Brother Rice Athletics Home Page
TRADITION OF EXCELLENCE
Brother Rice High School has an unprecedented record of success in state athletic competition with 77 team state championships in ten different sports over the past 50 years and more than 60 individual state champions in golf, wrestling, tennis, track, cross country, skiing and swimming.
Brother Rice Athletics will charge admissions to various sporting events throughout the year in football, soccer, hockey, basketball, and lacrosse. Regular season admission fee is $5.00 (cash only) per spectator, children 8 and under are free, no senior discount.
Brother Rice is offering an Athletic All-Sports Pass. This pass will get you into all Brother Rice Home athletic events (does not include CHSL & MHSAA tournament games). The passes can be purchased via FACTS by following the link here.
Any presale ticketed events will be communicated in advance. At this time, there are no spectator restrictions. Brother Rice faculty, staff, and students have free admission with ID to all Brother Rice home events other than CHSL and MHSAA tournaments.
Brother Rice High School, in cooperation with the Archdiocese of Detroit and the Detroit Catholic High School League, does not normally schedule athletic contests or practices on Sunday, the Day of the Lord. For more information on this observance, please read the pastoral note by Archbishop Allen Vigneron.
CHSL PISTONS GAME
The Detroit Pistons will once again host a Catholic High School League night, this year on Friday, November 19, when they host the Golden State Warriors. A portion of each ticket sale will go back to the school selected and the Catholic High School League. With each ticket purchased, guests will receive a custom winter cap in black and orange, with Brother Rice name, and Piston logo. Click below for more information; click here to purchase tickets.
CHSL Pistons Game
After a year off, Brother Rice lacrosse expects ‘to pick up where we left off’
After a year off, Brother Rice lacrosse expects ‘to pick up where we left off’
Brother Rice lacrosse coach Ajay Chawla says his boys not playing last year because of the pandemic “was a big hit to our culture where you expect to win, but we’re going to pick up where we left off.” (Photos courtesy of James Rivard)
BLOOMFIELD HILLS — Let the Michigan high school boys lacrosse world be forewarned: “We’re going to pick up where we left off.”
Brother Rice coach Ajay Chawla issued his proclamation Wednesday evening on the heels of the Warriors getting the best of archrival Novi Detroit Catholic Central, 8-1.
Where his team left off was two years ago when Rice won its 14th Division 1 state championship, its 21st Catholic League championship, and recorded the school’s fourth perfect season (23-0).
There are five weeks and about a dozen more games on tap before Brother Rice will have the opportunity to defend its CHSL and MHSAA titles. Chawla will use the time to get the boys into a finer playing shape than what he saw against CC.
“We are very inexperienced,” he said. “We made a lot of mistakes, but I loved the hustle, determination and energy, especially on defense and the goalies (seniors) Tommy Kunz and Nate Randall. We split them. Each plays a half.”
Sophomore Sam Klein found the back of the net in the game’s opening two minutes. Senior co-captain Luke Dudley scored twice, and senior Zach Rivers scored 31 seconds before halftime to give Rice a 4-0 lead.
Dudley opened the third quarter with his third goal followed by goals by sophomore Hunter Polonkey, junior Paulie Fortino and senior Robert Reaume to round out the Warriors’ attack.
Co-captain senior Aidan Bishop scored for the Shamrocks early in the fourth quarter.
“You know,” Chawla said, “that none of these (17) seniors when they were sophomores two years ago played on the varsity. It’s a new team. There will be a big learning curve for them to learn my system.”
Catholic Central coach Dave Wilson voiced similar comments about his squad’s performance. “We haven’t had a lot of practice and we’re inexperienced. There’s a lot of room for improvement.”
Since 2005 when lacrosse was sanctioned by the MHSAA, Brother Rice’s dominance is unprecedented. The Warriors’ overall record is 307-41 under coaches Rob Ambrose (2005-2013; 185-19) and Chawla (since 2014; 122-22).
Against 44 Michigan high schools, Rice’s record is an incredible 222-5.
In the CHSL, Rice is 115-3: 33-0 vs. Detroit U-D Jesuit, 32-3 vs. CC, 21-0 vs. Warren De La Salle, 20-0 vs. Orchard Lake St. Mary’s Prep, 9-0 vs. Bloomfield Hills Cranbrook Kingswood.
Catholic Central had the Warriors’ number in 2018. A regular season victory snapped Rice’s 56-game win streak at the time followed by taking the CHSL championship and a state title, its first against Brother Rice in eight state finals.
The Warriors are 107-2 against other in-state schools. The defeats were administered by Detroit Country in overtime in 2014 to break a 133-win streak, and Grand Rapids Forest Hills Central in 2018.
Brother Rice is 85-36 against teams based in Canada and five states.
“It’s taken years to build a culture where you expect to play hard and expect to win,” Chawla said. “The year off was a big hit to our culture, but we’re going to pick up where we left off.”
Jerry Dietz’s Men’s Lacrosse Recruiting Profile
I play lacrosse for Brother Rice High School and coach Rob Ambrose in Bloomfield Hills Michigan. I am a 6’4″ 215 lb attack/midfielder. I am a starter and currently play attack in the crease but I am comfortable on the wing or at midfielder. I ended the season with a 1.8 goals/game average. I was named 2012 Academic All-State and All Regional. I was recently selected to the All-Star Game at Top 205 and the All-Star Game at University of Michigan’s Wolverine War Camp. My strengths are my quick, hard shot and ability to get to the goal. I have very good size, strength and speed.I am good on the ground balls and I am very intimidating and effective in the ride game. We have a very talented team this year. Brother Rice has been ranked as high as 21st in the Nation by Inside lacrosse /Under Armour and #1 in the Midwest. We played a very competitive schedule against teams such as Culver Academy, Hill Academy, Hamburg, Loyola Chicago, Bishop Timon, Archbishop Moeller, etc. We won the 2012 Michigan Catholic League Championship and we won the 2012 Michigan Class A Div I State Championship. That’s the 8th consecutive State Championship for Brother Rice. We ended the season 20-2. I am looking for a university with a competitive lacrosse program as well as an excellent academic reputation.
brother rice | Great Lax State
It’s been a minute since we’ve had a Lax Links post, so this could be a long one.
As always, the inbox is open via e-mail or Twitter for tips. On to the links: NCAA Four Detroit Titans were namedto the Inside Lacrosse pre-season all-MAAC team. LSM Jordan Houtby – also an Honorable Mention All-American, according to IL … Continue reading →Posted in division 1, high school, mcla, wcla | Tagged brandon shima, brother rice, byron collins, clarkston, conference affiliations, cooper charlton, davenport, detroit, detroit country day, evan kneisel, gp select, grand valley state, heat lacrosse, jamie hebden, jc sorenson, jordan houtby, michigan, michigan state, mike schlosser, monmouth, nick garippa, oakland, peter plaskey, quinnipiac, rutgers, shayne adams, team total, tempo-free, wagner, women |
As always, my inbox is open for news tips, press releases, articles, delicious recipes, etc. at [email protected] You can also hit me up on twitter @GreatLaxState. High School/Club Tryouts for the Varsity and JV levels of the 313 Lax travel … Continue reading →Posted in division 1, division 3, high school, mcla | Tagged 313 lacrosse, adrian, alma, brad lott, brother rice, clarkston, detroit, don lasala, grand valley state, hordan houtby, jack dumsa, jason levesque, kyle jackson, lauren sharkey, max zwolan, pittsburgh, rob ambrose, tom sardelli, will perkins |
Rounding up the lacrosse news around the state of Michigan. Questions, news tips, photos, etc. can be e-mailed to [email protected] or tweeted @GreatLaxState. Club I went to a club lacrosse game and all I got was this stupid retina burn. … Continue reading →Posted in division 1, mcla | Tagged 1763, arizona state, brother rice, chris kolon, club lacrosse, corina mahorn, davenport, delta lacrosse, detroit, emily boissonneault, gp select, grand valley state, heat lacrosse, jake marmul, jason alessi, joe maclean, kevin riley, kyle beauregard, lawrence tech, maverik, michigan, mike costello, pat stansik, tim murray, tommy heidt, wolverine warriors |
So, uh, it hasn’t been a long time since the last links post, right? Rounding up the past couple weeks of items that have been brought to my attention. Gear Delta Lacrosse club coach Nick Zoroya sends along some imagery … Continue reading →Posted in division 1, division 3, gear posts, high school, mcla | Tagged ahmed iftikhar, ann arbor, austin shanks, birmingham seaholm, bloomfield hills lahser, brekan kohlitz, brendan gaughan, brooke pancoast, brother rice, charlie keady, charlotte hounds, delta, detroit, detroit catholic central, detroit country day, grand valley state, heat lacrosse, holt, jake marmul, judd lattimore, justin tuma, kalamazoo college, kelly kubach, mhsaa playoffs, michigan, nick kondoleon, notre dame, novi, penn, randolph-macon, recruiting, roanoake, robbie zonino, troy, utica eisenhower, women |
Who says officials are just guys who couldn’t play the game? Passed along by GLS regular Reg Hartner, MHSAA official Ron Snook (accidentally, one must assume) takes out a Brother Rice player during the Warriors’ big quarterfinal win over Clarkston … Continue reading →
Congratulations to the four high school state champions in Michigan: Boys Division 1 – Bloomfield Hills Brother Rice Division 2 – Forest Hills Central Girls Division 1 – Birmingham Unified Division 2 – East Grand Rapids Now the high school … Continue reading →
Rounding up the latest in the lacrosse world of Michigan. To drop me an article, news tip, etc., you can hit the inbox via twitter or email. The Next Next Level Brother Rice alum Andrew Cote may have been limited … Continue reading →Posted in division 1, division 3, gear posts, high school, mcla | Tagged andrew cote, ann arbor pioneer, austin shanks, brendan gaughan, brother rice, calvin, chris gervat, clarkston, cranbrook, davenport, detroit, east grand rapids, forest hills central, grand valley state, heat lacrosse, hope, ian king, john paul, johns hopkins, l’anse creuse north, mattawan, michigan, michigan state, pontiac notre dame prep, riley kennedy, trevor yealy, utica eisenhower, warren de la salle |
We’re down to the state semifinals. Only 16 teams left means only 12 more games before a champion is crowned in each of the four high school divisions. Boys Division 1 Brother Rice v. Birmingham Seaholm, 6 p.m. @ Detroit … Continue reading →Posted in high school | Tagged ann arbor pioneer, birmingham seaholm, brother rice, cranbrook, detroit country day, east grand rapids, forest hills central, game schedule, hartland, holt, livonia ladywood, okemos, pontiac notre dame prep, rockford |
vs Clarkston HS
|Ambrose Field at Brother Rice||.|
vs Canton HS
Varsity B (scrimmage)
vs Rockford HS
vs Waverly HS
Varsity B (scrimmage)
|vs Lowell HS||Cancelled||.|
vs Lowell HS
|vs New Trier Twp. HS (Winnetka)||.|
vs Farmington HS
vs Novi HS
|(A)||vs Cathedral HS||.|
vs. MICDS @ Indy
vs Divine Child
|vs University Of Detroit Jesuit||.|
vs Detroit Catholic Central HS
Varsity B vs. CC JV
vs Culver Military & Girls Academy
@ University of Notre Dame
vs Hartland HS
Varsity B vs. Hartland Blue
|(A)||vs Cranbrook Schools||.|
|vs St. Mary’s Preparatory School||.|
vs Detroit Catholic Central HS
Varsity B vs. CC JV
|(H)||vs Detroit Country Day HS||.|
Varsity B vs St. Francis @ Hamberg, NY
vs. Canandaigua @ Hamberg, NY
Varsity B vs. Victor @ Hamberg, NY
vs. Victor @ Hamberg, NY
|(A)||vs Detroit Catholic Central HS||Postponed||.|
|(A)||vs Detroit Catholic Central HS||Postponed||.|
|(H)||vs De La Salle Collegiate||.|
vs Saline HS
Varsity B vs. Saline
|Ambrose Field at Brother Rice||.|
|vs Detroit Catholic Central HS||.|
St. Michaels (scrimmage)
vs St. Mary’s Preparatory School
Varsity B (scrimmage)
Midwest Challenge @ Crown Point, IN
Midwest Challenge @ Crown Point, IN
vs Troy HS
Varsity B scrimmage
Midwest Challenge @ Crown Point, IN
vs Powers Catholic HS
Varsity B vs Flint Powers
|Ambrose Field at Brother Rice||.|
Catholic League Semi-Final
Varsity B vs Perrysburg,OH
Catholic League Championship
|Notre Dame Prep||.|
|(H)||vs Forest Hills Central HS||.|
vs Forest Hills Eastern
Varsity B vs Forest Hills Eastern
Brother Rice ends Victor’s lacrosse streakEditor’s note (April 27, 1:15 p. m.): I’ve updated the item about the financial results from NYSPHSAA state competitions to adjust some of the profits downward. My original reporting shoud have indicated that the data compiled by the NYSPHSAA for its upcoming Executive Committee meeting was a snapshot of what the P&L looked like through mid-April and did not yet include some revenue and expense items.
Leading off today: Victor’s 50-game winning streak in boys lacrosse ended Sunday with a 10-9 loss to Bloomfield Hills (Mich.) Brother Rice.
Brother Rice, which lost a one-goal game to Canandaigua a day earlier, overcame a 7-3 deficit at the half to end the nation’s longest active winning streak. The score was 8-8 entering the fourth quarter.
Victor, top-ranked in the state in Class B, is a two-time defending NYSPHSAA champion. Brother Rice is a 14-time defending champion in Michigan.
“We knew it was going to be a 48-minute game and we played about 36 minutes,” Victor coach Jim Andre told the Democrat and Chronicle.
Andrew Russell scored four goals and Zach Estabrooks added three scores for Victor. Goalie Chayse Ierlan made 17 saves.
“Everyone knows Victor nationally and knows the streak,” Warriors coach Ajay Chawla said. “They’re a well-coached program. … We wanted to be the ones to break the streak. We had the date circled on the calendar since last year.”
