– Leathermen Travel
Berlin is the European capital of sleazy Leather sex. It’s probably the world capital of sleazy Leather sex. And Schöneberg is at the center of it all.
Hot-spot neighborhoods: Kreuzberg, Prenzlauer Berg, Schöneberg, Tiergarten
Drink Fuck Shake Buy Crash Eat Pump Trim Ink Hang See Plan
WHERE TO DRINK (AND CRUISE)
Bull (Kleiststr 35, Schöneberg) Small, super-sleazy bar for when you can’t find any action next door at New Action. link
Ficken 3000 (Urbanstr 70, Kreuzberg) Sleazy bar with a sleazier basement darkroom. link
MaLu 5 (Martin-Luther-Str 15, Schöneberg) A small, very fetish-friendly conveniently located for when you need a rest while walking between Fuggerstraße and Motzstraße. link
Mutschmann’s (Motzstr 30, Schöneberg) In its new location on Motzstraße, with no basement darkroom, Mutschmann’s isn’t quite the sleazy leather bar it built its reputation on. But you can still find guys in leather there. link
New Action (Kleiststr 35, Schöneberg) Berlin’s hot men-only leather bar with probably only the room in the world set up for bootlicking. And that’s before you even get to the darkroom. Check the dress code and the calendar to see what’s on. link
Prinzknecht (Fuggerstr 33, Schöneberg) Prinzknecht, the central bar of Fuggerstraße, isn’t technically a Leather bar. But it’s Leather Central during Easter Berlin and Folsom Europe. link
Pussycat (Kalckreuthstr 7, Schöneberg) The home bar of Berlin Cigar Men. link
Scheune (Motzstr 25, Schöneberg) “Scheune” means “barn”, and this barn is full of pigs. link
Tom’s Bar (Motzstr 19, Schöneberg) Semi-subterranean Leather-ish bar on Motzstraße. link
Woof Berlin (Fuggerstr 37, Schöneberg) Leather-friendly bear bar on Fuggerstraße. link
WHERE TO FUCK
Der Boiler (Mehringdamm 34, Kreuzberg) Large traditional bathhouse in Kreuzberg. link
Böse Buben (Sachsendamm 76-77, Schöneberg) A clubhouse in the southern part of Schoeneberg for bad boys into SM and fisting. link
City Men Shop (Fuggerstr 26, Schöneberg) Shop for city men at this sex shop with private video booths. link
Club Triebwerk (Urbanstr 64, Kreuzberg) Kreuzberg sleaze. It’s a bar. Sure. Really, it’s a fuckclub…with a bar. link
The Jaxx (Motzstr 19, Schöneberg) Cruisy dirty cinema with private booths on the Motzstraße strip. link
KitKatClub (Köpenicker Str 76, Mitte) Infamous club where anything goes. And anything means all perversions, genders, and orientations, so check the calendar. Berlin’s home for the notorious FickstutenMarkt party. link
FickstutenMarkt You’ve probably heard of it. Mares get hooded and can’t refuse any stallions that want to mount them. Are you a stallion or a mare? link
Lab.Oratory (Am Wriezener Bahnhof, Friedrichshain) Berlin’s notoriously twisted sex club, housed in techno palace Berghain. link
Quälgeist Berlin (Lankwitzer Str 42/43, Mariendorf) Berlin’s storied SM clubhouse is reopening with a limited program after being closed for a while. link
WHERE TO SHAKE YOUR ASS (AND CRUISE)
Berghain (Am Wriezener Bahnhof, Friedrichshain) The most famous nightclub in the world. It’s housed in a former East Berlin power plant. Like a 21st-century Studio 54, the door staff is very picky about who gets inside. Fortunately, gay men are all but assured to get in. That’s right, Berghain is mixed, like a 21st-century Studio 54. But Berghain is all gay one night a year for the annual hardcore fetish party SNAX, held over Easter Berlin. link
Connection Club (Fuggerstr 33, Schöneberg) Dance complex with play space in the heart of Fuggerstraße. Check the site for fetish parties. link
WHERE TO BUY GEAR
BLACKSTYLE (Seelover Str 5, Prenzlauer Berg) Lots and lots of latex, plus fun sex stuff. link
Bodysphere Men Concept Store (Karl-Mark-Allee 92, Friedrichshain) Sexy men’s fashions in the old East. link
BOXER (Eisenacher Str 11, Schöneberg) Berlin outpost of the popular Barcelona leather shop. link
Brunos (Maaßenstr 14, Schöneberg) Underwear, porn, and more gay stuff. link
Butcherei Lindinger (Motzstr 18, Schöneberg) Schöneberg’s high-end leather boutique. link
Connection-Shop (Fuggerstr 33, Schöneberg) Sexy stuff for sale, plus video booths in the back. link
Enforcer Pülz (Rankestr 14, Charlottenberg) Authentic cop gear, close to Schöneberg. link
frontplay (Motzstr 25, Schöneberg) Styles for the masculine man. link
GEAR Berlin (Kalckreuthstr 13, Schöneberg) Schöneberg’s fetish superstore. HQ for one of the most recognizable logos in the Leather world. link
Kokott Berufskleidung (Karl-Marx-Str 12a, Neukölln) German-style blue-collar wear for the manly man. link
Laden 114 (Eisenacher Str 114, Schöneberg) Where fetish meets fashion. link
Leathers (Eisenacher Str 101, Schöneberg) Workshop and studio for high-quality leathers. link
Lederhosen-Stadl (Martin-Luther-Str 15, Schöneberg) This Bavarian leather shop is more like a really sexy walk-in closet. A perfect spot to take a break at on the walk between Fuggerstraße and Motzstraße. link
McHurt (Tempelhofer Damm 141, Tempelhof) BDSM shopping in McHurt’s new location in Tempelhof. link
Mister B (Motzstr 22, Schöneberg) The Berlin branch of the Amsterdam-based chain is a mandatory stop for visiting Leathermen. link
R&Co (Fuggerstr 19, Schöneberg) No longer RoB Berlin, but still one of the most popular leather shops in Schöneberg. Conveniently located on Fuggerstraße. link
Sling King (Eisenacher Str 115, Schöneberg) With a name like Sling King…well, any questions? link
vk79 (Pankgrafenstr 15, Karow) Custom leather uniforms, in the far northeast of Berlin. link
WHERE TO CRASH (AND MAYBE FUCK SOME MORE)
Arco City-Hotel Berlin (Geisbergstr 30, Schöneberg) Cozy hotel, popular with guys coming in for Folsom Europe. In a quiet corner of Schöneberg, close to Fuggerstraße. link
ArtHotel Connection (Fuggerstr 33, Schöneberg) A favorite hotel of visiting Leathermen. link
Artim Hotel (Fuggerstr 20, Schöneberg) Understated hotel right on Fuggerstraße. Crawling distance from Prinzknecht and Folsom Europe. link
Axel Hotel Berlin (Lietzenburger Str 13/15, Schöneberg) Berlin property of Barcelona-based gay, gay, gay hotel chain (but “heterofriendly”). Located in the heart of gay Schöneberg. link
Crowne Plaza Berlin City Centre (Nürnberger Str 65, Schöneberg) International chain hotel, popular with guys coming in for Folsom Europe. Near Wittenbergplatz. link
Ellington Hotel (Nürnberger Str 50-55, Schöneberg) Jazz-themed hotel, popular with guys coming in for Folsom Europe. Near Wittenbergplatz. link
Gay Hostel (Kalckreuthstr 10, Schöneberg) Inexpensive accommodations for young men, just off super-gay Motzstraße. link
Guesthouse 21 (Martin-Luther-Str 21, Schöneberg) Inexpensive gay B&B conveniently located very close to Mutschmann’s. link
The Hoist Basements (Barbarossastr, Schöneberg) High-end accommodation rentals. In the basement, where dungeons belong. link
Hotel Riu Plaza Berlin (Martin-Luther-Str 1, Schöneberg) Hot property near Mutschsmann’s and New Action. Very popular with Leathermen. link
Hotel Sachsenhof (Motzstr 7, Schöneberg) Historic hotel on Motzstraße near Nollendorfplatz. Popular with guys coming in for Folsom Europe. link
Hotel Sylter Hof Berlin (Kurfürstenstr 116, Schöneberg) Comfy hotel, popular with guys coming in for Folsom Europe. In northern Schöneberg, heading towards Tiergarten. link
ibis Berlin Kurfürstendamm Hotel (Bayreuther Str 39, Schöneberg) Wittenbergplatz location of the popular economy hotel chain, popular with guys coming in for Folsom Europe. link
ibis budget Berlin Kurfürstendamm (Bayreuther Str 41, Schöneberg) Even more economical Wittenbergplatz location of the popular economy hotel chain, popular with guys coming in for Folsom Europe. link
Mercure Hotel Berlin Wittenbergplatz (Wittenbergpl 3, Schöneberg) Mid-scale chain hotel, popular with guys coming in for Folsom Europe. Right on Wittenbergplatz. link
Mercure Hotel Berlin Zentrum (Fuggerstr 8, Schöneberg) Mid-scale chain hotel, popular with guys coming in for Folsom Europe. In the heart of gay Schöneberg. link
Mineshaft Berlin (Zietenstr 7, Schöneberg) Fetish apartments just beyond Nollendorfplatz. If you stay here, you may never see the daylight during your stay. You can even shoot your own porn here. link
Motel One Berlin-Tiergarten (An der Urania 12-14, Schöneberg) Conveniently located outpost of the trendy European budget chain. link
Pension Hostel Staycomfort Am Kurfürstendamm (Kleiststr 35, Schöneberg) Gay B&B conveniently located next door to New Action. link
R&Co Apartments (Fuggerstr 19, Schöneberg) Fully stocked and furnished fetish apartments. link
Scandic Berlin Kurfürstendamm (Augsberger Str 5, Wilmersdorf) Scandinavian design, bordering Schöneberg. Popular with guys coming in for Folsom Europe. link
SM Apartments Berlin (Fuggerstr 39, Schöneberg) Fully furnished dungeon accommodations. Right on Fuggerstraße. Right where you want to be. link
SORAT Hotel Ambassador Berlin (Bayreuther Str 42-43, Schöneberg) Not too fancy German chain hotel, popular with guys coming in for Folsom Europe. On Wittenbergplatz. link
STARS Guesthouse & Apartments Berlin (Welserstr 10-12, Schöneberg) Cheap accommodations, a block from Fuggerstraße. link
Tom’s Hotel (Motzstr 19, Schöneberg) Right next door to Tom’s Bar, in the heart of Motzstraße. Stay here and get discounts at many local businesses. link
TWO Hotel Berlin by Axel (Bundesalle 31A, Wilmersdorf) Axel’s second property in Berlin. link
WHERE TO EAT (AND CRUISE)
Black Pug Restaurant & Bar (Motzstr 28, Schöneberg) This leather-friendly restaurant is where to find the meat on Motzstraße. link
Café Berio (Maasenstr 7, Schöneberg) Whether it’s for bacon and eggs, schnitzel and noodle, or coffee and dessert, the outdoor seating at Berio is the place to be seen for dining in gay Schöneberg. link
Café Einstein (Kurfürstenstr 58, Tiergarten) Historic dining establishment a short walk from Nollendorfplatz. link
Café Kalvil (Motzstr 30, Schöneberg) Old World atmospherics on Motzstraße. link
Da Lucia (Welserstr 25, Schöneberg) Italian restaurant with covered outdoor seating in the heart of gay Schöneberg. link
Frida & Diego (Fuggerstr 28, Schöneberg) For those times you’re craving Mexican food in Berlin. link
Fugger Imbiss (Fuggerstr 17, Schöneberg) When you just have a short time between tricks. link
Hans Rheinhessische Weinstube & Café (Motzstr 10, Schöneberg) A place on Motzstraße for wine and light meals. link
