical manifestation of the disease. Premutation state is the number of CGG repeats from 55 to 200. In this state, the disease in humans does not appear in typical form, but the more repeats in this gene in a carrier, the more likely her or his children will have a number of repeats. more than 200 and the disease will develop.In the case of carriage of a premutation during the formation of germ cells, the number of repeats can increase, therefore, if the parent has the number of repeats from 55 to 200, then there is a high probability of giving birth to a child with the mutant gene FMR 1 and Martin-Bell syndrome. At the same time, the carriage of the pre-mutation state by the future dad and mom is unequal in terms of the likelihood of a mutant allele in their children: if the carrier is a mom, then the probability of a significant increase in the number of repeats is much higher.The number of repetitions from 45 to 54 is an intermediate form that has no effect on human health, but can lead to problems in future generations, as in the case of the pre-mutation state of the gene.
It is important to take into account that inheritance and development of the disease depends on gender , since the gene FMR 1 is located on the X chromosome. Men only have one X chromosome, which they receive from their mother. Therefore, if this one chromosome turns out to be “fragile”, they develop a disease.Women have two X chromosomes, but only one of them is actively working. Therefore, the presence of one X chromosome with the mutant gene FMR 1 may not manifest itself clinically, in case of inactivation of the “fragile” chromosome, or lead to the development of the disease in 30-50% of cases. A man with a fragile X chromosome can pass it on to all his daughters, but not to any of his sons. A woman with a mutant chromosome has a chance of passing it on to both sons and daughters with equal probability.
The premutational state of the gene affects both the fate of the descendants of the carrier of such a gene and directly on his health:
Development of primary ovarian failure ( FXPOI ) (decrease in ovarian reserve and the onset of menopause before the age of 40).Mutation FMR 1 is the cause of premature ovarian failure in 5% of women with this diagnosis. Among carriers of premutation, about a quarter develop this condition. It affects not only general reproductive capabilities, but also the selection of the stimulation protocol for ART, since it often turns out to be the cause of a poor response of the ovaries to stimulation. Interestingly, according to the data obtained at the Genetico Center, although the poor response of the ovaries to stimulation affects the number of embryos obtained per cycle, it does not lead to an increase in the proportion of aneuploid embryos.
Tremor / ataxia associated with fragile X chromosome ( FXTAS ). This condition develops more often in men: with the carriage of the premutation by a man, it manifests itself in 33% of cases, and with the carriage of the premutation by a woman – only in 5-10%. FXTAS syndrome begins to manifest itself in old age. There is a tremor, a wobbly gait, speech may suffer.
The diagnostic method used in the Genetico laboratory is based on the use of polymerase chain reaction with a special set of primers, which allow not only to detect normal, premutational and mutational states, but also to accurately determine the number of repeats in cases when there are less than 200.Such a diagnosis makes it possible to identify the fragile X-chromosome syndrome at the molecular level, as well as to assess the likelihood of having a child with this syndrome and the possibility of the patient developing disorders associated with an increased number of repeats in the gene FMR 1 . This diagnostic also allows to detect the presence of AGG repeats among the CGG repeats. It is believed that AGG regions interrupting a long sequence from CGG repeats confer DNA resistance and reduce the risk of an increase in the number of repeats in the next generation.
Genetic test that determines the number of repeats in the gene FMR 1 , is recommended to pass in the first place women with premature ovarian failure syndrome or with revealed non-accidental inactivation of the X chromosome (an indirect sign), families with sons with intellectual disability. Also analysis of gene state FMR 1 required :
1) women with reproductive problems or impaired fertility associated with increased levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
2) patients with intellectual disabilities and their relatives
3) those with in the family had cases of fragile X-chromosome syndrome or mental retardation without an accurate diagnosis
4) 90 071 women , whose relatives were observed violations associated with pre-mutation state FMR1
5) patients with late-onset tremor and cerebellar ataxia (violation of the coordination of muscle work due to damage to the brain systems that control muscle movement).
In case of detection of asymptomatic carriage of the mutation in the FMR1 gene in a woman, the use of donor oocytes or preimplantation genetic diagnostics (PGD) may be recommended in order to exclude the possibility of the syndrome manifesting in the child. It is also important to correctly assess the risk of having a sick child in the event of a premutation state of the gene FMR 1 in future parents.In this case, based on the test results, it is recommended to consult a geneticist.
Author: Ochir Migyaev
Genetico Laboratory Trainee
Stop signals: why flat feet are dangerous
Doctors of the health center “Olympus of health” told that it will help with pathologies of the development of the foot
Hallux valgus and transverse flat feet are among the most common human diseases – according to WHO, they affect almost 75% of the adult population.Since these pathologies affect the bony vaults, it is not easy to recover from them. But you can prevent or stop symptoms.
