Hockey Helmet Fitting Guide
- The areas to consider when choosing a helmet are protection, comfort and fit.
- You should always look for equipment that feels comfortable.
- Although most helmets are lined with a protective foam, some do feel better than others. (Dual Density, EPP + Comfort Foam “Expanded Polypropylene”, Triple density with EPP, FXPP foam “Fused Expanded Polypropylene Liners”)
- The helmet should be adjusted to fit snug to prevent any shifting and maximize protection. (New style helmets will have flaps on the side to adjust the helmet. Older style helmets will need a screw driver and loosen the helmet.)
- Make sure the chinstrap is adjusted so it gently makes contact under the chin when fastened.
- It is recommended that the player wear CSA and HECC certified helmets.
- All CSA and HECC certified helmets have a sticker indicating their certification.
- Open your helmet to it’s largest setting and on the head so that the rim is one finger width above the eyebrow.
- Gradually begin to downsize the the helmet until a comfortably snug fit is achieved.
Selecting the right helmet can sometimes be difficult because there is few noticeable performance enhancements associated with helmets. A helmet does not add speed to your skating or strength to your slap shot. However, the correct fit will make the difference between a contact sport and a possible injury. A properly sized helmet provides crucial protection against one of the most dangerous hockey injuries: a head injury.
When shopping for a helmet, a good fit is far more important than color or style. Fit is the most important factoring because there is a direct correlation between a properly sized helmet and safety. You can determine your helmet size by measuring the circumference of your head about ½ – 1” above your eyebrow. This measurement also correlates to your hat size. Please note this is an approximation and sizing will vary slightly among manufacturers.
Make sure the helmet fits snugly on the head. Depending on the size and shape of your head, some brands and styles fit better than others. A properly fitting helmet sits flat on the head and is about ½ inch above your eyebrows, without tilting forward or back. Adjust the chin strap so that it fits firmly under the chin. You want the helmet to fit snug enough so that it doesn’t shift, but not to the point of where it feels uncomfortable. If you feel pressure or pinching, the helmet is too small. Please note that most helmets today feature tool-free clips that allow quick and easy adjustments that not only ensure a custom fit, but also allow room to grow.
Remember to make sure the helmet fits properly and provides the comfort and protection the player needs. The extra few dollars is well worth it. If your helmet becomes dented or cracked, replace it immediately. It is also important to maintain the HECC stickers on the helmet. In the event that you would need to replace the helmet, the warranty would be void if the stickers were removed.
For more information on how to size helmets and to ensure the proper fit of your hockey helmet please feel free to contact our customer service at 1.800.828.7496. Please Note: Sizing information is provided by the manufacturer and does not guarantee a perfect fit.
Vega Rebel Warrior Patriotic Flag Helmet
Vega Rebel Warrior Patriotic Flag Half Helmet
The newly designed Rebel Warrior Patriotic Flag Half Helmet includes a new Dial adjust custom fit system and internal drop down sun-shield. The Vega Warrior Patriotic Flag comes with quick release ratchet chin strap for fast on and off. Lightweight, comfortable, and smaller sized shell. This model also comes in solid colors and other stylish graphics for men or women. There is no need for sunglasses. The built-in Drop Down Sun Shield allows for easy transition from dark to bright riding conditions. With just the flip of the switch, you’re off and riding!!
- Meets U. S. DOT FMVSS.218 safety standards
- Fully vented high density EPS foam liner for increased strength, cooling and safety.
- Drop down inner sun shield is optically correct, multi-position, protection from the sun, rain and bugs.
- Padded adjustable size dial which is removable and ensures a perfect comfortable fit.
- Quick Release Ratchet Chinstrap system. No more fighting with the traditional D-Ring closure. Easily remove or strap your helmet, even without removing your gloves.
- Comfort Tech Wick-Dri Liner System
- Lightweight helmet reduces neck fatigue on those long trips!
- Speaker ready ear pads available (Sold Separately). Great for added warmth as well!
Certifications: DOT Approved
Sizes: 2XS – 2XL
Weight: Appx. 2.2 lbs
Shape: Intermediate Oval
Warranty: 5 Years limited warranty and guaranteed to be free from manufacturer defects materials & craftsmanship.
Vega Warrior Size Chart Recommendations
Measure the circumference of your head 1″ above your eyebrows & around the largest portion of the back of your head.