The bottom line: It’s hard to look at the financials from last month’s New York State Public High School Athletic Association boys basketball tournament and not come to the conclusion that Binghamton’s first effort at hosting paid the bills — and then some.
The NYSPHSAA reports the three-day event booked a profit comparable to the top recent seasons at the Glens Falls Civic Center despite a substantial drop in attendance. With the help of an aggressive bid that earned the Floyd L. Maines Veterans Memorial Arena a three-year contract, the state’s largest governing body for scholastic sports reported an estimated profit in excess of $145,000 for last month’s semifinals and finals, though some revenue and expense items may still be outstanding.
The final year in Glens Falls resulted in a profit of $103,208. From 2012-15, the net at the Section 2 venue ranged from $122,521 to $153,018.
(About $7,800 of the improved bottom line came from the elimination of athletes gifts, which would have also happened in Glens Falls had it held on to the final four weekend.)
“It’s encouraging,” NYSPHSAA Executive Director Robert Zayas said Sunday. “Any time we’re down almost 5,000 in attendance it’s concerning. But when we’re able to attract bids like this it’s encouraging.”
A year-over-year comparison highlights just how attractive Binghamton’s bid was and what the overall effect was on the P&L.:
• Rent for the arena dropped from $42,119 to nothing.
• The cost for security and athletic trainers dropped from $4,540 to nothing.
• Hotel costs fell from $2,392 to $420.
In addition, sponsorship money soared from $18,400 to $32,000 — on top of an unprecedented $30,000 guarantee specified in the bid. That new income stream allowed the NYSPHSAA to budget more than $8,000 for an advertising campaign and signage, the first outlay along those lines in recent memory.
Not having to pay rent and starting the weekend with the $30,000 guarantee allowed the basketball committee to breathe easier over the fact that Friday was conducted as a single session rather than the traditional two sessions with separate admissions, which Zayas expects to be restored in 2018.
That accounted for probably almost half of the attendance drop from 15,488 to 10,644. Weather (especially for the winter and fall seasons) and how well supporters of the participating schools travel are variables outside of anyone’s control, which is why the bid process changes instituted under Zayas have contributed to overall financial stability for the NYSPHSAA.
Year 2 of hockey at HarborCenter in Buffalo saw net revenue grow from $17,314 to $25,349. The first year of indoor track at Staten Island’s spectacular Ocean Breeze Complex after many years at Cornell University saw a swing from a loss of $1,247 to a profit of $10,240.
“Look at the difference in Binghamton, HarborCenter, St. John Fisher College for lacrosse (beginning this spring) and indoor track,” Zayas said. “We used to spend $21,000 for the building plus $6,000 for timing in indoor track. In Staten Island, it was around $10,000 and that included the timing.”
At the end of the day, it allows the NYSPHSAA to continue running money-losing championship events such
|Orchard Lake St. Mary’s vs Brother Rice||2021-05-15|
|Brother Rice Orange vs Holt||2021-05-15|
|Cranbrook at Brother Rice||2021-05-12|
|Brother Rice vs Detroit Country Day||2021-05-08|
|Walled Lake Western vs Brother Rice B||2021-04-19|
|Hartland vs Brother Rice||2021-04-10|
|Brother Rice vs De La Salle||2021-03-30|
|Brother Rice vs Hamilton Southeastern||2021-03-26|
|Brother Rice vs Culver||2018-05-07|
|Brother Rice vs Culver||2017-05-07|
|Brother Rice vs Loyola Academy||2017-04-24|
|Hartland Blue vs Brother Rice Orange||2017-04-11|
|Brother Rice (JV) vs Detroit Catholic Central (Freshmen)||2016-05-17|
|Brother Rice vs Detroit Catholic Central Catholic League Championship||2016-05-14|
|Brother Rice vs Detroit Catholic Central (JV) Catholic League Championship||2016-05-13|
|Brother Rice vs Brighton (JV)||2016-05-09|
|Brother Rice vs Howell (JV)||2016-05-07|
|Brother Rice vs Rochester (JV)||2016-05-04|
|Detroit Catholic Central vs Brother Rice (JV)||2016-05-03|
|Brother Rice vs Detroit Country Day (JV)||2016-04-29|
|Brother Rice vs Orchard Lake St. Mary’s (JV)||2016-04-27|
|Brother Rice vs U. Detroit-Jesuit (JV)||2016-04-23|
|Brother Rice vs Hartland (JV)||2016-04-22|
|Brother Rice vs Cranbrook (JV)||2016-04-19|
|Brother Rice vs U. Detroit Jesuit (JV)||2016-04-07|
|Brother Rice vs De La Salle (JV)||2016-04-05|
|Brother Rice vs Detroit Catholic Central Division 1 State Finals||2015-06-06|
|Brother Rice vs Culver Military Academy||2015-05-16|
|Brother Rice vs U. Detroit Jesuit||2015-05-09|
|Brother Rice vs Detroit Catholic Central (JV)||2015-05-08|
|State Final – Brother Rice vs. Detroit Catholic Central||2014-06-07|
|Brother Rice vs Brighton||2014-05-27|
|Brother Rice vs. Troy||2014-05-14|
|Grosse Pointe South vs. Brother Rice||2014-05-07|
|Detroit Catholic Central vs Brother Rice (JV)||2013-04-15|
|Brother Rice vs The Hill||2011-04-15|
|Brother Rice vs Saint Ignatius (OH) MSLA Lacrosse 1996||1996-05-01|
|Brother Rice vs Moeller||1992-05-20|
|Brother Rice vs Detroit Country Day||1989-06-01|
|Brother Rice vs Cranbrook||1987-06-01|
|Brother Rice vs Detroit Country Day||1987-06-01|
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Anne Hathaway: I was preparing myself for loneliness...
Anne Hathaway | Source: Alloverpress
– Ann, first of all I want to congratulate you on your engagement. By the way, as it turned out, you and Adam Shulman signed it back in November last year. However, the engagement was officially announced only in mid-July. Why?
– I could answer as a reasonable girl: we wanted to test our feelings. But in reality – rather from superstition. You know, when you burn yourself once …
– You mean your four-year affair with Raffaello Follieri? Fortunately, you broke up with him before the scandal broke out.Raffaello was accused of fraud, money laundering and other sins, he received four and a half years in prison …
– Of course, I did not suspect anything like that. Raffaello was engaged in real estate, this area is very far from the acting profession, in which I hope I know something. But I had doubts of a different kind. Over time, there was a premonition that our romance with Raffaello was doomed. There was such a case. Once I bought branches of cherry blossoms, and they suddenly immediately began to wither.But the branches were beautiful and I didn’t want to part with them. However, Raffaello told the maid to throw them away. At that moment I realized that we look at many things hopelessly differently. I broke up with him without much regret, but I can’t say that it was easy. And his arrest shocked me. I even started smoking again, although I thought that I had got rid of this habit forever. You know, as a teenager, I had bouts of depression. And then I was terribly afraid that they would repeat themselves. These terrible black gaps in hopeless despair are unbearable … In a word, I was preparing for loneliness, I thought to be in the company of my Labrador girl Esmeralda, I wanted to cleanse myself of my former feelings.I must admit that Adam disrupted my life plan. I suddenly fell in love like a fool without memory!
– It happened in November 2008. What did Adam captivate you with?
– Yes, and not four months have passed since I parted with Raffaello. I liked Adam because he is reserved and undemanding. In those days when I was on the verge of a nervous breakdown, this was extremely important to me. You can keep quiet with him, you can talk – he is ready to tune in to your wave at any moment.Maybe the fact that we are both New Yorkers, people of the same blood, played a role. We get along great. I am Scorpio by the zodiac sign, and he is Aries, the stars promise us a favorable union. (Laughs.) You know, as far as I managed to get to know Adam, with such a person you will not run into any adventure, even a very romantic one. But you can live a long, happy life with him. By the way, I quit smoking right away! Now for sure forever! (Laughs.)
– Doesn’t it bother you that you and Adam are professional in different weight categories? You are an Oscar nominee for the film Rachel Gets Married, an Emmy winner and a host of others; besides, you have incomparable fees …
– All this is nonsense! But since we are talking about this, I can say that Adam is also a theater actor, and besides, recently he has found himself in a new business – jewelry design. Adam does such lovely things! Beautiful, graceful, romantic. By the way, my engagement ring was also made according to his design. As for the glamor lists, the best makeup specialists, the best stylists and fashion designers are working on my “show” look. And in life I can not look in the mirror all day and completely forget about my appearance.
– Be that as it may, you were in no hurry with the engagement …
– Why? Relationships require daily work and must be built.Love is a gift. Magic, mystical. Something meant only for you, not a random smile of fortune. Hence, one must be worthy of this gift. I’d rather work hard to get a decent reward than wait for a lottery win that may not come. This is how I understand love.
– What else do you think is included in this concept?
– Large family. I plan to be a mom by 2016.
– After the movie How to Become a Princess, you were considered the ideal of teenage girls . ..
– And at first I didn’t like it very much, I was ready to hate the picture, but one day I saw with what adoration my younger brother Thomas, who was then thirteen years old (he has since grown up and become an actor), looked at Britney Spears, and realized that teenagers need idols.
– But this is quite cumbersome: the fans are probably pretty fed up with you!
– I deal with too annoying ones with the help of rap. I myself compose the lyrics and rap, looking into the eyes of these guys and as if on their behalf. It’s fun. They take my attitude as a game and are not angry that I actually send them away. At the same time, this is psychotherapy for me – the rhythm calms down, and I stop getting angry.
Anne Hathaway as Catwoman
– You have played many different roles in addition to ideal princesses, but no one probably expected such a sharp genre turn.The long-awaited comic film by Christopher Nolan “The Dark Knight Rises” has appeared on the screen, where you appeared as the insidious Catwoman. What does it mean for you to play such a significant role?
– A lot. As a child, adults usually pester children with questions about who they want to become in the future. When I starred in The Princess Diaries, everyone for some reason decided that as a child I dreamed of becoming a princess. Nothing like this! I wanted to be Catwoman! And now the dream has come true.
– And why did she become your ideal?
– Probably for the same reason that everyone loves cats so much – they walk by themselves! Well, they are also one of the most graceful animals … Catwoman was played by beautiful actresses, including Halle Berry and Michelle Pfeiffer, but I am literally mesmerized by Hedy Lamarr, the star of the 40s, the embodiment of eternal femininity, with which this image in graphic comics.And on top of everything else, I like it when the role demands from me something that I have never done before and I’m even afraid to do it. And if I manage to overcome myself, I feel that I have expanded my acting territory, I feel more comfortable because I have become more able, overcame my fear.
– On the set of “The Dark Knight” you got into trouble …
– Rather not with me, but with my partner, whom I accidentally drove into the eye with a fake pistol. He immediately drew a bruise.I rushed to apologize, and then gave him a pen, which was engraved with the following inscription: “Remember: no one will get in the eye as carefully as Ann.”
– After playing Catwoman, you realized your childhood dream. But it took you a lot of effort to squeeze into this heroine’s costume. I had to sweat a lot in the gym, sit on a strict diet, eat cabbage and rice … But now you can choose any wedding dress …
– As for a dress, even a wedding one, I don’t really bother.I love to watch fashion shows, I put on exclusive outfits myself when I need to appear on the red carpet or at the premiere. And in life I prefer something less pretentious. But in order to wear the Catwoman costume and actually play that role, I had to completely change my lifestyle! Frankly speaking, I am very annoyed by the standard of beauty that is imposed on modern women. It’s a pity to look at thin, emaciated women – after all, it looks unhealthy, unless it is given by nature.Only then is it really beautiful. It’s quite another matter when the role demands it. At this point I salute and say: “Yes!”
– And in this case, sorry for the pun, it just means “Don’t eat!”. How does it feel to be content with only brown rice and vegetables?
– What do you mean! Brown rice was a rarity on my menu! And then he had to work out in the gym. By the way, the diet was not the biggest challenge for me, because I was a vegetarian for a long time, which taught me to be limited.My understudy Maxine became my ideal – I have never seen such a wonderfully built girl! She introduced me to the intricacies of the protein diet and other secrets. And she came to the hall with some kind of outlandish weapon, I haven’t even seen anything like it in the movies. I’m not alone – all the guys were staring at her, shaking their heads and applauding admiringly. I’m up to her as to the moon. Today, the fashion for female weakness is forgotten. Women strive to be strong. For example, I want to carry my own suitcases. And, of course, fit into a suit like Catwoman has no problem.This opportunity alone pays for all the effort spent, all the hardships.
– How did you cope with the fighting episodes in such high heels?
– I had a good training session on the set of The Devil Wears Prada, where I had to learn to run in heels! So when a few fighting techniques and jumps were added to this skill, it was no longer so difficult. In general, a whole team of stuntmen helped me. It was as if I had returned to my childhood, because I loved sports games.And martial arts are a cross between ballet and lacrosse. And I tried to introduce a little dance into the fight scenes to give grace to my kitty …
– Still, what martial arts did you practice?
– Different, little by little. I started with yoga.
– Did you end your visits to the gym with the shooting?
– No, I have developed a strong habit of training. With age, I lost interest in sports, even more – I could not stand it, but now I suddenly fell in love.Sport is a joy for me, not a job. The secret is that I have crossed the threshold to which almost every movement is given by great work and often causes hellish pain than gives pleasure.
– And yet, when the premiere fever ends, will you reward yourself for all your efforts? How do you imagine this romantic evening?
– Red wine, music is best live, candles and damn it, pasta! And, of course, there is also that wonderful person nearby who gives a feeling of real life.This point is the most important.
Kerry, John Forbes is … What is Kerry, John Forbes?
John Forbes Kerry (eng. John Forbes Kerry ; b. December 11, 1943, Colorado) – Junior Senator of the US Senate from the sovereign state of Massachusetts, Chairman of the Senate Foreign Policy Committee. 
