An Illustrated Guide – Lacrosse Pack
The rules on determining the legality of a lacrosse stick are complicated to say the least. With so many different rules and regulations, it’s extremely challenging to sort through everything, especially if you are just reading from a boring old rulebook.
For this reason, I took it upon myself to construct an easy to follow, step-by-step guide on how to maneuver through all these rules and regulations to ensure that your lacrosse stick comes out on top. Without further ado, let’s get right into it.
There are four general ways that a lacrosse stick can be deemed illegal:
- failure to meet stick measurements
- failure to meet pocket legality
- failure to meet ball retainment rules
- failure to meet miscellaneous lacrosse stick regulations
Within each of these four broad categories are a subset of specific rules that must be followed. If any one of these rules are broken, the stick will be deemed illegal.
1.) Failure to Meet Stick Measurements
When officials conduct stick checks during lacrosse games, the first aspect of the stick that they analyze are its measurements. They must establish that the overall measurements of the lacrosse stick and the particular measurements of the lacrosse head are completely legal. If these stick measurements are not met, the stick is automatically deemed illegal.
Illegal Measurements of Lacrosse Stick
Failure to fall within the legal range of stick length automatically deems the stick illegal. To avoid this, I have organized a chart that lists out the legal stick length of the three different kinds of lacrosse sticks, from the tip of the lacrosse head to the end cap of the shaft.
|Type of Lacrosse Stick||Legal Length of Lacrosse Stick|
|Attack/Midfield Short Stick||40 to 42 inches|
|Defensive Long Stick||52 to 72 inches|
|Goalie Stick||40 to 72 inches|
The attack/midfield short stick has the least flexibility in terms of length, whereas the goalie stick has the most flexibility in terms of length. Although I must admit, I have never witnessed a goalie actually play with a 72 inch long stick in game.
Illegal Measurements of Lacrosse Head
The diagram below outlines the various points of the lacrosse head that must adhere to a minimum measurement length. In the event that these minimum measurements are not met, the stick is considered illegal.
There are a couple of different width measurements that a lacrosse head must follow in order to be considered legal. The scoop must have a diameter of at least 6.5 inches. The midline of the lacrosse head, which is 5 inches above the throat, must have a diameter of at least 3.5 inches. At the lowest and narrowest point of the head, the diameter must be at least 3 inches.
As far as head length goes, there is only one real measurement that must be followed. Measuring from the tip of the scoop to the throat, the lacrosse head must be exactly 10 inches.
With new lacrosse heads, complying with these measurements should not be an issue whatsoever. Lacrosse head manufacturers produce their products to specifically observe these minimum measurements.
You could run into issues if your lacrosse head has seen its fair share of lacrosse seasons, especially during the summer. As a lacrosse head undergoes the abuse of multiple lacrosse seasons, the plastic of the head begins to warp. In other words, the head plastic begins to alter its shape by bending or pinching in without you purposefully doing so.
If the head pinches in excessively, then the head will fail to meet the legal measurements and will be deemed illegal. So if your head has been through the ringer, I recommend conducting some measurements yourself to ensure that it is still permissible.
The table test is a reliable method of measuring the shaft angle of a lacrosse stick. The lacrosse stick is placed onto a tabletop so that the head is positioned entirely on the table along with the majority of the shaft. Only a small portion of the shaft near the end cap should be hanging off of the tabletop.
From here, you will measure the distance from the tabletop to the edge of the lacrosse head that is farthest away from the tabletop. Keep in mind that you are not measuring to the mesh, you are measuring to the farthest edge of the head plastic. This distance should not surpass 2.75 inches. If it does, then the stick is illegal.
The most probable reason for why a lacrosse stick does not pass the table test is that the shaft is not perfectly straight. With the heavy emphasis on defensive stick checking in lacrosse, shafts can get dented or bent more often than you might think.
The bend in the shaft may not be noticeable unless you take the time to conduct this table test. Even a one or two degree shaft bend could deem your stick illegal.
2.) Failure to Meet Pocket Legality
The next area that officials analyze when it comes to lacrosse stick legality is the pocket. Since lacrosse players are given a tremendous amount of freedom in how they construct their individual pocket, there are several different tests that officials must perform to confidently say that a pocket is legal.
Illegal Pocket Depth
One of the tests performed is the pocket depth test. To do this, hold up your lacrosse stick to eye level and keep the head completely parallel. Next, turn your attention to the sidewall string. If the sidewall string disrupts your view of seeing the entire ball within the pocket, then the stick is legal. Lacrosse officials have coined this phenomenon as sidewall string interference.
On the other hand, if you have a clear view of the entire ball because the sidewall string does not cover up any section of the ball, you have an illegal stick on your hands. A signature characteristic of a pocket that is too deep is a discernible gap between the sidewall string and the ball.
Nailing down pocket depth legality can be a bit tricky, so I would advise you to seek a second opinion from a teammate or a coach if you are unsure on the whether your pocket depth is legal.
Presence of Pull String
The presence of a pull string is a surefire way to draw a flag for an illegal stick. For those of you that are unfamiliar with the term, a pull string is a particular type of bottom string meant to deceive officials into believing that your stick has a shallower pocket than it does. In other words, it is a sneaky tactic to manipulate the pocket depth test.
With the way a pull string is strung, all a player has to do is tug on the pull string to immediately make their pocket shallower than it actually is. The shallow shape holds even when a ball is dropped into the pocket because of how the strings weave through the mesh. Players tug on the string after scoring a goal or at the end of a quarter when they know that the officials will conduct a stick test.
Luckily, lacrosse officials have grown wise to these deceptive stringing tactics over the years, especially at the higher competitive tiers of lacrosse. As a result, pull strings are a figment of the past more than anything else.
Illegal Placement of Shooting Strings
The exact location of the shooting strings on a lacrosse stick must also be placed within a distinct sector of the lacrosse head. Specifically, the shooting strings must fall within 4 inches from the top of the scoop. Any shooting string that goes beyond this 4 inch threshold makes the entire stick illegal.
Prior to the institution of this rule, there were a great deal of lacrosse players that featured a U shooting string setup in their lacrosse pocket, much like the one pictured above. When the NCAA and NFHS issued the 4 inch rule, every single player that was utilizing a U shooting string setup had to change up their shooting string arrangement completely.
So if you see old pictures of lacrosse players featuring a U shooting string setup in their pocket, that is the reason why. It used to be legal, but then became illegal with the passing of the 4 inch rule. Consequently, the only legal shooting string setups currently are ones that are comprised of straight shooters.
To learn more about the reasons why the NCAA and NFHS elected to remove U shooting strings from the game of lacrosse, click over to my article Are U Strings Illegal in Lacrosse? (New Rule Update).
Excessively Long Hanging Strings
When tying off strings, it is common to have a bit of excess string hanging off just in case further adjustments need to be made in the future. However, there is a maximum length of 2 inches for these hanging strings. Anything hanging strings longer than 2 inches is illegal.
Officials do not call this often, but it is within their jurisdiction to do so. It is more humiliating than anything else to called for a penalty of this nature. So do yourself a favor and cut and burn the hanging strings to the appropriate legal length.
Implementing More Than Two Sidewall Strings
Moreover, it is illegal to have more than two sidewall strings to a single head. Only one sidewall string per side of the mesh is allowed.
This is a relatively easy rule to follow given that utilizing more than sidewall strings complicates matters more than anything else. Stringing a solid sidewall pattern with one string is a hard task already. Introducing another sidewall string into the mix would make this undertaking even more challenging.
Deceptive Multi-Colored Mesh
Furthermore, multi-colored mesh that is meant to mislead the opponent is strictly prohibited. The first time I heard about this rule, I was confused at the notion of what multi-colored mesh could possibly qualify as deceiving.
When I read over the NCAA men’s lacrosse rules, I found my answer. The specific example they utilized was “painting a ball into the weaving” of the mesh. After reading through that example, I could see why they included this rule. It would be rather easy to paint a white, spherical looking ball onto black mesh. The person that actually went ahead and tried this was either a genius or truly desperate!
To be clear, regular multi-colored mesh is legal. Only multi-colored mesh that is constructed with the intent to deceive will be deemed illegal.
3.) Failure to Meet Ball Retainment Rules
The third section of stick legality has to do with how the ball is retained within the pocket. Defensemen need to have a fair chance at dislodging the ball from the pocket, otherwise they will be at a severe disadvantage to the offense. These rules were put in place to ensure a level playing field.
Forward Tilt Test
The first ball retainment test is the forward tilt test. This test is exactly as it sounds. You place a ball within the pocket and slowly tilt the stick forward. With a legal stick, the ball should come pop out of the pocket prior to the head becoming parallel with the ground. If the ball gets stuck in the pocket and fails to come out while the head is parallel, the stick is illegal.
Lateral Tilt Test
The second test is the lateral tilt test. Again, the ball is placed back in the pocket. Instead of tilting the head forward, you rotate the stick so that the ball pops out of the side of the head. The same concept applies here. If the ball gets stuck, the stick is deemed illegal. If the ball rolls out of the pocket, the stick is legal.
Perpendicular Tilt Test
The final ball retainment has to do with how well the ball is able to remain in the pocket when the stick is tilted upside down at a perpendicular angle to the ground.
You place the ball so that it is resting at the deepest point in the pocket. From here, slowly lower the head so that the scoop is the closest part of the plastic to the ground. Ideally, the ball should roll out before reaching a 90 degree angle. If the ball is still fixed securely in the pocket even at the 90 degree angle, the stick is illegal.
4.) Failure to Meet Miscellaneous Lacrosse Stick Regulations
Lastly, there are a couple of miscellaneous rules that a stick must follow in order to be considered fully legal for play. These rules are somewhat peculiar compared to other rules in this guide, but they are just as important to observe.
Taping the Throat of the Lacrosse Head
It is illegal for any part of the lacrosse head’s throat to be taped. Officials need to have clear, unimpeded vision of the throat to make sure that ball carriers are not cradling the stick by the base of the head. If you decide to tape near the lacrosse head, make sure to keep the tape material strictly on the shaft.
This rule applies to face off specialists as well. However, it is required that their sticks have multicolored tape at the top of the shaft, just before the throat of the lacrosse head. For example, if the head is white, the tape at the top of the shaft cannot be white as well. In this situation, red tape would suffice.
This aids officials in seeing whether or not a face off player is illegally positioning their hands on the throat of the lacrosse head. With tape that matches the color of the head, it is harder to judge whether a face off player is cheating or not.
Sawing Off the Bottom of the Throat
In the past, some face off specialists have been known to saw off the very bottom the throat of their lacrosse head. This would afford them more leverage over the stick during face-offs since their hands would be positioned closer to the lacrosse head. As a result, these players would have a slight edge over their opponent.
Lacrosse officials quickly caught on and prohibited this practice. In short, don’t saw off the bottom of your lacrosse head. I would provide a picture here of what this looks like but lacrosse heads are expensive! You’ll just have to imagine.
Exposed Metal at Bottom of Shaft
The bottom of a lacrosse stick should not have any bare metal showing at all. The bottom of the shaft should be completely covered to ensure player safety. The last thing that the lacrosse community wants is players trying to check each other with sharp, exposed pieces of metal. That would be a recipe for disaster.
For this reason, the bottom of the lacrosse shaft must be covered with a manufactured end cap. In previous years, players were allowed to cover the bottom of their shaft with bottle caps or tape. This is no longer the case. The end cap must come from a lacrosse manufactured company or the stick will be deemed illegal.
As long as the bottom of the stick is covered with a manufactured end cap, you can still tape a donut around the end cap. This is a regular practice in the lacrosse community that is well within the realm of legality. Just be sure not to cover the very bottom of the end cap with tape. The portion of the end cap that is concealing the hollow part of the shaft needs to be seen.
Lack of Ball Stop for Wooden Lacrosse Heads
Finally, the last aspect of stick legality is the ball stop. For plastic manufactured lacrosse heads, no ball stop is needed. It is perfectly legal to play without a ball stop when equipped with these kinds of heads.
If you play with a wooden lacrosse head, however, a ball stop is required. Plastic manufactured lacrosse heads can withstand a lot more abuse than wooden lacrosse heads, which is why this rule went into effect. Wooden lacrosse heads need the extra cushion of the ball stop to absorb the constant blows of catching. Otherwise, the structural integrity of the wooden lacrosse head will be worn down a lot more quickly, making it far more likely for the head to fracture.