– X-Small: 19.50” – 21.26”
– Small: 21.65″ – 22.05″
– Medium: 22.44″ – 22.83″
– Large: 23.23″ – 23.62″
– X-Large: 24.02″ – 24.41″
– XX-Large: 24.80″ – 25.20”
The Best Hockey Helmets of 2021
Concussions are a huge issue in hockey today, with sports such as football admitting connections between head impacts and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy, or CTE for short. Studies have even shown that in sports such as soccer with repeated small impacts from heading the ball can lead to CTE. The NHL has not formally admitted it has found a connection between hockey and CTE, but at this point it seems a mere formality.
With fighting being slowly being phased out, or reduced at a minimum, this should help prevent CTE for future generations that play in leagues that allow fighting (Jr. A, Jr. B, Major Junior, and all North American pro leagues). Also a focus on reducing head shots and the having the head be the primary point of contact should serve to ensure head and brain health going forward as well. The future of hockey looks bright in our opinion in terms of player safety.
When it comes to hockey helmets and their ability to prevent concussions, no evidence exists as of yet that allows companies manufacturing hockey helmets to claim they prevent concussions. In fact, in 2015 the competition bureau of Canada told CCM-Reebok that they could not market their helmets around concussion prevention. A year earlier in 2014 the same organization told Bauer it could not market its RE-AKT helmets around concussion prevention.
So what does this all mean? Are hockey helmets useless? Not at all. The fact of the matter is that they are designed around reducing catastrophic brain injuries stemming from skull fracture. They likely do help with some concussion prevention, but by no means make anyone impervious to concussions. Adding a layer of complexity is the fact that any impact on any individual can produce different results.
What does this mean to you as a hockey player? All helmets will protect you from skull fracture. Just like a new Volvo has more safety devices and protection than a 1998 Kia, newer helmets constantly have improvements and advancements in the department of player safety. We at Going Bar Down like to stack the deck in our favor when it comes to protective gear, and tend to gravitate towards helmets with more advanced materials and engineering. Read on to see our reviews below and hopefully we can help you make an informed decision on protecting your head!
Warrior Covert PX+ Senior Hockey Helmet
Model Number: PXPH6
Designed for best in class protection
Blended liner of premium multilayered foams to absorb impact
Two unique layers of foams strategically placed in high impact areas for superior protection
Newly developed shell for better protection focused on fit
|Small||6 3/4-7||21. 25-22|
|Large||7 3/8-7 3/4||23.25-24.4|
Get the protection you need on the ice with Warrior Sports Covert PX+ Hockey Helmet. The Covert PX+ is made for impact protection with its unique layers of foam and its new blended liner all incorporated into a newly developed shell. This helmet will protect you when you hit the boards.
Warranty & Return Info
Easy Returns – Money Back Guarantee
Everysportforless.com is committed to bringing you an easy and fair customer friendly new/unopened return policy. If you are not 100% satisfied with what you have purchased from Everysportforless.com, return it within 60 days of purchase and take advantage of no-hassle money back guarantee. We’ll refund you the product price on any returned item(s). You won’t have to worry about your refund or store credit. We have you covered. To quote Brianne P. of Naples, Florida, “Rockstar Customer Service”
Note: We do not accept returns on used products. All returns must be in their original packaging with original hang tags and shoe boxes must be free of tape and labels. Otherwise a restocking fee may apply.
All of the products we carry are from the top name brands in the industry and come with a full manufacturer warranty covering any and all product defects. If specific Warranty information applies for a product it will be available by clicking the warranty tab just above the description. If you have any questions about the warranty on a given product, let us know via email at [email protected]
For an in-depth look at our Return Policies please visit our Returns & Shipping Page
Are hockey visors One size fits all? – Mvorganizing.
Are hockey visors One size fits all?
When it comes to visors, they are all made of the same or similar materials and the difference in protection is mostly based on size. For obvious reasons, a larger visor will help to protect a larger part of the face when it is fitted properly to the helmet.
Will Bauer face shield fit CCM helmet?
The Concept III Full Face Shield size depends on the players face size, rather than helmet size….Concept III Sizing.
|Bauer Concept III Helmet & Shield Compatibility|
|Helmet Model/Size||Junior Concept III||Senior Concept III|
|CCM FL 3DS – Size Junior||Yes||Yes|
|CCM FL90 – Size Small||Yes||Yes|
|CCM FL90 – Size Medium||No||Yes|
Will a CCM cage fit a warrior helmet?
