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Race to Injustice: Lessons Learned from the Duke Lacrosse Rape Case (9781594605147). Authors: Michael L. Seigel. Carolina Academic Press
The American criminal justice system, though undoubtedly one of the best in the world, is far from perfect. Every once in a while a notorious case comes along and reveals its uglier side––for instance, its differential treatment of whites and people of color. Such cases often garner huge amounts of national media attention and capture the sustained interest of a normally restless American public. Whatever their outcome, they provide academics with exceptional opportunities to study, learn, and teach about the justice system. They also offer the chance to study related matters, such as the conduct of particular law enforcement and other officials, as well as the underlying causes of crime and the public’s reaction to it.
The Duke lacrosse players’ rape prosecution is one such case. One evening in March 2006, members of the lacrosse team held an off-campus party where alcohol was served and two erotic dancers were hired to perform.
The case split the Duke campus, the Durham community, and observers at large into sharply divided factions. Desperately trying to preserve its hard-won reputation as an upper-echelon school, the university cancelled the lacrosse season, suspended the three indicted players, and commenced a series of internal investigations. After months of dramatic twists and turns, the North Carolina Bar Association charged Nifong with violating several ethics provisions based on his handling of the prosecution. Within days of being charged, Nifong relinquished the case to the North Carolina Attorney General who, after reviewing the proof, dismissed all remaining charges against the lacrosse players and publicly declared their innocence. After a thirteen-month ordeal, the case was finally over. Eventually, the disgraced Nifong was disbarred.
“This book is a fascinating expose. The story of this shocking case is an unforgettable reminder of what can go wrong when politics and justice collide. It is full of lessons to be learned by anyone interested in prosecutorial discretion, sexual assault, campus administration, evidence, media coverage of crime, grand juries, college drinking, race relations, or wrongful convictions.” — Nancy J. King, Lee S. and Charles A. Speir Professor of Law, Vanderbilt University School of Law
“A wonderful compilation of materials that provide an incredibly insightful look at many facets of law and society through the lens of a single case. ” — Ellen S. Podgor, Associate Dean and Professor of Law, Stetson University College of Law
“This book not only provides all of the rich factual detail that one could want about one of the most conspicuous legal cases of our generation, but also delves deeply into its legal, sociological and cultural ramifications. Its impressive array of prominent authors uses the occasion of the Duke lacrosse prosecution to help us learn a surprising number of nuanced and trenchant lessons about our legal system, our society and ourselves.” —
Christopher Slobogin, Milton Underwood Professor of Law, Vanderbilt University Law School
“The edited volume covers a broad terrain and touches on a number of important issues, most significantly the role of prosecutors in the justice system… The breadth of the book provides a wide range of readings for people interested in just about any angle of this peculiar case.” — Law & Politics Book Review
“Race to Injustice is a must-read for anyone who cares enough about equal justice in America to admit the criminal justice system is far from perfect and cries out for reform…” —
The Florida Bar Journal
“The essays are tight, clear, well written, and well documented. This collection is highly recommended for anyone interested in social justice issues.” — CHOICE Magazine
LaCrosse Encephalitis | Public Health and Medical Entomology | Purdue | Biology | Entomology | Insects | Ticks | Diseases | Monitoring | Control | Hot Topics | Agriculture
The cause of LaCrosse Encephalitis (LAC) was discovered in 1963 near LaCrosse, Wisconsin. Since 1964, an estimated 70-75 cases per year are reported in the U.S. Several cases of LAC are reported in Indiana yearly, almost all in children, but many more cases go unrecognized and most likely are diagnosed as “summer flu.” LAC virus is unusual among Indiana arboviruses in having small mammals, not birds, as its reservoir. Although the vast majority of cases are not serious, LAC can cause severe illness, especially in children under age 16. The fatality rate in clinical cases is less than 1%, but survivors may suffer permanent sequelae.
- A virus is the Family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus.
- Upper midwest, including Indiana, in association with deciduous forests.
- Recently, an increasing number of cases have been recognized in the mid-Atlantic and southeastern U.S.
- Typically flu-like, including headache, fever, muscle ache, and nausea.