Lacrosse Head Buying Guide: Rules, Types & Specs
This guide will help you through the process of selecting the perfect lacrosse head based on your preference. Before we begin, it is important to know that not every lacrosse head is perfect for everyone. There are several factors in a head that accommodate each player such as; legality, weight, durability, mouth width, pinch, and bottom rail configuration. If you want to improve your game and make the right purchase then ask yourself these simple questions to find the best lacrosse head for you.
Lacrosse Head Parts
- Shooting string
- Ball stop
Lacrosse Head Rules
Before you begin your search, you need to make sure that you choose a head that follows all the rules and regulations for your level of play. You have three options; NFHS, NCAA and UNIVERSAL.
NFHS heads are legal to be used in high school and all levels of youth lacrosse. These heads tend to be very pinched and don’t allow the ball to fall out of the stick as easily making it harder for defenses to stop. That is why you are prohibited to use them in college and the MLL.
NCAA heads allow the mouth width of the head to be more narrow making the mesh sag and grip the ball more at the top of the head. This will add velocity to your shot and make it very difficult for opposing goaltenders. You are not allowed to exploit this in the Youth and High School leagues for safety reasons.
Universal heads are allowed to be used in all levels of play. They follow the minimum requirements for both pinch and mouth width making it an easy transition between divisions.
Lacrosse Head Weight Chart
First you need to figure out what type of player you are based on your abilities or position you want to play. If you want to be a more offensive-minded player then try to find an attack head that is light and flexible. If you want to play defense then try to find a defensive head that is more durable and stiff.
Mouth Width vs Pinch
The “mouth” is the widest part of the lacrosse head. The wider the mouth, the easier it is to pick up ground balls and catch. Defensemen and midfielders are encouraged to get heads with wide mouths because gaining offensive possession will put your team in position to score more goals and make game winning plays. Attackmen and experienced sharpshooters are encouraged to get a head with a narrow mouth. You will grip the ball more and add more whip to your shot. But keep in mind, with added “whip” comes less accuracy.
For those of you who don’t know, “pinch” is the measurement of space between the two sidewalls of the lower part of the lacrosse head. Most players believe it is more beneficial to have “pinched” sidewalls, meaning the closer the sidewalls are together the better, but that is not always the case. The greatest benefit of having a pinched head is it creates a better channel in the pocket of your stick making it more accurate when you throw. The “pinch” in your stick will also allow the mesh to grip the ball better and make it harder for defensemen to take the ball away. With that being said, the more “pinched” or narrow the head is, the harder it is to catch. It is recommended for players to get a wider head with less “pinch” if they are new to the sport or struggle catching. Based on your specific skill set, you need to choose the head that will enhance your strengths and cover up your weaknesses.
Bottom Rail Configurations
The bottom rail is the plastic beam that has strategically placed sidewall stringing holes that allow your mesh to be strung to the head. The position of these sidewall holes and the curve of the bottom rail will have a huge impact on how the stick throws. The position of your pocket is determined by where the bottom rail curves the most. If you are a player who prefers a high pocket then you are going to want a high or level 5 bottom rail. If you prefer a low pocket, then you will benefit more from a low or level 1 bottom rail.
High / Level 5 Bottom Rail
If you are the player who likes a lot of whip on his stick then look no further than a level 5 bottom rail. This will allow the mesh to sag more at the top of the head and add extra velocity on your shot. This is Perfect for long range shooters that like to post up, and crank.
Mid-High / Level 4 Bottom Rail
Aggressive bottom rail transition that will provide increased power and more hold over the ball. This bottom rail is perfect for long range shooters that also like to shoot on the run. This bottom rail will not have the same velocity potential as the Level 5, but it will be more accurate and still light up the radar gun.
Mid / Level 3 Bottom Rail
Great combination of power and accuracy. This bottom rail is the best of both worlds and is perfect for any midfielder or all-around-athlete.
Mid-Low / Level 2 Bottom Rail
If you want a quick release with added power then the level 2 bottom rail will provide good ball protection and great accuracy. It is perfect for any attackman or offensive minded midfielder.
Low / Level 1 Bottom Rail
Ideal for the possession player that controls the tempo of the game. He always has the ball, and runs the offense. The level 1 bottom rail is designed for excellent ball security and to have a quick and accurate release. Players who dodge looking to feed/assist teammates are going to want this bottom rail.
Shop Lacrosse Heads at LacrosseMonkey!
A great way to figure out the right lacrosse head for you is to come into one of our stores! Our staff is knowledgeable and always willing to help you figure out what is best for you. We offer full stick stringing as well to give you the perfect lacrosse head for your position. If you already know what you want or are not close to a store, you can check out our lacrosse heads online.
How Should I String My Lacrosse Head? Lacrosse Video
Ever wonder how to string up a men’s lacrosse head? There are so many options to choose from when stringing up a men’s lacrosse head, that we put together this handy guide to help you understand what you need to consider for your style of play. Lax.com strings up lacrosse heads for some of the best women’s & men’s programs in the nation. Watch the video to see why Connor Kelly, a 2x First Team All-America, a 3x NCAA All-Tournament Team selection, a 3x Big Ten All-Tournament Team selection uses Lax.com to string up all his sticks.
Our Pro’s can string any lacrosse head, with any type of style. If you need a custom strung lacrosse head shipped out quickly, add our rush custom stringing service to your cart and your order will be strung up and shipped out in 2 business days or less! We also offer Premiere Custom Stringing – which offers a one-on-one experience with one of our Pro’s. Lax.com is the only company that offers a men’s lacrosse customizer. You can actually see your set up as you build it.
PRO TIP – If you have a setup that works for you already, we recommend sticking with that! If it ain’t broke don’t fix it!
Recent advances in technology made by companies like ECD (East Coast Dyes) and StringKing have really led to massive improvements in the mesh game. Back in the day, there was only soft or hard mesh, with both having vast differences. Now that the mesh technology has changed, the differences of each mesh have been minimized greatly. The reason for this is companies now use a semi-soft or semi-hard mesh. The biggest drawback to soft mesh in the past is that the pocket wouldn’t be consistent and the mesh would bag out in the rain and become illegal. The new semi-soft does a much better job keeping the pocket shape, as well as surviving the elements. Old school hard mesh in the past had little to no cushion to it, making your head seem more like a tennis racket than a lacrosse head. The new semi-hard now gives you some more cushion, while keeping the pocket much like the old hard mesh would.
SHOP LACROSSE MESH
East Coast Dyes
ECD Hero 3.0 Semi-Soft Mesh
East Coast Dyes
ECD Hero 3.0 Semi-Hard Mesh
East Coast Dyes
ECD Hero 3.0 Striker Mesh is Proudly Made in the U.S.A.
Stringking 4X mesh is designed with a new technology called Tri-Twist which weaves the mesh tighter than any previous elite level mesh. The Stringking 4X increases hold, ball feel and control for players that want to feel a bit of a bag while cradling but want non-stretch performance while letting shots rip. This stuff is an outsider shooters dream, but we really love it for guys doing inside feeds and tighter shooting ranges. The 4X is used by some of the best college and high school guys in the nation.As the price here dictates, Stringking is setting the bar for the highest levels of technology and performance. 4X lacrosse mesh is responsive and slightly elastic feeling and has slightly thinner construction on the outer rails. This centers the ball in the sweet spot and gives advanced players all the added control and feel they demand. 4X will improve shot speed and consistency with the new tighter weave.Stringking 4X is the thinnest and lightes mesh in the history of Stringking’s high end mesh introduction. Try a piece of the next generation and elevate you game like the best of the best.To get your favorite new head strung up by a serious collegiate guru… CLICK HERE TO CUSTOMIZE YOUR NEW HEAD WITH STRINGKING 4X.
Most of our Pro’s prefer to use semi-soft mesh, due to the better ball control, as well as a better feel for the ball in your stick. If you are a player who is also looking for more hold, then we recommend a soft mesh. Check out the ECD Hero 2.0 Semi-Soft custom pocket, or the StringKing Type 4S! If you are a player who is more of a catch and shoot type player, we recommend semi-hard. The biggest reason for this is that the mesh does a better job holding the shape of the pocket. This helps you consistently have the ball release the same way. If you are a player who prefers to have a little less whip so you can have a little more accuracy when picking corners while terrorizing goalies, check out either the ECD Hero 2.0 Semi-Hard or the StringKing Type 4X. To help figure out which brand of mesh works for you, StringKing is one of the lightest meshes out there and gives you some of the best feel available on the market, while ECD is one of the most durable meshes available.
Now that you have the mesh chosen, the next step is deciding where you want your pocket to be placed. If you are a younger player who is just getting into the sport or playing at a level where you’re playing all the positions, just go with a mid pocket. This is the best all-around pocket and will help younger players really hone in and develop their skills. If you are an attackman, we recommend either a low or a mid pocket. If you are an attackman who plays inside the crease and behind at X, go with a low pocket. The reason being that this pocket gives you the most hold, making your life a lot easier when cradling with one hand and to take the extra punishment that comes from the defense when you’re playing on the crease. If you are an attackman who prefers to play on the wings and shoot from the outside, go with a mid pocket. This will help you blow the ball by the goalie when you’re taking a step down shot. If you are a long pole we say go with a high pocket. One of the hardest parts of playing defense is getting the ball up off the turf quickly and settled into your stick. Using a high pocket will help solve this problem as the ball is scooped up and sits in the pocket right away. This will also make your life easier when throwing the long cross-field passes on the clear, as there is less whip when throwing with a high pocket. If you are a guy who likes to push the rock in transition, go with a mid pocket. This pocket will give you more hold and help you run through checks from the riding attackman. If you play middie, go with a mid pocket. This is the best all-around pocket and is perfect for the do-it-all type of play that is required from midfielders. This is what you need if you are a player who goes from defense to offense, since it gives you a good hold, and allows you to really step into your shots on offense and fire the ball past the goalie.
The throwstring configuration pertains to the setup of the shooting strings. This affects the release of the ball as well as the hold. The more strings you have, the more hold you have in your stick. The fewer strings you have, the quicker the release. This is another section where we make some suggestions, but if you have a setup that you like and comfortable with we recommend sticking with that. If you are an attackman going with a low pocket, we suggest trying out the 1 pro nylon 1 straight set up. This helps you get the ball out of the stick quickly, which is beneficial for when you’re playing behind the cage at X looking to feed the ball quickly, or when you’re trying to finish inside. If you are an attackman or offensive-minded middie going with a mid pocket we recommend going with the 1 pro nylon 2 straight. This setup gives you a good whip, making your release snappier. What this means is that your shot speed increased, but it can take some extra time to release. This throwstring configuration also increases hold in your stick. For a long pole, our recommendation is the 2 standard throwstring configuration. This is the set up that gives you a low level of whip, making it much easier for you when you’re throwing long clearing passes across the field to other defensemen or throwing the outlet passes to the middies going upfield looking for transition opportunities. Having too much whip will it make it more difficult to throw the long cross-field passes.
As a reminder, these are our suggestions, if you have a setup that works great for you, we recommend sticking with that and not changing it! If you are in a pinch and need a head strung up ASAP check out our rush stringing service, which gets your head strung up and shipped from our warehouse in 2 business days or less. If you have any other questions or would like to speak with a pro for some further details regarding your custom pocket, please do not hesitate to give us a call (855)255-5294, or send us an email at [email protected]!
CUSTOMIZE YOUR LACROSSE POCKET
East Coast Dyes
ECD Hero 3.0 Custom Stringing
<p>This is a custom item and requires additional time to be strung before it can be shipped</p>
STRINGKING Type 4 Mesh Custom Stringing – Lacrosse Head Not Included
<p>This is a custom item and requires additional time to be strung before it can be shipped</p>
<p><img alt=”rush” src=”https://cdn2.hubspot.net/hubfs/415608/Custom-Strung-Lacrosse-Head.jpg” /></p>
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<p>Premier Custom Stringing – Talk To A Pro!</p>
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Other blogs you might be interested in:
VIDEO: When To Buy A New Lacrosse Head
VIDEO: The Difference Between Men’s Composite & Metal Lacrosse Shafts
VIDEO: The Difference Between Men’s Lacrosse Shoulder Pads & Liners – Men’s Lacrosse Shoulder Pad Sizing Guide
See you on the fields!
