Lacrosse | sport | Britannica
Lacrosse was played by the Six Nations of the Iroquois (in what became upper New York state and lower Ontario) long before Christopher Columbus landed in the New World. The sport was then much rougher than it is today. Among some tribes as many as a thousand players took part on each side, goals were miles apart, and a game could last as long as three days. Each player tried to disable as many opponents as possible with the stick he carried and afterward concentrate on scoring a goal. The Cherokee called their version of the game “little brother of war.” Because of the endurance required and the injuries that had to be borne with fortitude it was considered excellent training for combat. Among many tribes the game was as much a mystic ceremony as a sport and was preceded by complex rituals and a solemn dance. In some areas men and women played together, and in other areas women had their own version of the game. Indians on government reservations in the United States and Canada still field strong teams.
To the first French settlers in Canada who saw the game, called baggataway, or tewaraathon, by the Indians, the shape of the implement used to catch, carry, and throw the ball suggested a bishop’s crozier (la crosse), giving the sport its name.
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Europeans in Canada started playing the game about 1840, and the first lacrosse organization, the Olympic Club, was founded in Montreal in 1842. In playing Indian teams, white players lost so frequently they were allowed to field extra men. Members of the Montreal Lacrosse Club (founded 1856) modified the rules somewhat, and in 1867 George Beers of Montreal, called “the father of lacrosse,” made further changes that included replacing the Indian ball of deerskin stuffed with hair by a hard rubber ball, limiting the number of players on a team to 12, and improving the stick for easier catching and throwing of the ball. The 12 players were designated at that time as goal, point, cover point, first defense, second defense, third defense, centre, third attack, second attack, first attack, out home, and in home. In 1867 the National Lacrosse Association was formed, and the game was introduced to England. Captain W.B. Johnson of Montreal toured with a team of Caughnawaga Indians, appearing at Windsor Castle before Queen Victoria, who found the game “very pretty to watch.” The English took to the sport and the game achieved popularity, notably in Lancashire, Cheshire, Yorkshire, Manchester, Bristol, and London. The English Lacrosse Union was founded in 1892, and the All-England Women’s Lacrosse Association was formed in 1912. English teams exchanged visits with teams from the United States and Canada from time to time, and combined Oxford-Cambridge teams frequently exchanged visits with college or all-star teams from the United States. The game was also introduced in Ireland, Australia, and South Africa.
In the United States a team of Indians introduced lacrosse at Troy, New York, about 1868, and a few years later teams were started in that city and in New York City. In the 1880s Eastern schools including New York University, Princeton, Yale, and Harvard took up the sport. In 1884 a successful tour of Europe was made by a team of U.S. collegians, and in 1906 the U.S. Intercollegiate Lacrosse League was formed. The game received its greatest impetus, however, when it was introduced to Baltimore by some track-and-field athletes, who had seen the game played by Canadians on Long Island. The Baltimoreans actively promoted the sport, aiming at all age levels, so that Baltimore became the main U.S. centre of lacrosse. During the 1920s women field hockey players discovered lacrosse, and in 1931 the U.S. Women’s Lacrosse Association was formed.
The Intercollegiate Lacrosse League was reorganized in 1926 as the U.S. Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association, which had about 120 member colleges. In 1970 the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), with more than 500 member colleges, undertook sponsorship of intercollegiate lacrosse competition, reflecting the growth of the sport in the country outside its traditional Eastern Seaboard stronghold. NCAA national championship tournaments for men began in 1971; women’s tournaments began in 1982. The college team considered the best in the country is awarded the Wingate Trophy.
Lacrosse was included in the Olympic Games in 1904 and 1908 with teams representing Canada, the United States, and Great Britain. Teams from those countries also demonstrated the sport in exhibitions at the Games in 1928, 1932, and 1948, but it did not attract enough international interest to remain an Olympic sport. World Championships for men have been held since 1967. Women’s World Championships were held from 1969 to 1982, when they were replaced by the World Cup. A variant of lacrosse, called box lacrosse, was introduced in Canada in 1930.
Little Brother of War: Vennum, Thomas: 9780801887642: Amazon.com: Books
“In a mix of narrative, interviews, analysis, and tribal lore, Mr. Vennum has crafted a complex and entertaining book… American Indian Lacrosse offers a sweeping new perspective on a game that has functioned, at various times, as symbolic combat ritual, healing ceremony, gambling spectacle, war ruse, and intercollegiate sport. “
“Brings the game’s cultural complexities and historical roles to life… A major contribution to the cultural history of sport.”
“This exhaustive, well-documented work serves as a definitive study of the sport in its traditional form. A worthy addition to core subject and Native American collections.”
“This book presents a rare account.”
“An important study and a good read… Vennum’s writing style is an alluring blend of hygienic academic analysis and historical accounts, narratives and interviews, a style used deliberately throughout the book… His book is a compelling journey into the historical exploration of an old team sport.”
(Halvdan Haugsbakken idrottsforum.org/recensioner)
“An interesting recount of the various ways that Indians utilized the game in their cultural, social, and curative worlds.”
(Joe Watkins Journal of Anthropological Research)
“From the first great super bowls of America, those heroic, spiritual contests played out on mile-long arenas for days at a time, to the modern box game on struggling reservations, Indian lacrosse is a telling thread in our national tapestry, and Tom Vennum has brought it to life. “
(Robert Lipsyte, New York Times sports columnist)
“In our attempts to be better, to be successful, to be champions, American Indian Lacrosse helps us achieve greater reward―understanding the essence of the game.”
(David Klarmann, head lacrosse coach, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill)
“Never before has the story of American Indian lacrosse been told in such a way… [Vennum] explains how the sports world failed to give proper recognition to what was once solely a Native American game.”