How muscles interact during movement
Movement is one of the most complex functions performed by our body, in which dozens of different muscle groups are involved. For a long time, movement was studied as part of mechanics, until it turned out that mechanistic analysis does not give a complete picture of what happens to our bodies when we walk, run or stand.
Therefore, since the middle of the last century, attempts have been made to explain the process of movement by more complex methods. At the same time, a hypothesis appeared that our brain, coordinating the work of the body during movement, does not control each muscle individually – it controls muscle chains, which are called myofascial. The myofascial chains include – muscles, fascia (connective tissue membranes that cover organs, vessels and nerves like a case), tendons, periosteum (or periosteum – the tissue that surrounds the bone outside) and ligaments.One of the theorists of the myofascial chain system, Thomas Myers, called them anatomical trains that perform static and dynamic tasks in our body, moving along strictly outlined “rails” – meridians. Any tension, fixation, relaxation and most motor actions can be distributed along these lines. Absolutely all muscles are integrated inside the myofascial web, which intertwines our entire body. Any problem is solved by them together, by the whole chain. And if one of the muscles is weakened, other muscle groups compensate for its functions.Myers identified and described 12 myofascial meridians of the human body, which run across the entire surface and deep inside the body, and they all begin at the foot, and this helps to take a fresh look at the importance of the correct arch of the foot for our body. It is no coincidence that podiatry, which deals with the treatment of diseases of the foot and lower leg, and has accumulated knowledge of orthopedics, traumatology, vascular, purulent and neurosurgery, is now a separate medical specialty.
Damping as the main function of the foot
“The foot is our foundation,” says Evgeny Miroshnikov, a chiropractor, pediatrician at the Olimp Health Family Medicine Center.- In it, movement begins and ends, it determines the strength of the muscle load when the body moves in space. Therefore, an imbalance in the foot is fraught with imbalance throughout the body. ”
The correct structure of the foot provides the most important shock absorption for our body during movement. If the foot, due to its pathology, is inactive, the “shock wave”, according to the law of myofascial chains, will spread upward throughout the skeleton, imparting an excessive load to the joints – knee, hip, pelvic, lumbar.And the more pronounced the deviations in the foot, the higher the load on other links of the chain and the spine. So the idea of the harmlessness of flat feet is a very serious delusion that must be got rid of.
“The theory of myofascial chains not only explains the connection of everything with everything in our body, but also helps to understand why sometimes it hurts in one place, but needs to be treated in another,” says Evgeny Miroshnikov. “And if you’ve been trying to heal your neck, knees or hips for years without success, you might want to start with a foot diagnosis.”
The structure of the foot: what symptoms should alert
Ideally, the foot has an arched arch formed by a longitudinal and transverse base. Flatfoot is the omission of one of these arches. Flattening of the longitudinal arch of the foot leads to the development of longitudinal flat feet, and the forefoot – to transverse and hallux valgus (the so-called “bone” at the base of the big toe). Flat feet can be accompanied by other deformities of the foot.
Congenital flat feet are rare and mainly affect the longitudinal arch.It can be caused by malformations of the structural elements of the foot in the prenatal period. In the overwhelming majority of cases, foot deformity is what we literally come to with our feet with age. The causes of acquired foot deformities can be many – disorders of calcium-phosphorus metabolism, paralysis and paresis of the muscles of the lower extremities, the consequences of improperly fused fractures, hereditary predisposition, overload of the lower extremities, overweight and other unfavorable factors.
“A sedentary lifestyle is also one of the triggers for the development of flat feet,” explains Evgeny Miroshnikov. – At first, sedentary patterns lead to neck instability, overstretching of the long extensors of the neck, displacement of the cervical vertebrae, which begin to compress the vertebral artery and spinal cord. This provokes the appearance of neurological complaints – dizziness, headaches, unsteadiness, blurred vision, decreased cognitive functions. And neglected problems with the neck lead to a violation of the innervation of the muscles, including the weakness of the muscles that raise the arch of the foot.The habit of many people to sit not on the ischial tubercles, but on the sacrum can cause pelvic instability, piriformis syndrome, lower back problems, and so on. Lumbar problems can also lead to compression of peripheral nerves, weakness in the legs and, again, flat feet.
It is not difficult to notice the first symptoms of this dangerous ailment – you just need to visually examine the print of your foot in order to reduce the arched space. The very worn-out inner side of the shoe, unreasonable rapid fatigue of the legs, fatigue, heaviness, cramps and swelling, and in advanced stages – pains, swelling of the ankles, thickening of the foot and the size of the shoe that has changed to a larger side will also say about this.