The Lax.com Pro Staff
LAX.com – Where Players Get Their Gear
2016 Lacrosse Pocket Rules for NFHS Regulations
We are reminded heavily of the NCAA rule change a little while back. The nervousness of the community was the same and the rule changes are potentially identical. We will get into the potentials in a moment. This should not be seen as a limitation, but rather another opportunity to let your creativity run wild. Rules are not made to be broken, but there are benefits to be gained for those who learn to work most effectively within the restrictions given.
We have already made 8 legal pockets. There is little difference from the out of date pockets and the new ones. Life will go on. Trust an experienced stringer when he says, It could have been a whole lot worse.
For starters let’s review the pocket relevant rule changes, as well as the rule changes that could have happened, and that are likely to happen in the future. Trust me fellas, when it is all said and done, there may be more concerning issues.
The Rule changes that are pocket relevant:
All shooters must be within 4 inches of the top of the cross
o It didn’t kill the NCAA and you will survive too.
90 degree stick check rule
o Let’s get serious. If you can turn your stick upside down, you are basically cheating. I accept this rule with open arms. Lastly, if your stick performs in this way… you are asking to get hit by a D-pole. Which is why the rule was enacted. It is meant to protect players from this.
The rule changes that could have taken place but didn’t:
Single colored mesh and pockets
o This could have taken a lot of fun out of the game and a lot of money out of startup firm’s pockets. Be thankful you can still have all a flashy spoon.
Head specification changes
o The NFHS is moving towards NCAA specs and rules. I would say it will not be long before all players are trading in their sticks for an X or U model
Coated mesh restrictions
o We love coated mesh as much as the next guy. It is one of the best additions to the game in the last 10 years,but when a particular piece of mesh becomes an advantage, it means that the powers that be begin to take notice. I do not see this being a major issue, but it could be.
So how does this break down for use in games? It really is only separated into two segments at this point.
NCAA, NFHS, Universal
Pockets in this category can be used under any rule specifications, including NCAA and NFHS. Buying pockets in this category will give you the peace of mind that you can walk onto any field, no matter what rules are being used, and have a perfectly legal pocket.
Pockets in this category are not legal for use under NCAA or NFHS rules. These pockets can only be used, for example, in men’s league games, box/indoor leagues or other leagues not operating under NCAA or NFHS pocket ruling. Be sure to check with coaches or officials involved in your league to confirm the ability to use these pockets.
Interpretation is going to be the kicker. Just like when the NCAA changed their rules, we had to see how the men in zebra stripes read and applied the rule changes out on the field. Many know of the arching measurement that is employed when checking for the 4”, but many have already forgotten that it was not specified that the arching measurement was going to exist. It actually never came up as a thought when the rules were first read.
So to put this to rest I plan on meeting with some refs in a later installment and seeing what they have to say.
Stylin’ Strings Lacrosse
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Stick Stringing Specifications Simplified for Women’s Lacrosse
Stick Stringing Specifications Simplified for Women’s Lacrosse
Thu Sep 14 2017 | Press Release | High School
PHOTO BY JOHN STROHSACKER
Simplication of stick stringing guidelines is aimed to encourage broader accessibility and innoviation.
SPARKS, Md. — Women’s game rules representatives from the NCAA, NFHS and US Lacrosse have collaborated with industry representatives to simplify the stick stringing specifications for women’s collegiate, high school and girls’ youth play for the 2018 season.
The changes were made to address growing concerns around stick stringing in the women’s game. US Lacrosse and the NCAA receive multiple inquiries from coaches, officials, players, and parents at all level of the games requesting help with measurements and clarifications of legality.
Both manufacturers and officials reference the technical specifications for stick stringing in the Youth, NFHS/USL and NCAA rulebooks in order to ensure that players are not using sticks that may result in unsafe or unfair play. Traditionally, the technical specifications have focused on limiting pocket depth, release point of the ball, and ensuring that the ball could not get lodged within the stick head. These criteria are based on the safety needs of the women’s game. If the ball is difficult to dislodge by a normal checking motion or the speed of the ball out of the stick is greatly increased those would impact the safe play of the game.
Over time, the rule language, in its focus on the technical criteria for stick stringing, has become highly detailed and subsequently, stick stringing has become very difficult for officials to consistently enforce. Officials at all levels of play in the women’s game have significant responsibilities associated with maintaining safe play, and the measuring and testing of sticks before and during games in order to ensure consistent enforcement and to ensure that are legal for play has become overly burdensome. The technical requirements have also created unnecessary confusion in the marketplace for players, particularly those who just entering the sport and looking to find sticks that they can buy inexpensively off the shelves, and use without requiring significant modifications before becoming legal or functional on the field.
The technical details have been replaced by performance criteria aimed to focus on function, while maintaining a basis for ensuring safe play.
While many of the technical specifications for stringing have evolved in the new rules, two requirements remain constant, pocket depth and shooting string parameters. The safe play of the women’s game is the ultimate priority for rules and consequently these two components were not changed. Based on studies and dialogue with manufacturers, these two pieces were identified as critical to maintain comparable speed and grip on the ball under the new regulations.
“Ultimately, the traditionally strung women’s stick will remain dominant in the women’s game; but we also believe that as the game grows across the country and more and more young girls are picking up sticks to play, we need specifications that allow for off-the-shelf playability and are easier for everyone to discern and maintain legal sticks, from game to game and season to season,” said Caitlin Kelley, senior manager of the women’s game for US Lacrosse. “We look forward to both innovation and less on-field burden to officials with these pared down requirements.”
“We feel confident that by continuing to align with US Lacrosse stick stringing requirements, these new changes will offer streamlining of the specifications and provide more consistency with stick checks,” said Jen Adams, chair of the NCAA Women’s Lacrosse Rules Committee and the head coach at Loyola (Md.) University. “The simplification of stick stringing specifications will also be more understandable for officials, coaches and players who are not stringing experts.”
The new permissive specifications will encourage innovation and broader accessibility to sticks across all age and talent levels. It is difficult to find an entry-level stick for a female player that is ‘playing ready’ off the shelf and cost effective. The stick is a critical component of skill acquisition and was a high hurdle for growing the game and retaining new players. The new specifications ensure that stick rules put performance first in order to foster skill acquisition and enjoyment of the game.
Women’s sticks that are currently legal will remain legal
Consumers may begin to see stringing that looks different. Mesh can be part of the pocket.
The on-field pregame stick check will look at depth and movement on both the front and back facing side of the pocket now.
Shooting string rules remain the same and must be attached directly to the sidewall.
Also remaining the same, the pocket depth must allow a portion of the ball to be seen above the sidewall (front and back) and no holes or gaps in the stringing can be greater than 1.5 inches
A complete list of sticks currently legal for play in women’s lacrosse is available on the US Lacrosse web site.
Mesh In Women’s Lacrosse: How It Affects The Game
Editor’s Note: This multi-part series Women’s Stringing Roundtable on #TheGopherProject will provide insight from experienced stringers and representatives from stringing manufacturers. Women’s pockets have always had more restrictions than men’s pockets. With the recent relaxing of the rules and allowing mesh, it will be interesting to see how the game evolves.
Mesh In Women’s Lacrosse – Part 1
In this, the first installment of the Women’s Stringing Roundtable, we are going to explore just how the changes of allowing mesh in women’s lacrosse has been impacting gameplay.
With the help of Robin Brown aka @Laxtractive, we selected a handful of our favorite women’s stringers and asked for their point of view. Let’s introduce the roundtable panel:
Katie Facciola (the one, the only Foss!)
With the introduction of mesh to the women’s game in September 17, how do you feel it has changed the sport?
Liz– I’m really not convinced that mesh stringing has changed the game, per se. By that, I mean we’re not seeing anything new with regards to performances from players strictly due to mesh. With that being said, I think a LOT more players are starting to pay attention to their stick (as well as manufacturers, stringers, coaches, etc). To me, that is the huge “win” of mesh being introduced into women’s lacrosse. It used to be that players barely knew how to tie their own shooting string let alone understand the ins and outs of their stick. While there is still a long way to go, I absolutely love that girls and women are trying out new styles and learning to adjust/string on their own.
Michael – I believe mesh gives women more options. The rules for stringing were very strict. With mesh, it has kind of set the game on fire for a bit as people scrambled to test the new limits.
Marisa– The involvement that girls have in the preference of their pocket has increased. I have more girls ask about different types of pockets and want to explore a different aspect of their equipment. I do believe that the game will become easier to learn for younger girls. The majority of the youth beginner sticks that I have seen are mesh and can be easier to learn with.
Kaylee– I think this will allow more players to string their own sticks and purchase beginner sticks that are strung better than what was previously available. I haven’t seen a dramatic change yet but I’ve had a lot of girls asking about the new mesh and showing more interest in how their pockets are strung.
Robin– By removing so many of the stringent, nit-picky stringing rules that were in place before, the mesh rule change has opened the doors for a ton of new possibilities in women’s lacrosse stringing. With a new material comes new abilities, and now players can execute a wider variety of stick work. For example, personally I feel that the full mesh pockets I have used are overall more consistently accurate. My favorite improvement though is being able to extend my arms farther back when shooting. I have a hard time believing that shooting speed can’t improve with these rule changes, not that I have an issue with it!
Aside from on-field performance, another change I’m seeing is an uptick in female-owned stringing accounts on Instagram. I believe this at least partially is due to the combination of simpler rules and easier materials to work with. Before the rule change, the rules were detailed down to how many “stitches” (aka interlocks) can go across each “thong” (aka vertical runner, like leather). Now there is much more flexibility so stringers do not need to reference over 20 poorly-worded, confusing guidelines. Also, since a full mesh pocket is so much less daunting to attempt than a full traditional, players are more inclined to try stringing their own pockets.
I am all for this rule change and hope to see even more relaxing of stringing rules in women’s lacrosse in the future. Ideally I think they should be understandable for a middle schooler to interpret.
Maesa– If strung correctly, I think it’s a game changer. Mesh can provide so much power, hold and whip behind a shot. I guess you can say it’s an unfair advantage. At the pro and college level, we see shots that are more like the men’s. Mesh definitely adds more power (effortless power, if that makes sense) and even more finesse to the game. And with the benefits of the mesh, players can become more confident with their skills because they know the ball will stay in their pocket. Therefore, hopefully more girls will continue with the sport. I think mesh drives companies to put out more women’s products.
From a stringing and coaching stand point, mesh or part mesh is really great for new players, less break in time and soft catch. It’s hard and frustrating to play the game without the ball and mesh helps ease that. But of course, strung right because some of the stuff out on shelves have mesh but no pocket or a very baggy low one. Mesh can also allow for some insane highlights at the high school, college, pro level, which in turn, the younger girls are able to try and do all the tricks and moves they see. Plus, those highlights get players to watch and be exposed to more lacrosse building their game IQ. That part of the game is huge and the younger generation of players will be more advanced than ever before.
Foss– I don’t think the game itself has changed at all. A lot of girls I know are pretty set in their ways. It’s rare for me to put mesh into a stick unless a player tells me to “do whatever I want’.
90,000 Women’s lacrosse
Women’s lacrosse player goes fishing
Women’s lacrosse is played by a team of 12 players, including the goalkeeper during normal play. The ball used is usually yellow unless both teams agree to use a ball of a different color. It is usually yellow because it makes it easier for people to see the ball in the air and in the other player’s stick. The game lasts 60 minutes (50 according to NFHS / US Lacrosse rules) with two halves. The break is ten minutes unless both coaches have agreed to do so less than ten minutes before the start of the game.Each team is allowed two 90-second team time-outs per game (two 2-minute time-outs in the United States). In the United States, a time-out can be requested by the head coach or by any player on the field after a goal has been scored or any time the requesting team has clear possession of the ball. With the addition of free movement to the US and NCAA lacrosse rulesets, players no longer have to throw their clubs in place during timeouts.
Before a game can begin, each stick that each player plans to use in play must be approved by a referee based on a set of standards created by the US and NCAA lacrosse.  These standards are constantly changing as different lacrosse companies create new golf clubs.  Often a standard lacrosse ball is placed in the head of the club and the judge looks at it at eye level. If the ball is not visible over either side of the head, then the pocket is most likely too deep to play. A pocket deeper than prescribed gives an unfair advantage to the owner of the club. If the stick pocket is too deep, this can often be corrected by tightening the cord.If the club is not properly tensioned by the manufacturer, it cannot be used in the game. An example of a rule for stringing a club is that the bowstring mount for shooting should be 3.5 inches from the top of the head.  After someone has scored a goal, the referee has the right to ask her to check her stick. If the club pocket is too deep or the club is not up to standard for some reason, the goal will be recalled. In addition, on a winning throw, the other team may challenge a player’s stick.