(Mark Burnam, 1993 Major Indoor Lacrosse League Champion)
Thomas Vennum, senior ethnomusicologist emeritus at the Center for Folklife Programs and Cultural Studies, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., is the author of Lacrosse Legends of the First Americans. Retired and living in Tucson, Arizona, he continues research among Indian tribes in Sonora, Mexico, specifically the Seri.
Indians Playing Lacrosse on the Ice
Lacrosse originated among American Indians in northeastern North America. Variants of stick-and-ball games are played by American Indian nations throughout the eastern part of the continent. Oral traditions testify to the antiquity of the sport, which was first documented by Jesuit missionaries during the early seventeenth century. Lacrosse has an important place in American Indian community life. Both men and women, sometimes on mixed teams, participate in this popular form of entertainment. It is played for fun, to settle disagreements, and for spiritual or ceremonial reasons. Games are sometimes organized to honor guardian spirits or satisfy dreams. Matches are also played in conjunction with particular ceremonies. Additionally, the sport has played a role in military contests: in June 1763, Ojibwe people participating in Pontiac’s Rebellion orchestrated a lacrosse match to distract soldiers at Fort Michilimackinac prior to attacking the British outpost.
This winter lacrosse scene bears a striking similarity to Seth Eastman’s 1848 painting Ballplay of the Dakota on the St. Peter’s River in Winter (Amon Carter Museum, Fort Worth, Texas). Edmund C. Coates, who worked out of a studio in Brooklyn, New York, was known to draw inspiration from other artists’ work. The everyday winter attire of players, as well as the baskets, quiver of arrows, and other items set down along the riverbank, and the tipis in the background are details found in both paintings. In Coates’s scene, the small number of players and few spectators suggests that the game may be an informal competition. Like many sports, lacrosse games can be highly organized events or casual pick-up games. Larger and more formal contests are likely to take place in the summer, when lacrosse is played most frequently. Throughout the year, players and spectators alike are inspired to gamble on the outcome. It is possible that the items arrayed along the bank were wagered on this game.
Players in this painting carry sticks created with a characteristic Great Lakes design. They are produced by skilled specialists within American Indian communities and are frequently made of a hardwood such as hickory that is carefully bent to form a pocket on one end. The small, round pocket of the stick is the design element that distinguishes the Great Lakes-style of lacrosse stick from Iroquois-style sticks (which have a much larger pocket and are considered the progenitor of contemporary lacrosse sticks). Players appreciate these Great Lakes-style sticks because they are highly accurate and capable of hurling the ball great distances.
Indian Ball is not Lacrosse! – Beyond the Spectacle
Professor David Stirrup (Kent)
Principal Investigator, ‘Beyond the Spectacle’
If you were in the crowds for the 2019 London New Year’s Day Parade, or happened to catch the TV coverage on 1 January, you may well have seen the Warriors of AniKituhwa from the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians (EBCI). Bedecked in their matchcoats and war paint they were pretty unmissable. As Jacqueline Fear-Segal explained in our previous blog-post, besides the invitation to the prestigious parade, they were in the UK retracing the footsteps of Cherokee ancestors in the 18th century. Far from the bustle—and the spectacle—of the parade, however, several of the BtS team met up with twelve members of the delegation (in mufti!) at the East End stores of the British Museum on 2 January, where the trip organizer, Dawn Arneach, had prearranged for them to view a selection of Cherokee objects held by the Museum. Given most of the group’s connections to the Cherokee National Museum in North Carolina, this opportunity was as important as the parade itself.
The reactions of the group to these objects was mixed. BtS Research Associate and resident museums expert Jack Davy might well explain that this is not uncommon. Unsurprisingly, being confronted by ancestral objects held in distant, colonial museums is usually a highly ambivalent experience. In this case, though, the apparent discombobulation in the room was at least partly generated by the relative newness of roughly half the objects, dating as they did back to collecting trips conducted by Jonathan King in the 1990s.
Museum of the Cherokee Indian’s Executive Director James “Bo” Taylor photographing the Jerry Wolfe ballsticks (image courtesy of ‘Beyond the Spectacle’)
Most surprising of all to several of the group, perhaps, was a pair of ballsticks, carved by Jerry Wolfe. That these items generated mixed emotions was inevitable— their creator was a man they had spent time with, and who had passed away less than a year ago. On the other hand, while there was no doubt as to the quality of his craftsmanship, or the importance of including contemporary objects in the museum’s collections, they knew how these items were made, what they were made of: in short, these objects, unlike much older objects, could not tell them much they did not already know.
For me, however, they were a gateway not only to a different version of a sport I have been researching recently, but a lens into a vibrant and fast-growing act of cultural revitalization: Indian Ball.
The sport I have been engrossed with is Lacrosse—as legend has it, so named in the 1600s by French Jesuit Father Jean de Brébeuf for the ballstick’s resemblance to a bishop’s crozier, la crosse d’eveque. [i] In 1876 a team from the Montreal Lacrosse Club toured Ireland and Great Britain, bringing with them a team of Mohawk Lacrosse players with whom they played a series of exhibition matches. They returned again in 1883, playing in cricket clubs and recreation grounds.
Although these tours were the first explicitly designed to publicise and export Canada’s new national sport, (the first formal rules were put down by tour organiser W.G. Beers in 1860), they were not the first occasion on which stickball had been played on these islands. Indeed, in the year of Canadian Dominion itself, 1867, eighteen Haudenosaunee Lacrosse players had toured the UK. Even before that, in August 1844, fourteen Báxoǰe, or Iowa, performers under the charge of American painter and impresario George Catlin and his fellow entrepreneur George H.C. Melody, had demonstrated their stickball game on the pitches of Lord’s cricket ground. Among various demonstrations of forest life, “The chiefs and ‘braves’ of the party will also engage,” an Era journalist wrote, “in a match at ‘ball-play,’ a game of the most exciting and amusing description, and requiring great skill. ”
Most involved in the sport understand Lacrosse to have been invented by the Haudenosaunee—and it is true in essence. The modern version of the sport is played with sticks that evolved from the Haudenosaunee version of the ballstick, and it developed in interplay between Canadian and Haudenosaunee players. As the above anecdote shows, however, iterations of stickball were common among a variety of tribal nations. The Anishinaabe, for instance, also played what they called Baggataway (the Mohawk called it Begadwe)—variations of which were played by the Choctaw (kabucha) and of course the Cherokee (Dilasgalidi). The Umonhon, or Omaha, meanwhile, played a game called Tabegasi, involving propelling a ball along the ground with hooked sticks.