Impala Coffee (Maßenstr 5, Schöneberg) An alternative to Berio. link
Potemkin Restaurant (Viktoria-Luise-Pl 5, Schöneberg) Russian cuisine and more on beautiful Viktoria-Luise-Platz. link
Raststätte Gnadenbrot (Martin-Luther-Str 20A, Schöneberg) All-day or late-night casual German dining. link
Restaurant April (Winterfeldtstr 56, Schöneberg) Outdoor dining is available at this place on a quiet street not far from the boisterousness of Motzstraße. link
Restaurant Elefant (Fuggerstr 18, Schöneberg) Popular spot for German cuisine, right on Fuggerstraße. link
Romeo und Romeo (Motzstr 20, Schöneberg) Sorry, Juliet. Romeo’s left for Berlin to meet up with another Romeo for a sweet snack on Motzstraße. link
Rüdiger’s (Motzstr 63, Schöneberg) Austrian food near Viktoria-Luise-Platz, far from the madding crowd, in a leather-friendly establishment. link
Saigon Food Restaurant (Nollendorfstr 21A, Schöneberg) When you want something other than schnitzel, but you don’t want to go too far. link
Samran Thai (Winterfeldtstr 35, Schöneberg) Authentic Thai food on a quiet block in Schöneberg. link
Sissi (Motzstr 34, Schöneberg) Hearty Austrian food on the Motzstraße strip. link
Trattoria Belmonte (Schwäbische Str 5, Schöneberg) High-class Italian joint. link
Zsa Zsa Burger (Motzstr 28, Schöneberg) Burgers for the boys. It’s named after Zsa Zsa Gabor. Now that’s gay! link
WHERE TO PUMP IRON (AND CRUISE)
Fitness First Berlin – Gendarmenmarkt (Jägerstr 27, Mitte) High-end gym in Mitte. link
FitX Fitnessstudio Berlin – Schöneberg (Hauptstr 141, Schöneberg) Budget gym south of gayest Schöneberg. link
McFit Fitness Studio Berlin Charlottenburg (Tauentzienstr 8, Charlottenburg) No-frills gym near Schöneberg. link
WHERE TO GET A BUZZ CUT AND BEARD TRIM
Don Rondo (Fuggerstr 27A, Schöneberg) Stylish cuts on Fuggerstraße. Making appointments in advance is recommended. link
WHERE TO GET INKED
Blut & Eisen (Stargarder Str 7, Prenzlauer Berg) A serious tattoo shop for getting serious tattoos. link
The Temple (Nollendorfstr 24, Schöneberg) Who says you need to leave Schöneberg to get beautiful body art? Nobody! link
UNIV ERSE (Thomasstr 11, Neukölln) High-profile rather gay tattoo shop. link
WHO TO HANG WITH
Berlin Cigar Men Hang out with these macho men at their monthly event on first Fridays. link
Black Weekend Berlin Cigar Men’s and Fetish Social Berlin’s monthly events coincide with Black Weekend, which takes place every first weekend of the month. link
Biker ohne Grenzen BOG (Bikers without Borders) is a group of Berlin Bikers who love to ride, drink, and fuck. link
BLUF Berlin For men into full dress leather uniform. link
BiohazardMen Join these guys at their parties for HIV+ men. link
Fetish Social Berlin Hang out with these kinksters at their laid-back get-togethers. link
Leather Social Berlin Hang out with these geared-up studs at their monthly event on third Sundays. link
WHAT TO SEE WHILE YOU’RE IN TOWN
International Stele “Always Remember” (Martin-Luther-Str & Kleiststr, Schöneberg) An AIDS memorial on a green traffic island. link
Memorial to the First Homosexual Emancipation Movement (Magnus-Hirschfeld-Ufer, Tiergarten) Built on the north bank of the Spree, across from Tiergarten. This memorial, comprised of 6 calla lilies, each in a color of the rainbow, recognizes the German gay rights movement that began in the 19th century. The calla lilies represent sexual diversity. The riverbank is named for Magnus Hirschfeld, the first advocate for gay rights. Unfortunately, the early movement was extinguished by the Nazis. link
Memorial to Homosexuals Persecuted under National Socialst Regime (Großer Tiergarten, west of Ebertstr, Tiergarten) Situated in Berlin’s huge central park, across the street from the must-see main Holocaust Memorial. Informally known as the Gay Holocaust Memorial. Look through the window of the large concrete cube, and see a continuous loop of male and female gay couples kissing. link
Nollendorfstaße 17 (Nollendorfstr 17, Schöneberg) Pay your respects at the German residence of Christopher Isherwood, the gay American ex-pat writer who gave the world Sally Bowles, the character Liza Minella played in her Oscar-winning performance in “Cabaret”. link
Rosa Winkel (Nollendorfpl, Schöneberg) This easily missed memorial is a granite pink triangle (“rosa winkel” in German) on the exterior of Nollendorf U-Bahn station. The inscription translates as “Murdered and silenced, the homosexual victims of National Socialism.” A bronze plaque below explains in German the history of Nazi persecution of gay men and the significance of the pink triangle. link
Schwules Museum (Lützowstr 73, Tiergarten) The “Gay Museum” was the world’s first museum for gay history and culture. In 2013, it moved from a rented location to its permanent home in Tiergarten, a short walk from Nollendorfplatz. link
Think PositHIV (Old St. Matthew’s Cemetery, Großgörschenstr 12-14, Schöneberg) Tomb and memorial to AIDS dead. link
WHAT TO PLAN FOR
Easter Berlin – Leather Fetish Week What better way to celebrate the Resurrection than to gather in Berlin with thousands of Leathermen from around the world? If you need a break in the middle of a week packed with parties, watch the Mister Leather Berlin contest on Easter Sunday. Then get partying again! link
SNAX Berghain and Lab.Oratory join forces to bring you the biggest sex party of the year, coinciding with Easter Berlin. Check the calendar for Berghain’s and Lab.Oratory’s calendars as Easter approaches. Berghain: link ; Lab.Oratory: link
Christopher Street Day Berlin Pride’s name pays tribute to the Stonewall riots of 1969. Leathermen turn out in full force to show their pride. link
Folsom Europe Thousands of Leathermen from around the globe descend upon Fuggerstraße for Europe’s biggest Leather event. Pace yourself so you’re not already worn out by the time the street fair starts on Saturday. That is the main event after all! link
HustlaBall Party with porn stars at this utterly uninhibited event. link
[Suggestions? Corrections? Contact me!]
Israel activated its David’s Sling missile system for the first time.
Will more sales start booming?
JERUSALEM ― Israel’s first-time activation of its David’s Sling Weapon System could serve as the catalyst for export marketing efforts.
The missile defense system was fired July 23 to counter a missile threat. It launched two interceptors to counter two SS-21 ballistic missiles that had been fired by Syrian government forces during fighting against rebels near the Golan Heights. The Syrian missiles fell within Syrian territory. One of the interceptors self-destructed over the Golan Heights.
According to The Jerusalem Post, the event is being investigated to determine if the system operated successfully.
With Iron Dome shown to be successful and an Arrow missile used to down a Syrian surface-to-air missile in March 2017, all the layers of Israel’s advanced missile defense have been put to use.
David’s Sling was co-developed by Raytheon and Israel’s Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. Raytheon was chosen in 2004 as a partner by Israel’s Ministry of Defense, and the company worked to develop the system’s Stunner interceptor missile, which is designed to intercept missiles, drones, aircraft and other ordnance. In contrast to Israel’s Iron Dome system and its Tamir missiles, the Stunner uses hit-to-kill technology, which is designed to maneuver and strike an incoming threat, rather than detonate in proximity to it.
The first-time use of David’s Sling may increase the ability to sell and export the system if it can be shown to be successful. Recently, Rafael signed a cooperation agreement with Romania that involves Iron Dome, which could potentially lead to more sales. Ballistic missile threats launched by Houthi rebels in Yemen at Saudi Arabia, as well as uncertainty on the Korean Peninsula, offer other potential markets.
David’s Sling includes an active electronically scanned array, multimission radar, which works to identify an incoming threat, target and guide the interception. The radar was designed by Elta Systems, a subsidiary of Israel Aerospace Industries. Elisra, a subdivision of Elbit, developed the command-and-control components.
The system was tested to confront groups of threats that might emerge, such as a salvo of rockets and ballistic missiles. In May, 20 Iranian Grad and Fajr rockets were fired at Israel from Syria and intercepted by Iron Dome.
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The David’s Sling was designed to be one part of Israel’s expanding multilayered missile defense. Operating at longer ranges than the Iron Dome, it is designed to confront medium-range threats from 40-155 miles, while the Arrow confronts longer-range threats.
Israel is eyeing a new 10-year, $8 billion plan to bolster its missile defenses. According to Raytheon, “teams in nearly 30 U.S. states across the U.S. are dedicated to producing the [David’s Sling] missile and its firing unit.”
The system was tested five times between 2012 and January 2017 before being declared fully operational in April 2017. It was initially developed to counter threats from Hezbollah’s arsenal, including the Zelzal, the Iranian Fajr-5 and Fateh 110, and Syria’s M600, as well as Scud missiles.
Hezbollah’s rockets had fallen on Israel with impunity in the 2006 conflict, and Israel’s Defense Ministry indicated in 2013 that it had high hopes for David’s Sling to give Israel the ability to “deal with threats with far higher efficiency. ”
However, after the Syrian civil war broke out in 2011, Israel became concerned about a potential Iran-backed threat emerging in Syria as well as other missile threats launched by additional groups in the region amid the instability of the last several years.
The July 23 incident came amid fighting in southern Syria. In late June, the Syrian regime launched a major offensive against Syrian rebels, and by mid-July the rebels and Islamic State militants were occupying an area near the Golan Heights and the 1974 cease-fire line between Israeli and Syrian forces.
On July 11, Israel used a Patriot missile to shoot down a drone from Syria that flew six miles over the cease-fire line. Patriot was again used to shoot down a second drone July 13, and yet again to target a Syrian warplane on July 24.