- Severe symptoms include encephalitis and/or meningitis.
- Severe symptoms also include seizures, paralysis, and coma, with neurological sequelae in survivors.
- Chipmunks, squirrels, field mice, and rabbits.
- Also, LAC virus over winters in the eggs of the vector mosquito.
- NOTE: virus amplification occurs in chipmunks and in tree squirrels.
- Ochlerotatus triseriatus, the eastern tree-hole mosquito.
- This species is common in woodlands, but also occurs in wooded areas in and adjacent to residential areas.
- NOTE: females seek blood meals during the day under low light intensity (typically in shaded woods) when your risk of exposure to infected mosquitoes is greatest.
- NOTE: larvae develop in tree holes and other containers, including discarded tires and wooden rain barrels.
- Via the bite of infected female O. triseriatus.
- NOTE: there is no known human-to-human transmission.
- Symptoms listed above together with their onset in early to mid-summer.
- Laboratory tests that detect antibodies to LAC virus in a patient’s blood.
- Supportive only; there are no anti-viral drugs currently available.
- There is no vaccine.
- Avoid outdoor summer activities in shaded areas during the day when O. triseriatus females feed.
- Keep playground equipment in sunlit areas and away from shaded edges of woodlots.
- Wear clothing consisting of a long sleeved shirt, long pants, and a hat.
- Use a repellent recommended by CDC and treat clothing with permethrin.
- Eliminate larval developmental sites such as discarded tires and wooden barrels that hold water.
- Do not use tires as swings in playgrounds.
- Fill tree holes known to be larval developmental sites.
The Duke lacrosse rape scandal: The definitive account
“When I think back through the whole complex history of this episode,” said Richard Brodhead, the president of Duke University to a gathering organized by that university’s law school in 2007, “the scariest thing to me is that actual human lives were at the mercy of so much instant moral certainty, before the facts had been established. If there’s one lesson the world should take from the Duke lacrosse case, it’s the danger of prejudgment and our need to defend against it at every turn.” What do you think, everyone? Have we learned that lesson?
There’s probably some tiny percentage of the American population for whom the words “Duke lacrosse” summon up nothing but images of grassy fields, preppy players, cheering crowds, championship seasons and all the other tedious paraphernalia of athletic sentimentalism. For the rest of us, the words remains synonymous with one of the biggest media circuses of the 2000s. In March 2006, two strippers were hired by members of the university’s lacrosse team to perform at the private home of two team captains. By the end of the evening, one of the two African-American women had filed a complaint about the racial insults shouted at them by the predominantly white partygoers as they left and the other would claim that she had been forcibly detained, raped, sodomized and strangled by a group of men in the house’s bathroom.
William D. Cohan’s “The Price of Silence: The Power of the Elite and the Corruption of Our Great Universities” is the definitive account of what happened up to and after Crystal Gail Mangum made her accusation. Its 600-page length might at first seem more appropriate to a presidential biography or a history of one of the world wars, but “The Price of Silence” earns its heft, and unlike most biographies and histories, it rarely loosens its grip on its reader’s attention. Granted, Cohan’s detailed opening section — recounting the scramble by the newly instated Brodhead to retain Duke’s celebrated basketball coach, Mike Krzyzewski, in the face of a job offer from the Los Angeles Lakers in 2004 — initially feels extraneous. But soon the reasons for Cohan’s commitment to exhaustively presenting the context of the Duke lacrosse case become evident: This scandal, even more so than most scandals, was one that triggered everybody’s prejudgments. Mangum’s accusation was a virus that landed in the most hospitable petri dish imaginable, a culture rife with unresolved racial, sexual and class tensions and grievances.