Credit: Brian Larney – https://squareup.com/store/yahvlane/
These historic accounts are, of course, interesting. The 1876 and 1883 tours certainly established the game in the UK, while those same teams probably influenced the headmistresses of Scottish girls’ schools to take up the game when they witnessed them play in Montreal in the early 1880s. Throughout the Lacrosse world, Indigenous origins of the sport are well known and recognised—the Iroquois Nationals are held in very high regard within the Federation of International Lacrosse. That profile, though, has rather overshadowed the involvement—and the alternative games—of other nations. An Ojibwe stickmaker, Frank Belleau, told me recently, for instance, that many younger Ojibwe are surprised to learn that Lacrosse was their sport, too. As with many parts of the US and Canada, stickball was banned in Ojibwe country by the colonial authories in the early 19th century, where it was seen as a threat for the way it brought community together and enabled the maintenance of traditions—though the excuse, of course, was that it was too violent. Frank is one of many involved in the game’s revitalisation, as was Jerry Wolfe.
The most important—and inspiring—aspect of this encounter with Jerry Wolfe’s handiwork, then, was not the sticks themselves so much as the conversation they generated with EBCI members Mike Crowe and Steven Michael Smith, both of them contemporary Indian Ball players. In the taxi ride from Orsman Road to the British Museum proper they showed me video footage of the games played at their annual festival and patiently answered my questions about the rules. Indian Ball is not Lacrosse. For all its similarities it is a very different game. While Lacrosse is a very physical game, Indian Ball is positively violent, adhering much more closely to the principles that led the Cherokee to call it “Little brother of war”—an activity for the training of young men in the rigours of battle. Like Lacrosse to the Haudenosaunee, it is also medicine—an important source of healing, of reckoning, and of offering to its originator, the Creator. As Lacrosse legend Oren Lyons explains of Lacrosse’s forebears, the game “is played to heal. Any individual can ask for a game. They might want to heal themselves. They might want to heal someone else. Then, ‘the whole community gets mobilized’”
Speaking as an ex-rugby player, it also looks like an awful lot of fun!
WATCH: ‘Cherokee Stickball for the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians’
WATCH: A full game of Cherokee Stickball
[i] French games using sticks and balls that already existed, such as la choule crosse, are the likelier analogue for the name.
Before Badger football at Camp Randall, they played lacrosse
In 1885, a decade before UW–Madison played its first football game on the site of Camp Randall, Native Americans competed in a game of lacrosse in the same area.
As the university celebrates Native November, the early lacrosse game is a reminder of how important the sport was to Native Americans for thousands of years — and how significant it is that the sport has made a comeback among today’s Indigenous people, says Aaron Bird Bear, tribal relations director for UW–Madison.
“Although the United States tried to eradicate all Indigenous language and culture, cultural phenomena like lacrosse somehow made it through, which is exciting,” Bird Bear says. “Indigenous people are in a period of linguistic and cultural revitalization in the 21st century, so this reengagement in lacrosse has been fantastic to see.”
Lacrosse remains popular with Native athletes. Read about Julian Greendeer of the Oneida and Ho-Chunk nations by clicking on the photo. Photo courtesy of NDNSports
The 1885 lacrosse game in Madison occurred during the Wisconsin State Fair, which was held in the city at the time, according to Daniel Einstein, historic and cultural resources manager for the Division of Facilities Planning & Management. It was an exhibition game, preceded by Indigenous songs and dances.
Back then, the State Fairgrounds were located on the former military training grounds known as Camp Randall. The state purchased the fairgrounds in 1893 for sole use by UW–Madison, Einstein says.
Spectators would have viewed the 1885 lacrosse game from the new 8,000-seat grandstand that had been constructed for the State Fair, Einstein says. The grandstand was on land near today’s Engineering Hall.
UW played its first football game at the Camp Randall site in 1895 — likely on the same field, Einstein says. Prior to 1895, UW played football games in the area that is now Library Mall.
Lacrosse dates back thousands of years and was much more than a recreational activity, Bird Bear says. Some tribal nations called lacrosse “the little brother to war” because games could be used to settle disputes between Indigenous nations and bands of tribal nations. And it was an important way for Native Americans to stay in prime physical condition in case they needed to attack others or defend themselves, either in small scale sorties of raiding parties or large scale “national” wars. One such national war in Great Lakes Indian history occurred when the Ojibwe were able to help stave off the League of the Iroquois’ incursion into the Great Lakes during the fur trade economy in the 1600s.
“Lacrosse was a training game – it was a very physical game, a very brutal game, but it was helping to keep fit a certain component of the Indigenous society for safety and protection,” Bird Bear says. “And it also was a political tool to help solve conflicts before they became violent confrontations.”
The Ho-Chunk refer to lacrosse as “The Creator’s Game,” reflecting its long, honored tradition. UW–Madison occupies ancestral Ho-Chunk land, a place the Ho-Chunk call Teejop (Dejope, or Four Lakes). In an 1832 treaty, the Ho-Chunk Nation was forced to cede this territory. The Our Shared Future heritage marker at UW–Madison recognizes this history.