Women’s lacrosse rules differ significantly from men’s. The details that follow are US college rules. The international rules for women’s lacrosse are slightly different. 
In 2000, the rules of the lacrosse game for women underwent numerous changes.  Modifications included limiting the number of players between the two boundary lines when drawn to five players per team. Club modifications have resulted in offset heads that allow women’s play to move faster and make stick movements and tricks easier.The wand now looks more like a man’s, with a deeper pocket and a more rounded head. In 2002, safety goggles became mandatory equipment in the United States (but not required by international regulations). In 2006, hard boundaries were adopted. Before hard boundaries, the referees would stop the game when the action moved too far. Passes that have been thrown out of bounds must be awarded to the team closest to the ball. After this rule is changed, balls lost outside the playing court become a ball pass, with the exception of a shot.   There are challenges, such as a throwing spot where a defender runs right up to a player who is about to shoot. To avoid this challenge, the defender must run at an angle to the player who is about to shoot. This rule ensures the safety of the players.
In 2013 NCAA Women’s Lacrosse, the protection rules were changed. When their team is not in possession of the ball, players on their defending side of the field may run any part of the goal circle (the 8-meter circle around the goal) for three seconds.Only a defensive player who directly marks the player with the ball within the club’s length can remain in the goal circle during the defense.  The attacking players are allowed to run the goal circle, but only in friendly games; High school players are not allowed through the goal circle.
There were a few other important rule changes made in 2015 for the 2016 season. Players are now allowed to kick the ball to get it out of the traffic jam. In the past, hitting the ball led to a change of possession.In addition, players are now allowed to start the game on their own after an opponent commits a minor foul against them. Before moving forward, it is necessary to stop in a sports stance before starting the game so that the referee knows that the player is ready to continue the game.
In the 2016 2017 season, Division I introduced a 90-second shot timer, which was added to Divisions II and III the following year.
In the summer of 2017, the NCAA made a few more major changes.Prior to the latest addition, all players were required to stop play on the whistle of the referee. The game resumed after the next whistle or continuation of the self-start. Now free movement has been implemented, that is, after the whistle for a foul, the game does not stop, except for a break or the end of the game – it’s like football. In addition, the defenders are now allowed to run the gate for lacrosse. Now, when the draw is made, only 3 players instead of 5 will be allowed into the midfield until possession is established.  Finally, you must exit the eight diagonally after the penalty kick is called.
Traditionally, women have played with three strikers (starting from the position closest to the goal that the team is shooting at, the attacking positions are called “first home”, “second home” and “third home”), five midfielders (a “right attacking wing ”,“ left attacking wing ”,“ right defensive wing ”,“ left defensive wing ”and“ center ”), three defenders (starting from the position closest to the net that the team defends, these positions are called“ point ”,“ cover point “and” third player “) and one goalkeeper.  Positions were usually assigned to the players, and the players had to be marked in the defense with their opposite number (the third person or “3M” covering the opponent’s third house “3H”).
Today, according to North American rules, seven players play simultaneously in attack and seven defenders are present.  There are usually four attackers, four close defenders and three midfielders in a team. There is a boundary line that keeps four defenders (plus the goalkeeper) from going to the attack or four attackers from entering the defense zone.If these players cross the line and play, they are considered offside and a serious foul is called. 
The Women’s Lacrosse Rules are specifically designed to limit physical contact between players. Due to the lack of contact, the only protective equipment required is a mouthguard and face shield / goggles. Although a headgear is not required (except in Florida in the US, where it is compulsory for girls playing lacrosse), it is considered for lacrosse players due to the risk of head injury.In 2017, Brown University purchased hats for their team and became the first NCAA program to make helmets available to the entire team. 
US lacrosse rules require players to wear eye protection. All field players must properly wear eye protection that meets the ASTM F803 Female Adult / Youth Lacrosse Specification Standard for the appropriate level of play.  All players must wear a professional intraoral mouthpiece that completely covers the teeth.The guard must include parts that protect and separate the bite surfaces and protect the teeth and support structures, and must cover the back teeth of an appropriate thickness.  Most referees do not allow white or transparent mouthguards to be used, as it is too difficult for them to distinguish the mouthguard from the player’s teeth. Mouthpieces must be worn at all times and must not be removed while playing. No protruding protrusions are allowed for field players.
In addition, gloves may be worn, but jewelry is prohibited.Although the rules define these types of defenses, injuries still occur as a result of accidental blows to the head and in general in this sport.
Players must wear composite or rubber soled shoes. No spikes are allowed. You can wear plastic, leather or rubber spikes. Shoes and socks do not have to be identical for team members.
Women’s club pockets are smaller than men’s, making it difficult to catch the ball and throw at high speed.Pockets make it harder to hold the ball without dropping the ball. A women’s club cross can be 35.5 inches and no longer than 43.25 in accordance with the NCAA Girls Lacrosse Committee. 
The cross (lacrosse stick) is divided into two parts: the shaft and the head. The shaft can be made from a variety of materials such as wood, aluminum and composite materials, depending on which position the player prefers. Women’s lacrosse rules dictate that only composite and aluminum rods can be used due to random checks and bumps that can occur during play.The top of the stick is where the head connects to the shaft to form a whole stick. The head is made of compact plastic in which the mesh, sides and pocket are formed. 
There are different types of nets made of materials that affect the accuracy of the shot and the handling of the ball. The sidewall is a head siding that affects the depth of the pocket and the feeling of stiffness when handling the ball. Stiffer sidewalls and heads are best used for defenders who want to test harder.The more flexible sidewalls are better for catching balls, moving and throwing. The pocket is made of mesh and with these different meshes they can have different capabilities; a wide pocket makes it easier to catch balls, but also reduces ball control, while a smaller head allows the user to catch the ball more difficult but provides more precision.  The lacrosse club pocket can often be easily adjusted to accommodate pocket depth and player preferences before starting a game.
The lacrosse ball is made of hard rubber and can be yellow, orange, blue or green. All lacrosse balls must meet NOCSAE (National Operating Committee for Sports Equipment Standards) standards. 
Women’s lacrosse court sizes are based on the 2007 IFWLA Women’s Lacrosse Rules.
The size of the playing field depends on the age group of the players. U15 and U13 players must play on a standard sized field with all appropriate markings.For U11, they must play on a standard size field with all appropriate markings whenever possible. Otherwise, they can play on a modified field with reduced players. For U9 players, pitches must be rectangular, 60 to 70 yards long and 30-40 yards wide, to play on existing pitches. 
There are two different areas on either side of the field around the goal; 8m arc and 12m fan. By committing a serious foul in any of these areas, the offender returns the ball and has a direct goal-hitting opportunity.If outside the 8-meter arc, but inside the fan, the path to the goal is cleared of all other players, and the person who committed the foul moves 4 meters behind the offender. If a defensive foul occurs within the 8-meter arc, all players who were previously in the penalty area (defined as the area within the 8-meter arc, two pie-shaped areas on either side of the arc, and space within and between the restart points that are outside the gate). must move outside the penalty area.The player who was fouled now moves to the nearest grill mark, which is located at the edges of the arc and has a direct path to the goal. The defender who fouls moves on a 12-meter fan directly behind the shooter. If a player fouls another player who is not in the arc, the victim receives the ball and the foul must retreat at least 4 meters. All other players closer than 4 meters to the ball holder must also step back to give the player room to move with the ball.
Shooting location rule in women’s lacrosse is very important for the safety of the players. This occurs when the defensive player enters the offender’s throwing line towards goal, without marking the opponent at an angle that exposes the defender to the risk of being hit by the ball if the offender fires.
If there is still a tie at the end of a rule, teams will play 3-minute golden goals until one team scores a goal and that team wins the game.
Ball in and out of play
A draw is what starts the game and keeps it going after a goal has been scored. A toss is when two players, one from each team, stand in the center circle with the backs of the clubs facing each other. The referee then places the ball between the two clubs. Each player must move their clubs parallel to the ground to keep the ball in place. During the draw, two players may stand along the circle surrounding the center circle. Players’ clubs in a circle cannot break the line until the whistle blows.Centerrs must lift and pull clubs overhead while releasing the ball. If one player in a draw moves or picks up his stick before the other, this is penalized as an illegal draw.
When the referee blows the whistle during a game, everyone must stop exactly where they are. If the ball goes out of bounds on the throw, the player closest to the ball takes possession. If the ball goes out of bounds not on a shot, possession is awarded to the other team. For example, if a player misses a pass to a teammate and the ball goes out of bounds, the other team will receive the ball.If the ball goes out of bounds on a shot, the player usually pulls out his stick in an attempt to get it as close to the ball as possible and gain possession of the ball.
Protecting the club from being tested is a very important key in the women’s game of lacrosse.  To protect the stick from being blocked, the player must hold the ball. If a player has a strong cradle, it will be much more difficult to return the ball to the opposing team. “Cradling” is a back and forth movement and turning of the club head, which keeps the ball in the pocket with centripetal force.
The validity check depends on the age at which the game is played. The rules for children 15 and over allow lacrosse players to do a full overhead check. However, this requires at least one of the two judges to have a local USL rating in order for them to rate the appropriate number of contacts. In most cases, the head check is a mandatory yellow card. If a sufficiently experienced judge is not available then the U13 test rules should be used, where only a modified below the shoulder test is allowed.Verification is not allowed in U11 and U9. The US lacrosse rules recommend that middle and junior high school players play by the under 13 test rules. 
In women’s lacrosse, players may only check if the check is directed away from the ball carrier’s head.  In addition, players can only check with the side of their club. If one of the referees catches the ball with a flat head, it will be considered a “check held” and the opposing team will receive the ball. 
There are two types of fouls in women’s lacrosse: major and minor.  When a minor foul is committed anywhere on the field of play, the player who committed the foul is positioned four meters from which side he last defended the person he obstructed. If a serious foul occurs outside the 12-meter fan or 8-meter arc, the offender must stand four meters behind the fouled player. 
Penalties for women’s lacrosse are assessed on the following cards: 
- A green card is issued to a team for delaying the game.A delay of play is issued when a player cannot walk 4 meters as directed by the referee, enters the scrum too early, violation of jewels and improper use of equipment.  (In NCAA rules, a green card gives the player a one minute penalty).
- A yellow card is for the first penalty and results in a player being sent off the field for two minutes. In the United States, any player who scores two yellow points does not play the remainder of the game, but can play the next game.
- A red card is the result of either two yellow cards, a flagrant foul or grossly unsportsmanlike behavior and results in a player being removed from the game.If the red card is for unsportsmanlike conduct, the player is also not allowed to play the next game. US rules differ in that a red card is not the result of two yellow cards, and any player receiving a red card will skip the remainder of that game and the next game of their team. This penalty lasts four minutes under US lacrosse rules or two minutes and cannot be waived under NCAA rules.
Punished fines include:
- Rough / dangerous check
- Check to supervisor (mandatory card)
- Slash (mandatory card)
- Cross in sphere
- Illegal cradle
- Illegal cradle
- Obstacle in the free space for the gate (shooting area)
- Illegal choice
- False start
- Dangerous movement (mandatory card)
- Dangerous continuation
- Dangerous continuation
- Illegal shot
- Empty handle check
- Illegal body ball
- Squeezing the cross on the head
- Throw a cross under any circumstances.
- Participation in the game if she does not hold the cross.
- Illegal rally
- Early entry to the rally
- Illegal cross
- A goal scored with a cross that does not meet the cross-country requirements.
- Adjusting the drawstrings / straps of her cross after an official cross check has been requested during play. The cross must be removed.
- Unlawful uniform
- Illegal substitution
- Delayed play
- Play off the field
- Illegal re-entry
- Illegal time-out
90,000 125 stories Bloggers invented on the basketball park – 9000 – 9000 , which Americans consider their national sport no less than baseball or American football, was in fact invented by a Canadian.
Physical education teacher James Naismith, a Scottish Canadian, invented a new sport exactly 125 years ago on December 21, 1891. Basketball is one of the few sports that has an official launch date and can celebrate its birthday. Which we celebrate today, remembering how basketball appeared.