On the morning of July 23, David’s Sling detected two incoming SS-21 Tochka ballistic missiles. The SS-21 has a range of 100 miles and it was projected to fall within Israel near the Sea of Galilee, six miles from the cease-fire line. After the interceptors were launched, the system determined the SS-21 would fall in Syria, and so one interceptor was programmed to self-destruct while the other fell in Syria.
The use of the system comes four months after members of Congress sought $705.8 million in funding for U.S.-Israel cooperation on missile defense, including David’s Sling, Arrow and the Iron Dome. Of that, $183 million was destined for David’s Sling, the latest in $1.39 billion that the U.S. has contributed, according to the Congressional Research Service.
The current funding will go toward upgrades, such as “extending the system’s range, improving its seeker capabilities and addressing cruise missile threats,” according to a statement from the office of Rep. Peter Roskam, R-Ill., who co-chairs the House Republican Israel Caucus.
Review: Fjällräven Kanken Sling small travel bag
A petite Kånken for everyday life. The new Fjällräven Kånken Sling shoulder bag has the potential to become an everyday companion or an ideal travel partner. But what is the experience with the miniature version of the popular Kånken backpack like? Even with the smallest external dimensions, the Kånken Sling with its 2.5 L volume proves to be a spacious miracle. However, a limited space saver. Whether as a shoulder bag or slung across the shoulder, whether carried on the front, back or side, with the new Fjällräven Kånken Sling you always have your most important belongings at hand (a tip from how to create the ultimate travel pack – always have your most important documents and belongings at hand). I have been using the sling for about a week now, following below my first experience report.
Experience report/review: Fjällräven Kånken Sling shoulder bag
The Kanken Sling by nordic brand Fjallraven is one of the latest additions to the product line of the popular brand. After the most famous backpack, the versatile Kanken, Fjallraven has been launching more and more up until now foreign products to the range. Besides fanny packs in various designs, now a Kanken Sling shoulder bag. The height of this small bag is 20 cm, with a width of 15 cm and a depth of 8 cm. As the Kanken Sling is, as the original Kanken backpack, made out of hard-wearing vinylon, it’s definitely a durable piece of baggage and definitely well forgiving if you want to cram more volumonous pieces into this small shoulder bag. The Kånken Sling features only one main compartment with a wide zipper – just like the Kanken backpack. Additionally, there is a zipped pocket on the back of the bag for quick access of things like your smartphone or wallet, as well as two small horizontal pockets on each side of the bag plus a tiny zippered one in front (for your airpods, at least). The shoulder strap is definitely well long enough and can be well adjusted, further to two short handles on the top of the small kanken bag. Just like the original one, this one too has a name tag inside, and is, too, waterproof and durable. As the material is quite fogriving, you usually won’t need to completely wash the bag (may it be a regular Kanken or the Kanken sling), just soft brush it if needed or clean it with a cloth and lukewarm water. The recommended retail price is 69,95€ for the Fjällräven Kanken Sling.
The colour 160 ochre of my Fjällräven Kånken Sling really is not the most beautiful colour in the world. Nevertheless, the colour stands out and goes well with black, blue, red, light and dark clothes. In this case, a bag in blue would be much more difficult to pair with certain colours of your outfit, if you are concerned about something like that.
Can you use the Kanken Sling as a daily bag or for as a day-trip bag for traveling?
All in all, I can definitely recommend the Fjällräven Kånken Sling if it serves your personal needs. It definitely is small, which definitely has its benefits, but personally for me its a tad bit too small. For example, it doesnt fit my iPad Mini, nor does it not fit a standard 0,5L bottle (0,33 L fit, maximum). However, if you are looking for a small day bag for travelling, and you are only carrying a pair of (sun)glasses, a wallet, a phone and a small point-and-shoot camera with you, this small bag is succifient. But otherwise, unfortunately rather not.
If you are looking for something a bit bigger, and from cult-brand Fjallraven, I can recommend the Kanken Mini. Actually a “kids” backpack this one does fit 0,5 L bottles of water, a thin rain coat, a regular sized DSLR camera and a few more things. Plus, it’s smaller than a regular Kanken backbag, however, the shoulder straps are, as it’s actually for kids, shorter than you are used to from a regular Kanken. You might want to check out your local store to try the Kanken Mini out before buying it blindly online, and regretting it afterwards as it might be too small.
AdvertisementFind right here below the Kanken Sling in Ochre (yes, this “yellow” advertised colour turns out in a rather brownish orange-yellow tone, definitely not bright yellow!), as well as a few more colourful options after.
and here the Kanken Mini Backpack
Pictures: Fjällräven Kånken Sling in 160 Ochre (brown / yellow)
a look inside the 2.5 L small Kanken Sling baginside a fully packed fjallraven Kanken sling – 0,33 L bottle, iPhone 7 smartphone and 7 inch fire tabthe backside of the fjallraven kanken sling with the small handlesadjustable strapsmall front pocket
Burger King Burned Friendships to Sling More Burgers | by Sean Kernan
What made it wickedly entertaining is that when the app notified each person that their friendship had been terminated — it added a final message saying, “Your friendship is worth less than a whopper.”
Making it even more dramatic, the app would post the message right on your Facebook wall for all to see.
The campaign quickly caught on with news outlets. Daytime talk shows began debating on the nature of the promotion and whether they’d be offended if they got dumped for a hamburger.
It all looks funny to you and me right now but make no mistake — this campaign led to actual tension and arguments. One reason being if you got unfriended, your thought process was, “This person picked their ten least important friends to unfriend.”
Insecurity is real. Particularly on the internet.
Facebook walls turned into The Great Friend Culling as everyone found out their respective importance to each friend.
Facebook HQ eventually caught on. Not surprisingly, they weren’t fond of the promotion. It ran in direct opposition to what Facebook was trying to do. If the campaign continued, most people would eventually have no Facebook friends.
Burger King got its wrist slapped and the campaign was ousted, specifically, because it violated the terms of service for apps, “You can’t notify people they were unfriended.”
Source: Pic via CargoCollective
In the end, Burger King sent 20,000 Whopper coupons to users, of which only a fraction was actually redeemed.
The expense was more than justified. Burger King generated more than 30 million social media impressions. TV and article impressions were more than double that and, people like me, are still here writing about it.
Burger King, feeling deliciously evil, danced on the grave of its victims saying,
“Whopper Sacrifice has been sacrificed. Facebook has shut down Whopper Sacrifice after your love of the Whopper proved stronger than 233,906 friendships.”
The campaign was brilliant in its polarized simplicity: forcing people to choose between friends. It was bound to cause a stir. And where there is a stir, there is a marketers dreamland: Attentionville.
The inventor of the Whopper Sacrifice campaign, Matt Walsh, said the idea was started at a more philosophical level. They wanted to test the definitions of digital relationships, seeing where the line was.
They decided it would be fun to see if a Facebook friendship held up against a simple, trivial test such as a hamburger.
And it seems their test succeeded — for Burger King, at least.
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Seagull Attacks Girl’s Face on Slingshot Ride in Wildwood NJ
Oh no it didn’t!
A video of a girl being attacked on a Sling Shot ride at Morey’s Piers on the Wildwood Boardwalk has gone viral.
She was attacked – by a seagull! In the face!
Kudos to the girl for having the presence of mind to peel the bird off of her!
Can you imagine at the end of the ride the girl trying to explain what happened?
Here’s a question – does she even know that this video exists?
(If you know this girl, we’d love to talk with her. She should email me directly: [email protected])
Now, this isn’t the first time this Sling Shot ride in Wildwood has had one of its videos go viral. It was just last week that another video was released showing these boys sleepy reaction to the fun:
From their website here’s how Morey’s Piers describe the ride, which they call the Springshot:
“Climb up. Strap in. Hold on as spring power and steel aircraft cables send you straight up into the air.
Don’t worry; you don’t have to do it alone. Two can ride the Springshot so if you have to hold someone’s hand and count to three, you better count quicker because this thing is about to launch you and your pal to speeds over 75 MPH.
Once you’re back down to the ground at a not-as-fast 0 MPH, you can buy a DVD of the whole thing we filmed.”
Are you going to be the next victim – um, thrill rider – on the Slingshot?
LOOK: Oldest Disneyland Rides From 1955 to Today
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50 Most Popular Chain Restaurants in America
YouGov investigated the most popular dining brands in the country, and Stacker compiled the list to give readers context on the findings. Read on to look through America’s vast and divergent variety of restaurants—maybe you’ll even find a favorite or two.
LOOK: Here are the 25 best places to live in New Jersey
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“Let severe punishment, universal hatred and contempt befall me” – Vlast – Kommersant
Even mortal enemies, before meeting in battle, pronounce approximately the same oaths. The uniforms, weapons and combat traditions of different armies differ significantly more than the military oaths that their soldiers and officers take.
I, a citizen of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, joining the ranks of the Workers ‘and Peasants’ Red Army, I take the oath and solemnly swear to be an honest, brave, disciplined, vigilant fighter, to strictly keep military and state secrets, to obey all military regulations and orders of commanders, commissars and chiefs.
I swear to conscientiously study military affairs, to take every possible care of military property and to the last breath to be loyal to my people, my Soviet Motherland and the workers ‘and peasants’ government.
On the orders of the workers ‘and peasants’ government, I am always ready to defend my homeland – the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and, as a warrior of the Workers ‘and Peasants’ Red Army, I swear to defend it courageously, skillfully, with dignity and honor, not sparing my blood and myself life to achieve complete victory over the enemy.
If, by malicious intent, I violate this solemn oath of mine, then let the harsh punishment of Soviet law, universal hatred and contempt of the working people befall me.
Oath of a soldier of the Soviet Army
As a citizen of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, joining the ranks of the Armed Forces, I take the oath and solemnly vow to be an honest, brave, disciplined, vigilant warrior, strictly keep military and state secrets, and unquestioningly carry out all military regulations and orders of commanders and chiefs.
I swear to conscientiously study military affairs, to take every possible care of military and national property and to the last breath to be loyal to my people, my Soviet Motherland and the Soviet government.
On the orders of the Soviet government, I am always ready to defend my Motherland – the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and, as a soldier of the Armed Forces, I swear to defend it courageously, skillfully, with dignity and honor, not sparing my life to achieve complete victory over the enemy.
If I break this solemn oath of mine, then let the harsh punishment of the Soviet law, universal hatred and contempt of the working people befall me.
I (surname, name, patronymic) solemnly swear allegiance to my Motherland – the Russian Federation.
I swear to sacredly observe its Constitution and laws, strictly comply with the requirements of military regulations, orders of commanders and chiefs.
I swear to fulfill my military duty with dignity, to courageously defend freedom, independence and the constitutional order of Russia, the people and the Fatherland.
I (name, surname, patronymic) enter military service and swear to the people of Ukraine to always be loyal and loyal to him, honestly follow the military order, orders of commanders, adamantly follow the Constitution, laws of Ukraine, keep state and military secrets.