When it’s not too late to prevent deformity of the foot
Understanding of the “chain” nature of movement has also changed the approach to the treatment of foot deformities. Today, the medical community has recognized the futility of the orthopedic concept in the treatment of flat feet – that is, mechanical, through rigid shoes, fixing the foot in the desired position. As practice has shown, this not only did not lead to the desired effect, but also adversely affected the development of other muscles.
“Orthopedic shoes with a rigid sole, a high back and a small heel completely turn off the movement in the ankle joint,” explains Natalia Kudryavtseva, instructor-methodologist in adaptive physical culture of Olympus health.- The muscles that run from the foot through the ankle and are attached around the knee stop working. The foot becomes rigid, atonic. Therefore, today’s recommendations of podiatrists and podiatrists boil down to walking barefoot or in the right shoes on various uneven surfaces, so that the load is distributed completely and evenly over the entire foot. This is how the physiologically correct movement of the foot is achieved, in which it bends in the osteophalangeal joints. And when walking on smooth asphalt, only the heel and toes get the load. “
The neuro-orthopedic concept accepted today in medical practice is based on the fact that it is necessary to stimulate the muscles that should lift the bones of the foot. This will help to make, among other things, a full contact orthosis, that is, an individual orthopedic insole.
“Do not confuse it with those bought ready-made in shoe stores or even orthopedic salons,” warns Yevgeny Miroshnikov. – The orthopedic insole is made individually, depending on age and weight.To understand how it works, it is important to know that even a match-sized correction wedge can change the entire biomechanics of the foot and, accordingly, the body. ”
Unfortunately, an orthosis is an effective remedy against foot pathology only up to six years of age – it is at this age that the formation of the arch of the foot is completed and the disorders that have not been cured by this time become irreversible. The good news is that the unpleasant symptoms associated with foot deformity can still be stopped.
“After six years, we cannot influence the formation of the vault, and a whole range of measures is being used to treat its pathologies,” says Evgeny Miroshnikov.- In addition to orthopedic insoles, we begin to actively use exercise therapy to work with weak muscles that raise the arch of the foot – the posterior tibial, anterior tibial and long peroneal. As part of myofascial diagnostics, the condition of the pelvic muscles is checked in order to exclude their imbalance, which can lead to a functional shortening of one of the legs. This diagnosis is primary in relation to the foot – if the pelvis is unbalanced, you need to deal with this problem first.Next, manual muscle testing of the muscles that lift the arch of the foot is carried out, all muscle-fascial chains are checked for possible compression of the nerves, and the foot and its arch are examined on the podoscope. The data obtained will become the “yardstick” for an individual orthopedic insole. I would generally advise treating individual orthosis as a necessary shoe accessory that should be ordered without waiting for a doctor’s appointment. Adult insoles will last at least five years, subject to mandatory correction every six months, and they are easy to rearrange from one pair of shoes to another. “
Three signs of correct gait
According to podiatrists’ estimates, only 10% of people can walk physiologically correctly.
“Correct gait is heterolateral,” explains Evgeny Miroshnikov. – When stepping with the left foot forward, the right shoulder should go, and vice versa. The correct stride length should include the gluteus maximus muscle – to determine this, place your palms on the gluteal muscles and fix the stride length at which they begin to contract.Finally, there should be three stages in the mechanics of correct gait – support, roll, and push. You need to start the movement from the heel with a raised toe – the absence of a raised toe leads to shuffling when walking. Another common flaw is the duck gait, swinging to the side due to imbalance in the lower back and pelvis. Such a gait means poor work of the muscles that carry the leg forward – in this case, the person has to start moving due to the adductor muscles. And the fact that you have a functional shortening of your leg can be told by the sound of steps – in this case, a louder step alternates with a quieter one.The short leg accounts for 60% -70% of the weight, and, accordingly, the arch of the foot on this side will be worse. ”
What quality footwear should be
It is important to distinguish between gait defects and pathology that arise from improperly selected or poor-quality shoes. A good pair of shoes should ideally have a flexible sole that flexes well in the forefoot and midfoot for a smooth ride, heellessness, and the same height. We have three points of support in the foot – the heel, the first and fifth metatarsal bones, and the presence of an elevation under the heel directly proportionally increases the load on the other support points, leads to excessive contraction of the calf muscles, and this, in turn, to the stretching of the Achilles tendon. which will “pull” the periosteum.Micro-tears, calcification and inflammation appear – this is, in short, the mechanism for the formation of a heel spur. So, for example, almost all women’s shoes with heels are not physiological, and one has to literally choose between “beautiful” and “useful”.
“Do not neglect these simple recommendations, and at the first visual deviations in the foot, contact a specialist,” advises Evgeny Miroshnikov. “A chiropractor and podiatrist will help to compensate for the unpleasant and painful symptoms that accompany advanced stages of foot pathology, develop the correct movement patterns and master the principles of self-help that will not replace a doctor, but will be able to optimize the quality of life in these diseases.