* * *
James Naismith was not supposed to be a physical education teacher at all. His relatives insisted that he become a priest, and the decision to go to study to be an athlete was received with horror: in the 1800s, sports in the United States were considered by many to be a tool of the devil, distracting young people from church, work and family.“Years later, I asked my sister if she had forgiven me for dropping out to study as a theologian,” Naismith recalled. “No, Jim,” she replied. ”
James Naismith had no middle name. Many sources indicated his full name as “James A. Naismith”, to which Naismith himself joked that “A” means “anonymous.”
James Naismith’s childhood was not easy. His family emigrated to Canada from Scotland, his father worked for a pittance at a sawmill. When he was not even 9 years old, some kind of curse fell on the family: first, James’s grandfather died, the sawmill soon burned down, then his father caught typhus.Little Jim’s uncle took him along with his younger brother and older sister to him so that the children would not get infected. The elder Naismith soon died of illness, and three weeks later his wife, who contracted typhoid fever while caring for her husband. So the Naismiths became orphaned, and their uncle and grandmother began to raise them (she will die in two years).
Future professor, doctor and inventor Jimmy Naismith was not a very good student at school. He preferred fresh air to study: working on a farm or logging, swimming in the river or fishing, and in winter – sledding or hockey.Three years before graduation, he announced to relatives that he was leaving school and would work on the farm full time. He returned to school only at the age of 19, when his uncle, having seen enough of James’ poor carpentry skills, advised him to work with his head, not his hands.
There was little entertainment in the wilderness, and the children invented their own games. One of these favorite games of James was “Duck on a Stone”. Each player had a pebble, one player (“defender”) put his own on a large stone.Other children got up 5-6 meters from the stone and tried to knock down the defender’s stone with their stones. If they hit, they stayed in the game, but if they missed, they had to find their stone before the defender attacked them. Naismith liked the game so much because it required precision, reaction, and the ability to dodge a defender.
When Naismith returned to school, he quickly adjusted and was promoted to senior class twice during the school year. He was good at mathematics and science, but he had big problems with languages.However, he overcame them, and once he, still a schoolboy, was called to replace a sick teacher in a rural school. Naismith’s early students performed better in spelling and worse in mathematics. So he found out that it is often easier to teach others what he himself once learned with difficulty than what was given easily.
McGill University, where Naismith entered, was one of the first in North America to introduce physical education into the curriculum. Rugby was especially popular, gradually evolving into American football.
One day Naismith accidentally wandered into rugby training. The center of the team broke his nose, and he needed a replacement from the audience. Naismith never played, but volunteered and replaced the injured one so successfully that he was offered a place on the team. James agreed on the condition that he could use the injured player’s uniform (he had no money for his). For the next six years, he played at the center position in the university rugby team, without missing a single game.
In his penultimate and final year, Naismith was recognized as the best athlete at McGill University.In addition to rugby, he played football and lacrosse, and also boxed.
Naismith’s motto in college was “Don’t let anyone do more work than you today.”
After completing his bachelor’s degree, Naismith continued his studies at the theological school in McGill, aspiring to become a Presbyterian priest, but did not abandon the sport, the “tool of the devil” – moreover, he was appointed director of sports at the university after the death of his predecessor.
* * *
Soon Naismith felt that he did not need to become a priest in order to change people’s lives for the better.“I discovered the fact,” he later writes, “that there are other ways to influence young people besides preaching.” One of Naismith’s acquaintances invited him to become an intern at a college in Springfield, Massachusetts, USA, where an educational physical education program was developing.
The college sports department was headed by Luther Gulick – now he is recognized as the “father of physical education” in the United States.
The college studied in two programs: one trained physical education teachers, the other – sports administrators.If the former showed interest in gymnastics, athletics and other indoor sports, because they knew that they would someday have to teach it, then there was no enthusiasm in the future administrators when they were each driven into the gym for an hour. … New games didn’t appeal to them either. At a meeting between faculty members, Naismith said that “the problem is not in the people, but in the system that we use.” Gulik reacted to these words like a real leader: he made Naismith responsible for inventing a new game.
So intern Naismith was assigned to find a way to get the students involved in something active in the room. James at first refused this assignment, but soon left his job as a teacher of psychology, theology, wrestling and swimming (such a non-standard set) in order to invent a new sport for apathetic “clerks”.
Before Naismith, these obnoxious students drove two instructors mad. James was Luther Gulick’s third, and most likely last, attempt to introduce winter sports into the educational curriculum.
The new sport would not be needed if it were not for winter. At the end of the 19th century, there was a lack of indoor games – gymnastics and aerobics were popular but not very exciting sports. And in the northern states, like Massachusetts, in winter it was no longer possible to play football, rugby, or baseball, and hockey had not yet become popular on this side of the border and was too dependent on weather conditions.
Another problem was the lack of electrification of the society.Under the artificial light in the hall, it was impossible to play sports, which would only require accuracy. So at Springfield College the challenge was to invent a new sport that could be practiced in a dimly lit hall in winter.
In the photo: the hall where Naismith introduced his new game to his students
He had 14 days to invent a new game.
* * *
At first, Naismith tried to modify existing sports.But rugby turned out to be too traumatic even without grabs, football meant too many broken windows and equipment in the hall for other activities, and lacrosse dropped out of candidates after it turned out that several Canadian students played it too well and any related him modifications.
The day before the end of the deadline for inventing a new game, Naismith was in a panic – he never came up with anything. Then he tried to approach the problem from a different angle. Why have attempts to modify the old failed? Because people liked those games the way they were, with no innovation.How is an abstract sports game built in general? It usually has a ball in it. So the future game has a central element around which it is built.
But balls are also different. If the ball is small, you need a lot of inventory for it – clubs, bats, gates, shields, masks, and so on. And the more inventory, the more difficult the rules are, but a simple game is needed. It is also easier to hide a small ball somewhere in a playful way. It is more convenient to work with a large ball.
The second challenge was to define the philosophy of sport.Rugby should not be played in small halls because it would have resulted in a high number of collision injuries. Collisions occur to stop the person running with the ball. “I sat at the table with these thoughts and said out loud:“ If he does not run with the ball, he will not need to be captured. If he is not captured, there will be no rudeness in the game. ” I still remember how I snapped my fingers and shouted: “Found!” – wrote later Naismith. So the basic principle of the new game was formed – you cannot run with the ball.Hardly a detailed description, but it was only the first stroke of a sketch of the future of sport.
The third task is to substantiate the goal of the game. At first, Naismith wanted the ball to be thrown into opposite gates, like in lacrosse – a 2-by-2.5-meter net. But if the ball is thrown too hard, it will hit another player and injure him, and this again does not work. And then Naismith remembered his childhood and playing “Duck on a Stone”. She didn’t need strength, but accuracy – exactly the special feature that Naismith was looking for in his new game: “I thought that if the target to be hit was horizontal, not vertical, then the players would have to throw the ball in an arc.Strength, the essence of rudeness, will be useless. ”
Naismith also decided that the target should be hung over the players’ heads to prevent defenders from crowding around it and blocking the ball’s path. We are already feeling for something similar to the familiar basketball, isn’t it?
* * *
On the morning of December 21, 1891, an enthusiastic James Naismith arrived at work. Naismith had two soccer balls to choose from, one for rugby and the other for soccer. The rugby ball is stretched out to be carried in the hands, James concluded, and this is not necessary in a new game.Therefore, a round shell was chosen.
The first version of the basketball basket we were used to was a pair of boxes half a meter by half a meter. True, they existed only in Naismith’s imagination – the college janitor did not find suitable ones and offered two baskets of peaches. This is how the basket ball was born. Remember this name forever – Pop Stebbins – that was the name of the janitor who found baskets of peaches in his closet.
Baskets were fixed at 10 feet (305 cm). It was at this height that the lower railings of the balconies above the playing field were located, and it is at this height that basketball hoops are located all over the world today.“If the railings were 11 feet, that’s where I would have fixed them,” Naismith said. But the dynamics of basketball would change if it became more difficult to score from above or shoot from afar.
Naismith wrote the rules for the new game in less than an hour, then gave them to the college stenographer, Miss Lyons, to type.
Rules were only 13. They were attached with a pair of thumbtacks on the bulletin board in the gym – and so they became official.
First rule: The ball can be thrown in any direction with one or both hands .Naismith believed that the rugby rule that the ball can only be passed backward was not required in his game.
Second rule: The ball can be hit in any direction with one or two hands (but not with a fist) . James didn’t want the ball hitting hard with his fist to hit anyone’s nose, or worse, out the window. It is not allowed to hit the ball in most modern basketball rules.
Third rule: A player cannot run with the ball. He must throw it from the place where he caught it; some movement is acceptable if the ball was caught at a high speed .At first, they played only this way, you could either pass or roll the ball on the ground. Dribbling was first used by students at Yale University in 1897, and it soon spread. At first, it was possible to make only one blow to the floor, since 1909 the restrictions were removed. In 1903, the players who dribbled the ball were prohibited from throwing – until 1915.
In 1927, the Basketball Rules Committee tried to remove dribbling from basketball rules. In response, basketball coaches, led by Fog Allen, a former student of Naismith, formed the National Basketball Coaches Association.This organization still exists today, and thanks to it were organized the Basketball Hall of Fame, Student Basketball Hall of Fame and the NCAA Basketball Tournament. It all started with a protest against the return to authentic basketball without dribbling.
Fourth rule: the ball can be held in the hands or between them; other parts of the hands or body cannot be used . Naismith didn’t want the ball to be gripped so tightly that it couldn’t be pulled out. Now this rule is not in basketball, but no one really wants to keep the ball with their feet or under the arm.
Fifth rule: it is forbidden to push with the shoulder or arms, grab, trip, or beat the opponent in any way; the first violation is considered a foul; the second will disqualify him until the next hit or, in case of intent to injure the player, until the end of the game without the right to substitute . Naismith had the hardest part with this rule when he later judged women’s matches: “Everything worked out well until I whistled a foul on one of the girls. She asked: “You whistled at me a violation?” And then told me what my character is, where I came from and where I should go. “
Sixth Rule: It is a foul to hit the ball with a fist, as well as violations of rules 3, 4 and 5 . Gradually, violations for which fouls were given were added. And some – on the contrary, were removed, instead of a foul, a change of possession was awarded. For example, until 1922, running with the ball was a foul. Since 1922 – only by improper dribbling. Now in the NBA there are 11 situations that are punished with personal fouls – and almost fifty violations for which you can whistle a technical foul.
Seventh rule: three fouls in a row by one team count as 1 point to their opponent (in a row means that during this time the opponent has not fouled once) .In 1893, a point was awarded for each foul, and in 1894, free throws were introduced for fouls, the rules of execution of which were changed many times.
Rule 8: a point is awarded if the ball is thrown in the air or ricocheted off the ground into the basket and remains there, while the defenders are not allowed to touch the basket. If the ball hangs on the edge of the basket and an opponent moves the basket, it is considered a goal scored . In 1896, hitting the ball in the basket was counted as two points.
Rule 9: If the ball goes out-of-bounds, it must be thrown into play by the person who first touched it.In case of controversial situations, the referee throws in the ball. Five seconds are given to enter the ball from out-of-bounds. If the ball is not thrown during this time, it is passed to the opponent. If either side continues to delay the game, the referee shall award them foul . These five seconds to kick the ball out of touch have been preserved in the rules to this day.
Modern rules governing who should throw the ball appeared only in 1914 – and before that they were pushing for the front, trying to catch up with the ball, as if in “Duck on a Stone”. Sometimes it was funnier.According to Naismith’s recollections: “I remember playing in a hall with a balcony. At the beginning of the first half, the ball flew there, and the players of one team immediately rushed in a crowd to the stairs, and there were so many of them that they could not push through. Two players from the other team tried to toss their partner to grab onto the balcony railing, pull himself up and get to the ball first. ”
Tenth rule: The linesman must evaluate the actions of the players, keep a record of the fouls, inform the head referee when the team has committed three fouls in a row.He has the right to disqualify players based on rule 5 . Even before testing his sport, Naismith realized that one referee was unlikely to be able to cope with the maintenance of the game. Therefore, out of 13 rules, two are dedicated to judges at once.
Eleventh rule: The referee must watch the ball and determine when it is in play, offside, who is in possession of the ball, keep track of the time. He must determine the hit of the ball in the basket and keep score, as well as perform other duties related to the work of the head referee .
Twelfth rule: the game consists of two halves of 15 minutes with a 5-minute break. Soon the game time was increased to 40 minutes.
Thirteenth Rule: The side that scores the most goals will be named the winners. In the event of a tie, the game may, by agreement of the team captains, be continued until the decisive ball .