Cohan’s “Coach K” preamble is meant to underline something that Brodhead learned during his first days in office: That at Duke, the tail of athletics wagged the dog of the university itself. According to Cohan, Krzyzewski was in effect the most powerful person in the institution, and it was beholden on Brodhead, his technical boss, to do anything to keep him, including building his team a new practice facility and providing a supremely compliant athletic director. Krzyzewski doesn’t figure much in the lacrosse scandal, but to understand why so many people at Duke and in the surrounding community of Durham, N.C., were so eager to believe the worst of the lacrosse players, it’s essential to grasp that within the small universe of Duke, athletes were pashas. Not only did they get away with repeated incidents of drunk and disorderly behavior, but they so dominated the university’s social life that, as one Durham journalist memorably put it, parents were shelling out “close to a quarter of million dollars, no bargain, for a jock-dominated sex zoo where Junior can play Hugh Hefner to a hutchful of willing bunnies with high SATs. “
As the book’s subtitle would have it, this is a story of how lucrative and well-connected sports programs “corrupt” universities like Duke. Perhaps ultimately Durham’s festering atmosphere of resented, abusive privilege is to blame. But the impression left by “The Price of Silence” is that the true drivers of the scandal were an overzealous Durham police officer, Mark Gottlieb, and, above all, the misconduct of Durham’s district attorney, Mike Nifong. What Cohan characterizes as Gottlieb’s “crusade against the Duke students in [Durham neighborhood] Trinity Park” — overzealous, perhaps, but the long-suffering residents of Trinity Park, with their urine-poisoned lawns and sleepless weekend nights, were not complaining — was in full swing by March 2006. For his part, as a white man, Nifong faced a tricky primary reelection campaign against two Democratic rivals, a black man and a white woman.
If not for the individual circumstances and predispositions of these two men, it seems likely that Mangum’s accusation would have been written off as too muddled and precarious to merit pursuing. Under the influence of a substance of some kind — the players insisted that Mangum arrived at the party impaired and she would eventually suggest that she was given a drugged cocktail after she arrived — she had passed out and had to be carried to the other dancer’s car when they left. The dancer, Kim Roberts, called the police because she did not know where Mangum lived. Cohan proposes that Mangum reported being raped in order to distract authorities from the fact that she’d been found intoxicated and had left her two young children home alone. Mangum’s initial statements varied wildly, with the number of men who assaulted her ranging from two to 20 and the number of fellow dancers ranging from one to three. Mangum, it would emerge, had a history of mental disturbance and run-ins with the law. She once stole a taxi cab and fled sheriff’s department pursuit by driving 70 miles per hour at night without headlights on a 55 mph highway, much of it on the wrong side of the road, then laughing as she tried to run over a sheriff’s deputy.
Mentally ill people can, of course, be raped, but they do not make good witnesses and for that reason many prosecutors are hesitant to seek indictments against their alleged attackers. Throughout the media frenzy that followed the announcement that Nifong would pursue the case, Mangum’s version of events changed continually and considerably. She was at first unable to select the attackers from a collection of photos of lacrosse team members, then later claimed to be nearly certain about photos she’d bypassed before, photos of men who differed significantly from her initial descriptions of the perpetrators. The other dancer, upon first learning of the rape accusation, described it as “a crock,” and said that she’d been with Mangum for all but five minutes of their time in the house. She later recanted this statement; the players’ attorneys pointed out that this was after the D.A.’s office let her off from a parole violation with a slap on the wrist.
Nevertheless, Nifong made countless appearances before the press, relaying Mangum’s tale of lurid and hateful abuse at the hands of young athletes who already had a reputation around town for getting away with fratty excesses. He maintained that undisclosed DNA evidence supported the accusation even after he knew that it did not. Eventually it would come out that, among other irregularities, Mangum identified the three men who were eventually indicted from tainted photo lineups, that Nifong refused to see evidence that at least two of the men had documented alibis for the time of the alleged attack and that he’d withheld potentially exculpatory evidence from the defense. In 2007, Nifong’s license to practice law was revoked by the North Carolina State Bar Disciplinary Committee.
The fiasco that followed Nifong’s early media blitz — from the feeble Duke administration “support” offered to the falsely accused lacrosse players to the firing of the lacrosse coach to the incendiary ad placed in the college paper by faculty members who became known as the Group of 88 to the harassment of almost everyone involved in the case to the endless, inevitable and noxious commentary extravaganzas of such cable-news vultures as Nancy Grace — all of this followed from Nifong’s highly irregular, misleading and unethical public statements, made at a time when he had access to information that no outsider possessed. Some of the most vocal participants in the controversy found that Nifong’s version of events jibed perfectly with their views of the world, but without Nifong’s version, backed by the authority of his office, they would have gained far less purchase.