According to the Milwaukee Public Museum, tribal lacrosse games were played occasionally, usually at fairs, during the earlier part of the 20th century. By the 1950s, the game was not played as frequently, but it has seen a resurgence recently, the museum says. Wisconsin is among states that fields a lacrosse team to compete in the North American Indigenous Games, hosted every three years in either the U.S. or Canada. (UW–Madison offers lacrosse at the club level.)
“It’s wonderful to see our young people — children of our own Indigenous staff members of this institution and Indigenous students who’ve just joined our institution — playing and embracing lacrosse,” Bird Bear says. “It helps solidify and reaffirm their sense of self as Indigenous people, and it illuminates the cultural and linguistic revitalization that’s happening across the continent. ”
History of Native American Lacrosse
When the athletes of the women’s lacrosse team head to Syracuse tonight, they will go along land that the Iroquois Confederacy once farmed. They will play where the Onondaga once gathered their annual harvest. And when they return to Cornell, they will come back to where the Cayuga once hunted and kept fires in the cold winter.
So maybe it’s appropriate that the team plays an Iroquois sport.
The history of Native American lacrosse goes back many centuries. Indians were playing lacrosse long before Europeans arrived, and they competed with remarkable intensity. Games went on for days, and hundreds of men would participate. The playing field could be over a mile long.
The Mohawk — one of the Iroquois tribes — called the sport “Tewaaraton,” or “the little brother of war.” In fact, that name can still be heard today, as the annual Tewaaraton Trophy honors the best college lacrosse player in America.
The sport was played throughout the Eastern Woodlands and the upper Midwest. The Cherokee played in the southeast, and the Fox played in the Great Lakes region. But the Iroquois — who live in New York and Canada — remain the most famous group to play lacrosse.
The sport was more than just a Native pastime. Lacrosse helped bring together the allied Iroquois tribes. A game was a spiritual event, and maybe even a political one.
There was a famous Seneca-Mohawk game, in 1794, that has been described by Smithsonian researcher Thomas Vennum, Jr., among other historians.
The Seneca and the Mohawk — two tribes of the six-nation Iroquois Confederacy — were going through a difficult period in their history. Not only was the new American nation eager to move onto their land, but the two powerful tribal leaders had a great dislike for each other.
The Mohawk leader thought a lacrosse game would help bring the tribes together. It would remind them of their alliance, and their common heritage.
And so the Seneca — who lived west of Ithaca — traveled into Mohawk country, which is north of Albany. But the game did not help bring about tribal unity. One Mohawk player broke the ancient rules, getting into a violent fight with a Seneca. The event would actually damage the tribal relationship for a few years.
And yet, the two tribes would reconcile, helped by a rematch game on Seneca land. That’s how important lacrosse was to the original inhabitants of upstate New York.
Indeed, the Iroquois — who call themselves Haudenosaunee, or “people building a longhouse” — did not view lacrosse as a mere game. The sport was a connection to nature, to the spiritual world, and to the past.
It was also a symbol of war. In fact, Vennum believes that the lacrosse stick evolved from the Indian war club.
Lacrosse was played in different forms throughout the east. But, the Iroquois version had the most influence on modern lacrosse.
Whites started to play lacrosse by the 19th century, adopting it from the Iroquois. Canada was actually the first country where non-Indians actively played. New rules were developed, and the centuries-old game was “civilized” by whites. Club teams were started, and some squads even traveled to England to demonstrate the sport.
You can probably figure out the rest of the story. The Canadian amateur sports union would soon ban many Indian teams, claiming “professionalism” among the tribes. Although Indian clubs would sometimes charge money to raise travel funds, the underlying reason for the ban was racism. Soon, modern field lacrosse would develop at U.S. colleges — and Native Americans weren’t included in the university ranks.
Yet, lacrosse would survive among the Natives. The Iroquois continued to play in upstate New York and in Canada. And now, more and more people have become aware of their contribution to lacrosse.
Today, the best Iroquois players compete on a team called the Iroquois Nationals. Despite the small size of the Iroquois population, the team is able to compete at the highest level of play.
The Nationals have played at the World Lacrosse Championships since 1990. They are the only Native team to be recognized by an international sports federation.
They play a game originated by their ancestors so many years ago. And it’s a version of that same sport — “the little brother of war” — that will be played by the women’s lacrosse team tonight in Syracuse.
And it’s that same sport which Tewaaraton Trophy candidates Sean Greenhalgh and Joe Boulukos, will play next Tuesday, when the men’s team also heads to Syracuse.
And so when the Red and the Orange meet under the bright lights of the Carrier Dome, we should remember that they are playing a truly ancient sport — one with meaning far beyond that of a simple game.
Ted Nyman is a Sun Staff Writer. Fast Times will appear every other Tuesday this semester.
Archived article by Ted Nyman
Ireland Lacrosse gives Iroquois Nationals its spot at The World Games
“It’s simply the right thing to do,” Michael Kennedy, chief executive officer of Ireland Lacrosse, said in a statement.
“We are a proud member of World Lacrosse and we recognize the importance of The World Games to the continued growth of our sport. As much as our players would have been honored to compete, we know the right thing is for the Iroquois Nationals to represent our sport on this international stage.”
Eight teams were selected to participate based on where the team finished in the 2018 Federation of International Lacrosse World Championship. The Iroquois finished third and Ireland finished 12th, but the Nationals were initially deemed ineligible to compete by the International World Games Association (IWGA).