Now there are 13 rules in the NBA code, but they are all written out in much more detail. In the NCAA and FIBA, there are generally ten rules. But with paragraphs and subparagraphs, their number reaches several hundred.
* * *
In the photo: First Team and James Naismith
The first game was 9v9, simply because there were 18 students in the group. The walls of the hall served as the boundaries of the site, the lighting was poor, and the players were not wearing any special equipment. Naismith placed the players on the court, like in lacrosse – three in defense, three in the center, three in attack, called in two players, tossed the ball – and a new game was born.
Naismith later recalled: “Within a few minutes it became clear to the experimenter that the game was a success.The players seemed to enjoy the ups and downs of the game with all their hearts, in particular the attempts to avoid a collision with an opponent. ” The students were so fascinated by the game that they wanted to continue it after the end of the lesson.
The hardest thing for the early basketball players was to adapt to a sudden stop after receiving the ball. The natural instinct is to keep moving with the ball. But this was a violation, and according to the rules, a player after a foul was removed from the court until the next hit. “It happened that there were half a team in the penalty area,” Naismith recalled.
Rudeness was also present. The list of injuries in the first game, according to Naismith: several fingals, one dislocated shoulder, one loss of consciousness. Not bad for half an hour of play.
Only one goal was scored in the game. The author of the historic hit was William Chase, who threw the ball into the basket from 8 meters.
At that moment, a new problem emerged – the thrown ball had to be removed from the basket. Stebbins was called with a stepladder.
After the game, it turned out that someone had removed the rules from the bulletin board.It turned out that it was one of the players, Frank Mahan, who wanted to leave a souvenir as a keepsake. But after a couple of weeks, his conscience tortured him and he decided to return them to Naismith.
The same Mahan asked Naismith after Christmas if he had already come up with a name for the new game? Naismith replied that no, then Mahan proposed two options – “Naismith ball” and “basketball ball”, and the humble inventor chose the second, more euphonious option.
Until 1921, it was written in two words – “Basket Ball”, sometimes with a hyphen.And 30 years after the invention of basketball, journalists decided to shorten the name to one word.
Among the 18 participants in the first basketball game, there was even a Japanese – Genzabaro Ishikawa, who would later introduce his homeland to a wonderful new game. Other participants in the first match brought basketball to France, India, Britain and Persia.
* * *
Soon, rumors spread around the school about a new, as yet unnamed game, spectators began to come to the matches.Two weeks later, 100 people turned up at one of the games – including a group of female students from Buckingham Women’s College, returning from lunch and accidentally passing by the hall and hearing a noise. The Buckingham instructors approached Naismith after the game and asked if they could play basketball. Naismith didn’t mind – and so the first women’s basketball team was born. They were opposed by a team made up of Springfield College stenographers.
The very first women’s basketball game, like the men’s one a couple of weeks before, was judged by Naismith himself.And his future wife (married in 1894), Mood Naismith, nee Sherman, also took part in one of the first games. They met thanks to the fact that the future basketball inventor rented a room in the house of the Sherman family – the house was close to the college where Naismith worked.
Two years after basketball was invented, at another college in Massachusetts, Senda Berenson will decide to adapt Naismith’s rules for women. So basketball began to develop in another direction, independent of the mainstream – and turned into “basketball” – a version of basketball 6 on 6, which among women finally gave way to competition with real basketball only by the 1970s.
* * *
Basketball instantly spread across America – and the “fault” of that is the Christmas holidays among the students. Having traveled to their hometowns in the United States and Canada, they enthusiastically talked about the new game and demonstrated it in local branches of the Young Christian Association (YMCA).
Soon, a team of students, with Mahan as captain, began touring the country with exhibition basketball games, often in conjunction with a group of acrobats from the same college.
Naismith’s idea was that basketball could be played by any number of people.But after some experimentation, in which the number of players on the court reached 50, the matches were limited to the standard 9v9, as in the very first match in history. By 1897, the number of players on one team was limited to five.
Pretty soon, Naismith’s students formed a full-fledged team and began challenging other college students and staff to matches. So they defeated both the team of students from another faculty (future physical education teachers) and the team of their teachers.
That game – March 11, 1892 – is recognized as the first public basketball game to be attended by 200 spectators. Naismith himself played for the teaching team – one of only two times in his life when he participated in a game that he himself invented. And the only goal for the teachers was scored by Amos Alonzo Stagg, in the future one of the greatest coaches in American football.
A year later, Stagg will go to work as a coach (football, baseball and basketball at the same time) at the University of Chicago, where he will soon popularize 5-on-5 basketball – an option that will become canon.
“If you saw our first matches, you would laugh,” Naismith recalled much later. – Adult men played, most with a mustache, some even had a beard. They wore long pants and short-sleeved shirts. Someone could aim for such a long time with a ball raised above his head that they simply took it out of his hands. It was an endless source of fun – no matter how often the ball was lost in this way, the player always turned around with raised hands and a bewildered expression on his face – “Who did it?”
* * *
In January 1892, the basketball rules were published in the Springfield College newspaper, The Triangle. Of course, she had nothing to do with the “triangle attack”: the triangle was the emblem of the YMCA, which was once invented by the boss of Naismith at the college, Luther Gulick.
The Triangle editors received so many requests for a copy of the rules that they published a separate booklet, which also described the equipment required for the game.
As early as April 1892, the game was reported in the New York Times under the headline “A New Ball Game, Replacing Football Without Rude.”
The first basketball was made by the Overman Wheel Co., a bicycle factory. from Massachusetts. It was lighter and larger than the previously used soccer ball.
The first balls were brown, and only many years later they began to make them orange – so that the audience could better see the ball from the stands.
In the late 1890s, Naismith asked A.G. Spaulding to design an improved version of the basketball. And 120 years later, Spalding balls are official in the NBA, but earlier they were not very even, not very round and laced, which made dribbling difficult.
In the photo: balls manufacturing by Spaulding
In ten years, Spaulding will launch the first special-purpose basketball shoe.
With the spread of the game, the first inconvenience appeared: climbing a ladder to get the ball out of the basket after each hit was annoying. At Springfield College, a special man was sitting on the balcony, taking the ball out of the basket. Then someone suggested cutting out the bottom of the baskets – alas, history has not preserved the name of the author and the place of this important invention.But even the bottom was not cut out so that the ball would fall through, but so that it could be pushed out of the basket from below with a stick. “Since the stick was often not at hand,” Naismith recalled, “we had to use other items. Fortunately, the inexperience of the players led to the fact that the ball was thrown into the basket very rarely. ”
In 1898 the baskets were changed to rings with a net attached. By 1912, rings with a hole in the bottom of the mesh were already common.
Since most of the halls had balconies, spectators were sitting behind the rings, and some unscrupulous fans could prevent the ball from entering the basket.And the match organizers came up with another important element of basketball – the backboard. True, no one imagined that the shield would make it easier for the ball to hit the basket and increase the effectiveness, and, consequently, the entertainment of the sport.
In 1895, the first match between universities was played by the teams of the Minnesota State School of Agronomy (now the University of Minnesota at St. Paul) and Hamline College (now Hamline University). Although the first student team appeared in Vanderbilt in 1893 – they did not play with other colleges.
Basketball spread at such an alarming rate that the YMCA banned it in some places in the United States – basketball games pushed other sports out of gyms. Then basketball players had to move to ballroom dancing halls, arsenals, hangars and other large indoor spaces.
It’s funny, but in Springfield itself basketball didn’t take root on the first try – in 1899 the basketball team was disbanded and returned only in 1907.
One of Naismith’s students at Springfield was William Morgan.In 1895, he decided to invent his own game – so in Holyoke, 10 kilometers from Springfield, the “Mintonette” was born. We now know it by the name “volleyball”.
As early as 1896, just five years after the invention of basketball, the first professional basketball game took place. It was held in the ballroom, and to prevent the ball from flying away to the audience, the parquet was fenced with a wire mesh. This is how the first term for the name of basketball and basketball players appeared – “Cage Game”, “cagers”, “cell workers”.The wire was easily injured, so it was usually replaced by a net of ropes – and this was how the pros played until the 1940s. In student basketball, the “cage” was almost immediately banned.
In the photo: basketball in a cage
The first professional league was born in 1898. Six teams made up the National Basketball League – this name (NBL) will be inherited by the NBA’s ancestor league forty years later. Players earned about $ 10 per match.
* * *
In 1898, Amos Alonzo Stagg, already a football coach at the University of Chicago, was asked for advice. The University of Kansas needed a physical education teacher – but this position included the post of chaplain who would gather students for prayer every morning, so there was no way to find the right candidate. Stagg sent an urgent telegram to Kaznas: “I recommend James Naismith, basketball inventor, physician, Presbyterian priest, excellent athlete, does not drink, neither smokes, nor swears.Write to the Denver YMCA ”(this was where Naismith was working at the time). Of course, after such a recommendation, it was impossible not to invite Naismith. James joked for a long time that he got this job only because he knew how to pray.
Naismith wanted to incorporate basketball into his curriculum, although the only gymnasium did not fit the sport’s requirements. It was in the basement, it was only 10 meters wide and 25 meters long, there was a column supporting the ceiling in the center of the hall, and the ceiling itself was just over three meters.This did not stop Naismith and he organized a basketball team from his students, mostly football players. The matches were held at a party, on neutral grounds, in factory premises and even on a skating rink.
The first contender in the history of the University of Kansas basketball team was the YMCA Kansas City, who won 16-5. It was played by Jesse James Jr., the son of a famous bandit.
In Kansas, Naismith continued to invent sports games – but neither the thief-tag, nor the highball, nor the vrill took root.
Naismith never cared if the team he coached lost or won, so he – still a basketball coach at the University of Kansas – was trusted to judge his own team’s games.
From Naismith himself comes the greatest branch of student (and not only) coaches. Under his leadership, the famous Forrest “Fog” Allen played, who later replaced Naismith in Kansas. Allen coached two other future great coaches – Adolph Rapp, who built the basketball program at the University of Kentucky, and Dean Smith, who led the University of North Carolina team and trained many coaches and players, from Larry Brown to Michael Jordan.
In the photo: Michael Jordan and Dean Smith
At the same time, Naismith did not believe that Allen would make a coach, much less a teacher of new coaches. When Baker University invited Allen, still a student, to coach their basketball team, Naismith took it as a joke and told Adolf, “You can’t coach basketball, you just have to play it.” We can say that for Naismith, the work of a trainer was tantamount to the work of a physical education teacher. It took only 16 years from the moment basketball was invented until that incident, but the sport developed rapidly.
Ironically, the first basketball coach in University of Kansas history is also the worst. Naismith remains the only one who has failed to achieve a positive balance of wins in Kansas – 55-60.
* * *
Naismith did not attach importance to his invention for a very long time. For him, it was just a small game, which was inferior to gymnastics and wrestling in its favor.
Naismith once held a class in which he compared his first basketball rules with the new ones.After a while, when he needed those rules again, he found that he had forgotten them then in the audience. The search came to nothing, and soon Naismith lost hope of finding the artifact. But 12 years later, he looked through his documents and found an unmarked envelope, dated 1891. Naismith opened the envelope and two of the most important pages in basketball history fell out.
In 2010, two pages of rules were bought at auction for 4.3 million and deposited in the Museum of the University of Kansas.
After Fogh Allen succeeded Naismith as head coach of the basketball team in Kansas, Naismith was named the university’s sporting director and professor of physical education. But paperwork alone was not enough for him: he wrote books, patrolled the US-Mexican border in 1916, taught sports medicine, traveled to France during the First World War, where he taught hygiene to American soldiers. The main thing in the training was to make sure that the soldiers did not go to brothels.
Naismith became a US citizen only in 1925, almost 35 years later, as he moved from Canada.By this time, professional basketball was flourishing, tough, aggressive, played in cages – not at all like the game that Naismith had invented as a light winter game in which players would not get injured.
In the photo: Naismith and his wife in 1928
John Maclendon was among Naismith’s students in Kansas. He passionately loved basketball, but could not play with Fog Allen – John was dark-skinned, and blacks began to be admitted to the team only in 1951.So Maclendon learned basketball from Naismith. And he became one of the greatest coaches in college sports history. John holds many titles as “the first black coach in …”, but his main achievements are the improvement of pressure tactics and the invention of the “quadrilateral attack”, which would then develop Dean Smith. John McLendon was twice inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame – for his coaching merits and for his contribution to the development of basketball.