I swear to defend the Ukrainian state, to adamantly stand guard over its freedom and independence.
I swear not to change the people of Ukraine.
I, a citizen of the Republic of Belarus (last name, first name, patronymic), while serving in the Armed Forces of the Republic of Belarus, I take the oath and solemnly swear to carry high the honor and dignity of a soldier of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Belarus, conscientiously master military affairs, be courageous, loyal and selfless defender of his people, sacredly fulfill the Constitution, laws and military regulations.
If I break this solemn oath of mine, then let the severe punishment of the law and the general contempt of the people overtake me.
I, a citizen of the Republic of Kazakhstan (last name, first name, patronymic), joining the ranks of the Armed Forces, I take the oath and solemnly vow to my last breath to be loyal to the people of Kazakhstan and its legally elected president, to sacredly observe the Constitution and laws of my sovereign state.
I swear to unquestioningly fulfill the duties assigned to me, military regulations and orders of commanders and chiefs, steadfastly endure the hardships and deprivations of military service.
I undertake to conscientiously study military affairs, protect military and national property, strictly keep military and state secrets.
I swear to be a courageous and courageous defender of my Motherland, the state interests of independent Kazakhstan.
If I break the military oath I have taken, then let me suffer the severe punishment established by the laws of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
I (surname, first name, patronymic), joining the ranks of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Armenia, vow to selflessly serve the Motherland, the Republic of Armenia, and sacrifice my life for her sake, observe the Constitution and laws of the Republic of Armenia, clearly and immediately execute orders, keep the military secret.
In case of failure to fulfill my duty, let me be punished to the fullest extent of the law.
I (last name, first name) undoubtedly swear to faithfully serve the Republic of Lithuania, spare no effort to protect the Lithuanian state, its freedom, independence, deliberately observe the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania, the laws and orders of my commanders, and keep the secrets entrusted to me. I swear to be an honest and worthy soldier of Lithuania. God help me!
I (surname, name) swear that I will serve well and faithfully as (rank and type of army) in accordance with the law to her majesty, her heirs and the throne during (…) years, (…) days or until my service is terminated early in accordance with the law. I swear that I will fight her enemies and that in all matters concerning my service, I will faithfully fulfill my duty in accordance with the law. God help me!
I (surname, name) swear that I will be faithful and loyal to her majesty, her heirs and the throne. I will, as my duty obliges me, honestly and faithfully defend Her Majesty and her heirs both personally and their crown and honor from all enemies and I will recognize and carry out all orders of Her Majesty and her heirs, as well as generals and officers appointed me.
As a member of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Albania, I swear to be a loyal soldier of my people, a worthy, courageous and disciplined warrior. I will comply with all the requirements of the Constitution, laws and will be ready at any time and in any place, not sparing my life, to defend the Fatherland. And may the worst punishment of the law befall me if I break my solemn oath! I swear.
Oath of employee of the State Self-Defense Forces (1924)
I swear loyalty to the Constitution of the German state and my native country, I swear at any time as a brave soldier to defend my Fatherland and its legal institutions and to obey the President of the State and my superiors.
Wehrmacht Soldier Oath
I take this sacred oath before God that I will implicitly obey the Supreme Commander of the Wehrmacht, the leader of the German state and people, Adolf Hitler, and I will be ready as a brave soldier at any time to lay down my life for the oath I have taken.
Oath of a soldier of the National People’s Army of the GDR
I swear at all times to faithfully serve the German Democratic Republic, my Fatherland and protect it by order of the government of workers and peasants from any enemy.
As a soldier of the National People’s Army, I swear to always be ready on the side of the Soviet army and the armies of the socialist countries allied with us to defend socialism from any enemies and give my life to achieve victory.
I swear to be an honest, brave, disciplined and vigilant soldier, to show unquestioning obedience to superior military officials, to obey orders with all determination and always strictly keep military and state secrets.
I swear to deliberately master military knowledge, fulfill military regulations, always and everywhere uphold the honor of our republic and its National People’s Army.If I ever break this solemnly given oath by me, let me suffer severe punishment under the laws of our republic and the contempt of the working people.
Bundeswehr Soldier Oath
I swear to faithfully serve the Federal Republic of Germany and bravely defend the rights and freedom of the German people. God help me!
I, a soldier of the Polish Army, hereby swear to faithfully serve the Republic of Poland, defend its borders and independence, observe the Constitution, preserve the honor of a Polish soldier and defend the flag.If the need arises, I vow not to spare my blood or my life for my country. And may God help me in this!
General oath of military personnel
I (name, surname) solemnly vow to remain loyal to the United States of America, to serve them faithfully against any enemies, to obey the orders of the President of the United States and assigned superior officers in accordance with military law. God help me!
I (surname, first name), upon assuming office (title or title is indicated), solemnly vow to support and defend the United States Constitution from all its enemies, foreign or domestic, to treat it with faith and devotion.I freely accept this commitment, take it literally, and have no intention of breaking it. I will perform well and conscientiously the duties imposed on me by the title that I receive. God help me!
I hereby swear on my honor that in peace and war, on earth, at sea and in the sky, always and everywhere I will serve my nation and my republic with faith and love. I will obey the laws, regulations and my commanders. I will value the honor of the army and the glory of the Turkish flag more than my own existence.If necessary, I am ready not to spare my life in the name of the country, republic and duty.
I (surname, name) promise before God almighty and omniscient to be a worthy citizen, devoted to the Finnish state. I will serve my country honestly and will put all my strength into strengthening its happiness and well-being.
I will be everywhere and in any conditions, in peacetime, as well as in wartime, to defend my Fatherland, its constitutional state system and the legitimate head of state.
If I learn of anything that poses a threat to the legitimate head of state or to the foundations of the country’s constitutional order, I will immediately notify the authorities.
Under no circumstances will I leave the location of the military unit to which I belong, or my post within this unit, and until my last strength I will carry out the task that is entrusted to me.
I promise to behave honestly and openly, obey my military commanders, follow laws and orders, and keep official secrets entrusted to me.
I will also keep up with my comrades in arms and help them.
I will never violate my official duty, whether because of family ties, friendship, envy, enmity, for the sake of receiving gifts, or for any other reason.
If I am placed in a leadership position, I will pledge to be fair to my subordinates, to care for their well-being, to learn about their desires, to be their advisor and leader, and I will also strive to be a good and inspiring example for them.
I will do all this in accordance with my honor and conscience.
In Sweden, taking the oath replaces a solemn ceremony during which the commander reads a Soldier’s Memorandum to recruits, the text of which is approved by law.
Since you have just begun your basic military education, I remind you of what it means to be a soldier in the service of our country.
The Swedish Self-Defense Forces are dedicated to safeguarding our peace and our independence.They must defend our freedom to determine their own legal order and their culture. If Sweden is attacked, we must by force of arms prevent our country from falling into the hands of the aggressor.
The strength of the Self-Defense Forces and the security of the country are determined by your personal contribution and the contribution of all of us and our common willingness to cooperate to solve the tasks that are entrusted to us.
The significance of your contribution is determined by the knowledge and skills that you acquire during the training period, and your will to achieve your goals.
Both in peacetime and in wartime, we must consciously and without sparing our forces solve the tasks assigned to us and observe the established order.
We must be vigilant against anything that could threaten the country’s security. By our personal example, we must build solidarity and a healthy spirit in the Self-Defense Forces. If war breaks out, we must jointly defend our country to the last breath.
90,000 what role did the uprising of Tupac Amaru II play in the history of Latin America – RT in Russian
240 years ago, the colonial authorities executed in Peru the leader of one of the largest Indian uprisings in the history of South America against Spanish rule – Jose Gabriel Condorkanchi Nogeru, known under the pseudonym Tupac Amaru II, which he took in honor of the ancestor – the ruler of the Incas. Tupac Amaru II initially tried to legally improve the living conditions of his enslaved compatriots, but, having achieved nothing from the local authorities, led an uprising against the colonial administration. He inflicted several serious defeats on the Spaniards, but was betrayed, captured and brutally executed. According to historians, the personality of Tupac Amaru II had a strong influence on the anti-colonial and revolutionary movements in Latin America.
On May 18, 1781, the Spanish colonial administration executed the leader of the Indian uprising in South America – the Latin American Jose Gabriel Condorkanchi Noguera, also known as Tupac Amaru II.According to historians, his fight against the Spaniards became an example for many Latin American revolutionaries.
Reasons for the uprising
The Spanish conquistadors invaded South America in the first half of the 16th century. At this time, vast territories in the western part of the continent were occupied by the Inca empire. Aliens from Europe captured and executed under a far-fetched pretext of the Inca ruler Atahualpa and helped his nephew, Manco Capac II, come to power.
However, the new ruler soon became disillusioned with his European allies because of their constant robbery and cruelty towards the local population.Manco Capac II raised an uprising against the Spaniards, but was never able to expel them from the country. He went with his supporters to the mountains, founded the so-called Novoink state there and continued the struggle against the invaders, but was soon killed by a traitor.
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490 years ago, Spain and Portugal signed the Saragossa Treaty, which divided countries outside Europe into colonial possessions…
The son of Manco Capac II – Tupac Amaru – also led the resistance, but was captured and executed in 1572.
According to historians, a brutal colonial regime was established on the territory of the former Inca empire for several centuries. The Indians were forced to pay high taxes and virtually slave labor in Spanish factories and mines. In addition, officials forcibly forced the Indians to “buy” unnecessary expensive goods from them (velvet, sculptures, books of ancient writers), and for non-payment they took away property and arrested their relatives.At the same time, the Spaniards provided various benefits to the Indian aristocracy, trying to rely on its representatives in carrying out their policies.
On March 19, 1738, Jose Gabriel Condorkanchi Noguera, a direct descendant of Tupac Amaru, was born in the Viceroyalty of Peru. The hereditary cacique (leader) became an orphan early and was raised by an uncle. He received a good education at the Jesuit school for the children of the Indian aristocracy.
Young Jose Gabriel Condorkanchi was a doctor of theology and law, and also knew Spanish and Latin well. He received a rich inheritance – 350 mules – that allowed him to become a major cargo carrier. At the age of 28, he was officially recognized as the cacique of three hereditary villages.
- Execution of Tupac Amaru in 1572
- © Wikimedia Commons
“It cannot be said that he was a man of the people. However, he treated the heritage of his ancestors with great respect and for this he was respected by his fellow tribesmen, “said Yegor Lidovskaya, general director of the Hugo Chavez Latin American Center, in an interview with RT.
According to the biographers of Kondorkanka, while traveling around Peru, the young aristocrat came across examples of the inhuman attitude of the Spaniards towards ordinary Indians everywhere, and this caused him strong indignation. He began to pay taxes for the ruined families in his own lands and provide assistance to the hungry, but on the scale of the Viceroyalty this did not change anything. Jose Gabriel decided that the problems were related to the willfulness of local officials and tried to solve them with complaints and petitions.However, it didn’t work. On the contrary, José Gabriel has been harshly made clear that he is going beyond his powers.