The team was ruled ineligible because it does not represent a sovereign nation and do not have an Olympic Committee. But in August, the IWGA said it was willing to reverse course if a place could be found for the Iroquois team. That’s when Ireland Lacrosse stepped up.”You have gone above and beyond not only for us, but for what you believe is right,” the Iroquois Nationals tweeted to Ireland Lacrosse. “Your actions have spoken louder than words showing everyone the true power of sport, and the spirit of lacrosse. We will never forget that.”Lacrosse was created by Native Americans in North American as early as the 12th century, according to the Iroquois Nationals.The Nationals represent the Iroquois Confederacy — also known as the Haudenosaunee — a confederacy of six Native American tribes that dates back hundreds of years. The confederacy is comprised of the Mohawk, Onondaga, Oneida, Cayuga, Seneca and Tuscarora tribes. The team is the only Native American team that has been authorized to play a sport internationally, and has been competing in international lacrosse since 1990, according to the team’s website.The World Games is an international tournament involving more than 30 “unique, multi-disciplinary sports” held every four years the year after the Summer Olympic Games.The sporting event generates global exposure for the participating sports and can showcase some sports for possible inclusion in the Olympics. World Lacrosse, the sport’s governing body, is hoping the sport will return to the Olympics after the International Olympic Committee sanctioned the sport by provisionally recognizing it in 2018.
The World Games was initially scheduled to take place in Birmingham, Alabama, in 2021 but was pushed back to July 2022 due to the pandemic.
The next step in the process is for World Lacrosse submit its selection criteria and list of eligible teams for approval by the IWGA. World Lacrosse said the Iroquois Nationals will be included on the list.
Cheap flights from La Crosse to Nagpur on Tickets.ru
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From the city of La Crosse to Nagpur 12,722 km.
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In the city of La Crosse: La Crosse Munisipal. In Nagpur – Dr. Ambedkar International.
Stoney Creek Hotel La Crosse
Stoney Creek Hotel La Crosse – Onalaska. Location
Stoney Creek Hotel La Crosse – Onalaska
3060 S Kinney Coulee Rd, Onalaska, 54650, WI, United States
Reserve. Rates from USD89.
Description of the location of the Stoney Creek Hotel La Crosse – Onalaska and directions to nearby attractions and transportation.
- La Crosse, WI, United States (LSE-La Crosse Municipal) – 6.34 km – Get directions on map »
- Midway Railroad Prairie State Natural Area – 7.57 km
- Hixon House – 8.27 km
- La Crosse County Historical Society Inc – 8.49 km
- Gordans Museum – 8.83 km
- Valley View Mall Shopping Center – 1.20 km
- Valley Square Shopping Center – 1. 71 km
- Bridgeview Plaza Shopping Center – 5.12 km
- La Crosse Outlet Mall Shopping Center – 6.34 km
- Menard Plaza Shopping Center – 6.56 km
- Jackson Plaza Shopping Center – 8.98 km
- Glen Fox Park – 1.80 km
- Onalaska Park – 3.23 km
- Wayside Park – 4.61 km
- Roosevelt Park – 4.77 km
- Hickey Park – 5.06 km
- Riders Club Park – 5.71 km
- Red Cloud Park – 6.00 km
- Copeland Park – 6.19 km
- Hixon Forest Park – 6.21 km
- Goose Green Park – 6.43 km
- Roellig Park – 6.60 km
- Myrick Park – 6.78 km
- Growley Park – 7.19 km
- Louis Nelson County Park – 7.21 km
- Weigent Park – 8.42 km
- Riverside Park – 8.61 km
- Pettibone Park – 8.89 km
- Powell Park – 9.35 km
- Tower Park – 9.38 km
- Swarthout Park – 9.52 km
- Houska Park – 9. 93 km
- Veteran’s Park – 10.49 km
- Franciscan Care Center – 2.55 km
- Oak Forest Sanatorium – 2.98 km
- La Crosse Hospital – 7.65 km
- La Crosse Grandview Hospital – 7.87 km
- Hamlin Garland Homestead – 8.37 km
- La Crosse Saint Francis Hospital – 9.10 km
- La Crosse Lutheran Hospital – 10.22 km
- La Crosse Fairgrounds Speedway – 7.24 km
- Veterans Memorial Stadium – 7.36 km
- Central High School Athletic Fields – 9.38 km
- Uwl / Student Activities & Centers – 7.81 km
- W W T C – 8.46 km
- University of Wisconsin-La Crosse – 8.76 km
- Skipper Buds Marina – 7.51 km
- Grandad Bluff – 8.20 km
- La Crosse Center – 8. 98 km
- St Rose of Viterbo Convent Franciscan Sisters of Perpetual Adoration M – 9.16 km
- Minnesotas Fashionable Tour Historical Marker – 9.74 km
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Stoney Creek Hotel La Crosse – Onalaska
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Obstacle course | Forbes.ru
In a stuffy, claustrophobic room at Nike’s Sports Research Laboratory, a man in a sweat-drenched T-shirt winds kilometers on a treadmill.It is hung with sensors, their wires are drawn to the measuring equipment standing next to it. Hot air flows from bright lamps: the room temperature is 35 ° C. The ventilation system maintains humidity at 40%. And so seven days a week, for an hour and a half a day. Compensation for the “tester” – payment for purchases in the Nike store. The test simulates the operation of the company’s products in the weather conditions of Beijing in August, which will host the Olympic Games in the summer.
This test tests the T-shirt – a prototype model for the Chinese track and field team: the product must have excellent performance in sweating away from the body. Nike generally loves the scientific approach. The world’s largest manufacturer of sports footwear and apparel retains its position largely thanks to its knowledge of the intricacies of tailoring and materials science. It is a mistake to think of a company as a seller of bulk goods in the sense in which one speaks of Apple or Wal-Mart. Today, it looks more like a huge group of sellers who are trying to prove to Chinese runners and American skateboarders that their sneakers or jerseys are ideal for their respective sports.Nike has a shoe for American Indian athletes and one for cricketers in India. There is even a model for lacrosse players. The number of sneaker and apparel models reaches 13,000 per quarter. The sale of this good gives an annual revenue of $ 16 billion (expected net profit for the current fiscal year – $ 1.6 billion). About three-fifths are footwear, almost everything else is clothing.