In 1932, a meeting of the Council of American Coaches was held.Naismith did not participate in it, but sent several suggestions for improving the game. One of those was the idea of giving the defending team 30 seconds to tackle the ball, and the violation would be punishable by a free throw. In fact, the inventor of basketball could have reinvented basketball once again – his visionary thought outpaced the advent of the 24-second counter in the NBA by 20 years. But he believed that it was more important to motivate the defense to take possession from the attack, rather than the attack – rather to throw the ball into the ring.
In the same letter to the council, Naismith suggested rewarding a hit from a distance with 4 points instead of 2.And again he was ahead of his time – the three-point line first appeared only in 1961 in the ABL (in 1979 – in the NBA).
* * *
In 1936, basketball was introduced to the Olympic Games. Fogh Allen dreamed of seeing 75-year-old James Naismith and his wife in Berlin. Money for tickets for the spouses was collected all over America – many colleges, schools, churches, amateur and even professional teams gave a cent from each ticket sold between February 9 and 15, 1936 – “Naismith Week”.As a result, 5 thousand dollars were collected – much more than was required.
In Berlin, Naismith saw how widely his invention spread around the world. But he considered basketball an international game from the very first match – the same one that took place 125 years ago. Americans and Canadians, as well as an Englishman, a Japanese, and a Frenchman took part in that game. For Naismith, this was confirmation that his game would be understandable and close to anyone on the planet.
Especially for Naismith, a mini-opening ceremony of the Olympics was held – with the participation of the basketball teams of the tournament.20 teams marched in front of Naismith, moved to tears. And then they went to the site – in the open air, without any protection from the rain (the match for gold was played this way – under the downpour), with sand and sawdust instead of parquet.
In the photo: Olympic basketball in the open air
Naismith was also entrusted with the honorable right to be the first to throw the ball into the game – the Olympic tournament opened the match between Estonia and France.
There were 17 (!) Springfield College graduates in the coaching staffs of the first Olympic teams.The college obviously coped with the task of preparing teachers of physical culture.
Naismith also presented the first Olympic medals. All of them went to American teams, and James was a citizen of two countries that played in the pouring rain in the finals – the United States and Canada. The Mexican national team took the bronze.
* * *
Little was known about the details of basketball’s origins until 2006, when Naismith’s granddaughter Helen, who at that time was already 74 years old, did not decide to sort out five dusty boxes with documents left over from James Naismith.There were letters, photographs, the first rules, a description of the first game by Naismith himself, and many other useful artifacts that told the story of the invention of basketball.
Naismith never tried to profit from his invention – he did not even register a patent for the game, and also always refused advertising contracts – only at the end of his life, according to friends, he advertised a Rawlings basketball. One day a lawyer came to his office and promised him a share of every ticket sold to a basketball game.Naismith immediately kicked the lawyer out of his office.
Not everyone agrees that Naismith invented basketball. Descendants of Lambert Gill, director of the YMCA in Herkimer Village, New York, claim that it was 19-year-old Gill who invented the sport in 1890, and the first game was played back on February 7, 1891. But the Gill family did not provide any tangible evidence, except for a photograph of Herkimer’s team, in which it is not at all clear what kind of sport the players were involved in.
In honor of Naismith, the NCAA Student Athletic Association is giving out its top honors – Naismith is the name given to the Best Player and Best Coach in Student Basketball.
In 2010, a bronze sculpture was erected at Springfield College in honor of the most famous worker of this university – James Naismith.
* * *
“I’m not worried about the future of basketball because the game itself is interesting no matter how much someone tries to change it. If a sport is interesting, it will always exist, and basketball is just that … It’s a good, integral game. ” By 1939, when James Naismith passed away, almost every school and college in the United States had a basketball team, and about 20 million people around the world played basketball.Now their number reaches 300 million.
Early members of the Basketball Hall of Fame include Naismith, Luther Gulick, Amos Alonzo Stagg, and the entire first basketball team to play the first basketball game on December 21, 1891. The Hall itself is located in Springfield, the birthplace of basketball, and is named after Dr. James Naismith – Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall Of Fame.
“I want to leave this world in a slightly better state than the one in which I found it.” – James Naismith, inventor of basketball.
Photo: Gettyimages.ru/Hulton Archive; Global Look Press / KPA; wikipedia.org/D. Gordon E. Robertson; twitter.com/Full_Basket_; instagram.com/forpetessake29
Lacrosse – Options – it-brain.online
Lacrosse has many varieties, each with minor or basic rules. In this chapter, we will discuss the different varieties of lacrosse.
Usually lacrosse was played on large fields until the 1930s. Then, the owners of Canadian hockey arenas created a reduced size version of lacrosse called boxed lacrosse so that they could get more profit from their arenas.
Boxing lacrosse consists of two teams of six players each. Played on a hockey field where ice is removed or replaced with artificial turf. It can also be played on an indoor lacrosse field. The play area is enclosed in a box line, not in an open field as in a lacrosse field. Here, the gate marks are smaller than the field lacrosse, which are 4 feet by 4 feet at either end of the box.
Since there is more action on the small playing court, the goalkeeper must wear more protective pads, which include a chest protector and protectors called top , large shin guards called foot pads, and a mask or helmets ice hockey style specially designed for lacrosse.
The box lacrosse match is fast and fast. After receiving the ball, the attacking team attempts to score a goal within 30 seconds. If the ball is on the defending side, players must pass the ball over the center line within 10 seconds.
In case of a violation, the player is sent to the penalty area, and the match continues without him for two minutes (5 minutes of the main penalty if he is assessed). Unlike field lacrosse, a player cannot be removed from the game if they are involved in combat.
There are very different rules for women’s lacrosse than men’s. Equipment and physical contact records are the most significant.
This sport does not allow physical contact, mainly because the player’s only protective equipment is mouth and face protection. Face guards are optional throughout the world, except in the United States where they are required. There is a stick check here as well as a body check.
A typical women’s lacrosse match begins with two players placing their crosses in the air in front of them over their hips and placing the ball between the heads of the crosses.
In the United States, lacrosse is played on both club and college sanctioned teams. There are currently 88 NCAA sanctioned Division I lacrosse teams, 46 Division II lacrosse teams and 208 Division III lacrosse teams. For women, there are currently 91 Division I women’s lacrosse teams, 57 Division II women’s lacrosse teams and 201 Division III women’s lacrosse teams.
There are 209 men’s teams that compete at the level of the Men’s Collegiate Lacrosse Association (MCLA), in which most major US universities participate.An additional 107 schools have club teams in the National College Lacrosse League (NCLL).
Field Lacrosse is played around the world with ten players per team. The team is divided into strikers, midfielders and defenders.
Forwards – Intruders are not allowed to cross the middle of the field. They can only do this if they are replaced by a midfielder.
Midfielders .Midfielders can move anywhere on the pitch, which also helps prevent defeat by the other team. Mostly, midfielders pass the ball between the attackers and defenders of their team.
Defenders – Defenders are the main ones who prevent opponents from scoring a goal. The sticks of the defenders are longer than those of the attackers and midfielders.
Major League Lacrosse
Major League Lacrosse was launched in 1999 in the USA. A few standard rules are followed, but there are exceptions.In 1999, 56 matches were played from April to August. In 2001, six teams participated, and in 2015, eight.
The hitting clock of in Major League Lacrosse is a 60-second timer that starts when a team receives the ball in the attacking half of the field. The offensive team has 60 seconds to shoot at goal. The kick must hit the net or at least somehow hit the goal or goalkeeper. If the time of the shot is depleted during the attack, the opposing team receives the ball in midfield and resumes the throw-in game.
definition and synonyms of lacrosse in the English dictionary
LACROSSE – definition and synonyms of lacrosse in the English dictionary
ETHYMOLOGY OF LACROSSE
Canadian French: the hooked stick, crosier. Etymology is the science of the origin of words and the change in their construction and meaning.
PRONUNCIATION OF LACROSSE
GRAMMATICAL CATEGORY OF LACROSSE
WHAT DOES LACROSSE
Click to see the original definition of of “lacrosse” in the English dictionary.Click to to view the automatic translation of definitions in Russian.
Lacrosse is a team sport of Native American origin played using a small rubber ball and a long handle called a stick or lacrosse. It is a contact sport that requires supplements, with the exception of the female version.The head of the lacrosse stick is endowed with a loose mesh designed to grip and hold the lacrosse ball. It’s a shame, the goal of the game is to score by shooting the ball at the opponent’s target, using lacrosse to catch, carry and pass the ball to get it done. The defensive goal is to keep the opposing team from scoring and win the ball through stick and body contact or positioning. The sport has four main types: men’s lacrosse, women’s lacrosse, boxed lacrosse and intercross. Lacrosse is a team sport of Native American origin played using a small rubber ball and a long-handled stick called a crosse or lacrosse stick. It is a contact sport which requires padding, except in the women’s version. The head of the lacrosse stick is strung with loose mesh designed to catch and hold the lacrosse ball. Offensively, the objective of the game is to score by shooting the ball into an opponent’s goal, using the lacrosse stick to catch, carry, and pass the ball to do so.Defensively, the objective is to keep the opposing team from scoring and to gain the ball through the use of stick checking and body contact or positioning. The sport has four major types: men’s field lacrosse, women’s lacrosse, box lacrosse and intercrosse.
Definition of lacrosse in the English dictionary
The definition of lacrosse in the dictionary is a ball game invented by the Native Americans, now played by two teams trying to propel the ball into each other’s target using long-handed hook sticks that are loosely strung onto a kind of mesh pouch.
The definition of lacrosse in the dictionary is a ball game invented by Native Americans, now played by two teams who try to propel a ball into each other’s goal by means of long-handled hooked sticks that are loosely strung with a kind of netted pouch.
Click to see the original definition of of “lacrosse” in the English dictionary.
Click to to view the automatic translation of definitions in Russian.
WORDS THAT RHYME WITH LACROSSE
Synonyms and antonyms of lacrosse in the English dictionary
Translation of “lacrosse” into 25 languages
TRANSLATION OF LACROSSE
Find out the translation of lacrosse to 25 languages with our English multilingual translator. The translations of the word lacrosse from English into other languages presented in this section were performed using automatic translation, in which the main element of the translation is the word “lacrosse” in English.
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ラ ク ロ ス
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lối đánh quần ở bắc my
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hokey benzeri top oyunu
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Trends of use of lacrosse
TRENDS IN USE OF THE TERM “LACROSSE”
The word is used very often
The map above shows the frequency of use of the term “lacrosse” in different countries.Major search trends and examples of use of lacrosse
A list of the major searches that users have entered to access our online English dictionary and the most commonly used expressions with the word “lacrosse”.
FREQUENCY OF USE OF THE TERM “LACROSSE” OVER TIME
The graph shows the annual change in the frequency of use of the word “lacrosse” over the past 500 years.The plotting is based on an analysis of how often the term “lacrosse” appears in digitized printed sources in English, from 1500 to the present.
Examples of use in the English literature, quotes and news about the word lacrosse
QUOTES WITH LACROSSE
Famous quotes and sentences with the word lacrosse .
I grew up playing field hockey and lacrosse – prep school sport – and I was terrible at them.
I don’t consider lacrosse a sport. To me that’s just a frat activity that got out of hand.
I knew at a young age, whether I was playing baseball or hockey or lacrosse , that my teammates were counting on me, whether it be to strike the last batter out in a baseball game or score a big goal in a hockey game …
You can play professional lacrosse , but they make less than a teacher’s salary now. I always thought about that. And it’s a very difficult career, a short career, as a pro athlete.
I played lacrosse for a hot second, but I was mainly a swimmer – captain of my swim team.
I played street hockey in Riverside Park when I was a kid.I played goalie. I didn’t make the hockey team in college, so I played lacrosse instead. I didn’t play hockey again for 20 to 25 years, and then my son became interested in the game. I decided to pick it up again. A friend let me play backup on his team.
You know you have a gambling problem when it’s 4 A.M. at the Mirage Sports Book and you’re walking around going, ‘Hey you get the lacrosse scores?’
I think the greatest all-around athlete ever was Jim Brown.He played lacrosse , basketball and ran track at Syracuse. He played professional football for the Browns.
I went to an all-girls private school, where we played field hockey and lacrosse .
I grew up with lacrosse in my life because my dad played lacrosse all throughout college, so I grew up with the gear in my house – like the sticks, the helmet.