Was the Democratic presidential candidate in the 2004 election, but lost to George W. Bush in the presidential election (35 electoral votes).
The Kerry Family
John Forbes Kerry was born at Fitzsimons Army Hospital (Aurora, Colorado), where his father, a pilot of the World War II Army Air Corps, was receiving treatment for tuberculosis. The Kerries returned home to Massachusetts two months after his birth.
Kerry is the second child of Richard John Kerry and Rosemary Forbes Kerry. His father is a Foreign service officer and attorney for the Bureau of United Nations Affairs.His mother was a nurse during the Second World War, she is a member of the wealthy Forbes family. Kerry has two sisters: Diana (born 1947) and Margaret (Peggy) (born 1941) and brother Cameron (born 1950). He lives in Boston. Cameron Kerry married and converted to Judaism.
His mother was Protestant and his other immediate family members were devout Catholics. As a child, John served at the altar. Although fortune smiled across the Kerry family, John’s parents were middle-class. A wealthy aunt paid for John Kerry’s education in elite schools in Europe and New England.Kerry spent his summer holidays at the Forbes family estate in France and there he lived in grand style. While living in the United States, he spent several summer vacations at the Forbes estates on Nauchon Island near Cape Cod.
Through his maternal grandmother Margaret Tyndall Winthrop, he is related to four US presidents, including George W. Bush  , the first American writer Anna Bradstreet and various royal and noble families in Europe, the Middle East and Africa. 
Genealogy researcher Felix Gandecker  , who worked with The Boston Globe, discovered in 2003 that Kerry’s grandparents, née Fritz Koch (Czech Republic) and Ida Loewe (Budapest), changed their names to Frederik and Ida in 1900 Kerry and in 1901 (or 1902) converted from Judaism to Catholicism   .  . Fritz’s older brother Otto, even earlier in 1887  or 1896  , also changed his last name to Kerry and renounced Judaism, presumably to avoid anti-Semitic violence.The surname “Kerry”, which was widely mistaken for immigrants from Ireland, was chosen at random. According to family legend, Fritz and other family members randomly opened the atlas and threw a pen onto the map. She fell in County Kerry in Ireland and thus the surname was chosen. “   After leaving the outskirts of Vienna, where they had lived since 1896, Fred and Ida in 1905, together with their son Eric immigrated to United States They first lived in Chicago and eventually moved to Brooklyn, Massachusetts  in 1915.
The village known as Bennisch, where Fred Koch was born in 1837, was at that time part of Silesia (Austria-Hungary). It is now called Horni Benešov and is part of the Czech Republic.  After examining Kerry’s ancestral connection with their village, the mayor and residents sent congratulatory correspondence to John Kerry with regards to his political pursuits. 
For a time, Fred Carrey was a thriving and successful footwear dealer. Ida and their two children, Richard (who became the father of John Kerry) and Mildred, were able to afford a trip to Europe in the fall of 1921, they returned in October 1921.  A few weeks later, Fred Carrey made a will, leaving everything he had to Idea and on November 23, proceeded to the shower room of the Copley Plaza Hotel in Boston, where he committed suicide by shooting a revolver in the head. …  His suicide made headlines across Boston, reporting that severe asthma and related health problems were the cause. But according to modern reports (citing family sources), the cause of the suicide was a financial problem.“He made three fortunes and, having lost the third, could not stand it any longer,” says his great-granddaughter Nancy Stokeslager. 
John Kerry said that although he knew that his paternal ancestors were from Austria, he did not know (until he was informed by The Boston Globe, based on their genealogical searches) that Fred Koch changed his name to Fred Kerry, and that he was born a Jew.  As well as that Ida’s brother Kerry Otto and her sister Jenny died in Nazi concentration camps. 
Kerry said his first memory was when he was three years old holding the hand of a crying mother as they walked over the broken glass and rubble of her childhood home in Saint-Briac, France. The visit took place 2.5 years after the liberation of Saint-Briat from the Nazis by American troops on August 14, 1944. The family estate known as Les Essarts was occupied and used as a German headquarters during the war.When the Nazis left it, they bombed the Essarts Forest and burned it to the ground.
The ruined estate was rebuilt in 1954 and his parents often spent their summer holidays there. During this vacation, John befriended his first cousin Bric Lalond, a future Socialist and Green Party leader in France, who was a candidate for President of France in 1981.
When his father went to serve at the American Embassy in Oslo, John was sent to Massachusetts to attend boarding school.In 1957 he attended the Fessenden School in East Newton, a village in Newton Massachusetts. Fessenden School is the oldest private boarding school for boys in the country. There he met and befriended Richard Pershing, the grandson of World War I general John Joseph Pershing. Senior Massachusetts Senator Ted Kennedy also attended this school, but several years earlier than Kerry.
The following year, John entered St Paul’s School in Concord, New Hampshire and graduated in 1962.Kerry studied the art of public speaking and began to show a growing interest in politics. In his spare time, he played ice hockey and lacrosse with a team captained by Robert S. Mueller, the current director of the FBI. During this time, Kerry was a member of the Cape Cod American-Irish Kennedy clan and, thanks to this, was introduced to John F Kennedy, Teddy Kennedy, and others. Kerry also played electric bass with the high school band The Electras, which released an album in 1961.Only 500 copies were made – one of them was auctioned off eBay in 2004 for two and a half thousand dollars.
In 1959, Kerry founded the John Winant Society at St Paul’s to discuss burning issues. Society exists there to this day.   In November 1960, Kerry gave his first public speech in honor of John F. Kennedy’s election as President of the United States.
In 1962, Kerry entered Yale University, the dominant political science.He graduated with a BA in 1966. Kerry played football, hockey and was on the fencing team. In addition, he took flight lessons .. 
In his sophomore year, Kerry became president of the Yale Political Union. Among his teachers during this period was Professor H. Bradford Westerfield, who was the former president of the political union.  His involvement in the political alliance gave him the opportunity to be involved in important issues of the day, such as the civil rights movement and Kennedy’s New Horizons Agenda.He was also a member of the secret Skull and Bones Society.
Under the guidance of professor of history and oratory, Professor Rolin Osterweiss, Kerry won many debates with students from other colleges in the country. In March 1965, during the escalation of the Vietnam War, he won the Ten Eyck Prize for Best Junior Speaker for his speech criticizing US foreign policy. One of the quotes from his speech: “This is the spectrum of Western imperialism, which the peoples of Asia and Africa fear more than communism and this is self-destruction.”.” 
For 4 years, Kerry held an average grade of 76 points. In the first year, his average grade was 81 points.  An excellent public speaker, he was selected to deliver a pre-graduation speech. The topic of his speech was extensive criticism of US foreign policy, including the Vietnam War, in which he will soon take part.
In 1962, Kerry volunteered for Teddy Kennedy’s first Senate campaign. This summer he met Jeanette Jennings Auchinkloss, the sister of Kennedy’s wife Jacqueline Onassis-Kennedy.Jeanette invited John to pay a visit to their estate, the Hammersmith farm in Rhode Island. It was there that Kerry first met President John F. Kennedy.
As Kerry recalls, when he told the president about his admission to Yale, Kennedy made a grimace because he himself graduated from a Yale rival Harvard. “He smiled at me, laughed, and said,“ Don’t worry about it. You know, I’m also a Yale now. ” degree a few months ago) “.Later that day, a White House photographer snapped Kerry sailing on Narragansett Bay with Kennedy and his family.
Military service (1966-1970)
Kerry joined the US Navy Reserve in his final year at university. He said he joined the navy after the draft board denied him a one-year deferral to study in Paris. In addition, several of his schoolmates joined the military. Kerry began active service after graduating from university and served until 1970, reaching the rank of lieutenant.During his second stay in Vietnam, Kerry was awarded several medals, including a Silver Star, a Bronze Star, and three Purple Hearts. His military reputation has received significant criticism and praise during his political career, especially during his unsuccessful presidential campaign in 2004.
Education, taking office and service on the ship “Gridley”
On February 18, 1966, Kerry entered the naval reserve,  and on August 19, 1966 began active service.On December 16, 1966, after a full 16 weeks of officer candidates school at the Naval Training Center in Newport, Rhode Island, Kerry was promoted to officer rank. During the 2004 election, Kerry posted his war records on his website and allowed reporters to examine his medical records. In 2005, Kerry authorized the publication of military and medical records by representatives of three organizations, but did not allow full public access to them.  
The first days of service for Kerry began with the rank of ensign (primary naval officer rank) aboard the reconnaissance missile frigate Gridley.The ship’s senior officer described the trip as follows: “We left San Diego for the Vietnamese theater in early 1968, after only six months of operation of the ship, and spent more than four months on the rescue service in the Gulf of Tonkin, picking up downed pilots.”
During his tenure with Gridley’s crew, Kerry was first assigned as commanding officer of the PCF patrol boat, known as the ‘speedboat’. ”  These 50-foot (15-meter) boats had aluminum hulls and had little or no armor.But they had heavy weapons and were designed for high speed. In his book of Vietnamese Memoirs, published in 1986, Kerry stated, “I really didn’t want to get involved in the war. When I was assigned to the boats, they were too small to take part in the war. They were doing coastal patrols, and I thought I was going to do that. ”“  However, his second choice of destination was the river patrol boat, which was considered the most dangerous on the rivers of Vietnam. 
On June 16, Kerry was promoted to second lieutenant. On June 20, he left the Gridley for speedboat training at the Coronado Airborne Base.
On November 17, 1968 Kerry joined Coast Squadron 1 in Cam Ranh Bay, South Vietnam. As a senior boat officer, Kerry led a crew of five to patrol the enemy zone. His first boat was PCF-94, from December 6, 1968 to January 21, 1969, when his crew was disbanded.They were in Coastal Division 11 at Antoi ( An Thoi ). On January 30, 1969, Kerry assumed command of the PCF-94 and its crew, which he led until he left Anta on March 26, 1969, the crew was subsequently disbanded. 
On January 22, 1969, Kerry and several officers met in Saigon with Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, Commander of the United States Naval Forces in Vietnam and General Creighton Abrams, Commander-in-Chief of United States Forces in Vietnam. Kerry and other officers reported that the practice of creating “free-fire zones” pitted the Vietnamese against the United States, and that the boat operations failed to fulfill their objective goals of cutting off the Viet Cong supply lines.According to his biographer Douglas Brinkley, Kerry and the officers who arrived with him were disappointed that their concerns about what was happening were not appreciated, and it all boiled down to a brief conversation.
On the night of December 2, 1968, and early in the morning of December 3, Kerry was at the head of the crew of a small boat operating near the northern peninsula of Cam Ranh Bay along with the PCF-60 boat. According to the recollections of himself and two crew members, Patrick Runyon and William Zaladonis, who were with him that night, they stumbled upon a group of people unloading sampans at the crossing.The people fled and did not obey the order to stop. Kerry and his crew opened fire on the sampans and destroyed them, then quickly left along the river. During this skirmish, Kerry was slightly wounded in his left arm above the elbow. For this he received his first Purple Heart. 
He received his second Purple Heart for being wounded in a battle on February 20, 1969 on the Bode River. According to the plan, the speedboats operated in conjunction with support helicopters. However, on the way to the Bode River, the helicopters were attacked, returned to the base for refueling and could not return to the mission for several hours.As soon as the boats reached the Kualon River, Kerry’s boat was hit by an RPG grenade and a shrapnel fragment hit Kerry’s left leg. After that, they reached the Gulf of Thailand without any problems and safely. The shard is still in Kerry’s leg, because the doctors only removed the damaged tissue and stitched it, without undertaking the extensive surgery necessary to extract the shrapnel.  Kerry received his second Purple Heart for this injury, but like several others wounded earlier that day, he did not lose any time off from duty.   Therefore, he remained in the ranks, without wasting time for service. Like several others injured that day, Kerry suffered a Purple Heart for his injury.
After 8 days, a battle took place, for which Kerry was awarded the Silver Star. He led a group of three boats. Their mission included the delivery of a demolition team and several dozen South Vietnamese soldiers to destroy enemy sampans, buildings and bunkers. Ambushed, Kerry “ordered the boats to turn towards the coast and attack the Viet Cong positions” and he “skillfully directed” the fire from the boats and coordinated the deployment of South Vietnamese troops (as written in the award note signed by Admiral Zumwalt).Approaching a shorter distance, Kerry’s boat came under fire from an RPG. As soon as the boat landed on the shore, the Vietcong grenade launcher jumped out of cover and ran away. The gunner on the boat opened fire and wounded him in the leg. While other boats, approaching, opened barrage, Kerry jumped ashore, caught up and killed the Viet Cong, taking possession of his already loaded rocket launcher.   
John Kerry’s commander, Lt. Col. George Elliot, in a conversation with Douglas Brinkley in 2003, joked that he did not know what to do: whether to prosecute Kerry for mooring a boat to the shore without an order, or to award him with a medal for saving the crew.Elliot introduced Kerry to the Silver Star and Admiral Zumwalt sailed to Anta to personally award Kerry and the rest of the sailors on the mission with medals. Kerry’s naval combat report is featured in an award quote signed by Zumwalt. Information about the fighting is documented in a combat report, a press release written on March 1, 1969, and in a summary of events dated March 17, 1969. 
On March 13, 1969, five boats returned from their missions to the base at the Bayhap River ( Bay Hap ).Earlier that day, they had participated in a shootout (in which Kerry was slightly wounded in the buttocks by shrapnel after an explosion in a rice field). They also dropped off several passengers in a small village. They approached the fishing dam, which consisted of two poles thrown across the river to hang nets. One group of boats turned left, hiding near the coast, and Kerry’s group turned right along the coastline. As soon as the lead boat PCF-3 crossed the dam on the left, a mine exploded directly below it, literally lifting it completely into the air…. 
James Russman, a green beret advisor aboard PCF-94, fell overboard when a mine or missile detonated near the boat. According to the documentation, Kerry was wounded in the arm when he was thrown onto the deck by the blast. PCF 94 returned to the scene and Kerry pulled Rassman out of the water. For his actions, he received a Bronze Star and a third Purple Heart. 