Cohan, a contributing editor at Vanity Fair, has previously written dishy exposés of Goldman Sachs and other Wall Street institutions; the connection here is more obvious than it might appear, since lacrosse teams, it turns out, are feeders to the financial industry. Without a doubt, the three men indicted by Nifong — declared “innocent” in an extraordinary statement made by North Carolina Attorney General Roy Cooper when the charges were dropped in 2007 — were shabbily and unjustly treated by the city of Durham and by Duke faculty, administrators and students, as well as by the general public. Certainly, they deserve to be compensated for their ordeal, but the $30 million lawsuit they subsequently filed against Durham (on top of the undisclosed but probable $20 million they received from Duke) exacerbated the town-and-gown friction in Durham. A local columnist pointed out that $30 million was $3,664,000 more than North Carolinan Dwayne Dail was compensated for spending 18 years in prison for a rape he did not commit. The lacrosse players never spent a day in jail.
The less-acknowledged tragedy of the Duke lacrosse scandal is the damage it has done to the real victims of rape, who often struggle to be believed even though law enforcement officials estimate that only 8 percent of all rape accusations are false. Mangum’s lurid lies also overshadowed the witnessed and undisputed bad behavior of the players, particularly the ugly sexual and racial epithets they hurled at the dancers. In their rush to judgment, doctrinaire Duke faculty members who pounced on the accusation as “proof “of the racism and misogyny purportedly rampant at Duke ruined any opportunity to discuss those issues constructively, as opposed to merely grandstanding. Nifong dangled his bait before many noses; few were those who resisted it. But I suspect that those who genuinely learned something from the debacle are fewer still.
Professor: Lacrosse Case A Perfect Storm
All charges, including rape, were dropped against the three Duke University lacrosse players — David Evans, Reade Seligmann and Collin Finnerty — on Wednesday.
After a thorough investigation, the North Carolina attorney general found that there was a “tragic rush to accuse” and the players were absolutely innocent.
“There were many points in the case where caution would have served justice better than bravado,” North Carolina Attorney General Roy Cooper said in a damning assessment of Durham County District Attorney Mike Nifong’s handling of the sensational, racially charged case. “In the rush to condemn, a community and a state lost the ability to see clearly.”
Cooper, who took over the case in January after Nifong was charged with ethics violations that could get him disbarred, said his own investigation “led us to the conclusion that no attack occurred.”
Duke University law professor James Coleman was suspicious from the beginning.
“The D.A. said the students refused to cooperate, they wouldn’t talk to the police and I knew that wasn’t true,” he told The Early Show co-anchor Harry Smith. “That’s when I knew he was trying to build a case against these students.”
Coleman was on a committee appointed to investigate rumors about the accused players and the men’s lacrosse team and said that the circumstances surrounding the case ended up being “something of a perfect storm.”
Click here to see photos of the Duke lacrosse case.
“It had all kind of elements, but we know now it was based on this false notion a crime had been committed,” he said. “That generated everything. That gave energy to everything.”
The story, as it was portrayed in the media, was about class and race in a community surrounding an elite university (Duke is called the Harvard of the South). The three accused represented — at least in the eyes of their critics — the privileged white students many felt were running wild on campus. But in the end, none of it was true, Coleman said.
“It got reported that way over and over, and then it became fact,” he said. “You know, it took a year for the truth to catch up.”
District Attorney Mike Nifong, Coleman said, was initially motivated by the belief that a crime had occurred but also saw it as an opportunity for him to gain fame and notoriety.
“He was in a political race,” Coleman said. “You know, he rushed to judgment. I think the attorney general said it properly, he rush to judgment.”
During the past year, there have been several stories about race and sports, including the recent debacle with radio host Don Imus and comments he made about the Rutgers women’s basketball team. Coleman says they are all related.
“I think what’s happening is that athletes are treated like disposable items,” he said. “We forget they are human beings, students and have feelings, and we just ignore that. They are treated like commodities.”