Nike CEO Mark Parker sits in his spacious office in a building just opposite the research lab. Parker knows a lot about running, even more about sneakers, and he also knows how important this laboratory is – after all, it was he who founded it in 1980. As a student, Parker, he said, “reeled in miles.” He enjoyed experimenting with his shoes, adding foam to the backing and neoprene to the toe. It was more comfortable to run that way.
Shortly after graduation, he heard about a company then called Blue Ribbon Sports, a newcomer to the Oregon footwear market. The company was led by sports coach William Bowerman and one of his former apprentices, runner Philip Knight.At first, the firm simply sold Japanese sneakers. But both founders of the company were obsessed with the idea of making comfortable sports shoes. In 1979, Parker joined the company as a shoe designer and soon worked side by side with the legendary Bowerman, who came up with a unique nesting sole design, pouring rubber material into a waffle iron for some experiment.
Bowerman died in 1999 at the age of 88. Knight, now 69, has been at the helm of the company for 36 years. And when in 2004 he selected a new CEO, he first tried to find him on the side.Parker, who believed that he himself deserved the full right to the top position in the company, even had to help in the search for a new boss. Nike eventually hired renowned marketing executive William Perez, whose extensive track record included S. C. Johnson & Son (maker of Mr. Muscle, Dressing Duck and Glade air fresheners), among others. But Knight, the chairman of the board of directors and the largest shareholder in the company (his stake today is worth at least $ 5.6 billion), quickly realized that he was wrong.Nike didn’t need a brand specialist – it needed a sports specialist. And a year later, Perez was fired. This cost the company at least $ 15 million in compensation. (Perez now heads Wrigley, the world’s largest chewing gum company.) And soon after Perez left, Knight replaced him with Parker and retired from operational management to devote himself entirely to his hobby. “They don’t wave their fists after a fight,” he says when asked about the unpleasant story with Perez. – That didn’t work.It works”.
What exactly is “working”? Parker, a 29-year veteran of the company, took the helm and destroyed quite a bit of what Knight had built. Biggest change: structural reorganization. Previously, the company divided everything by product category (footwear, clothing, one or another piece of equipment). Today everything is divided into sports. There are divisions for football (shoes and clothing together), basketball, men’s fitness, women’s fitness. Each has its own product development and marketing directors.With this structure, running shoes are radically different from gym shoes, as running is radically different from exercising on machines. There are divisions whose products are intended only for golfers or only for children who ride skateboards. For the benefit of athletes who do not run or pole vault, but still want to be equipped, there is a separate Nike division (called “Sports Culture”).
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And it’s all part of the micromarketing game.In the mass market, sneakers are nothing more than sneakers. They compete with others of the same, costing $ 30, produced in the same factories in China or Indonesia, where Nike also makes its products. But in the micromarket, a shoe is something with a unique cushioning system made from air-inflated chambers, or even an integrated processor (the Nike Plus model communicates with your iPod to report distance). Then a pair can cost $ 80, $ 120, or even $ 200. When golf star Tiger Woods said he needed more traction in his shoes to play, Parker’s team analyzed footage of the famous golfer’s legs during the swing and kick.Solution: a groove in the thrust bearing where the flexible gasket is inserted. This finding formed the basis for the SP-8 TW Tour, released in 2006. Its retail price is $ 220.
But back to the experiments for the Chinese. Nike will wear 22 of the 28 Chinese Olympic teams. This will mean a full-scale entry for the company into the Chinese market, where 3,000 stores have already opened, and sales this year could reach more than $ 1 billion. But Nike must proceed with caution: the company cannot take by storm a country where sales grew by 50% in a year, simply by drawing your famous swoosh logo on all empty spaces.The company must meet the expectations of potential buyers, from Olympic sprinters to skaters from Nanning. “We’re not going to plant our Western brand,” says Parker.
He recently returned from Shanghai where he met 50 artists, architects, writers and filmmakers to “download their brains.” Here is what he says about his visit: “We realized that China is buried under the ‘western’ tsunami and is losing its uniqueness. The creative elite is trying to ward off the blow, and we must treat this with understanding. “
The micromarketing approach is clearly visible in the amount of Nike’s marketing budget: $ 2 billion a year is just a billion dollars (or so) less than the cost of producing 225 million pairs of sneakers. Unsurprisingly, the company spends huge sums on sponsorship deals with sports stars like Tiger Woods – it has always done so. It’s amazing how little she now spends on television advertising: $ 60 million in the first nine months of 2007 in the US, according to TNS Media Intelligence. Parker is more than happy to spend on projects like the LeBron James Showroom, which opened briefly in Shanghai last year in support of a new $ 200 model.He also does not limit the costs of promotion on the Internet: a three-minute video with Brazilian football star Ronaldinho, shot for little money, quickly gained 35 million views.
Parker’s mergers and acquisitions, as well as the creation of separate firms on the basis of divisions, are fully consistent with the new business model. Last year, he spun off a line of inexpensive Starter products sold in hypermarkets and sold it to Iconix Brand Group for $ 60 million.In doing so, he shelled out $ 582 million (twice the revenue) for Umbro, a footwear and apparel manufacturer based in Manchester, UK. Through this world famous football town, Umbro is linked to sports. And Starter is not associated with anything.
Nike managers live in the rhythm of the sport for which their division makes products. Nike Skate employees wear piercings and tattoos, and Nike Golf employees wear clothes that resemble the uniforms of expensive private schools.“We want to segment and diversify. Our potential depends entirely on how well we focus and align ourselves in each production sector, ”says Parker.