After rescuing the crew of PCF-3 and the evacuation of the most seriously injured sailors by two boats, PCF-4 and another boat remained and participated in the rescue of the damaged boat and repair and restoration work, after which they immediately left the scene.
During the 2004 presidential campaign, about two hundred veterans of the Vietnam War united in the group “Veterans of boats for the truth”, later renamed: “Veterans of boats and prisoners of war”. The group organized press conferences, launched an advertising campaign, and published a book questioning Kerry’s service records and military awards. 
Return from Vietnam and resignation
After the third recorded injury, according to the naval regulations, Kerry was eligible for reassignment from combat service.Fleet records show that Kerry has chosen to be assigned to serve as an assistant in Boston, New York, or Washington.
On March 26, 1969, after finishing his last patrol that night, Kerry was transferred to Cam Ranh. He stayed there for 5-6 days, awaiting orders, and left Vietnam in early April. On April 11, 1969, he reported arriving at the Brooklyn Naval Transport Service base, where he served that year as Adjutant to Rear Admiral Walter Schlecht. On January 1, 1970, Kerry was promoted to lieutenant.  Kerry agreed to extend service from December 1969 to August 1970 under the Boating Order,   but in January 1970 he requested that his early retirement be accepted to campaign to Congress. His request was granted and on March 1, 1970 he resigned.
Kerry was on active duty in the Navy from August 1966 to January 1970. He continued to serve in the Navy Reserve until February 1978. The war claimed the lives of five of Kerry’s friends, among them his classmate Richard Pershing, who was killed in action on February 17, 1968.
Anti-war activities (1970-1971)
After returning to the United States, Kerry joined the organization: Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW), which had 20 thousand members. The organization was viewed (including by the administration of President Nixon) as an effective part of the anti-war movement.
On April 22, 1971, Kerry became the first Vietnamese veteran to testify before Congress about the war when a Senate committee was hearing possible proposals for ending it.He was still in the fleet reserve and held the rank of junior lieutenant. Donning a green uniform with award ribbons, he spoke for two hours before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee at the Fulbright Hearings, named for the chairman of the procedure, Senator J.W. Fulbright. Kerry began his speech with a prepared speech, in which he presented conclusions on the “investigation of the winter soldiers”, and then turned to questions of big politics.
The next day, Kerry participated with eight hundred veterans in a demonstration to return the awards to the government.Marine Jack Smith read the statement explaining the reasons why they are doing this. For more than two hours, angry veterans threw their medals, order ribbons, caps, uniforms and war papers onto the railing of the Capitol’s front staircase, thus dramatizing their opposition to war. Each participant called his name, city, position and made a statement. Kerry also dropped his awards and said: “I’m not doing this out of passion, but for the sake of peace, legitimacy, trying to awaken this country and for everything.”Documentary: “Sir! No sir! ” includes archival footage of Kerry in the demonstration: he is one of several young men who threw things on the railing.
As an award-winning veteran opposed to the government’s official position, Kerry was frequently interviewed by the radio and press. He was able to use these incidents to convey the themes of his testimony before the Senate to a wide audience.
For example, Kerry has appeared on ABC’s Dick Cavett Show multiple times. In one of Cavett’s programs (June 30, 1971), in a dispute with John O’Neill, Kerry stated that some of the political innovations adopted by American military leaders in Vietnam, such as fire-free zones and the burning of civilian homes, were contrary to the laws of war.The Washington Star (June 6, 1971) featured Kerry’s account of how he and the other boat officers were disappointed by the contrast between what they saw with their own eyes and what the leaders told them. “Then I realized that I could never remain silent about the real state of affairs in Vietnam.”
At NBC “press meeting” in 1971, John Kerry was asked if he had personally committed atrocities in Vietnam. Kerry replied:
These were all kinds of atrocities, and I wanted to say yes, yes, I participated in some of them, as well as thousands of soldiers involved in this.I took part in the shooting in fire-free zones. I fired a disturbing fire and a prohibition fire. I used the 50 caliber machine guns that we were equipped with and authorized to use, which were our only weapons against humans. I took part in the search and destruction of enemies, in the burning of villages. All this was contrary to the laws of war and the Geneva Conventions, and all this took place in accordance with the policy established in writing at the very top of the American government. And I believe that the people who came up with these fire-free zones, the people who gave us orders, the people who are silent about the bombing of the territories, I think that according to the letter of the law (which condemned Lieutenant Colley) these people are war criminals.
Kerry’s speeches made him a leader and spokesman for antiwar actions that swept across the country in 1971. One of them was Operation POW, organized by VVAW in Massachusetts. The protest got its name from a group of American prisoners in Vietnam, as well as distinguished American prisoners of war held in captivity in northern Vietnam.
The aim of the action was to try to link anti-war activism with the theme of patriotism, to awaken the spirit of the American Revolution and Revere, Paul Paul Revere.Following Memorial Day (USA) Memorial Day, veterans and other participants marched through the Concord to a gathering site in Boston’s Central Park (Boston Common). According to the plan, the participants were to spend the night at the site of the Battle of Lexington and Concord then at the site of the Battle of Bunker Hill. The culmination of the action was to be a public reading of the declaration of independence.
During the second night of the march, May 29, 1971, Kerry was arrested for the first time while attempting to camp in a Lexington village field.At 2.30 am, local police, along with state police, woke up and arrested 441 demonstrators, including Kerry for crossing the grounds. According to Miranda’s right, their rights were read to all of them, after which they were transported by school buses to the Lexington community service garage, where they spent the rest of the night. Kerry and other protesters paid $ 5 each, after which they were released. The mass arrest rallied the participants and gave a positive face to VVAW.
Despite his role in Operation POW and other VVAW campaigns, Kerry finally left the organization due to disagreements with management.He was later criticized by VVAW
Early political career
Congress Election 1972
1872 Caricature of Carpetbagger
In February 1972, Carrie’s wife Julia bought a home in Worcester after running Kerry’s Congressional campaign in another area. Thanks to his new residence in Massachusetts, Kerry could launch a congressional campaign against incumbent Democrat Congressman Harold D.Donohy. Instead, the Kerries rented an apartment in Lowell. The congressman for this constituency was Republican F. Bradford Morse, who was about to resign.
Ten candidates competed with Kerry in the 1972 Democratic primary. One of them was Lorense Deputy of the House of Representatives Anthony R. DiFruschia. Both candidates spoke on the radio from the same building. On the eve of the primary in September, police found Kerry’s younger brother Cameron and campaign chief Kerry Thomas J.Valleli. (Both were only 22 years old). The police arrested and charged them with “burglary and entry with intent to commit theft,” the case was dropped a year later. During the incident, DiFruschia stated that they tried to tear up his ballot papers. Vallely and Cameron Kerry stated that they were only checking their own phone line as they received an anonymous call warning that Kerry’s phone lines would be cut.
Although the news of the arrest on election day hurt Kerry’s campaign, he did win the primary, ahead of State MP Paul J.Sheehi. The third place was taken by DiFruschia. Kerry lost at Lawrence and Lowell, the main bases of his opponents, but won in 18 of the 22 cities in the county.
In the main election, Kerry initially outpaced Republican candidate Paul W. Cronin and independent candidate Roger P. Durkin. However, Kerry was opposed by the conservative county’s leading newspaper, The Sun, which criticized his out-of-state activities, calling him a “Carpetbagger,” since he had only moved to the county in April.(as the southerners called the republican politicians from the North, who came to the defeated South with travel bags, whom the southerners regarded as robbers). And then the Watergate scandal broke out. White House Oval Office recordings showed that Kerry’s defeat attracted President Nixon’s personal attention.
Four days before the vote, Durkin withdrew his candidacy, urging voters to support Cronin, who won the election, becoming the only Democrat in the district to be elected to Congress.In 1972, Democrat George McGovern ran for president in this district.
Boston Law School and Early Legal Career (1972-1982)
Following the 1972 election defeat, Kerry and his wife bought a house in Lowell. For a time he worked as a fundraiser for the international charity Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere (CARE). He decided that the best way to continue his public life was to study the law. In September 1973, he entered Boston College Law School.) In July 1973, while graduating from high school, Kerry was appointed executive director of the Massachusetts Bar Association Mass Action.
In 1976 he received his Juris Doctor (J.D.) from Boston College. During his studies, he served as a trainee prosecutor in the office of the John J. Dronie District Attorney for Middlesex County. After passing the bar exam and being invited to join the Massachusetts Bar in 1976, he came to work in the same office as a full-time prosecutor.
In January 1977, Droni promoted him to first deputy district attorney. In this post, Kerry played a dual role. First, he investigated cases, pursued charges in aggravated rape and murder cases. Second, he handled office administrative work, facilitating the creation of special crime units, creating programs to address rape, victims and witnesses of other crimes, and drawing up a court calendar to reflect priority cases.While in this role, Kerry announced an investigation into possible criminal charges against Senator Edward Brook, noting the “false statements” in his first divorce
In 1979, Kerry left the district attorney’s office to set up a private law firm with another former attorney. Despite his successful private law practice, Kerry was still interested in public affairs. He began the election campaign for deputy governor of Massachusetts and won a hard-hitting victory in the Democratic primary in 1982.On the list of candidates alongside governor candidate Michael Dukakis, Kerry easily won the main election.
Deputy Governor (1982-1985)
Those who hold the position of Deputy Governor have few responsibilities. However, Dukakis referred additional cases to Kerry. In particular, due to his interest in environmental issues, Kerry became quite fascinated by the issue of Acid Rain Acid Rain. His work contributed to the adoption of a 1984 resolution by the National Governors Association, which in turn was the forerunner of the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act.
During his campaign, Kerry stated that the plans to evacuate in the event of a nuclear war “are a pretense aimed at deceiving the Americans in order to convince them that they can survive a nuclear war.” As deputy governor, he once drafted a decree condemning this kind of planning. Dukakis signed the decree despite losing his chances of being elected president.
Early Senate Portrait by John F. Kerry
Junior Senator Paul Tsongas from Masachusetts announced in 1984 that he was leaving office due to health problems.Kerry decided to take his place. As in the 1982 election for deputy governor, he did not receive confirmation from the state Democratic party organization. But, as in 1982, he dominated the primary. In his campaign, he appealed to liberal values along with the promise of tight budget control. He was elected to the Senate as a Democratic nominee despite overwhelming national support from the Republican Party during the re-election of Republican President Ronald Reagan, who won by a narrow margin in Massachusetts.In his opening speech, Kerry stated that his personal election victory means that the people of Massachusetts “firmly reject the politics of selfishness and the notion that women should be treated as second-class citizens.” Kerry was sworn in as governor in January 1985.
On April 18, 1985, a few months after his inauguration, Senator Kerry traveled with Senator Tom Harkin from Iowa to Nicaragua and met with President Daniel Ortega.Although Ortega was elected in a democratic election, the senators’ trip was criticized because Ortega’s left-wing regime had strong ties to Cuba and the USSR. The Sandinista government was opposed by the right-wing CIA and rebels known as the Contras. While in Nicaragua, both senators communicated with both sides of the conflict. Through their mediation, Ortega proposed a ceasefire in exchange for a suspension of US support for the contras. The proposal was rejected by the Reagan administration as a “propaganda initiative” designed to influence the $ 14 million vote to aid the rebels.Kerry replied, “I am willing to take the risk of testing the goodwill of the Sandinistas.” Senta voted to allocate this amount to the rebels, but Ortega flew to Moscow, receiving a loan of $ 200 million the next day. In response, the Senate immediately decided to donate over 27 million more in aid, a transfer that took place six weeks later.
Photo of Oliver North after his arrest
In April 1986 Kerry and Christopher Dodd, a Democrat Senator from Connecticut, proposed a hearing on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee to consider allegations against the Contras related to the trafficking of marijuana and cocaine.The chairman of the committee, Republican Senator Richard G. Lugar of Indiana, agreed with their proposal.
Meanwhile, Kerry’s headquarters launched their own investigation and on October 14 issued a report exposing illegal activities involving Lt. Col. Oliver North, who established a private network including the National Security Council (NSC) and the CIA to deliver military supplies to law-minded Nicaraguan rebels. ). As a result, North and several members of the presidential administration were accused in Kerry’s report of illegally supporting and supplying armed militias without the support of Congress.The Kerry headquarters investigation was conducted for about a year, based on the interrogation of 50 unnamed sources and eventually raised “serious questions: whether the United States adhered to the law in its support of the Contras over the past three years.”
A report from the Kerry Committee found that “the links in the contras drug trafficking chain included … payments to drug traffickers from funds that the US Treasury Department allocated for humanitarian aid to the contras as authorized by Congress. , incited by the same agencies.“The Kerry report was the forerunner of the Iran-Contra affair. On May 4, 1989, North was convicted on three charges related to this case. However, on September 16, the charges were dropped following an appeal.
Kerry and the George W. Bush Administration
On November 15, 1988, while attending a business lunch in East Lynn, Kerry joked to President-elect George W. Bush and his current aide, “If Bush gets shot, the Secret Service has orders to shoot Dan Quayle.“The next day he apologized.
Senate portrait of John Kerry
During its investigation into Noriega, Kerry’s headquarters suggested that the Pakistan-based Bank for International Credit and Commerce (BCCI) was contributing to Noriega’s drug trafficking and money laundering. Thanks to these findings, an investigation was launched against the bank, it was closed in 1991. In December 1992, Kerry and Colorado Republican Senator Hank Brown released a report entitled The BCCI Affair, dedicated to the scandal.
According to the report, the bank is working with terrorist organizations, including Abu Nidal. This compromised the Department of Justice, Treasury, Customs, the Federal Reserve Bank, as well as the powerful lobbyists and the CIA. Kerry has been criticized by a number of Democrats for harassing members of his party, including former Secretary of Defense Clark Clifford, although Republicans have argued that Kerry has pressed harder on several Democrats. Later, the BCCI bank scandal was dealt with at the Manhattan District Attorney’s office.