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Newport Beach’s Campbell Case earns All-American honors in high school girls’ lacrosse
Campbell Case has the talent in girls’ lacrosse, but she also lives in Southern California in a sport that is still East Coast dominated.
That did not stop Case, a Newport Beach resident, from receiving a big honor this week.
Case, who plays attack and recently graduated from St. Margaret’s Episcopal School, was named an Under Armour Girls’ Lacrosse Senior All-American.
She was the only girls’ player who lives west of Illinois to make the 44-player team.
“It was definitely a dream come true,” Case said. “I was really excited about it. I had played in the underclassman tournament that they offer leading up to it, so I had been able to represent the West team. But finding out that I actually made the senior games was a dream come true.”
Case, who is bound for Johns Hopkins University, would have been on the South roster for the annual Senior All-America Game in Maryland originally scheduled for Saturday, but it has been canceled due to COVID-19.
“I’m definitely happy that West Coast lacrosse is getting some recognition,” said Case, whose older brothers, Mason and Davis, each played soccer at Corona del Mar High School and UC Berkeley. “There’s been some absolute athletes coming out of Orange County and the West Coast.”
Newport Beach resident Campbell Case helped St. Margaret’s win two U.S. Lacrosse Southern Section titles.
(Scott Smeltzer / Staff Photographer)
Case was a four-year starter at St. Margaret’s and helped the Tartans win back-to-back U.S. Lacrosse Southern Section titles in 2018 and 2019. The sport was set to transition to an official CIF Southern Section sport with championship playoffs this spring, before the season was canceled because of COVID-19.
As a junior, Case scored 31 goals in just 12 matches for St. Margaret’s, despite missing time in the middle of the season with a left ankle injury.
First-year St. Margaret’s coach Mollie Stevens said she appreciated Case’s work ethic, and her leadership on a younger Tartans team this year.
“She’s just the most positive player and an amazing teammate,” said Stevens, who was a four-year starter at the University of Florida and earned All-American honors as a senior captain in 2017. “We had a lot of first-year players on St. Margaret’s this year, and she was kind of like a player-coach. The girls weren’t afraid to ask her questions, either. I mean, it’s pretty intimidating when you have a player like Campbell Case on your team, and she was just so welcoming and friendly and really helped those first-year players grow.”
The Tartans (1-2) played just three matches this spring, but Case scored seven goals in a 13-9 win over Westlake Village Westlake on March 4.
“I’m from Maryland, so I’m used to big lacrosse states around me, but we’re just at such a big disadvantage out here now until it continues to grow,” Stevens said. “But I’m so excited that she got [All-American]. She’s so deserving. It’s really nice to see that she was recognized the way she should be, and wasn’t just pushed off the map because of being a California girl.”
Case hopes to play for Johns Hopkins as a freshman next spring. The university announced Thursday that it will offer only online classes to undergraduates this fall, due to the continuing coronavirus pandemic.
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The birth of basketball | TriumpharyDr. James Naismith was a Canadian physical education instructor who invented basketball in 1891.
Naismith was born in Almonte, Ontario and educated at McGill University
and Presbyterian College in Montreal. He was a physical education teacher at McGill University (from 1887 to 1890) and moved to Springfield, Massachusetts in 1890 to work at the YMCA International School of Teaching, which later became Springfield College.Under the direction of American physical education specialist Luther Halsey, Gulick, Naismith was given 14 days to create an indoor game that would provide an “athletic distraction” from the noisy New England winter. His solution to the problem has become one of the most popular sports in the world and a multi-billion dollar business.
Struggling to develop a game that would work on wooden floors in an enclosed space, Naismith studied sports such as American football, soccer, and lacrosse with little success.Then he remembered a game he played as a child called Duck on a Rock, in which players had to knock a duck off a large boulder by throwing stones at it. “With this game in mind, I thought that if the target were horizontal instead of vertical, the players would be forced to throw the ball in an arc, and the force that was generated would not matter. A horizontal goal, then it was what I was looking for and I pictured it in my mind, ”he said.
Naismith called the game “Basketball” – A tribute to the fact that two baskets suspended ten feet in the air provided targets.Then the instructor wrote 13 rules.