“Kondorkanki had good knowledge, including legal knowledge. Initially, he tried to act within the framework of the system, but nothing worked out for him, and the cacique came to the conclusion that it was impossible to come to an agreement with the Spaniards, ”said Viktor Kheifets, editor-in-chief of Latin America magazine, professor of St. Petersburg State University, in an interview with RT.
- Indians in the Spanish mines
- © Wikimedia Commons
For this reason, a descendant of the Inca monarchs decided to switch to revolutionary forms of struggle.In early 1780, an anti-Spanish conspiracy was uncovered in Cuzco. The authorities suspected the Kondorkankans of involvement in him, but they did not arrest him, fearing unrest among the Indians.
At the beginning of November 1780, the Corregidor (representative of the king) in the Peruvian province of Tinta Antonio de Arriaga, known for harsh extortions and inhuman treatment of the Indians, arrived at the celebrations in honor of the monarch’s birthday in the village of Yanaoca. The Kondorkanki cacique was also present at the celebrations.
At night, the Corregidor, who had left Yanaoka, was captured and taken home to the cacique in the village of Tungasuka. Jose Gabriel forced the official to sign several documents. On behalf of the Corregidor, he demanded that the provincial treasury, firearms and keys to all public buildings be delivered to Tungasuku.
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On November 10, 1780, Kondorkanki, allegedly on behalf of the king, announced that Arriaga would be executed as a rebel. The local population accepted the news with approval, and the Corregidor was hanged.
After that, Kondorkanki announced that the monarch allegedly endowed him with extraordinary powers to restore order in Peru, and announced the elimination of enslaving fees and labor duties.
The day after Arriaga’s execution, the rebels moved into the neighboring province of Kispikanchi and took control of it.But the provincial leadership was able to escape and reported the uprising to a major colonial center – Cuzco.
Already in the first days of the uprising, about 6 thousand people joined the Kondorkanki. However, the rebels were poorly armed – most of the Indians had only pikes and slings, for the entire army there were only about 300 muskets. Despite this, the uprising continued to unfold.
A punitive detachment consisting of 1500 Spaniards and Creoles and 2400 Indians loyal to the authorities was sent from Cuzco against the rebels. But the supporters of the Kondorkanka surrounded and destroyed the punishers, capturing rich trophies.
“The colonial system squeezed everything out of the Indians, many were, of course, dissatisfied with it. Someone joined the uprising for this reason, someone – because they saw in Kondorkanki the heir to the rulers of the Inca empire, ”Viktor Kheifets emphasized.
- Tupac Amaru II
- © Wikimedia Commons
Panic has begun in Cuzco.Cacique’s wife, dona Michaela, insisted on storming the city, but Kondorkanchi, who took the pseudonym Tupac Amaru II in honor of his famous ancestor, deployed his troops to the south. In a matter of weeks, the uprising covered 24 provinces. The rebel army reached the number of 90 thousand people.
Anti-Spanish riots broke out even in the capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru – Lima. As a result, Viceroy Augustine de Jauregui announced the deprivation of the Kondorkanka title of cacique, and promised the Indians to deal with the abuses by the Corregidors.
Yet many historians call the refusal of the immediate assault on Cuzco a fatal mistake of Tupac Amaru II.
- Rise of Tupac Amaru II
- © elespiadelinca.lamula.pe
Taking advantage of the lack of the main forces of the enemy, they began to build defensive structures in Cuzco, replenish stocks of weapons, recruit a militia from the Spaniards, Creoles and subjects of the Caicas loyal to the crown.Monks and seminarians were put under arms.
Tupac Amaru II returned under the walls of Cuzco at the end of December 1780. He offered the city to surrender, but received no response. The assault attempts undertaken in early January were unsuccessful. The rebels again withdrew to the south, and the outskirts of Cuzco took control of the powerful punitive detachments of the Spaniards who had arrived from Lima.
Tupac Amaru II tried to enter into negotiations with the authorities, but only surrender was demanded of him. Representatives of the aristocracy, who had previously joined the revolutionary leader, fled to the Spaniards and betrayed his plans.
At the beginning of April 1781, in the Checacupe hills, Tupac Amaru II fought the last major battle. The Spaniards, notified in advance of his plans, won. The rebel leader tried to escape, but a traitor from his entourage lured him into a trap and handed him over to the Spaniards.
Tupac Amara II was tortured on a rack, forcing to give up secret associates, but he was silent. On May 18, 1781, his wife, son, uncle and brother-in-law were cruelly executed in front of him. The surviving children of the former cacique were thrown into prisons outside Peru.The rebel leader himself was initially intended to be torn apart with the help of horses, but in the end it was decided to decapitate Tupac Amara II.
- Execution of Tupac Amaru II
- © Wikimedia Commons
“The Indian aristocracy was deprived of almost all of its rights. However, during the uprising, ideas of the independence of Latin America from Spain emerged and later survived, ”said Andrey Shchelchkov, a leading researcher at the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
According to him, in the modern historical memory of the Peruvians, the uprising of Tupac Amaru II is perceived as the beginning of the struggle for their own statehood and gaining independence.
As noted by Victor Kheifets, in the twentieth century, left-wing rebel movements in Peru, Uruguay and other countries of Latin America began to call themselves after Tupac Amaru.
“This does not mean that they are literally fighting for the same ideas as him. The name Tupac Amaru II is now a symbol of the anti-colonial struggle, a symbol of the struggle for the rights of the poor masses.His uprising showed that you can fight the Spaniards, ”the expert explained.
According to Yegor Lidovsky, the leaders of Latin American left parties and movements proclaimed Tupac Amara II and his ancestor, the ruler of the Incas, “icons of the revolutionary movement. ”
“This applies, in particular, to Hugo Chávez, who himself is partly Indian in origin. Like other leftist leaders, he used the image of Tupac Amaru II to mobilize the Indian population politically. After all, the Indians in the twentieth century remain the poorest part of the population of Latin America, ”Lidovskaya summed up.
Slings, arrows, art, Harry Potter and all-all-all: lazzo_fiaba – LiveJournal
The brilliant Canadian work “Slings and Arrows” is brilliant, among other things, also because it shows three characters , each of which embodies a specific approach to art.
If you have not watched the series and do not know who will be talking about, don’t worry, since it’s not about the names. But I will give you a picture anyway, because I fell head over heels in love with all this Canadian jazz, and I am pleased to see them once again.
So, we have three heroes (from left to right): Geoffrey – a former actor who went crazy on the basis of his “Hamlet” and a solid dose of betrayal, who eventually became a director and consults with another director during the productions, who actually died; Darren is another director, pretentious fool and pseudo-intellectual; and Richard, who is not a director at all, but an administrator who also really wants to contribute to art, especially if it brings a good income.
Darren: “I’m Darren Nichols.Deal with it. “
Let’s start with Darren.
He puts on” The Tempest “in the scenery of Nazi Germany, loves to drag animals onto the stage, starts staging” Hamlet “with the declaration” This play is dead “and thinks that the average viewer is too dumb even in order to understand why he likes what he likes
The main thing to know about Darren is this: this person is an idiot
An idiot in a leadership position, as Jeffrey points out.
Darren is the twin brother of any director- director, about a film or performance of which you can write in the review: “The heroine epic pissing on the golf course.”
Everyone knows how much I love Lars von Trier and others like them, and God help me, they have an embodiment in cinema, and not only in literature, as I previously thought (in literature, of course, this is “Demon Woman” Teffi).
Von Trier’s severed genitals are horse shit on stage by Darren Nichols.
This is bombast, arrogance towards one’s own viewer, false gravitas and ultimately the desire to destroy everything that is good in the chosen direction. These figures from the arts can talk about Gogol and Hegel, but they do not like what they are doing, nor who they are doing it for.I think that people like them dream of “pure creativity” – the ability to do without an audience at all. In truth, it would be much better for everyone, both for them and for the audience. But, unfortunately, their audience, consisting mainly of equally haughty critics, is quite large. Of course, not a single person working, relatively speaking, in a beer tent – and there are most of them in the world – will not go to a performance with dung on stage, but others who work, relatively speaking, in a fashion magazine will.And I will praise. And to find incredible depths and fantastic flight of thought in the manure. And to say that violence is a metaphor, and people need to spit in their faces to stir them up.
And do not notice that the king is naked.
Richard: What? I’m not heartless! I’m just … I’m detail-oriented.
Richard is not a creative person, no matter how much he wants to be. Richard deals with marketing strategies, budgeting, advertising, grant seeking and investor meetings.Richard is not evil at all, he is even a good one, and he is definitely a good accountant.
The main thing is not to let Richard go on stage.
When Richard comes on stage, begins … Harry Potter begins with the fifth film.
A parade of special effects, the mediocre acting of the main actors and the dialogues that any studio coffee maker could write, even if it didn’t have an artificial intelligence.
Richard is the producers. This is pop, mainstream and “simple” art, understandable to all workers of beer stalls.Employees of fashion magazines, of course, will despise him, but not at all because it turns out badly, but because there are no horses and Nazi symbols on the stage.
Of course, this art wins. It is this that brings money. It is to Richard’s musical that most people will come. “It may be rubbish, but how much.” But as available. But how loudly and how high the legs are lifted in the corps de ballet. In these performances, there will always be morality, chewed up, half-digested and put in the mouth so that every worker of any of the tents could swallow.As a result, this morality has about the same value as the immorality of “intellectual” directors: both look at a person from top to bottom, as at a complete insignificance, only in one case he threatens with a finger, and in the other he smiles sweetly, like a mentally retarded, with whom no need to make sudden movements.
Over the past year, “Richard” has shot not only “Thor” and “Black Swan”, but also “The King Speaks.” He learned to imitate art so well that sometimes it is almost indistinguishable from the real one.They can already play really well in it, it is not stupid to joke and touch on really difficult problems of human psychology. It is becoming more and more difficult to recognize lies, especially since there is nothing to compare with.
And yet there is one little trick that will help the gullible viewer: after the end credits, listen and try to see if you are hearing something like “That’s nice, tram-pam-pam.”
If so, they tried to cheat you.
Geoffrey Tennant: My reason may very well be hanging by a thread.Well, my friends, it is my belief that the best things happen just before the thread snaps.
And finally Jeffrey.
His productions are falling apart in parts. He manages to find actors with whom it is almost impossible to work: a boy from Hollywood with a pretty face – his Hamlet, a smug, bronzed mastodon who spits on the director’s instructions – his Macbeth. As for Lear … I will not spoil the pleasure of those who have not yet watched, but Lear is more difficult than the previous two combined.
It is difficult to work with him because all that interests him is his own work. He doesn’t care about budgets and advertising. He wants to stage only what he wants to stage, and not what is fashionable, prestigious or will bring popularity.