A cult of sorts has already emerged around the Nike Plus, the one with the microchip that communicates wirelessly with the iPod. Runners listen to music as they run, and the chip remembers time and distance information. From time to time the voice of the famous cyclist Lance Armstrong cheers up: “Congratulations! You just set a kilometer record! ” Back home, sneaker owners can go to the Nike Plus website and upload all the information there, build graphs and view their statistics.They can also challenge other sneaker owners to a virtual duel.
So-called barefoot running shoes with deep grooves in the sole to simulate barefoot running are supposed to strengthen the muscles of the foot, lower leg and ankle. Their price is around $ 100. And for $ 230, you get the Air Jordan XX3, Nike’s first green basketball shoe. The model uses recycled materials and water-based solvents.
Under Parker, efforts were spent not only on developing new models.Nike has spent several hundred million dollars (according to analyst John Shanley of Susquehanna Financial Group) reorganizing its supplier network to achieve a three-week reduction in time for new products on store shelves. Today Nike, instead of directing all flows from factories in Southeast Asia through the distribution center in Memphis, as it did before, can send goods to specific stores and even to specific customers who place an order over the Internet. This makes it easier for a company to place orders for the production of limited editions of goods sold at a high price.This summer, for example, the $ 400 limited-edition Mercurial SL carbon-fiber football boots will be available in 50 stores in 50 stores in a limited edition of just 2,000 pairs.
Parker plans to increase its own retail and online sales from $ 1.5 billion to $ 4 billion by 2011, mainly by opening 100 small stores associated with a specific area. The Buenos Aires store will focus on soccer and women’s fitness. In Los Angeles, skateboarding and fashion. Would other Nike retailers be outraged? Nike ensures that its stores are not located near partner stores.In addition, cooperation is possible between them. Parker is working with footwear chain Foot Locker on the House of Hoops project, which is all about basketball shoes and apparel. The first store opened late last year in Harlem. It is planned to open 50 more points. Two brand new Nike iD studios, one in New York and the other in London, invite visitors to design their own sneakers. The best models will be released in limited editions.
Parker is very clear about his mission statement: Buyers should feel like Nike has something to offer them.“The last thing I would like is to be the guy who was invited to the party because he has money, but nobody really wants to see him,” he says. “I want to be the person who was invited because he is funny, interesting, aware of what is being discussed, and can throw up a couple of ideas.”
In Knight’s day, the company painted its swoosh on everything from casual wear to baby shoes. If you had a leg, you would find shoes from Nike, and let the whole world know about it.Lavish TV campaigns have featured megastars like basketball player Michael Jordan for huge sums of money. The videos were quite arrogant, with the team slogan “Just do it”. At times, the company went a little way beyond propriety: during the 1996 Atlanta Olympics, it ran an ad mocking the Olympians: “You won’t win silver, you will lose gold.”
Here’s proof of Nike’s fallacy at the time: Parker reveals that when the company bought the famous basketball shoe manufacturer Converse, one of the brand’s supporters sent him a Chuck Taylor shoe with a swoosh on it and wrote, “Please don’t do this.”
Nike got into trouble when young athletes and hobbyists switched from many sports to one. “Kids chose the sport at an early age and did it all year round,” said Charles Denson, president of Nike brand. And in some events, the rules are not Nike at all. For example, skateboarders have found new manufacturers, such as the smaller companies Vans and Emerica, who are better versed in what it takes to skate.
Nike launched its branded swoosh products into the skate shoe and apparel market in 2002.She failed. Sales were only $ 25 million for the year. Parker, who was co-president of the Nike brand at the time, rolls his eyes at the mention of this. “One morning I woke up and literally thought the following: it’s funny, we never felt like a part of this culture, so nothing will come of it,” he says. Parker bought marketing talent from skateboard manufacturers, and last year, according to SportsOneSource analyst Matthew Powell, Nike Skate had sales of $ 200 million.
The company’s performance under Peres has improved. In fiscal 2005, sales grew 12% to $ 13.7 billion. But the company lacked the sporting spirit of winning. And in the same period, Nike’s stock price fell $ 3 to $ 42. Since Parker took over in January 2006, the stock has climbed to $ 56 (split).
Are the main shareholders satisfied? It seems so – judging by the fact that Knight is now more interested in film production (Laika Entertainment) and attending writing courses than running equipment.Parker says he sees his boss only occasionally. At meetings of the board of directors.
Buick LaCrosse: Buick LaCrosse price, Buick LaCrosse specifications, photos, reviews, video
Specifications Buick LaCrosse
|Number of doors||4|
|Number of seats||5|
|Trunk volume, L||500|
Modifications Buick LaCrosse
Buick LaCrosse 2.4 AT
|Maximum speed, km / h||–|
|Acceleration time to 100 km / h, sec||–|
|90 Engine||Engine||Displacement cm 3||2400|
|Power HP / revolutions||182/6700|
|Torque, Nm / revolutions||233/3400|
|Combi consumption, liters per 90 km 3|
|Gearbox type||Automatic, 6 gears|
|Show all features|
Buick LaCrosse 3.6 AT
|Maximum speed, km / h||–|
|Acceleration time to 100 km / h, sec||–|
|90 Engine||Engine||Displacement cm 3||3564|
|Power HP / rpm||304/6800|
|Torque, Nm / rpm||357/5300|
|Combi consumption, liters per 90 km 34|
|Gearbox type||Automatic, 6 gears|
|Show all features|
Buick LaCrosse 3.6 AT AWD
|Maximum speed, km / h||–|
|Acceleration time to 100 km / h, sec||–|
|90 Engine||Engine||Displacement cm 3||3564|
|Power HP / revolutions||304/6800|
|Torque, Nm / revolutions||357/5300|
|Combi consumption, liters per 90 km 34|
|Gearbox type||Automatic, 6 gears|
|Show all features|
Buick LaCrosse classmates at the price of
Unfortunately, this model has no classmates…
Owner Reviews Buick LaCrosse
2012 Buick LaCrosse
I bought this car in 2012. Fully loaded. Engine 3.6 liters, 303 hp with., it is possible to turn off half of the cylinders. The system is called AFM, (Active Fuel Management). When driving up to 120 km per hour and without acceleration to the gas to the floor, half of the cylinders in the engine are turned off. There are 3 cylinders and a volume of 1.8 liters. Consumption for such a ride is about 7 liters per hundred.There are active and passive cruise control, all kinds of electrical adjustments, heated, cooled and ventilated seats, a screen with Bluetooth, navigation, USB inputs. And a lot of other stuff. Class car. The Buick LaCrosse is a pleasure to ride. You press on the gas and this cruiser presses into the seat, you are carried away into the distance. But you need to carefully look at the speedometer needle, and it is projected onto the windshield – there is no sense of speed. Acceleration to 150 takes about 12 seconds. A huge, comfortable and beautiful car.Real consumption is about 9 liters per hundred, you start to drive – about 11. When driving around the city with passengers – 10 per 100. Very reliable and unpretentious car. Take it and do not hesitate, year 2011-2012, fully loaded CXL. There is leather, sunroof, all the “bells and whistles”. I drive 30 km before work every day, and I wind about 100 km on an empty track every day.