The first formal rules were developed in 1892. Initially, players would throw a soccer ball in an arc on a court of indeterminate dimensions. Points are earned by hitting the ball into the basket. Iron hoops and hammock style basket were introduced in 1893. However, it was another decade before the innovation of the mesh net put an end to the practice of manually retrieving the ball from the basket every time a goal was scored.
Dr. Naismith, who became a physician in 1898, was subsequently recruited to the University of Kansas that same year.He then created one of the most famous college basketball programs and worked as a sporting director and teacher at the university for nearly 40 years, retiring in 1937.
In 1959, James Naismith was inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame (called the Naismith Hall of Fame).
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Sharapova, Ivanovich and other tennis beauties in Singapore. Photo :: Tennis :: RBK Sport
This week, Singapore will host the Women’s Tennis Association (WTA) Final Tournament.
Read us atnews news
Photo: getty images
Eight strongest tennis players of the planet take part in it.Russian woman Maria Sharapova got into the White group during the draw. Her rivals in the first stage will be Czech Petra Kvitova, Agnieszka Radwanska from Poland and Danish Karolin Wozniacki.
The first racket of the world American Serena Williams, Romanian Simona Halep, Canadian Eugenie Bouchard and Ana Ivanovic from Serbia will play in the Red Group.
Two strongest tennis players from each quartet advance to the semifinals, the winners of the semifinals will fight in the main match of the tournament. The prize fund for the competition is $ 6.5 million.
Serena wins the WTA Finals for two years in a row. In total, the American woman has four titles of the winner of the competition. Among the current participants in the tournament, Maria Sharapova (2004) and Petra Kvitova (2011) also won it.
Before the start of the competition, the tennis players traditionally took part in bright photo sessions. RBK-Sport invites all readers to enjoy the beauty of the world’s best tennis players.
Maria Sharapova. Photo AFP.
Serena Williams. Photo by Getty Images.
Ana Ivanovich. Photo by Getty Images.
Petra Kvitova. Photo by Getty Images.
Agnieszka Radwanska. Photo by Getty Images.
Eugenie Bouchard. Photo by Getty Images.
Caroline Wozniacki. Photo by Getty Images.
Caroline Wozniacki (left) and Ana Ivanovich. Photo by Getty Images.
Simona Halep. Photo by Getty Images.
From left to right – Agnieszka Radwanska, Caroline Wozniacki, Ana Ivanovic, Serena Williams and Simona Halep. Photo by Getty Images.
Eugenie Bouchard. Photo by Getty Images.
Maria Sharapova. Photo by Getty Images.
KC Johnson – KC Johnson
Robert David Johnson (born 1967), also known as KC Johnson , is an American history professor at Brooklyn College and the Graduate Center of the City University of New York.He was instrumental in spreading the facts about the lacrosse rape at Duke University in 2006-2007. In 2007, he co-authored the book Innocent Until Proven: Political Correctness and Shameful Injustice The Duke’s Lacrosse Rape Case .
Johnson grew up in Leominster, Massachusetts, the son of Massachusetts teachers.  His father, Robert Johnson, was a star basketball player at Fitchburg State College, becoming the nation’s leader at 39.1 points per game in 1964.  Johnson’s sister Kathleen was the starting point for the Columbia University women’s basketball team in the early 1990s.  It is named KC after the Celtics player. K. K. Jones.  Johnson is also an athlete and has run many marathons. [ citation needed ]
He currently resides in Portland, Maine and teaches at Brooklyn College.  In 2007-08 Taught at Tel Aviv University in Israel on a Fulbright Scholarship. 
Johnson attended Groton School, Massachusetts. He received a Bachelor of Arts degree. (1988) and Ph.D. (1993) from Harvard University, and his M.A. from the University of Chicago (1989). Johnson has taught at Arizona State University and Williams College and served as visiting professor at Harvard (2005) and Tel Aviv University (2007–2008) as an Honorary Chair of Fulbright Humanities.  Johnson worked for several years as a track announcer at Scarborough Downs before completing his master’s degree. 