He’s a perfectionist, a loser, calls one of his leading actors “ape,” and his producer can really sympathize.
And only he does what makes sense to watch.
He puts on performances exclusively for himself, not because he despises the “common man”, but because this is the only way to do something for others.
He speaks on the same level with everyone, and only thanks to this everyone can be elevated in spirit.
He does not seek to make money with his creativity, not because of the silvery pose, but because life is short, and there is no time to do something other than what you really want.
Only in Jeffrey’s works “the original pure design of the creator appears.”
I always talk about about the same people, and now I will say again about the same person who is one of the few who knows how to tell stories, about Terry Gilliam, who is constantly falling apart, actors die or get sick for the main roles , failures pursue, but all the same “the worn saddle creaks again”, and the result is things as real as breathing.
After all, the task of art is not to frighten and offend with obscenities, or, on the contrary, to decorate and pour syrup on reality, and even – no matter how tempting this idea is for me personally – to make human existence bearable, comforting tired slaves.
The task of art, in my deep conviction, is to speak the truth, doing it with the soul.
Actually, that’s just what I wanted to say.
Well, and, of course, the fact that watching “Slings and Arrows” is necessary.
Louis XIV – tyranny in lush decorations
S.BUNTMAN: Well, what then? We are starting the program “That’s right.” Today it is led by Sergei Buntman, and Alexei Venediktov has gone on a business trip on matters of extreme importance. And therefore, taking this opportunity, I will listen to Natalya Ivanovna Basovskaya. Good evening.
N. BASOVSKAYA: Good evening.
S. BUNTMAN: And we will talk about one of the most amazing figures of what is considered to be the new time.Although, in our textbooks this is still with us – he was born in the northern centuries, right?
N. BASOVSKAYA: No. The term “early modern time” has already appeared.
S. BUNTMAN: Yes. Well, there, according to old textbooks, we have all this “before the English revolution.” Today we have the “King of the Sun” Louis XIV. And always the books that were written about him, they were not otherwise called “The Age of Louis XIV”. He corrected extremely, after all, a lot.
N. BASOVSKAYA: He was officially king for 74 years, of which he really ruled, well, more than 50.
S. BUNTMAN: Who watches us on TV, sees what a wonderful boy, right? Still in antique costume. He will dance with us, love dancing, love pleasures, love women, and in the end he will turn into one of the darkest people of his time.
N. BASOVSKAYA: Why did you tell everything at once, Sergey Alexandrovich!
S. BUNTMAN: Yes. With such a nightmarish nose, with this protruding Bourbon lip, outlived his grandson. But this is with us, we will have 2 transfers, let’s say right away.2 gears. So Natalya Ivanovna will start today from this sunny and anxious time, because her father has not had an heir for a very long time. We will ask you a question. One of the key episodes in both the French history of that time and the childhood of Louis XIV, which … Probably, after all, Natalya Ivanovna, influenced him greatly.
N. BASOVSKAYA: I am convinced of this, but this will be discussed later.
S. BUNTMAN: Let’s talk about it. This phenomenon was called “Fronda”. And this word has a translation, a literal translation is “something”, and, behold, all the French, when they called this movement a fronda, understood what they were talking about, what subject.So, please give us a translation: what is “fronda”? What it is? Literally. We have 10 audiobooks by Natalia Basovskaya “History in Stories”, and today “Great Women”. So I show it to a television camera and show it to a camera, we have a web camera. This disc, which you probably already know, have heard a lot about it, is being broadcasted on our website. Please, +7 985 970-45-45 – one word – what does “fronda” mean? What is this, in Russian, what is this object? Not a historical phenomenon, but an object that gave its name to this phenomenon, movement, and so on.Let’s start.
N. BASOVSKAYA: Yes. Who is Louis XIV? It is widely known that he is covered with myths and legends. First, of course, 72 years on the throne, 54 of them really ruled, and independently, and this was the pinnacle of French absolutism. And maybe the pinnacle of absolutism as a phenomenon in general, for, of course, it acquired the most terrifying forms under Louis XIV, this absolutism. He created the image of a demigod king, well, this is the “king of the sun” – I’ll tell you more about this, why the sun.
With him blossomed and worked for him, he contributed to this, all kinds of arts, basic for that time.This is both ballet and opera, this is a theater, he surrounded himself with the great artists of this era. And Versailles, which he built, was like an eternal holiday.
On the other hand, there is a monstrous contrast between luxury and poverty, uprisings, riots. Although before the French Revolution, one of the greatest revolutions of modern times, it is still more than 70 years old.
S. BUNTMAN: From his death.
N. BASOVSKAYA: Yes, more than 70 years from his death. It turned out that he brought her as close as possible. Probably it was.I will cite only the words in this announcement of this figure from the famous source associated with Louis XIV, the memoirs of his contemporary, the court duke of Saint-Simon, he has such a phrase: “The reference to the law on the right was considered a crime” – this is what the zenith of absolutism is.
But let’s look at his biography, and she will explain something to us why such a sun and such tyranny were born in magnificent decorations. One of the Russian pre-revolutionary historians Savin at the beginning of the 20th century said that “there is even something pharaonic in the late Louis XIV.”
His father is the French king Louis XIII of the House of Bourbons, his wonderful grandfather Henry IV of Navarre, the first founder of this line of Capetian-Bourbons on the French throne. Mother – Anna of Austria, well known, for sure, to our radio listeners, readers from the novels of Dumas. Yes, Anna of Austria. On the other hand, his grandfather was a Spanish ruler – Philip III of Spain. And my great-grandfather was the Emperor Charles V of the Spanish Habsburg, the one who said that “the sun never sets in my domain.”That is, heredity contributed to the possible.
S. BUNTMAN: Yes, the great-great-grandfather is also the very Philip II the Strange.
N. BASOVSKAYA: Yes, a very strange and very tough ruler, also Spanish absolutism. This is a very tough absolutism. That is, in his origin there are prerequisites for this, although life did not immediately give him the opportunity to build this absolutist line.
We know little about his childhood. The same Duke of Saint-Simon writes that the boy was very observant, attentive, attractive in appearance, beautifully built and loved to spy on everything, eavesdrop, memorize everything.That is, for example, he had some natural inclinations for the future school of court life.
Education did not fascinate him, and he himself later remarked in his memoirs: “I came out with honor from my lack of education.” That is, he was not fond of education – music, dancing, knowledge of languages, well, such, rather superficial.
At the age of 12, his absolute attraction to art was revealed, and here he immediately showed his character. At that time, everyone, in the sense of everything, the educated part of society, the courtiers, played the lute.And possession of a lute was considered a sign of aristocracy. He learned to play the lute, he knew it, but he said: “I want to play the guitar.” The guitar was then considered just a folk instrument, coming from the folk tradition of Spanish culture. Mazarin, who actually ruled instead of this boy, immediately ordered him from Italy a virtuoso guitarist named Corbetto.
I think Mazarin had the idea “Let him play, let him have fun with art”, since he has been listed as king since the age of 5, but, of course, does not rule.The fact is that after the death of Louis XIII, the throne, according to the rules of the French succession to the throne, passed to his son, heir Louis, who was only 5 years old. According to the will of Louis XIII, in the event of his untimely death, and he foresaw his death, a certain regency council should be created around the figure of the king’s child. Anna of Austria trampled on this will, did not create any council, seized real power into her own hands, and these hands were directed by her favorite, Cardinal Mazarin. Mazarin really ruled the country.
Therefore, from childhood, Louis lives in a kind of contradiction. He is a king, he is legally a king, but he is a king without power. And his childhood is very difficult – something that you quite rightly mentioned. Two opposing factors influence him in childhood quite objectively. Heavy, difficult, tense situation, Fronda. The same Fronda that you asked our radio listeners to think about.
What is it? A broad social movement, massive, in which different forces merged – from disgruntled aristocrats, who, of course, were in the lead there, to the plebeian elements of cities and peasants.Taxes, aggravated by the 30-year war of 1618-1648, the burdens of this war fell on the shoulders, of course, of people of middle and low income. And dislike for Mazarin – she played a very important role in the movement of the Fronda.
Time of the XVII century, at the height of the XVII century, this is the threshold of a real new time, the national feeling is quite acute. Mazarin is Italian. And, behold, France does not want to accept it. She accepted Richelieu, his predecessor better – it was, as it were, her own. Mazarin is an Italian, an Italian who does not evoke sympathy, who is patronized by Anna of Austria, this is a personal, so to speak, female decision, and the country does not want to accept it.
S. BUNTMAN: Well, there was still a bad experience. There was Concino Concini and not so long ago, all this is in historical memory, Marshal d’Ancre, the favorite of Maria Medici was. It was all recently.
N. BASOVSKAYA: They don’t want Italian favorites. Dislike for Mazarin, tax oppression, hardships of war – all this merged into huge discontent, and more. The top of the Fronde is the very aristocracy, led by the princes of the blood, who led the Fronde, it cannot but hope that when a child is officially on the throne, a real five-year-old child, there is a chance to establish, in fact, an aristocratic government, something like that late feudal oligarchy.And all this together led to the fact that there is a war, in fact, a civil war.
It became so aggravated that when Louis, for example, was 10 years old in 1648, an uprising began in Paris, broad sections of the city’s population took part in it, built barricades, the situation in the city was terrible. Mazarin was forced to hastily and secretly take the child-king and Anna of Austria out of Paris. And after 3 years in 1651, when Louis was only 13 years old and he still does not rule, Mazarin even temporarily retired, the Fronde achieved his exile, albeit not for long.Anna of Austria was waiting for him to return, and he returned. He returned with the mercenaries who finally suppressed the Fronda. Here are the impressions of childhood: “Am I a king or not a king? No, I’m not a king. There is a war, life is in danger, power is in danger, there is Mazarin. ”
Specialists-researchers look differently at his relationship with Mazarin. Of course, Louis could not love him. But at the same time, there is evidence that they often met, talked, and as if Mazarin even tried to teach him the art of management.
S. BUNTMAN: Well, he did it.
N. BASOVSKAYA: He did it. But Louis, probably, at the same time, listening attentively – he knew how to be very amiable all his life, outwardly very charming and amiable, and? Agreeing, probably to himself, he still kept repeating: “But I am the king, and you are not. I am a king”. And as a compressed spring these long years of his legal royal title in the absence of power, he was probably shrinking internally, preparing himself for the fact that he would turn into that very “king of the sun”, an absolute ruler who imagines himself to be almost a demigod.
S. BUNTMAN: But Mazarin prepared for him the finest employees and gave him one great advice: “Never take a single chief minister, what he was …”
N. BASOVSKAYA: From my own experience.
S. BUNTMAN: Of course.
N. BASOVSKAYA: What he was and Richelieu was.
S. BUNTMAN: And there was Richelieu. “You may not have ministers, sire, but what kind of employees …” We will talk about them further.