In 1996, during his re-election, Kerry faced a powerful opponent – the popular Governor of Massachusetts, William Weld, who was re-elected in 1994 with 71% of the vote. The campaign for this seat has become one of the toughest Senate campaign races this year. Kerry and Weld participated in several debates. Meeting at the Kerry mansion on Beacon Hill, the rivals struck a deal for the maximum $ 9 million in campaign spending.However, both sides exceeded this figure, which gave rise to mutual accusations about who broke the agreement first. There is no evidence that it was because of this that Kerry broke away from the enemy. During the campaign, Kerry made a short speech at the National Democratic Conference. Senator Kerry won with 53 percent of the vote, Weld won 45. According to Newsweek, during the 2004 presidential election, Karl Rove, Karen Hugs and other senior Bush campaigners questioned Weld during anti-Kerry debates and campaigns.
In the 2000 presidential election, Democratic presidential candidate Al Gore nominated Kerry as a potential vice presidential candidate, along with North Carolina Senator John Edwards, Indiana Senator Evan Bay, Missouri Congressman Richard Gerhardt, New Hampshire Governor Joanna Cheyenne and Senator Joy Lieberman from Connecticut, whom Gore ultimately chose. Despite this, Kerry continued to campaign on behalf of Gore-Lieberman until election day.
Kerry’s Political Views
According to most analyzes of Kerry’s votes, he belongs to the left.
During the 2004 presidential race, he was introduced as a staunch liberal by some conservative groups and members of the Bush campaign staff, who often claimed that Kerry is the top Senate liberal according to the National Journal’s list. However, such a statement was based only on data from the past year, while according to the results of Kerry’s career, the national magazine gave him only 11th place among the largest liberals in the Senate.Most analyzes show that Kerry is only slightly more liberal than the typical Democratic senator. For example, Keith T. Poole of the University of Houston found Kerry to be only the 24th most liberal senator.
Kerry stated that he opposes privatization …, supports abortion rights for adult women and minors, supports civil marriage for same-sex couples, opposes the death penalty (excluding terrorists), supports most gun control laws and, in general, supports trade agreements.Kerry supported the North American Free Trade Agreement and most favored nation status for China, but opposed the Central American Free Trade Agreement.
In July 1997, Kerry joined his Senate counterparts in voting against the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol on Global Warming, with no restrictions on gas transfers to developing nations, including China and India. He then lashed out at President Bush, accusing him of opposing international efforts to combat global warming.
Attitude towards Iraq
In 1991, during the Gulf War debate, Kerry initially opposed the immediate use of force to drive Iraqi soldiers out of Kuwait. The UN has put in place sanctions against Iraq, and Kerry has argued that sanctions can give more time to work.
On December 14, 2001, confusing three months after the 9/11 terrorist attacks, Kerry told Larry King Leew that “I think it is very clear that we must maintain global pressure on terrorism.In any case, it will not end after Afghanistan. And I think the president made it clear. I think we need to make this clear. Terrorism is a global threat. This is a scourge. And it is absolutely necessary for us to continue the confrontation, in particular against Saddam Hussein. ”
When asked about the types of weapons in the hands of Hussein, Kerry replied on October 9, 2002 before the war “According to the CIA report, all American intelligence experts agree that Iraq is looking for nuclear weapons.” There is a small question that Saddam Hussein wants to develop nuclear weapons. “Kerry also said: “I voted to empower the President and the United States to use force if necessary to disarm Saddam Hussein. I believe that the destructive arsenal of weapons of mass destruction in his hands is a real and serious threat to our security. ” In 2003, Bush, relying on this resolution, ordered the invasion of Iraq. On January 23, Kerry delivered a speech at Georgetown University “Surely we must disarm Saddam Hussein. He is a brutal, bloody dictator at the head of a despotic regime.He is a particularly dangerous threat because he is so prone to miscalculation. The threat from Saddam Hussein, equipped with weapons of mass destruction, is quite real. ” However, Kerry warned the administration not to start wars until all diplomatic means were exhausted. “Mr. President, take your time with the war, give time for the formation of a coalition. It is not difficult to win a war, it is difficult to achieve peace. ”
After the invasion of Iraq, when no weapons of mass destruction were found, Kerry fiercely criticized Bush, claiming that he had misled the country.”When the President of the United States looks at you and tells you something, there must be at least a little truth in it.”
Participation in the activities of the Senate
During his Senate career, Kerry initiated or contributed to the issuance of dozens of Acts of Congress. Some of his most famous acts are devoted to the problems of small business, education, terrorism, veterans, prisoners of war and missing, the protection of marine resources and other topics. In December 2004, laws were issued on the basis of 11 of its acts.
From 1991 to 1993, Kerry chaired a special elected Senate Committee on Prisoners of War and Missing Persons. The committee’s report, confirmed by Kerry, found that “there is no evidence to support the presence of living Americans in captivity in Southeast Asia.” In 1994, thanks to the efforts of Kerry and Vietnamese veteran Senator McCain, the Senate passed a resolution proposing an end to the existing trade embargo against Vietnam, paving the way for normalization of relations. In 1995, President Bill Clinton restored diplomatic relations between Vietnam and the United States.
From 1987 to 1993, Kerry was chairman of the Senate Democratic Campaigning Committee. He was re-elected to the Senate in 1990, 1996 (after winning re-election against Massachusetts Governor William Weld) and in 2002. His current term ends on January 3, 2009.
In 2007, Kerry served on four Senate committees and 12 subcommittees:
Presidential campaign 2004
John Kerry, Walter Mondale and Max Cleland in Minneapolis, October 21, 2004
Kerry’s height 1.93 m. He is fond of hunting, surfing, windsurfing, playing ice hockey, playing bass guitar. According to an interview he gave in 2004 in the Rolling Stones store his favorite album Abbey Road, he is a fan of the Beatles and the Rolling Stones, a fan of Jimi Hendrix and Jimmy Buffett. He stated that he never liked “heavy metal”. During his 2004 election campaign, Kerry chose Bruce Springsteen’s song “Don’t Give Up” as one of his campaign anthems. He later chose the U2 song “A Beautiful Day” as the official anthem of his campaign.
The sports magazine Sports Illustrated described Kerry as an avid cyclist using mostly a road bike. Before the presidential race, he took part in several long bike rides (“hundreds”). Even during his election campaigns, he found time to visit bike shops in his state. During hotel stays, his assistants demand the installation of exercise bikes in Kerry’s rooms.
In 2003, Kerry was diagnosed with prostate cancer, and the course of treatment was successful.
In 1970, Kerry married Julia Thorne and had two daughters, Alexandra and Vanessa. Alexandra was born on September 5, 1973 before Kerry attended law school. After graduating from Brown University, she received her M.F.A. in June 2004 from the AFI Conservatory. She is a documentary filmmaker. Vanessa was born on December 31, 1976. Like her grandfather, she graduated from Philips Academy and Yale University. She also attended Harvard Medical School and is now a Master of the Medical Policy Program in London.Both daughters helped their father’s election campaign in 2004.
Kerry with his wife Teresa on board the ferry
In 1982, Thorne, suffering from severe depression, asked Kerry to part.  They divorced on July 25, 1988. The marriage was officially annulled by the Roman Catholic Church in 1997. “After 14 years of being married to a politician, politics for me is associated only with anger, fear and loneliness,” she wrote in her book on depression. Choice of the Heart “. Subsequently, Thorne married the architect Richard Charlesworth and moved to Voseman, Montana, where she took part in a local environmental group such as the Great Yellowstone Coalition.Thorne assisted Kerry in the 2004 presidential race. She died of cancer in April 2006.
Kerry and his second wife Teresa Simoe-Ferreira Heinz, widow of Pennsylvania Senator John H. Heinz and former UN translator were introduced to each other by Heinz himself at the Earth Day gathering in 1992. After they met, they never met until Heinz’s death at the UN Development and Environment Summit in Rio de Janeiro. They were married on May 26, 1995 in Nantucket. Kerry has three stepsons – the sons of Teresa from her first marriage – John H.Heinz IV, Andre Heinz and Christopher Heinz, married to Alexandra de Ruyter Lewis on February 10, 2007. Wife is 5 years older than Kerry.
A Forbes 400 survey found Theresa Heinz Kerry had a fortune of $ 750 million in 2004. However, according to a Los Angeles Times study, estimates often diverge, in areas ranging from 165 million to 3.32 billion. Despite the discrepancies, Kerry is considered the richest senator in the United States. In addition to his own fortune, he owns at least four financiers, transferred to him from members of the Forbes family, including from his mother, who died in 2002.Juranle Forbes (the main business magazine of the Forbes family) determined that if Kerry won the presidential election, he would become the third richest president in US history (adjusted for inflation). Kerry and Teresa signed a prenuptial agreement to separate property, although they pay taxes on all matrimonial property. Kerry’s financial declaration estimates his personal property in the range from 409,000 to 1.8 million, the property that he shares with his wife is estimated in the range of 300.000 to 600,000.
Kerry, being a Roman Catholic, stated that he carries a rosary, a prayer book and a medal of St. Christopher (patron saint of travelers) when he travels. Although Kerry is personally opposed to abortion, he supports the rights of women, which gives rise to his disagreements with the Catholic Church. Similar tensions with the church also occur among other national political leaders of the Catholic faith: Rudolph Giuliani, George Pataki, Nancy Pelosi and Arnold Schwarzenegger.Discussing his identity, Kerry stated “I wanted to become a priest. I was very religious while studying in Switzerland. I was a boy at the altar and prayed all the time. I was very focused on the masses in the church. ” He also said that “Paul’s letters” inspired and taught him mainly “not to feel guilty about himself.”
According to “Christianity Today,” Kerry noted about his faith:
“I am a Catholic and a Catholic in fact, but at the same time my ears are open to many general expressions about spirituality that have come from different religions.… I spend some time reading and thinking (about religion) and trying to study it. I do not have a sense of disagreement, rather a sense of the commonality of many so many different paths, the systemic meaning of the roots and commonality of the Torah, the Koran and the Bible and the main story that we all go through and which really connects us “
Hyperlinks and Sources
- Gibbs, Nancy and Waller, Douglas, What Kind of President Would Kerry Be ?, Time, February 9, 2004
- Joe Klein, “The Long War of John Kerry: Can a Massachusetts Brahmin become President?” The New Yorker , December 2, 2002.
- Kranish, Michael, John Kerry: Candidate in the making, The Boston Globe , June 15, 2003
- The 2004 Debates
- The New Soldier, John Kerry’s book at FreeKerryBook.org
- Profile: John Kerry, BBC News
- Frontline: the choice 2004 — Thorough two-hour special comparing Kerry and Bush
- Black Political Task Force endorses John Kerry, 1984 on the WGBH series
- Ten O’clock News
- Researcher Alleges Potential Plagiarism in 11 Passages of Kerry’s Writings
- John Kerry’s complete 1971 statement before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee from National Review
- Selections from John Kerry’s 1971 statement before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee
- This Land! Popular viral video featuring John Kerry, 2004.
- Kerry Interview on The Hour with George Stroumboulopoulos
- Obama rally with John Kerry and Others MP3 on Feb. 2, 2008 in Sacramento, CA
- Brinkley, Douglas, Tour of Duty: John Kerry and the Vietnam War , William Morrow & Company, 2004. ISBN 0-06-056523-3
- Kerry, John and Vietnam Veterans Against the War, The New Soldier , MacMillan Publishing Company, 1971.ISBN 0-02-073610-X
- Kerry, John, The New War: The Web of Crime That Threatens America’s Security, Simon & Schuster, 1997. ISBN 0-684-81815-9
- Kerry, John, A Call to Service: My Vision for a Better America , Viking Press, 2003. ISBN 0-670-03260-3
- Kerry, John and Teresa Heinz Kerry, This Moment on Earth: Today’s New Environmentalists and Their Vision for the Future , PublicAffairs, 2007. ISBN 978-1-586-48431-6
- Kranish, Michael, Brian C.Mooney, and Nina J. Easton. John F. Kerry: The Complete Biography by the Boston Globe Reporters Who Know Him Best , PublicAffairs, 2004. ISBN 1-58648-273-4
- McMahon, Kevin, David Rankin, Donald W. Beachler and John Kenneth White. Winning the White House, 2004 , Palgrave Macmillan, 2005. ISBN 1-4039-6881-0
- O’Neill, John E. & Corsi, Jerome R. Unfit for Command: Swift Boat Veterans Speak Out Against John Kerry , Regnery Publishing, 2004.ISBN 0-89526-017-4
- http://www.healthlink.org/ – Salem Power Plant – Cut The PLant MR KERRY
- ↑ http://www.boston.com/news/politics/2008/articles/2008/11/20/kerry_poised_to_cap_long_journey/
- ↑ Sedensky, Matt. Bush vs. Kerry? They’re distant cousins, Associated Press via MSNBC.com (2004-02-17). Retrieved on 2007-01-29 .
- ↑ Kelland, Kate John Kerry’s family traced back to royalty.Reuters via MSNBC.com (2004-08-16). Archived from the original on February 2, 2006. Retrieved on January 29, 2007.
- ↑ 1 2 3 Berger, Joseph. Kerry’s Grandfather Left Judaism Behind in Europe, The New York Times (2004-05-16). Retrieved on 2008-01-08 .
- ↑ 1 2 3 4 904ran104904 904 904ran 6 6 Mooney, Brian C.; Easton, Nina J .. John Kerry: The Complete Biography by The Boston Globe Reporters Who Know Him Best, The Boston Globe (2004-04-27). Retrieved on 2008-01-08 .
- ↑ 1 2 3 4 Whitmore, Brian. Hearing of roots, Czech village roots Kerry on, The Boston Globe (2004-02-22). Retrieved on 2008-01-08 .
- ↑ 1 2 3 Kranish, Michael. A privileged youth, a taste for risk, The Boston Globe (2003-06-15). Retrieved on 2008-01-08 .