Johnson has written and edited many books on American history. He also co-edited several volumes of declassified transcripts and records of the Lyndon Baines Johnson administration.  
Battle for possession
In 2002 and 2003, Brooklyn College History’s refusal to take Johnson’s position was the subject of widespread media attention. 
In an article on a tenure case titled “Battle of Brooklyn,” Wall Street Journal , columnist Dorothy Rabinovich wrote that part of the conflict lay in “Johnson’s gender-based resistance to hiring,” which “did not provoke he has sympathy for the small but vociferous faction of the department’s political ideologists – a group once chaired by Philip Gallagher himself.described in an email to Mr. Johnson as “academic terrorists.” Johnson also protested the 9/11 “training”, “which was filled with panelists who were hostile to any US military response and suggested: Mr. Johnson noted that there are no supporters of US or Israeli policies.” 
Colleagues began to criticize him, some of them argued that his active involvement in his work was, in Rabinowitz’s words, “a sign of questionable mental health,” and at least one of them complained that “Johnson is too demands a lot from his students. “ 
Article Harvard Crimson described clashes between Johnson and Gallagher, which apparently also led to the resignation of office. When Johnson was on the search committee tasked with finding an expert on 20th century Central or Eastern European research, he decided that one of the two women on the shortlist was unqualified. Another professor pointed out, however, according to crimson , that “the agency had an ‘unofficial goal’ to hire a woman for this position.”Gallagher later criticized Johnson for admitting students who had not passed the formal prerequisites into his studies, although Gallagher, according to Johnson, did not previously comply with such rules. 
When Johnson ran, he was turned down on the grounds of “lack of collegiality.”  In response, a group of twenty historians led by Harvard History Chair Akira Irie (who was Johnson’s mentor and dissertation advisor)  wrote a letter stating that Johnson’s rejection of the position “reflects A “culture of mediocrity” hostile to high academic standards… Introducing a superfluous category of collegiality rewards young professors who “walk together to get along” rather than expressing their opinions. independent scientific judgment. “Such thinking, the professors wrote,” poses a serious threat to academic freedom, since the reliable and unrestricted exchange of ideas is central to the search for truth. “ 
“ For the first time in my experience, scientists have come together to protest against such a decision, ”Irie said. Harvard Crimson . “I am terribly upset and puzzled by this. KC is a very famous scientist and a great teacher. ”  For their part, the Brooklyn College student government voted unanimously in support of Johnson, calling the denial of tenure as “a violation of their academic rights.”
The student government also noted that “the behavior of the college in the case of K.S. Johnson has been described by former Brooklyn professor and longtime PSC grievance consultant Jerome Sternstein as “the most corrupt credentials process I have ever encountered”; University of Pennsylvania professor Erin O’Connor described this as “a prime example of the petty, internecine corruption that is widespread in academia, where responsibility is minimal and career-disrupting opportunities are correspondingly high”; and Swarthmore College professor Timothy Burke described it as “another arrow in the quiver of academic critics, another exposure of corruption in the profession in general, another reason to doubt whether the term of office ever serves the purpose for which it was supposedly created “”. 
In , the Chronicle of Higher Education published an article about Johnson’s struggle for his seat, entitled “Ownership Frenzy,” claiming that “over 500 Brooklyn College students signed a petition in support of Mr. Johnson. They held meetings and marches. ”  On the History News Network website, Ronald Radosh wrote: “Mr. Johnson presents the best that CUNY has to offer its students; educated at leading universities, he left college, where many dreamed of teaching, to attend CUNY.He found that while his students appreciated and applauded his work, the left-wing professors who now dominate the academy could not tolerate his insistence on quality standards in hiring, his rejection of politically correct criteria, and his non-ideological approach to his field. ” 
In New Republic editorial noted that the criteria for length of stay at Brooklyn College, as Johnson’s case demonstrated, “poses a serious threat to Brooklyn College’s hope that it will ever be taken seriously as a scientific institution “.  And Herbert London of the Hudson Institute viewed Johnson’s temporary tenure as an example of the emergence in American universities of “a left-wing orthodoxy that intolerably rejects any other view … the irony that tenure in the position is conceived as a way to achieve success. ” to ensure that independent thought, free from censure, is now used to enforce compliance. What else can “lack of collegiality” mean? » 
Johnson appealed the decision to serve as rector of the City University of New York system.Matthew Goldstein.  Goldstein, in turn, appointed a group of distinguished scholars from other CUNY departments to study the case, namely Pamela Scheingorn, professor of history at Baruch College and executive director of the doctoral program in theater graduate school; David Reynolds, Emeritus Professor of English at Baruch College; and Louis Mazur, Professor of History and Chair of the History Department of the City College.  In line with their unanimous recommendation, Goldstein promoted Johnson to full-time full-time professorship.  The CUNY Board of Trustees unanimously supported this decision. 