N. BASOVSKAYA: There were a lot of them, and they were all talented.
S. BUNTMAN: Colbert alone is worth something.
N. BASOVSKAYA: Colbert is a financial genius, as many say. So, what should the young king be busy with? The wise Mazarin took him over. So he has already invited him a virtuoso guitarist, so he encourages his hobbies, new hobbies for dancing. What does Louis do when the Fronde is depressed and something needs to be lived and done? Mazarin pushes him towards this artistic, theatrical life.
So, for example, in 1654 young Louis performed 6 roles.It was accepted that one actor – and the actor the king – plays different roles. In the Italian opera “The Wedding of Peleus and Thetis” on a mythological plot. He danced in a hall for 3 thousand people 10 evenings in a row – just an actor’s work. Thus, 30 thousand spectators could watch the king dancing. Dances, of course, so that no one thinks that they are similar to modern ones. The main line of this dance of that era is something like a future minuet, these are relatively smooth figures, movement of figures, but it changes costumes.And in 1653, a year ago – he also performed in a dance as one of the allegorical figures. It was very accepted that allegories were danced on the stage, and not any specific characters. And it was the figure of the rising sun.
In 1654, the figure of Apollo. And he will later say about himself: “I have the most beautiful legs in the kingdom.” Narcissism begins, admiration of the surrounding court flatterers – a king without power, but he is beautiful, he is a solar disk, he is Apollo, he is a deity! And this will be very evident in his entire future life.
In 1660, when Louis was 22 years old and still without power, he was married. He is married to the Spanish Infanta Princess Maria Theresa. Young, quiet, all her further life, she played the role of a quiet figure, like a mouse, in the presence of the sun king. But before marriage, he was passionately deeply in love with another girl – Mazarin’s niece Maria Mancini.
Those who carefully study his biography, in particular French authors, say that perhaps this was the only such passionate and great love in his life, well, as happens in his youth.She is not from a royal family, so there was no chance of such a marriage, as it were, Mazarin, perhaps, secretly did not strive for this.
S. BUNTMAN: Well, Mazarin knew that it was suicide for him.
N. BASOVSKAYA: Of course, that would be the end.
S. BUNTMAN: With all these guys, with all Conde, Conti, Gondi, and so on, who will eat him alive and not choke, here is also a niece to marry the king.
N. BASOVSKAYA: So let it be beautiful, magnificent.She played a very significant role in his life. She loved art. She was very fond of novels, loved theater, ballet. And she strengthened the already outlined rapprochement of Louis, this dancing young king with people of art.
Composer Luli, creator of French opera, ballet creator, playwright, actor and director Moliere was brought closer to the court. Moreover, all these people approached Louis XIV forever. They have never been published. Often, reading our studies and works of art dedicated to Moliere, you see the image of some kind of almost a fighter against absolutism.No, not like that. As an artist of genius, of course, especially in his mature works, he expressed something voluntarily and involuntarily against the despotism of tyranny, but not against Louis XIV.
Here I am reading, courtier Moliere, an excerpt, a chorus from his work “Brilliant Lovers”, a play. This chorus accompanies the king’s dance: “Shine the palaces, our lord is coming. The features of his face are beautiful and strict, full of inspiration, will there be Gods of such a build? ” God, where next? How much more can you flatter? At the same time, Molière was the son of an upholsterer and furniture maker by position, inherited from his father, who eventually moved from a furniture maker to a bed room.Moliere had the office of bed king. And one quarter a year, 3 months, he personally made the bed for Louis XIV. The departure to sleep and the awakening of the king was at this court turned into the greatest ritual, and Moliere, the great critic of hypocrisy, hypocrisy and much more, he personally made this bed and was proud enough of it.
S. BUNTMAN: He was not hypocritical.
N. BASOVSKAYA: No, I think not.
S. BUNTMAN: And the role is completely different.
N.BASOVSKAYA: Somewhere else in Ancient Egypt, on the wall of one of the pyramids, an inscription was found that came from Ancient Egypt: “The king is food.” With the naivete of the ancients, they said something very significant and very stable in the world – this is a position, this is the provision of life and this is a person to whom he gradually gets used. Moliere was impressed by Louis’ true passion for art. And he brings more and more people closer to the yard. Racine appears, Charles Perrault is on the horizon. Charles Perrault was the closest associate of the great Colbert, and he was a fortunate courtier, the right hand of Colbert, chief intendant of the finance of the kingdom.He compared the age of the great Augustus, the Roman emperor, and the age of Louis XIV. And he said that the century of Louis XIV is higher, he introduced the term “The Age of Louis the Great”, and then Voltaire picked it up.
That is, what kind of people made the image of this king? Racine is a reader. A reader, a court reader of the king, who reads to him at night or at night when he has insomnia, some of the works most of all from the life of Alexander the Great, for the young Louis seeks ideals for himself and finds in the person of Alexander the Great, in the person of the Roman emperor the divine Augustus and in the face of Apollo, just already the sun god.He forms what we would say today “his image”, young Louis XIV is preparing the zenith of French absolutism.
S. BUNTMAN: Yes. And we will continue with you. And I will declare and say, I will distribute the so-called disks virtually to those who correctly said that the fronda is a sling. This is a sling, yes, the stones flew in all directions. We will continue the story about Louis XIV, the first part of this story in about 5 minutes.
S. BUNTMAN: Well, actually, no one is going to hide the truth.And our preliminary truth is that I will now announce the names of the main frondeurs and fronder women who said that the Fronde in literal translation is a sling. And they get the book “History in Stories. Great women ”- this is, indeed, at the heart of these books are the programs“ Everything is so ”, which we have, by Natalya Ivanovna Basovskaya. Ekaterina – 916039, Svetlana – 963658, Natasha – 499155, Pavel – 985976, Yuri – 926214, Vladimir – 455, Mikhail – 985109, Marina – 916166, Julia – 916527, Boris – 915064, you are the owners of the audiobooks “History in stories.Great women. ”
We have just talked about young Louis XIV and will continue to talk about young and young. These are his early years. They talked about the arts, talked about how he loves art, participates in them and gets to know the future greatest artists of his era.
N. BASOVSKAYA: He tightly surrounds his figure with them and, I must say, forever. And, in general, he is building his future image, but not yet having power. His youth ended, of course, on March 9, 1661, when Mazarin died at 2 am.
The next morning, the courtiers did not recognize King Louis. Madame de Lafayette, one of the memoirists, wrote wonderful about this – there are many memoirs left, there are many sources about him. With all the bias, a very interesting observation slips there. And here is her impression of Louis, met the next morning after Mazarin’s death: “It was impossible to fit in your imagination,” she writes, “that a person could be so unlike himself.” Wonderful words! At the very moment when Mazarin left, he realized, realized that now he would not restrain his feelings of a true, true king, who for so many years had been waiting for the combination of the legal function with the reality that he had been waiting for.In addition, the image is already sculpted. But in this image, while dancing, grace, music, art, thoughts that the sovereign must be strong, and high, and sublime, and beautiful, and must fight, but is not fighting yet. And he commits the first act very soon, already in August of the same 1661, which shows that this young dancing musician, playing Molière’s plays and directing with him will now be a different person, that he has one more hypostasis – domineering, stern. This event is called “The Fall of Nicolas Fouquet”.
Fouquet is a general intendant, an all-powerful financier, a very powerful figure under Mazarin. His full name is Viscount de Vaux, Marquis de Belle-Ile, the provincial quartermaster at first, then he supported Mazarin during the Fronde – this Mazarin did not forget, he nominated him. And from 1653, Fouquet became Comptroller General of the Finance of France. He was so omnipotent in the financial sphere, so clever financier, domineering man, who also lived a luxurious court life, that shortly before his fall, he bought the island of Belle-Ile off the coast of Britain and built a fortress there, which, in general, made it clear what if anything, he has a small state – a state within a state.
And then, as his omnipotence grew, he began to fight against Mazarin. He came into conflict with him and, as it turned out, apparently for certain, even tried to prepare a conspiracy against Mazarin. Having chosen the following words as a motto “Is there anything inaccessible to me?” he felt himself omnipotent already under Mazarin. Such a man was, of course, dangerous to the young king. But he, Fouquet, did not understand – this wealth, super-wealth, authority had taken him so far that he did not understand at all that the young king could behave completely differently from what he imagined, cease to be this dancing figure of art.He invited the king to his castle for a reception shortly after Mazarin’s death. Arranged a party.
S. BUNTMAN: And I was wrong.
N. BASOVSKAYA: He was grossly mistaken. Celebration, behold, in his palace Vaux-le-Vicomte. The young king and queen arrived there. And as contemporaries note, when they climbed the stairs of this super-luxurious palace, and they were met by super-luxuriously dressed Fouquet in all kinds of decorations of soldiers, actors, mimes, something incredible, the question arose “Who is the king?” Louis understood this.
Then 80 tables were laid, on them dishes made of silver and gold, King Louis was probably very traumatized by gold dishes, a massive gold service. Because the golden dishes of the royal house were melted down during the 30-year war for the needs of the war. And he was offended that there were dishes of heavy gold here. An incredible amount of dishes, then fireworks, from which the horses began to fall and almost dared, did not carry away Queen Maria Theresa, because the horses were terribly afraid of this fireworks.As contemporaries write, “it seemed that the sky exploded.”
Outwardly Louis endured all this, although later he confessed to his mother that “I wanted to arrest him right here, in his house”. Anna of Austria dissuaded him and said: “It is reasonable, my son, that you did not do this.” However, soon enough, already in the early autumn of the same year, 1661, Fouquet was arrested in Nantes. He was arrested by d’Artagnan.
S. BUNTMAN: Historical.
N. BASOVSKAYA: The famous historical d’Artagnan, known as d’Artagnan, a lieutenant of the first company of musketeers named Charles de Baz de Castelmore from Gascony.The real figure on which the literary figure in Dumas is based. This man has always devotedly served the royal power, during the time of the Fronde he supported Anna of Austria, he protected her and the young king from all the dangers of the Fronde. And this time, by order of Louis XIV, first verbally and then in writing, he arrested, along with several musketeers, the all-powerful Nicolas Fouquet.
This news gave the impression of a bomb exploding. Because it seemed that Fouquet’s power was completely limitless.Nevertheless, he was arrested, he paid for his mistake by not preparing for the arrest. He could, for example, flee to Belle-Ile and there it would have been impossible to take him by storm easily, in the end. And he never visited Belle-Ile – they only built a fortress there, but he did not visit there.
So, being arrested in Nantes in August 1661, he was under arrest for 3 years until 1664, then a court was organized. Louis wanted this judgment to scare everyone and forever. And he achieved this goal.So that such a figure never grows up around him, in any way in the influence and power of the close Nicolas Fouquet, or the former Mazarin, or the once-former Richelieu. But he did not achieve his second goal – Louis frankly wanted him, Fouquet, to be sentenced to death. Fouquet defended himself very cleverly. He was accused of embezzlement, abuse – he recognized individual, minor ones that could be called financial mistakes, deftly rejected others, but, of course, he was ruined by the fact that documents were found in an attempt to organize a conspiracy.He is here too, he said “It was a conspiracy against Mazarin, but for your sake, Your Majesty.”