- ↑ Goldhaber, Samuel Z .. John Kerry: A Navy Dove Runs for Congress (1970-02-18).
- ↑ 1 2 Kranish, Michael.A privileged youth, a taste for risk http://www.boston.com/globe/nation/packages/kerry/061503.shtml, John Kerry: Candidate in the Making , The Boston Globe Online (2003-06 -15).
- ↑ Martin, Douglas. “H. Bradford Westerfield, 79, Influential Yale Professor,” New York Times, January 27, 2008.
- ↑ Leibenluft, Jacob Kerry ’66: ‘He was going to be president’. Yale Daily News (February 14, 2003). Archived from the original on November 18, 2005. Retrieved on January 29, 2007.
- ↑ Kranish, Michael. Yale grades portray Kerry as a lackluster student: His 4-year average on par with Bush’s, The Boston Globe (2005-06-07). Retrieved on 2007-01-29 .
- ↑ http://www.johnkerry.com/pdf/jkmilservice/Request_For_History_of_Service.pdf (inaccessible link)
- ↑ Kranish, Michael. Kerry allows Navy release of military, medical records (2005-06-07).
- ↑ Gerstein, Josh. Kerry Grants Three Reporters Broad Access to Navy Records (2005-06-21).
- ↑ 1 2 http://fl1.findlaw.com/news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/jkerry/rqstswiftboat.pdf
- ↑ Kranish, Michael. Heroism, and growing concern about war, John Kerry: Candidate in the Making , The Boston Globe Online (2003-06-16).
- ↑ John Kerry’s Vietnam medals
- ↑ Douglas Brinkley John Kerry’s first Purple Heart.Salon. Retrieved January 3, 2007.
- ↑ http://homepage.mac.com/chinesemac/kerry_medals/PDFs/Doyle.pdf
- ↑ http://homepage.mac.com/chinesemac/kerry_medals/PDFs/SeaLords324.pdf
- ↑ http://homepage.mac.com/chinesemac/kerry_medals/PDFs/SeaLords312-316.pdf
- ↑ Silver Star Medal – John F. Kerry
- ↑ 1 2 http: // homepage.mac.com/chinesemac/kerry_medals/PDFs/SeaLords270.pdf
- ↑ John Kerry’s Vietnam medals
- ↑ http://homepage.mac.com/chinesemac/kerry_medals/PDFs/SeaLords358.pdf
- ↑ Bronze Star Medal – John F. Kerry
- ↑ http://files.findlaw.com/news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/jkerry/thricewnd.pdf
- ↑ United States Navy Temporary Orders and Ranks (Internet Archive mirror) (PDF). Retrieved September 8, 2006.
- ↑ http://news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/jkerry/rqstswiftboat.pdf
- ↑ http://news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/jkerry/releaseactduty.pdf
- ↑ News & Politics (washingtonian.com)
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Rama (in the ancient Indian epic) is … What is Rama (in the ancient Indian epic)?
Rama (Skt. राम, rama ? ) or Ramachandra is one of the incarnations of God in Hinduism, the legendary ancient Indian king of Ayodhya.
In Hinduism, Rama is revered as the seventh avatar of Vishnu, who descended into the world in the last quarter of the Treta Yuga about 1.2 million years ago.    According to the Srimad-Bhagavatam, he is one of the lila-avatars of God.  Most Hindus regard him as a real historical figure, a king who ruled most of modern India from his capital Ayodhya. Along with Krishna, Rama is one of the most popular avatars of God in Hinduism.The cult of Rama is especially characteristic of the followers of Vaishnavism, the predominant trend in Hinduism. 
A detailed biography of Rama is contained in the Ramayana – one of the two greatest ancient Indian epics, along with the Mahabharata.  Rama was the eldest son of Emperor Ayodhya Dasharatha and his wife Kausalya. In the tradition of Hinduism, Ramu is called “Maryada Purushottama”,  which literally translated from Sanskrit means “perfect man.”  Rama is the husband of Sita, who is revered in Hinduism as the avatar of Lakshmi and the personification of the perfect woman.  
The life and deeds of Rama are the perfect example of strict adherence to the principles of dharma in spite of difficult life trials. For the sake of preserving the honor of his father, Rama renounces his claims to the throne of the kingdom of Koshala and agrees to voluntarily go into exile in the forest for a period of 14 years.  In exile, Rama is accompanied by his wife Sita and brother Lakshmana, who decide to join him, unable to live in separation.When Sita is kidnapped by Ravana, the powerful demonic ruler of the Rakshasa of Lanka, Rama embarks on a long and difficult search for his wife, during which his strength and virtue are tested. Having located Sita, Rama fights in a huge battle with the large army of Ravana. Powerful miraculous creatures take part in the war and supernatural types of weapons with enormous destructive power are used. In the end, Rama kills Ravana and frees his wife from his captivity.After the end of the period of exile, Rama returns to Ayodhya and becomes king, and subsequently the emperor of the whole world.  Rama’s reign lasts 11 thousand years, during which the entire planet is dominated by the era of perfect happiness, peace, prosperity and justice, known as “Rama-rajya”.
In search of Sita, Rama displays great courage and valor by fighting a terrible war to free her. Sita, in turn, sets the perfect example of a virtuous wife, demonstrating absolute devotion to her husband and perfect chastity despite being held captive by the demonic Ravana.Like Rama himself, his younger brothers – Lakshmana, Shatrughna and Bharata – also display valor, strength and virtue.  Rama is assisted by such powerful followers as Hanuman and the Kishkind Vanaras, with the help of whom Rama frees Sita from the captivity of Ravana.  The legend of Rama had a huge historical impact on the population of the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. Rama and the stories about him continue to enjoy immense popularity in modern Indian culture and Hinduism.Rama is revered by Hindus for his qualities of boundless compassion,  valor, loyalty to duty and religious principles.
“Frame” Rāmá ? in “Rig Veda” and “Atharva Veda” – an adjective meaning “dark, black” or a noun “darkness” or “darkness”, for example, in “Rig Veda” 10.3.3 (translated by T. Ya. Elizarenkova): “Spreading along with beautiful looking days, Agni (with His) light colors overcame the darkness” .In the meaning of a proper name, Rama is mentioned in the “Rig Veda” 10.93.14: “I chant Duhsima Prithhavana, Vena, Rama, the Almighty and the King!”
Feminine, adjective rami rāmīˊ ? is an epithet for the night (Ratri), like “krishni” kṛṣṇīˊ ? , – adjective “krishna” kṛṣṇa ? feminine “dark; black”. Manfred Meinhofer suggested that the word originated from the Proto-Indo-European (H) reh 1 -mo- , single-rooted with Old High German rāmac “dirty”.
The Vedas mention two Ram with patronymics Margaveya and Aupatashvini ; another Rama with the patronymic Jamadagnya is the alleged author of one of the Rigvedic hymns. According to Monier-Williams, the three Rams became famous in the post-Vedic period,
- Rama-chandra (“lunar Rama”), son of Dasharatha, descendant of Raghu (Rama described in this article).
- Parashu-rama (“Frame with an ax”), the sixth avatar of Vishnu.He is also called Jamadagnya, Bhargava Rama (descendant of Bhrigu), or Chiranjivi (Immortal).
- Bala-rama (“strong Rama”), also known as Halayudha (“wielding the plow in battle”), the elder brother and close associate of Krishna, described in the Srimad-Bhagavatam and Brahma-samhita as svayam-bhagavan …
In Vishnu-sahasranam, Rama is the 394th name of Vishnu. According to Shankara’s commentary, Rama has two meanings: the Supreme Brahman, the eternally blissful spiritual entity in which yogis attain spiritual bliss, or God, who, according to his will, took the beautiful form of Rama, the son of Dasaratha.
The main source about the life and deeds of Rama is the ancient Indian Sanskrit epic “Ramayana”, the compilation of which is attributed to the Vedic Rishi Valmiki. The Vishnu Purana tells the story of Rama as the seventh avatara of Vishnu. Rama’s life is summarized in the Srimad-Bhagavatam (Canto Nine, Chapters 10-11), including the killing of Ravana and the return of Rama to Ayodhya. In addition to this, stories about Rama are also contained in the epic Mahabharata.
There are different versions of the Ramayana in different regions of India.Followers of Madhvacarya believe that there was an ancient version of the Ramayana, the so-called Mula Ramayana, which has been lost. They believe she was more authoritative than Valmiki’s version. One of the important abridged versions of the Sanskrit epic is the Adhyatma Ramayana. The 7th century Sanskrit South Indian poem Bhatti-kavya (Poem of Bhatti) by Bhatti is a retelling of the epic, which illustrates in parallel grammatical examples from Panini’s Ashtadhyaya, as well as the main rhetorical figures and prakrit.  Later versions of the “Ramayana” arose in the folk languages of the Indian subcontinent, which described the life, deeds and divine philosophy of Rama. These include the Tamil poem “Kambaramayanam” by the 12th century poet Kambara, and “Ramacharitamanas”, a Hindi version of the “Ramayana” of the 16th century saint Tulsidas. Versions of the Ramayana exist in almost all modern Indian languages. Modern versions of the Ramayana include Sri Ramayana Darshanas by Kuwempu in Kannada and Visvanatha Satyanarayana’s Ramayana-kalpavrikshamu in Telugu.In various regions of India, each of which has its own unique linguistic and cultural traditions, the epic has undergone certain changes. 
Stories from the Ramayana also spread throughout Southeast Asia, resulting in unique versions of the epic, including episodes from local history, folklore, religious values, and specific features of local languages and literature. Great works with unique characteristics and narrative differences in the presentation of the legend of Rama include Kakavin Ramayana from Java, Indonesia, Ramakawacha from Bali, Hikayat Seri Rama from Malaysia, Maradiya Labana from the Philippines, Ramakian from Thailand (in which Rama is called “Phra Ram”).Images of episodes from the life of Rama can be found on the walls of the temple complex at Wat Phra Kaew in Bangkok. In the Burmese version of the Ramayana, which is the country’s national epic, Rama is called Yama. In the Khmer version of the Ramayana, Reamkere, Rama is known as Preah Ream. In Lao “Pha Lak Pha Lam,” Buddha is described as the incarnation of Rama.
Biography of Rama
Birth and Childhood
With the intention of satisfying the devas and obtaining a worthy son, King Dasaratha performed the Vedic sacrifice of putrakameshti.Dasharatha distributed the sacred food obtained during the ritual among his three wives. According to the principle of seniority, Kausalya took the drink first, and then Sumitra and Kaikeyi. As a result, Rama was born to Kausalya, Bharata to Kaikeyi, and Lakshmana and Shatrughna to Sumitra. Rama was born in the city of Ayodhya (which is in the modern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh), the capital of the ancient kingdom of Koshala, on the night of the ninth day after the new moon, under the Punarvasu nakshatra and under the rising sign of Cancer. He appeared in the Surya-vamsa (“Solar Dynasty”) dynasty and was a descendant of such great personalities as Iksvaku (son of the sun god Vivasvan), Raghu and Bhagiratha.Rama’s body was dark blue, which indicated his divine origin. 
The Ramayana describes that from childhood all four brothers were tied by the bonds of friendship and brotherly love. A particularly strong affection existed between Rama and Lakshmana, and between Bharata and Shatrughna. The king and his three wives loved all four brothers very much, but Dasharatha and the courtiers gave particular preference to Rama. The training of Rama and his three brothers took place in the ashram of the sage Vasishtha, who taught them the philosophy of the Vedas, the laws of dharma, and other sciences.Since the boys were born in a royal kshatriya family, they wanted to become great warriors. Their military training was entrusted to the sage Viswamitra. The boys were sent to his forest ashram, where they learned the art of war and distinguished themselves by killing many Rakshasas who terrified the forest dwellers and defiled the Vedic sacrifices of the brahmanas. It is described that Rama and his brothers were of enormous stature, noticeably taller than the tallest people of their time. They possessed extraordinary insight, ingenuity and unsurpassed skill in military affairs. 
Rama begins to fulfill his divine mission
When the ceremony of choosing a groom for Sita was announced, the sage Viswamitra brought the young princes Rama and Lakshmana to the ceremony site. In order to win the competition and get the hand of Sita, the applicant had to draw the huge bow of Shiva and shoot an arrow from it. It was believed that this task was beyond the power of man, since this bow was the personal weapon of the powerful Shiva, with which no one could compare in strength in the universe.The aspirants who tried their luck before Rama could not even budge the bow, but when Rama’s turn came, he, drawing the bow, broke it into two parts. The fame of the incredible power of Rama spread all over the world and guaranteed his marriage to Sita. 
After the lavish wedding of Rama and Sita, the entire royal family and the Ayodhya army began their journey home. On their way, they met Parashurama, who came down from his ashram in the Himalayas. Parasurama is an extremely powerful sage.He is the sixth avatar of Vishnu, who previously destroyed in anger 21 times all the kshatriyas on the planet. Parasurama could not believe that someone was capable of breaking Shiva’s bow. Considering himself still the most powerful warrior on earth, he brought Vishnu’s bow with him, intending to demand from Rama to draw it and demonstrate his strength or fight him in battle.  Despite the fact that the whole army of Rama was not able to enter the battle being paralyzed by the influence of the mystical power of Parashurama, Rama bowed to Parashurama, and, in a split second, snatched Vishnu’s bow from his hands, put an arrow in him and aimed it directly at the heart of Parasurama.Rama promised to save Parasurama’s life if he indicated any other target for his arrow. At that moment, Parasurama felt that he had lost all that extraordinary mystical power that he had possessed for so many years. He realized that Rama is the embodiment of the supreme Vishnu, whom no one can surpass. Parasurama accepted the exalted position of Rama, dedicated the results of all his tapasya to him, bowed to him and promised to return to his abode to leave human society. 