In editorial New York Daily News also welcomed the decision, noting that Goldstein “is committed to improving CUNY and its reputation. His actions in the Johnson case are evidence of this, sending the right message: scholarships and teaching ability come first. And academic freedom is worth fighting for. ” …  Johnson later wrote his own account of the battle for ownership on the History News Network. 
Duke Lacrosse Bag
Johnson played a prominent role in chronicling the Duke Lacrosse Case scandal exposing the numerous due process violations inherent in the case on a blog called Durham in Wonderland, which he created solely for this purpose.  Durham Johnson in Wonderland contains one of the largest archives of events related to this case. Johnson is critical of some of Duke’s faculty and staff, known as the Group of 88, and called them the “crowd rushing to court”  who posted an ad condemning players and encouraging false indictments to protest well before the investigation was concluded.
One of the defendants, Reed Seligmann, publicly thanked Johnson, stating: “I am eternally grateful for all the care, concern and support I received from my wonderful friend Brooke and her family, Delbarton Community, Essex Fells, C.S. … Johnson and everyone else who chose to stand up, use their voice and challenge the wicked district attorney. ”  Prosecutor Mike Nifong was stripped of his lawyer status, fined and sentenced to one day in prison. 
Charles Piot, the Duke’s professor of cultural anthropology, criticized Johnson’s role in the case, writing that Johnson “used [the case] to demonize faculty and further ideological programs that are part of a wide-scale right-wing attack on progressive faculty in all countries of the world “. nation. “  Johnson replied to Piot on his blog. 
Johnson will continue to join Stuart Taylor, Jr., co-authored with book Innocent yet: Political Correctness and Shameful Injustice ISB Duke Lac 0-312-36912-3).It was published in September 2007. New York Times A book review called the book a “gripping tale” that made “a gripping contribution to the literature of the unjustly accused.”  James Earl Coleman Jr. and Prasad Kasibhatla, Professor Duke, criticized Taylor and Johnson for “biased and imprecise rhetoric.”  Johnson and Taylor responded to Coleman and Kasibhatle. 
Johnson is a registered Democrat.  He supported Barack Obama’s 2008 presidential campaign and vehemently opposed John Edwards this year.  Johnson denounced the National Council on Teacher Education Accreditation to promote “social justice” as an essential element of teacher training and for implementing policies that he argues are clearly designed “to weed out potential public school teachers who adhere to undesirable political beliefs “. 
- co-author (with Stuart Taylor), Campus Rape Madness: An Attack on American University Due Process , Meeting Books, 2017. ISBN 1-594-03885-6
- Until the End with LBJ: Presidential 1964 Election , Cambridge University Press, 2009. ISBN 0-521-42595-6
- Co-author (with Stuart Taylor), Innocent yet: Political Correctness and Shameful Injustice of the Duke Lacrosse Rape Case, Thomas Dunn Books 2007.ISBN 0-312-36912-3
- Congress and the Cold War , Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-521-52885-2 (2006 winner D. Hardeman Prize  )
- co-editor ( with Kent Germany), Presidential Notes: Lyndon B. Johnson , Vol. 3, WW Norton, 2005 ISBN 0-393-06001-2
- co-editor (with David Shreve), Presidential Notes: Lyndon B. Johnson , Vol. 2, W.W. Norton, 2005 ISBN 0-393-06001-2
- January 20, 1961: American Dream , DTV Publishers, 1999.