Therefore, he defended himself amazingly, and there were lawyers who helped him, who still believed they were brave people, they all suffered for it later. In fact, all of them, like the Fouquet family, were exiled. But they did not pass the death sentence. During the voting, the votes were split slightly in favor of the link. And it was very humane after such a process, but did not suit the young sun, Louis XIV. And he, who has the right to pardon, in fact, by his personal order, toughened the sentence, replacing the link with solitary life imprisonment.And this former omnipotent man, after 3 years on trial, spent another 15 years of his life in prison, in the castle of Pignerol, a godforsaken corner on the border of France and Northern Italy. A total of 18 years in prison, along with a 3-year trial. He saw his family a very short time before his death – he was allowed to see his family when it was clear that he was dying.
So, this story, as conceived by Louis XIV, was supposed to make a tremendous impression, and made on his entourage and the whole country.I want to quote here the words from the dedication, again, to Louis, Racine’s tragedy “Alexander”. The flattery, which was already enthusiastic, turned into some kind, I would say, hysterical. I quote Racine, a great writer, great playwright, creator of French classicism, a most talented person. And yet, court life is court life. I quote: “And I foresee that as my abilities mature, you, Your Majesty, will crown yourself with new laurels. Perhaps, having become at the head of the army – he foresees that he will definitely become at the head of the army – you will allow us to complete the comparison between you and Alexander the Great.And add the glory of the conqueror to the glory you have already acquired as the wisest monarch in the world. ” This is 1665, Louis is still quite a young man, he is 27 years old. “The wisest monarch in the world” – the flattery became hysterical, almost painful. Behind it, of course, there is fear, which was completely created by the case of Nicolas Fouquet.
And a hint. This is what he says, “you will become the head of the army” – is this just an insight from Racine? No. They already know. The king is laconic, the king lives in public, solemnly.But every word that he drops in the presence of the courtiers is repeated many times, everyone remembers, everyone retells everything. And he has already said several times that a great ruler must fight.
S. BUNTMAN: That is, everyone knows that he wants it?
N. BASOVSKAYA: Of course.
S. BUNTMAN: He wants. He has great commanders who have already become great, who have already shown themselves. His eldest relative is the Prince of Condé.
N. BASOVSKAYA: This is also Leroy, an excellent commander.
S. BUNTMAN: Yes. And Turenne.
N. BASOVSKAYA: AND Turen. And they will all perform very well. And he knows that with such he will not disappear, and wars are already on the horizon. But before we name it the first wars – and we have time to do it today – and they, the early wars are very different from the later ones. And what was inside France at that time? While the king is still fond of the arts, theaters, he started the restructuring of the Louvre, invited the great Bernini. In general, he did not turn to cultural figures for trifles.Bernini, an Italian architect and sculptor at the time, was considered the greatest, well, at least in the front row for sure.
He invited him from Italy, he arrived in France. True, he did not take a big part in the restructuring of the Louvre, his projects were too grandiose, but he left it, created a sculptural portrait of Louis XIV. And he, perhaps, only needs that – this is not the work of someone, but Bernini.
S. BUNTMAN: No, he wanted something more grandiose.
N.BASOVSKAYA: Bernini’s projects were, but then other people carried out. And then he, somehow Bernini was a very Italian man. He stayed in France for several months and returned, and he created everything else, created only in Rome.
Begins the construction of Versailles Louis XIV – this is the outskirts, it was a village on the outskirts of Paris.
S. BUNTMAN: No. Still, 14 kilometers.
N. BASOVSKAYA: Well, now it’s the outskirts. This is a village. The village of Versailles, transformed …
S.BUNTMAN: Still, 14 kilometers, this is a hunting lodge …
N. BASOVSKAYA: There was a small hunting lodge of Louis XIII.
S. BUNTMAN: Yes.
N. BASOVSKAYA: His dads.
S. BUNTMAN: Yes.
N. BASOVSKAYA: The height of luxury is being created gradually, step by step, which has grown out of court holidays. Holidays are held there, which are called “Carousel”, where in general it is something, almost a variant of France of the XVII century, orgy. It is such a carousel, where everything is fireworks, everything is a celebration, everything is a stream of wine, everything is champagne.And a huge waste. All this leads to a very difficult internal situation in France. Popular riots begin, the reprisal with which is merciless: Louis has already shown that he knows how to be merciless.
For example, during the riot of 1662, the musketeers led by d’Artagnan – and such functions, well, the future literary d’Artagnan were performed by the musketeers – hanged 100 rebels by order of the king, 600 of them were sent to galleys. The leader of the rebellion, Duroy, was executed, the body was chopped to pieces and placed at the gates of Paris, in the spirit of the Middle Ages.That is, the king is no longer reduced to that elegant graceful figure of art. He took the place of the state. Colbert pursues a financial policy, a policy of mercantilism, and this makes it possible for Louis to start wars, at last, because he has already remarked several times “The king, the great king is not great enough if he does not fight.”
His, so to speak, the first war is called the “Devolutionary War”, the war with Spain for the Spanish Netherlands, the Spanish possessions in the Netherlands, in their southern part, present-day Belgium.They remained, here is the present Belgium or the southern part of the Netherlands, after the Dutch liberation war, also called the revolution, the southern part remained under the rule of Spain. And so Louis XIV starts the war for them.
Why? The fact is that this devolutionary war – the name comes from the fact that there, in particular, in Brabant and in a number of other Dutch provinces, there was such a legal norm – that the land inheritance in the event of the father’s remarriage goes to the children from the first marriage.Philip IV of Spain died in 1665, and Louis’ wife Maria Theresa was the daughter of Philip IV from his first marriage. And now, applying this devolutionary law, Louis declares: “This southern part of the Netherlands is the land of my wife.” He has a beautiful banner in his hands. It gives a little bit of the Middle Ages – it’s not scary, they live in a transitional era.
S. BUNTMAN: Yes, but contrary to French law. Inside France, land was not transferred through a woman, but here there are local laws. This is great, the main thing is to come up with,
N.BASOVSKAYA: If this law is convenient, then we apply it.
S. BUNTMAN: Yes.
N. BASOVSKAYA: Louis’s troops capture part of Flanders and Hainaut, or Gennegau – a very important area in the Netherlands, and Franche-Comte. These are rich lands, these are very profitable lands. And against them, then against Louis, it is created – this is just a seizure, this is a real war of conquest, by the way, with an eye on Holland, Louis XIV does not like Holland and speaks about it directly. Because Holland is the first republic, the republic of the united provinces, the first republic in the former medieval Europe – she annoys him with the fact.”Which republic?” The king has power from God, and only he, the deputy of God on earth, can rule. And William III of Orange of the Republic of the United Provinces will be the main critic and opponent of Louis in European politics. Over time, not without poison and very wittily, he remarked in the later years of Louis: “How strange this French king. He has young ministers and an old mistress. ” His last favorite, Louis will be somewhat older than him.
So, he joins this war with an eye on Holland in the future.In addition, it annoys him that there are Protestants, because this is the country of Calvinists. And Louis in the future has a terrible struggle with the Calvinists – this lives in him.
S. BUNTMAN: Despite the fact that the Edict of Nantes is still in operation, that is, the Edict, which gives certain rights to the Calvinists, given by his grandfather.
N. BASOVSKAYA: Verdict of Tolerance by Grandfather Henry IV.
S. BUNTMAN: Yes. Despite the fact that during the time of his father, all the Protestant fortresses were destroyed, during the time of La Rochelle.
N. BASOVSKAYA: There have already been a lot of harassment.
S. BUNTMAN: Nevertheless, formally …
N. BASOVSKAYA: The norm is the norm. But we will cancel the Edict of Nantes in our transmission in Episode 2, dedicated to Louis XIV.
S. BUNTMAN: In a week. Well, it will be inevitable.
N. BASOVSKAYA: Yes. (laughs)
S. BUNTMAN: Nothing will change in a week.
N. BASOVSKAYA: So, in response to these aggressive actions under the flag of the rights of the wife of the Spanish Infanta Maria Theresa, an alliance of Holland, England, Sweden, a Protestant alliance, a tripartite alliance against France is created.And then under the pressure of this already new situation – that it is not just a seizure of something from Spain in the neighborhood of a small republic of united provinces, it becomes scary. He goes to negotiations. The peace that has been concluded is not as triumphant as after the next war. But, nevertheless, France received 11 cities, among them such as Douai and Lille and some others very important.
So, this war is relatively successful, and the court environment makes it a triumph. When such a court environment is created, when an atmosphere of absolute praise of the only almost divine figure is created, everything can be presented as a triumph.And the devolutionary war is regarded as very successful.
His next wars are different. But, in any case, the second war is also quite successful, it continues, as it were, the devolutionary war and this is a war against the coalition, also led by Holland – it will begin in 1678 and will continue for about a little over a year until 1679. He is not abandoned by the desire to fight the Netherlands. He wants this Shtatgalter, so to speak, to put in place, to prove that a monarchical country and such a correct monarchy as France is always stronger.
The war against the Dutch-led coalition of Protestant countries was difficult. But France has proven that it is strong. The army of Louis XIV numbered 120 thousand people – this is the largest army in Europe at that time. She took over a number of imperial cities in Alsace, the borderlands of France and Germany, the eternal object of contradictions, the lands between the Saar, Moselle and the Rhine were simply devastated. Louis begins to prove that he is not just a warrior, but a victorious commander.
Well, there was no absolute victory.Franche-Comté, however, was secured, taken from Spain, assigned to France, some cities in Alsace were also received. But! Peace of Nimwegen – Nimwegen, such a difficult word – in 1678 was presented in France as an absolute triumph. When I carefully read the terms of this agreement, I understand that it was concluded at a time when Louis still wanted to fight. But England was also ready to stand up for the coalition of Protestant countries, then I understand that triumph is the work of the court environment.The entourage makes the king.
S. BUNTMAN: The environment is already there, the king is already alone, there is no court other than the royal court, there is Versailles, where everyone is obliged to live – we will talk about the internal structure.
N. BASOVSKAYA: He did not like very much if someone was absent.
S. BUNTMAN: No, no, no, everyone should be in front of our eyes, there will be no more Fronde, no princes.
N. BASOVSKAYA: The shadow of the Fronda haunted him all his life.
S.BUNTMAN: There will be no more luxurious people like Fouquet walking around their possessions of princes, building anything, their fortresses, their Belle-Eli. And we will not let anyone steal finances – we will steal them ourselves.
N. BASOVSKAYA: Being a financial genius, Colbert is so afraid of the king that, for example, he and his wife are raising his illegitimate children.
S. BUNTMAN: Naturally. This is another separate story.