After that, Rama shot an arrow from Vishnu’s bow into the sky, performing another superhuman act, which was for him a simple use of his eternal personal weapon. The events that took place greatly impressed everyone present. However, even after Rama used Vishnu’s bow with such ease and skill, no one except Vasishtha and Parasurama realized his divine position. It is said that the arrow shot by Rama continues to fly in space to this day, making its way through the entire universe.Returning back, she will have to bring with her the destruction of the world. 
Expulsion of Rama and death of Dasaratha
Feeling the approach of old age, Dasharatha decided to place Rama on the throne. An auspicious day was chosen for the ceremony, which was officially announced. The news made everyone in the kingdom happy, especially Rama’s mother, Kausalya. However, Dasaratha’s second wife, Kaikeyi, had a maidservant named Manthara, who is described as “crooked in body and soul.”She came to Kaikeyi and began to convince her that Dasharatha is cunning, dishonest in heart and wants evil for his wife. He wants benefit only for Kausalya – while Bharata is humiliated, Rama will soon be enthroned. Manthara urged Kaikeyi to act immediately, to save Bharata and herself. Overcome with jealousy, Kaikeyi hurried to meet her husband and asked him for a gift. The king vowed to do whatever she wanted, after which Kaikeyi asked to put Bharata on the throne, and Rama to expel to the forest of Dandaka for fourteen years.Dasharatha could not refuse his wife her request, since many years ago Kaikeyi saved him from certain death and as a reward for this she received a blessing, which she now used.  Grief-stricken Dasharatha shut himself up in his chambers and Kaikeyi herself announced to Rama what had happened. Rama agreed to go into exile without hesitation. The courtiers and residents of Ayodhya, learning about what had happened, came to great grief. It was especially hard for Dasharatha, who had special affection for his eldest son.Hating his younger wife, Dasharatha could not come to terms with the idea of such a long separation from Rama. Rama, however, clearly understood that a ksatriya king should not under any circumstances break his promise, just as a son should not break his father’s order.
When Rama told Sita about everything, he tried in the darkest colors to describe to her all the horrors of life in the forest, unusual for a gentle woman like her. Rama asked her to stay in Ayodhya and comfort his parents. Sita replied that she was ready to endure any hardships, since her duty was to serve her husband and follow him everywhere.Lakshmana also followed Rama and all three went to the Dandaku forest.  The residents of Ayodhya were deeply saddened by Rama’s departure and condemned Queen Kaikeyi. Dasaratha’s heart was broken with grief and a week after the departure of Rama he died of separation from him.
During all these events in Ayodhya, Bharata was away in Girivridge, the capital of the kingdom of his maternal uncle. When messengers brought him the news of Rama’s departure into exile, he hurried back to Ayodhya. Angered by his mother’s behavior, Bharata blamed her for Dasaratha’s death.He declared that he was ready to renounce her, but would not do so just because Rama calls her his mother. Wanting to correct the mistake made by Kaikeyi, Bharata went in search of Rama. Finding his brother wandering through the forests in the clothes of a hermit, Bharata told him about the death of Dasharatha and began to beg him to return to Ayodhya and rule by right the kingdom that belonged to him. Rama refused and announced that he intended to spend all fourteen years in exile, since he was obliged to do this by a duty of honor: it was not possible for him to break the word given by Dasharatha.Realizing that further persuasion was pointless, Bharata returned to Ayodhya, bringing with him a pair of Rama’s sandals, which he placed on the throne as a sign that he was ruling only as his brother’s governor.
Unwaveringly believing in the power of destiny, Rama did not harbor any resentment or dislike towards Kaikeyi.  According to the classical explanation, this exile actually provided Rama with the opportunity to fulfill his mission: to fight Ravana and crush his mighty evil empire.
Abduction of Sita by RavanaRavana – ten-headed king of Lanka.
Rama and Sita are the protagonists of one of the most famous love stories of all time. It is described that they were very much in love with each other. In Hindu theology, they are considered the incarnations of Vishnu and his eternal consort and the female incarnation of Lakshmi. Sita did not hesitate to follow her husband, intending to endure the hardships of life in exile.  Rama, in turn, constantly protected and cared for her.
Once Ravana’s sister Shurpanakha, having gone for a walk in the Dandaka forest, saw Rama there and fell in love with him without memory. She expressed her feelings to Rama, who refused her, referring to the fact that he was already married. Jokingly, Rama suggested that she try her luck with Lakshmana, who was single and might be in need of a girlfriend. Surpanakha proposed to Lakshmana, but he also rejected her love. Angry, Surpanakha unleashed her anger on Sita and tried to kill and eat her. Lakshmana interceded for his brother’s wife and cut off Shurpanakha’s nose and ears.In this form, Surpanakha went to complain to her younger brother Khara. To avenge his sister, Khara sent fourteen Rakshasas to kill Sita along with Rama and Lakshmana and bring their blood to quench the thirst of Surpanakhi. Rama, however, easily killed all the Rakshasas. Then Khara himself marched with an army of fourteen thousand, intending to punish Rama.
Rama fought with the Rakshasa army and defeated it, in a duel he killed Khara himself. After that, Surpanakha went to Ravana and told him what had happened.She also described Sita’s extraordinary beauty, suggesting that it was more fitting for her to be the wife of Ravana than Rama. By this, Surpanakha aroused the interest of Ravana, who willingly agreed to avenge her.
Ravana was well aware of the power of Rama and Lakshmana and therefore resorted to cunning. He asked his uncle the sorcerer Marichi to take the guise of a golden deer. Marichi, in the form of a deer, began to frolic around the hut where Sita and Rama lived. Sita, seeing a beautiful deer, asked Rama to catch it for her.Rama rushed in pursuit of the deer, but not being able to catch him, shot him with a bow. The wounded animal shouted loudly in the voice of Rama, calling out to Lakshman for help, and Sita thought that Rama was in trouble and was calling them for help. Sita asked Lakshmana to immediately go in search of her husband. Before leaving Sita alone, Lakshmana performed a magic circle around the hut. Staying within this circle, Sita was completely protected from any danger. When Lakshmana left, Ravana, who was hiding nearby, came out of the bushes in the form of an old sannyasin and asked Sita for food and drink.Unsuspecting Sita stepped beyond the protective circle and Ravana immediately assumed his real form, grabbed Sita, put her on his flying chariot and flew to Lanka. On the way, Ravana tried to stop the vulture king Jatayu (avatar of Garuda, Vishnu’s vahan) with his claws and beak, but was defeated and mortally wounded by Ravana. Sita blessed Jataya, saying that he would live long enough to tell Rama what had happened. Sita also asked the forest trees, forest deer, grasses and the Godavari River, if they saw Rama, to tell him what had happened.
Rama and Lakshmana killed the golden deer and returned to their hut. Not finding Sita there, they became very alarmed and immediately went in search of her. Finally, they came across a badly wounded man in a fight with Ravana Jataya, who told them everything that had happened, and, having finished the story, died. Rama, deeply saddened by the death of the bird, cremated her body.
Meanwhile, Ravana brought Sita to Lanka and began to make attempts to win her favor. To all his inclinations, Sita responded with a decisive rebuff, calling him a cursed demon and a kidnapper of chaste women.Ravana could not resort to violence, because many years ago he forcibly embraced the wife of another man, who cursed him, saying that he would die the moment he tried to do it again. Thus, Ravana had to confine herself to intimidation and threats, and when they did not help, just wait until time made her heart more supportive.
Rama, Sugriva and Hanuman
In order to gather an army and free Sita from the captivity of Ravana, Rama and Lakshman made an alliance with the monkey king Sugriva, who promised Rama his help in the fight against Ravana in exchange for Rama’s help in regaining his kingdom, which was captured by his half-brother Bali.Rama killed Bali and transferred the dominion over the kingdom back to Sugriva. After that, Sugriva gathered a huge army of monkeys, and with them Rama and Lakshmana set out on a campaign to Lanka.
When the army approached the sea, Rama, seeing no other way to cross the strait that separated the island of Lanka from the continent, decided to build a bridge. At this time, the great devotee of Rama Hanuman, who possessed extraordinary strength, jumped over the strait and went in search of Sita. Finding her in the garden of Ravana’s palace, he told her that Rama was preparing to free her.He also gave her the ring he received from Rama. After that, Hanuman began frolicking in the palace park, destroying plants and flowers. The Rakshasa guards grabbed him and brought him to Ravana. In the presence of Ravana, Hanuman coiled his long tail into a spiral and made a semblance of a seat out of it, which was noticeably higher than the throne of Ravana. When Hanuman sat in this way, an angry Ravana wanted to order to kill the impudent monkey, but Hanuman introduced himself as an ambassador, whose life, according to the laws of diplomacy, was inviolable.Then Ravana ordered his guards to burn Hanuman’s tail. They wrapped a cloth soaked in oil around his tail, set it on fire, and set Hanuman free. Hanuman with a burning tail began jumping from building to building, spreading fire throughout the capital of Ravana. After that Hanuman jumped back to the continent and told Rama what had happened.
Rama defeats Ravana
When the construction of the bridge was completed and Rama crossed over to Lanka, Ravana’s brother Vibhishana, who went over to Rama’s side, gave him a lot of valuable information about the military forces of Ravana and about the fortifications of the island.Periodically, the Rakshasas left the city, which led to fierce battles that ended in varying success. Rama and Lakshmana were twice wounded in a fight with Ravana’s son Indrajit, who had once defeated Indra himself. Ravana’s other brother, the giant Kumbhakarna, grabbed and devoured hundreds of monkeys. Rama and Lakshmana recovered with the magic herb, which Hanuman brought from the Himalayas in a very short time, along with the mountain on which it grew. Despite the huge losses, the monkey army began to gain the upper hand over the Rakshasas, who were dying in huge numbers.Indrajit, Kumbhakarna and other commanders of Ravana’s army were killed on the battlefield. Finally, Ravana himself entered into single combat with Rama. Many virgins came to watch the course of this fight. It is described that they fought each other like angry lions. With his arrows, Rama, one after another, cut off the heads of the ten-headed Ravana, but each time a new head mysteriously grew in place of the cut off head. The arrows, which had so fatally struck Marichi, Khara and Bali, could not take the life of the mighty king of Lanka.Then Rama decided to use the weapon of Brahma, an arrow bestowed on him by the sage Agastya, who had the ability to control the wind. In the tip of this arrow there was a tremendous force of fire, and its weight was equal to Mount Meru. Rama activated this arrow with special Vedic mantras and sent it to Ravana. The arrow pierced Ravana’s chest and bathed in his blood, returned to Rama’s quiver. After the death of Ravana, great jubilation began on the heavenly planets, and the grateful virgins showered Rama with a rain of heavenly flowers.
Sita’s Trial by Fire and Her Exile
After the death of Ravana, Vibhishana brought Sita to Rama in a beautifully decorated chariot. But to everyone’s surprise, Rama actually refused to accept it, considering it contaminated by being in the palace of the Rakshasa. Sita was deeply hurt by this attitude of Rama, and in order to prove her innocence, she decided to pass the test of fire. Lakshmana made a fire and Sita entered it. The god of fire Agni himself brought her out of the fire unharmed, took her to Rama and asked to take her back.Rama stated that even without any trial he was sure of the purity of his wife, but he wanted to prove her innocence to others.
When the period of exile ended, Rama, Sita and Lakshmana, along with the monkey leaders and their wives, entered the city where Rama was crowned with great solemnity. This was followed by the reign of Rama, lasting 10,000 years, a century of prosperity unparalleled in history. It is described that at this time peace reigned throughout the earth, children did not cry, there were no droughts and the land bore abundant fruits, there were no diseases, poverty and crime.
Once Rama disguised himself as a common man and went to the city in order to find out what his followers thought of him. Rama witnessed how one washer beat his wife, suspected of adultery, and declared that he was not as foolish as Rama to believe in the purity of a wife who had spent years in captivity by another man. To save Sita and himself from slander, he sent her to live in a hut in the forest. At that time, Sita was pregnant and, while in exile, gave birth to two twin boys – Lava and Kusha.As soon as the children emerged from infancy, they were sent to Rama. Seeing his sons, Ramu was overcome by the memories of a happy past and he took Sita back to the palace. But with a full meeting of the courtiers, she was again asked to prove her innocence. Sita became desperate and prayed to mother earth Bhumi, who gave her life, to take her back. In answer to Sita’s prayers, the Earth opened up and took her into its arms.
After that, the mission of the avatar of Rama was completed. Rama went to the banks of the sacred river and, leaving his body, returned to his eternal spiritual abode.
Rama as the embodiment of God
The Ramayana describes how the personification of the earth, the goddess Bhumi, came to the creator of the universe, Brahma, begging to save her from the unrighteous kings who mercilessly exploited her resources and were responsible for the death of many people in bloody wars. Many virgins also came to Brahma to seek refuge, frightened by the enormous power of the ten-headed demonic ruler of Lanka Ravana. As a result of the blessings received, Ravana possessed unsurpassed strength and was invulnerable to the devas and all types of living beings in the universe except animals and humans.  Ravana gained control of the maidens and took control of all three planetary systems of the universe. It is described that Ravana was proud, warlike and patronized all kinds of demons and villains.
Brahma, along with Bhumi and other maidens, began to worship the guardian of the universe Vishnu, begging him to descend and free them from the tyranny of Ravana. In response, Vishnu promised to kill Ravana, appearing on earth as King Rama, the eldest son of the ruler of Koshala Dashartha.  Lakshmi, the eternal consort and female form of Vishnu, was born on earth as Sita.King Mithila Janaka became her father. It was not a woman who gave birth to Sita, but Mother Earth Bhumi herself, and Janaka picked her up in a rice field. The eternal companion and one of the incarnations of Vishnu, Ananta-sesha, incarnated as Lakshmana and remained with Rama in all his trials. During Rama’s stay on earth, no one, except for himself and a group of selected sages (among whom were Vasishtha, Sharabhanga, Agastya and Vishwamitra) knew about his divine origin. Although Rama was respected and worshiped by many sages whom he met throughout his life, only the most exalted and learned among them realized his present position as an avatar of the Supreme.After Rama’s victory in the war with Ravana, immediately after Sita passed the test for chastity, passing through the fire, Brahma, Indra and other virgins, along with the heavenly sages and Shiva, descended from heaven. They confirmed the integrity of Sita and, thanking Rama for freeing the universe from the forces of evil, revealed the divine position of Rama and announced the completion of his mission. 