Advantages of : appearance. Engine with switchable cylinders. Rich equipment. Fuel consumption.
Disadvantages : not noticed.
Wallpaper Desktop Buick LaCrosse
Wallpaper Buick LaCrosse
Introduced at the 2009 North American Motor Show, the Buick LaCrosse has been extensively redesigned at GM.The changes affected not only the design, but also the technical stuffing, as well as the chassis and engines. Since the Buick LaCrosse from this generation is positioned at GM as the flagship model, absolutely everything about this car is made with an emphasis on the premium segment. The design speaks for itself – streamlined aerodynamic shapes combined with a powerful front end and elegant roofline accentuate the Buick LaCrosse’s high performance and unparalleled comfort qualities. The ergonomic interior in wood and leather finishes leaves an exceptional impression of quality, in a word – premium.
In 2013, GM presented to the public a restyled version of its sedan. Buick LaCrosse has got an updated grille, revised lighting technology with expressive diode elements and “refreshed” bumpers. In addition, complex advanced security systems appeared in the list of optional equipment, in particular, warning in case of a possible collision with a vehicle in front, monitoring of blind spots of mirrors, adaptive cruise control, warning when leaving the lane.Under the hood, Buick LaCrosse is equipped with a 2.4-liter inline-four petrol engine and a 3.6-liter V6 engine. Transmission – 6-band automatic.
90,000 From Genetics to Origami: Five Unusual Subjects in US Schools
Change the genome of the fruit fly, calculate the proportions of an ideal sculpture, learn origami and escape the zombie apocalypse: how do you like this plan for the school year? Top US schools are already incorporating these and other exciting activities into their programs.No cramming: everything is learned in practice. And by the way, after school there will still be time to play squash.
Origami, Viking History and Astrobiology
Perhaps the most creative curriculum is offered by Phillips Academy Andover methodologists. This is not surprising: the very name of this legendary school arouses awe among knowledgeable people. Among its alumni are two US presidents, six Nobel laureates, dozens of prominent businessmen, lawyers, scientists, actors, and athletes.
Phillips Academy is so attentive to the inclinations of children that we are ready to offer them fantastically in-depth classes in a wide variety of subjects. Specialization – at the level of the best universities in the world.
Painting and design is as much a part of the program as science. Phillips Andover students can be envied by taking hands-on courses in wire sculpting, engraving or Japanese origami. Another study module from the “art” category is devoted to ancient ceramics.Students learn primitive aesthetics, explore the material – clay – in terms of geology and archeology, and experiment with hand-sculpting techniques.
Lovers of history and literature can concentrate on the periods and countries of interest to them. You can, for example, study the history of the Vikings, the history of immigration to the United States, or the history of cinema. Nothing prevents at the same time from becoming an expert on the literature of Africa or colonial India. There are courses dedicated to the work of individual authors: Charles Dickens, James Joyce, William Shakespeare, Jane Austen, Virginia Woolf.
A lot of surprises have been prepared for those specializing in natural sciences: what is the only course in astrobiology, where they study the conditions for the origin and spread of life in the solar system and beyond. One subject examines the impact of climate change on world history, the other traces the relationship between human behavior and the availability of water resources. The bioethics course introduces a complex discussion about the rules for the wise use of genetic engineering technologies. In the Arts and Mathematics module, students calculate the ideal proportions of a piece of art.
Genetic experiments and splitting of water into atoms
The renowned Deerfield Academy also offers an advanced science and science program. The most exciting part of learning is experimenting. Every year, the school hosts a symposium, where students present research projects in genetics, microbiology, neuroscience, ecology, organic chemistry and experimental physics.
For example, children, for example, conduct genetic and neurological experiments on fruit flies, test the effects of vitamins, proteins and amino acids on them in certain pathologies.In other works, the splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen atoms is modeled using the reaction of the copper-chloride cycle, phosphorus is detected in the substance using a colorimeter.
Lessons Abroad and Playing Lacrosse
In order for children to immerse themselves as deeply as possible in the subject being studied, schools sometimes arrange educational trips. Thus, the course on the history and culture of South Africa at the Northfield Mount Hermon School involves offsite classes in the country of study. Schoolchildren travel to cities, visit local museums, schools, churches, national parks, meet with political leaders.
In Russia, children whose favorite lesson is physical education are perceived with irony. In the United States, the attitude towards youth sports is much more serious. An outstanding performance on a high school basketball or baseball team virtually guarantees a place in a prestigious university and promises a promising career. The flagship in terms of athletic training can be safely considered the Pomfret School in Connecticut. The infrastructure on the campus allows you to realize the most daring sports ambitions.