BOOKS IN ENGLISH RELATED TO
Discover the use of lacrosse in the following bibliographical selection. Books related to the word lacrosse , and short excerpts from these books, to get an idea of the context of the use of this word in the literature in English.
Lacrosse : A Guide for Parents and Players
Whether your child is 8 or 18, experienced or just starting, this book is the complete guide to all that lacrosse has to offer.Empower yourself with practical answers and unique ideas, whether you are new to lacrosse or once were a player.
Noah Fink, Melissa Gaskill, 2006
Lacrosse : Technique and Tradition, The Second Edition of the …
Like the Bob Scott book on which it builds, this edition will soon become familiar to every serious student of the sport.
David G.Pietramala, Neil A. Grauer, 2008
Lacrosse : A History of the Game
“This book will long serve as the standard history of lacrosse.” – Journal of American History “An important contribution to our understanding of how sport emerged as a professional, commercial spectacle in modern North America.” – …
American Indian Lacrosse : Little Brother of War
Here Thomas Vennum brings this world to life.
Lacrosse : Technique and Tradition
The director of athletics at Johns Hopkins University traces the history of lacrosse and offers detailed explanations of the sport’s techniques and strategies, presenting line drawings and action photographs to illustrate aspects of play
Bob Scott, Robert Scott, 1978
Lacrosse : Rules, Tips, Strategy, and Safety
Offers an introduction to the history, techniques, equipment, and rules of lacrosse, the oldest sport in North America.
Coaching Youth Lacrosse
Coaching Youth Lacrosse is an excellent introduction to youth coaching and teaching young lacrosse players valuable skills.
American Sport Education Program, 2003
Best Sport Ever: Lacrosse takes readers from the beginnings of lacrosse to present day with a focus on the legends, the amazing stories, and the unique characteristics that makes the sport great.
Lacrosse : Fundamentals for Winning
Focuses on rules and playing techniques with illustrations and text to explain specific skills
Lacrosse Legends of the First Americans
Thomas Vennum brings together thirteen Native American legends from five lacrosse playing tribes – the Cherokee, Ho-Chunk (Winnebago), Seneca, Ojibwe, and Menominee – to provide a glimpse into Native American life and the role “the…
NEWS WITH THE TERM “LACROSSE”
This shows how the national and international press uses the term lacrosse in the context of the news articles below.
Two-league lacrosse star John Grant Jr. staying in Denver area…
One of the top lacrosse players in the world, John Grant Jr.of the Colorado Mammoth and Denver Outlaws, makes the transition towards … “The Denver Post, Jul 15”
Stillwater lacrosse tournament raises sport’s profile – StarTribune.com
Photo courtesy of John Diana Sam Houle, center, of the Stillwater Lacrosse Club, found an open lane against three opponents. Houle will be a … “Minneapolis Star Tribune, Jul 15”
Lacrosse camp to offer lessons for newcomers | Community Sports …
The Summer Lacrosse Experience will kick off Tuesday, a chance for kids from first grade through high school to be introduced to the sport.Bowling Green Daily News Jul 15
Playing Lacrosse at UVa a ‘Dream’ for Nora Bowen – NBC29 WVIR …
Woodgrove head girls lacrosse coach Bob Fuller says, “Nora’s work ethic is absolutely incredible. She’s got great hand-eye coordination and …” NBC 29 News, Jul 15 “
More honors for Niskayuna lacrosse players – Your Niskayuna
Niskayuna boys’ lacrosse’s Aidan O’Brien makes a move around a West Genesee defender during the Class A state championship in Vestal on… “Your Niskayuna, Jul 15”
Springfield Cougars Lacrosse Club honors Kyle Sweeney with…
The Springfield Cougars Lacrosse Club (SCLC) has begun a new tradition. In 2014, Greg Campbell became the first recipient of what has now … “Delco News Network, Jul 15”
Northlands will try to net new lacrosse team as the Rush appear …
EDMONTON – With the Edmonton Rush lacrosse team’s all-but-done run out of Edmonton to Saskatoon, Northlands CEO and president Tim… “Edmonton Journal, Jul 15”
Staten Island Spartans lacrosse travel team making lots of noise…
What happens when you try to form a boys’ travel lacrosse team out of a bunch of successful high school players from six different schools? “SILive.com, Jul 15”
Benji LaCrosse reaches century mark in IMCA modified wins
When Benji LaCrosse crossed the finish line to win his 100th career IMCA modified feature at Seymour Speedway on Sunday, he joined an… “Green Bay Press Gazette, Jul 15”
60 for ’16: Agnes Irwin (Pa.) Girls lacrosse defender Sarah Platt …
What we’ve seen: Platt was named to the American Family Insurance ALL-USA Girls Lacrosse First Team after intercepting five passes and … “USA TODAY High School Sports, Jul 15”
“EDUCALINGO. Lacrosse [online]. Available
90,000 The NCAA match saw a record 35.5k viewers. Many did not see anything, but it was fun – 1 Bereznya 2019 – Stadium novini
In student basketball, a new record: the match between Syracuse and Duke colleges drew 35,642 fans, the maximum possible for US universities.
The previous record – 35,446 people – was also set (and twice) at the games between these rivals in 2014 and 2015.They managed to beat him thanks to the increase in the number of seats – for example, they installed additional chairs next to the referee’s table.
Everything looked impressive, with one minor exception: many of those present did not see what was happening on the floor and watched the match using smartphones.
Syracuse’s home arena – Carrier Dome – is the largest college basketball facility in the United States. And by a wide margin: the second on the list is the Kentucky Rupp Arena, which seats 23,000 spectators.
Carrier Dome also hosts football matches (the record here is 46 thousand) and concerts (56 thousand).
Syracuse celebrates record under strange circumstances. The match began with a moment of silence in memory of Jorge Jimenez – last week he was knocked to death by the head coach of the home team, 74-year-old Jim Beeheim. (He himself was greeted with applause). True, the chamber atmosphere quickly disappeared – hatred for Duke always wins.
Duke also won – 75:65.
Syracuse now hopes to break the attendance record for the women’s match.
photos: Getty Images, instagram.com/maya.sousa2018, instagram.com/eliteworldphotographer, instagram.com/susanfrndz, instagram.com/dailycuse, instagram.com/sethlambo, instagram.com/simonoch8, instagram.com/smashkathleen , instagram.com/shayebrianne, instagram.com/pinacuse
Carrier Dome’s transformation from basketball to lacrosse.Timelapse
90,000 Youth Hockey League – Princeton Architecture
The JHL Press Service introduces the rivals of the Red Stars on their North American tour. This time the story will be about the Princeton University team.
Another “pre-revolutionary” college, which eventually grew into one of the most prestigious universities in North America.Local diplomas are especially appreciated in the exact sciences, in the engineering and technical field. It was to Princeton that Albert Einstein moved from Nazi Germany in 1933, who worked and taught there for many years. The rector of the university at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries was Woodrow Wilson, who later rose to the rank of Governor of New Jersey and President of the United States. Famous physicists, mathematicians, economists, biologists and astronauts came out of its walls, its graduates received 35 Nobel Prizes. This is a very selective university with strict admission rules: according to statistics of recent years, only 8% of applicants become students, and tuition fees are one of the highest in the United States: you need to pay almost 42 thousand dollars per year.
Faculty of Sports
Athletic Princeton is best known for its basketball team. For a number of sensational victories over top teams, she received the honorary nickname “The Killer of Giants”. For thirty seasons (from 1967 to 1996), she was led by one of the most respected NCAA coaches, Pete Carrill, whose game model, based on heavy player traffic and many passes, has already entered basketball textbooks under the name “Princeton Offense.”As usual at these universities, there is a strong tradition of golf, rowing, rugby and lacrosse. Interestingly, the Egyptian Yasser Al-Halabi was recognized as the best athlete of the first decade of the 21st century, who had no equal for all four years of training at the NCAA squash tournaments.
The Princeton program, although for a long time no longer knows loud victories, nevertheless, occupies a very noticeable place in the history of student hockey in North America.All this thanks to Hobie Baker – the great Princeton player of the early 20th century. The young Pennsylvania native quickly became a very popular hockey and American football player, hitting 120 goals and over a hundred assists in three years (6 points average per match!) And led the team to the title of America’s college champion, having a reputation for not only a cool hockey player, but also a real leader, captain and gentleman: in his entire career, he scored only two penalty minutes, and after each game he visited the rivals’ locker room and shook hands with each of them.
However, his potentially brilliant professional career was not destined to take place. After graduating from university, Baker went to the First World War, where he served on the Western Front as a fighter pilot, painting his plane in the orange-black colors of his native university, and on the fuselage was the Princeton symbol – a tiger. At the very end of the war, on a rainy winter evening in 1918, he made his last sortie from a military airfield in French Tula. Immediately after takeoff, Captain Baker’s plane crashed to the ground due to engine failure.Still alive, he was taken to the hospital, but could not be saved. A few days after this departure, he should have already returned to America. The main individual prize in student hockey, awarded to the most valuable player of the season, is named after him, although the Princetonians themselves have never received a Hobey Baker Award.
For the entire time in the playoffs of the NCAA tournament, they were selected only three times, and the last two cases are already from the new century. In 2008, the team, which was then led by Canadian Guy Gadowski, even managed to win the conference, but in the first round of the playoffs, the Tigers were brutally beaten by North Dakota 5: 1.A year later, Princeton again qualified for the regional grid, but again their promotion stopped at the very first opponent, and under even more offensive circumstances than a year ago: less than a minute remained to play in the opening round with Minnesota-Duluth, the Princetonians were leading 4: 2, but behind 40 seconds before the end of regular time we conceded the third goal, a second (!) Before the siren the fourth, and in overtime the fifth. This is where the story of that team ended, it was not bad, but for real success it was not enough just a decent first line and a solid goalkeeper.Only three players remained in professional hockey, two of whom are now in the AHL and one more in the Danish championship.
Hall of Fame
It makes no sense to look for NHL stars among Princeton alumni – they do not enter such universities in order to earn money for the rest of their lives by hockey. Although several strong players have been raised by this team, for example, Jeff Halpern, who has played over a thousand matches in the League. It was with him in the squad that Alexander Ovechkin played his first matches for Washington.Although Andre Fost, the university record holder in points for his career, did not work out in the NHL, the titles of the champion of Germany and vice-champion of Sweden are quite a worthy result of a professional career that has lasted more than a dozen years. In “Los Angeles”, “Carolina” and “Calgary” fighter Kevin Westgart, who now plays already in Ireland, was spotted, for several seasons forward Darrol Poe was a strong player of the base of “Philadelphia” and “Minnesota”.
The current season turns out to be one of the worst in the history of the university, in the first 13 matches of the season there were only two wins, and the two top scorers scored only 5 points each.Having spent the spring in the pro their leader, Canadian Andrew Kalof (now he successfully plays in the ranks of the Swedish champion Skellefteo), the Princetonians have not been able to find a replacement for him, moreover, several other leading players have completed their training, so now the team is in a state of perestroika and is unlikely to return to the level of at least 5-6 years ago.
Press Service of the Youth Hockey League.
90,000 Everything you wanted to know about the NCAA in one place ⋆ Obasketbole.Common crawl en
American student basketball is very developed in America and far beyond its borders. In this article, you will learn about the premier championship of the NCAA, the National Collegiate Sports Association. More than 300 universities from the USA and Canada take part in this annual tournament. And this is only in his elite division, and there are also the second and third mottos. In general, student basketball in …
American student basketball is very developed in America and far beyond its borders. In this article, you will learn about the premier championship of the NCAA, the National Collegiate Sports Association.More than 300 universities from the USA and Canada take part in this annual tournament. And this is only in his elite division, and there are also the second and third mottos.
In general, student basketball in America is much more developed than in Europe, it is pointless to argue with this. The student league employs the best coaches who have been working with children for more than a dozen years. The tournament has always attracted increased attention, because every year it gives the NBA 30 or even more ready professionals.
Now let’s talk about the system of the championship. First, there are conference tournaments, there are 31 of them. The winners of these tournaments go to the next stage, 32 teams join them according to the current rating and one more team that won the additional play-off match.
The resulting 65 teams go to the playoffs (in America, this stage is called “March madness”), where the teams play until one defeat. Having reached the semi-finals, the fun begins, namely the Final Four.Only three meetings are played here, that is, both semifinals and the final itself, there are no games for third place.
It is probably worth talking about the specific rules for conducting matches. The game is divided into two sections, twenty minutes each.