- ↑ Zimmer & Campbell 1972, p.18
- ↑ Vishnu and His Incarnations. – South Asia Books, 1993.
- ↑ Ganguly, S. (2003). “The Crisis of Indian Secularism”. Journal of Democracy 14 (4): 11-25. Retrieved 2008-04-12.
- ↑ Drutakarma Dasa, (ICJ Vol 2, # 2 December 1994). “Puranic Time and the Archaeological Record”. Retrieved 2008-04-12.
- ↑ Dimock Jr, E.C.(1963). “Doctrine and Practice among the Vaisnavas of Bengal”. History of Religions 3 (1): 106-127.
- ↑ Vaisnavism: Contemporary Scholars Discuss the Gaudiya Tradition. – Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1994.
- ↑ 1 2 Hess, L. (2001). “Rejecting Sita: Indian Responses to the Ideal Man’s Cruel Treatment of His Ideal Wife *”. Journal of the American Academy of Religion 67 (1): 1–32.Retrieved 2008-04-12.
- ↑ Van Der Veer, P. (1989). “The Power of Detachment: Disciplines of Body and Mind in the Ramanandi Order”. American Ethnologist 16 (3): 458-470.
- ↑ Kanungo, H .. “The Distinct Specialty of Lord Jagannath”. ORISSA REVIEW . Retrieved 2008-04-12.
- ↑ 1 2 3 4 The Ramayan of Valmiki.- Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, 1963.
- ↑ Vaisnava Compassion. – La Crosse, Florida: GN Press, 2001.
- ↑ Fallon, Oliver. 2009. Bhatti’s Poem: The Death of Rávana (Bhaṭṭikāvya). New York: Clay Sanskrit Library . ISBN 978-0-8147-2778-2 | ISBN 0-8147-2778-6 |
- ↑ Regional Ramayanas
- ↑ R. Menon, The Ramayana , pp. 12-13
- ↑ R. Menon, The Ramayana , pp.14
- ↑ R. Menon, The Ramayana , pp. 50
- ↑ R. Menon, The Ramayana , pp. 57
- ↑ 1 2 R. Menon, The Ramayana , pp. 59
- ↑ R. Menon, The Ramayana , pp. 77
- ↑ 1 2 R. Menon, The Ramayana , pp.91
- ↑ R. Menon, The Ramayana , pp. 87-88
- ↑ 1 2 R. Menon, The Ramayana , pp. 10-11
- ↑ R. Menon, The Ramayana , pp. 496-500
- Zimmer, Heinrich Robert & Joseph Campbell (1972), Myths and symbols in Indian art and civilization , Princeton University Press, ISBN 06786,
- Blank, Jonah (2000), Arrow of the Blue-Skinned God: Retracing the Ramayana Through India , Grove Press, ISBN 0802137334,
- Menon, Ramesh & Valmiki (2004), The Ramayana: A Modern Retelling of the Great Indian Epic , Farrar, Straus and Giroux, ISBN 0865476950,
- Pattanaik, Devdutt (2003), Indian mythology: tales, symbols, and rituals from the heart of the Subcontinent , Inner Traditions / Bear & Company, ISBN 0892818700,
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Novosibirsk | How to slap from Egypt to VietnamRubber slippers called “flip flops” have been in vogue for several millennia — and they seem to stay in it forever.
In many countries, so-called slippers were worn in different ways. Greeks – between the big and second toes, Romans – between the second and third, the inhabitants of Mesopotamia – between the third and fourth.Woven sandals with a strap passing between the toes have been known since ancient times as the most common type of footwear in Southeast Asia. Today these are traditional footwear for most Asian countries: Vietnam, China, Japan. Slippers are worn by both women and men, adults and children.
Of course, fashion designers and trendsetters define fashion, but too often they create laws for a too narrow circle of the fair sex. Therefore, a couple of years ago, finally, a reasonable call was made: “Stop torturing our feet!” and, of course, the famous “flip flops”.
Many years ago “flip flops” were made from palm leaves, rawhide, rice straw, sisal leaves. The oldest surviving “flip flops” are made from papyrus leaves. They are not kept anywhere, but in the British Museum.
But let’s immediately define the terms. For example, in Russia, the production of “flip flops” was established in the city of Slantsy. Hence the national name “Vietnamese” – “shale” came from. So these shoes first appeared in our country about 45 years ago – during the so-called Vietnamese-Soviet friendship.In parallel with the famous Vietnamese sneakers, which were produced at American factories captured by the Vietnamese after the war with the United States. As for the slippers, they completely copied the national Vietnamese footwear, which, oddly enough, is supposed to be worn with white socks.
Once upon a time, they were only worn on the beach and in the pool. A characteristic clapping sound accompanied the passing along the embankments of hot-blooded vacationers in shorts and Hawaiian shirts. Times have changed. Now “flip flops” (or slippers) have finally turned from beach shoes into full-fledged urban ones, no one will look askance if they see you wearing black plastic or wicker “flip flops”, worn under a light tight skirt and white shirt.Today in “flip flops” supermodels are pacing the catwalk. And the office version of the new generation over the past few hot seasons has completely won its right to exist – the designers took into account the wishes of their clients and filled the collections with “flip flops” with a backdrop – flat sandals with a narrow leather strap that conveniently fixes the heel so that it does not walk with a brisk step … Such minimalist models can be found in Benetton, Zara, Bottega Veneta, Gucci, Prada, Alaia and many other leading world brands.
And if we speak the honest truth, then in fact “Vietnamese” were invented in Egypt for three thousand years BC, later took root in Japan, and then spread throughout the world. In Brazil, a pair of flip flops roll off the assembly line every ten seconds. Cheap, practical, comfortable: seemingly barefoot, but at the same time shod.
After the haute couture masters, in particular, the Dior and Chanel houses, drew attention to folk shoes, creative experiments began. The shape has remained the same, but the raw materials have changed dramatically: instead of traditional rubber, leather, fabric, as well as pearls, metal, feathers, straw, fiberglass and artificial diamonds are now used to make “flip flops”.Sales in Europe increased by 30 percent, with prices expanding from three euros per pair in a typical department store to 300 euros in the Dior brand store. However, in some sophisticated boutiques, they are even more expensive.
To make your feet look aesthetically pleasing, they need some care. It is simply indecent to show people in “flip flops” from “Dior” without having a pedicure. And here stylists start making money again: the manufacturer of decorative cosmetics “Bourgeois” offers varnish of different colors for each nail and recommends the use of all kinds of anklets: toe rings, bracelets, chains going from fingers to ankles.
Men treat the new fashion more restrained, using quite traditional “flip flops”, nevertheless, Yves Saint Laurent still launched the men’s version of the high fashion slippers.
But the summer fashion for shale began to cause concern for doctors – American researchers at the annual scientific conference on sports medicine told the world that “flip-flops” can be harmful to humans. The video captured the details of the movement of 39 volunteers of both sexes, shod in these same rubber slippers.And the video showed that the shoes radically changed a person’s gait: so that the flip flops did not fall off when walking, many subjects had to mince in short steps and turn their ankles inward, and this threatens with excessive muscle tension – up to the hip. The problem of keeping the slippers on their feet causes the walker to twist their big toes, especially when the heel is raised, which leads to a stretching of the so-called long plantar ligament, which can lead to painful inflammation, spurs, swelling and even cramps.Therefore, experts advise not to wear “flip flops” for long walks, because these are purely beach shoes and are designed to walk from the sun lounger to the water and back. “It is better to choose flip flops, complemented by a strap on the heel. It will relieve you of sprains on the sole, ”the good doctors advise.
In addition, British oncologists warn that rubber sandal lovers have an increased risk of skin cancer – such shoes open usually closed areas of the feet, and the upper part of the foot is very sensitive to the effects of sunlight.The skin there is thin and cannot protect itself from the sun on its own. So it is absolutely necessary to apply special cosmetics to such dangerous areas.
But despite warnings, many townspeople, if possible, would wear flip flops all year round. Yes, it is understandable – after all, anyway, this is the ideal summer shoe that evolved from a simple rubber sole, a strap between the toes and thin straps on the leg. Today they are no longer just for walking on the sand and showering in summer camps, flip flops are now acceptable footwear for almost any event.In 2005, the “flip flops” caused a real sensation: the American women’s lacrosse team (something like field hockey), which won the national competition, inadvertently found itself at the center of a scandal – in the photo with President Bush, some of the girls appeared in very unofficial shoes … Many American people were shocked, but perhaps this incident was the beginning of the real “Vietnamese boom”. While one can argue for a long time about which company makes the best “flip flops”, there is one company that, although it did not come up with this shoe, but, having appeared on the market 20 years ago, has become the undisputed leader.Reef was founded in 1984 and has since continued to produce surfer-style footwear for its worldwide loyal reefers. The company was founded by two brothers from Argentina – passionate surfers, they wanted to create durable shoes for people who lead an active lifestyle. Popular and sports “flip flops” produced by other well-known companies such as Teva, Merrell and Chaco – models that are created for fast walking. The Hawaiian company Havaianas, which has existed since 1962, produces rubber “flip flops” that do not leave the pages of fashion magazines and constantly flicker in the summer collections of many designers.
But Reef is one step ahead of its competitors by offering flip-flops for men and women that are really very comfortable, plus the manufacturers have added another feature that immediately makes you know that these shoes don’t look like simple flip-flops. The heel of the first model, the Stash women’s sandals, hides a miniature drawer in which you can put your credit card, cash and keys. For men, the Fanning was invented – sandals to which a bottle opener is attached at the bottom.In addition to these two models, there is the new Dram model – a sandal with a flask attached to the heel that holds up to three ounces (about 100 grams) of liquid. The hidden minibar comes with a key, a miniature funnel and a measuring ruler on the sole so you can see the level of decreasing liquid.
Unlike, for example, shoes with a tapered toe, “flip-flops” are very practical and, of course, will never go out of fashion, whether it is a rubber cheap five dollars that you bought ten years ago on the market and still sometimes wear , or a pair of fancy flip-flops for $ 200 for the “front” outings.
below is the date when the material was published on the original site! 90,000 Denis Dosio, biography, history, personal life and curiosities
Denis Dosio was born in 2001 in Forlì. This is an Italian-Brazilian boy who became famous as YouTuber .Like his other Italian and foreign “colleagues”, Denis also made his online debut, opening a YouTube channel (Denis Dosio on YouTube), where he tells episodes and anecdotes from his life, as well as inserts videos and musical parodies.
From a very ordinary accounting student (he attended ITC Carlo Matteucci in Forlì) Denis quickly became one of most famous Italian influencers in . His strongest passions are television and reality shows. Indeed, some time ago, the young man participated in the casting for the reality show “Il Collegio” on Rai Due, but was not selected.
Friendship with one of the students present in the program, Luca Vittozzi , however, allows him to receive a significant increase in the number of subscribers and channel views.
Shortly before one of the videos he posted showing him topless, with muscles in sight and a well-sculpted, rebellious and smiling forelock went viral, especially among his fans, . which he affectionately calls “ pamper yourself “.
At the same time, the number of subscribers to his Instagram profile is also growing sharply.
Denis Dosio: from the network to television
His videos and, above all, the number of subscribers in social networks are of interest to television . He is invited by Barbara d’Urso to the very popular daytime program “Pommber Cinque”; Denis Dosio talks about the new profession of the influencer and how much a young man like him can earn.
Denis often publishes videos in which he sings or dances with his brother. Manuel Dosio who looks a lot like him. The two also have a sister who, however, does not seem to frequent the social media world or have a passion for them like they do.
Denis is not only a popular youtuber, but also singer . Two songs were released in 2020. The first one, released in January, is called Don’t Touch Me, and in July, Fatti a Perfecto got about 5 million views on Youtube. It is estimated that such a large amount allows the video creator to earn between € 2,000 and € 5,000.But Denis Dosio is also very popular on Tik Tok , a social network that very young people visit: here the Forlì influencer certainly manages to monetize a lot on video views.
Denis is also an aspiring actor: just think, he got to the first audition when he was not yet fifteen!
In September 2020, he is one of the Big Brother VIP 5 participants: Denis’s goal is to declare himself and appreciate a wider audience.
Personal life and curiosity
As for his personal life, Denis Dosio said that he is happy single and is looking for his better half. How is your ideal girlfriend doing? “Short, blonde and well built” he showed.
In early 2020, the paparazzi photographed him with another famous YouTuber, Aurora Celli , but none of them have ever confirmed a relationship that went beyond mere friendship. (Aurora appears in the video for the song “Fatti a rule of art”).
Denis Dosio and Aurora Celli
Denis said he was bullied in the past. Some guys locked him in the bathroom and filmed everything on Instagram. Denis, not having a phone with him to ask for help on the street, managed to escape by pulling the door.
Among the curious facts about this very young and promising influential man, there is a charm bracelet for good luck which never leaves: it was given to him by his grandmother; has a nickname by which he was called in childhood: “Tidula” .
Phrases by Denis Dosio
During these 7 months, I never went beyond my gram diet, never missed a workout, and I never got out of these four walls if I didn’t finish the workout by spitting out a sweat. We knew we had a goal and we had to achieve it. I admit it’s hard to see everyone in front of you eating the very best there is, while next to you there is only a plate of rice and chicken and a total of 4 pizzas in seven months, but everything has a price. never forget This.I never liked constraints, and I’m not going to start today.
I live 101% and never touch the brakes.
I am good at entertaining people.
I am a boy with a heart, I am always there.
I can’t wait to bring some healthy frenzy and make myself known. [Big Brother VIP 5 Membership]
Visit the entire Aforismi website.