Warrior Alpha One Hockey Cages are the replacements for the Alpha One and Alpha One Pro helmets but can fit on almost any other helmet from Alkali, Bauer and CCM. It is worth to note that these Alpha One Cages will NOT fit on older Warrior helmets including the Krown Line.
How do I clean my CCM visor?
While still running water over the visor, place a small amount of dish soap on your fingers and rub it over the inside and outside of the visor. This will help to remove grease, oil and any other built-up substances from the visor.
Can you use Windex on a hockey visor?
NEVER USE WINDEX OR ANYTHING ELSE WITH AMMONIA – it’s for glass, not plastic. Most visors today have some sort of protective coating on them regardless of price (the more expensive the visor, the better the coating).
What is the best hockey cage?
The Best Hockey Visors and Cages
- Our Pick. Bauer Pro-Clip Visor. Best Hockey Visor of 2019!
- Runner-Up. CCM Revision V24 Visor. Best Hockey Visor for Vision.
- Top Cage. Bauer Re-Akt Titanium Cage. Best Hockey Cage of 2019.
Do hockey cages expire?
Yes, certified-safe hockey helmets have an expiration date, as do hockey visors and cages. The HECC certification is good for 6 ½ years—that’s how long accredited testing has shown hockey helmets provide the expected protection for players.
How heavy is a hockey helmet?
Bauer RE-AKT Hockey Helmet
|Weight:||612 Grams||Weight of the product measured in grams (Medium).|
|Cage Type/Color:||NA||Type and color of cage.|
|Helmet Certifications:||CSA, HECC, CE||Certifications held by the product.|
|Warranty:||1 Year||Period of time the product is covered under manufacturer’s warranty.|
How do hockey helmets protect your head?
absorbs the blow and spreads the impact over the entire helmet. can reduce the risk of a serious brain injury which can last a lifetime. can protect your head from other injuries such as skull fractures, cuts and bruises.
warrior burn helmet sizing
$ 349. 99. The warrior burn pro lacrosse gloves are durable enough and protective. Wear helmet or face shield with filter lens. Learn about how we design our gear and view our product lines. 64774227477. Was: … Make Offer – Warrior Burn Pro XL Lacrosse Gloves. WARRIOR OUTLAW LACROSSE STICK 40 1/2″ $33.99. Aimed at players aged 8-12 years of age. For attack and middies, it is around 30 inches. View Details. -Style: Warrior-Cuffs work on BURn gloves as well.-One Size fits all-works on 14 in. or Best Offer. Newly developed shell focused on fit, lightweight comfort and easy adjustment. Free Shipping. 2 Colors Available. Toronto (GTA) Brand New Warrior Alpha One Pro Hockey Helmet Combo Available in All Sizes Get Your Game On !! Warrior Shoulder Pad Sizing Chart. Wider face shape for increased catching surface and easier groundball pick-ups. Warrior Regulator Lite Lacrosse Arm Guard. 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Shoulder pads should fit snugly while the vital tips of the shoulder must be properly under the shoulder caps. $149.99. The warrior burn Pro lacrosse gloves are experts in terms of their pricing scheme, Protection, grip, size, and weight. View Details. Advantages of the Warrior Lacrosse Burn Player & Goalie Leg Pad:. Highlighted shank creates optimal mid-foot support at a reduces weight. Helmet Accessories; Helmets. Objective lens diameter (mm) Online Only. Find a retailer 37″ stick length meets US Lacrosse 10U Stick Specifications. The Warrior Burn Next Youth Lacrosse arm pads provide a dual-density foam construction with cap inserts in the forearm and bicep for additional protection. Offered in three sizes (L, M, S) to provide each player the correct shell size to provide the proper level of comfort and protection. From a renowned brand in hockey and lacrosse equipment, this product boasts a wide range of features that satisfy many users. Great Helmet, but i’d suggest going with the smallest size that would fit your head. SKU: BHR20 Category: Helmets Tags: Boys U13, Boys U15, Boys U17, Men’s Senior. favorite this post Jun 5 8′ Fun Shape Surfboard – Matt Kechele Shaped $75 (South Beach) pic hide this posting restore restore this posting. Warrior Evo Helmet. is a 1991 Japanese anime original video animation.It concerns a special group of police officers called Team Warrior who are often given special assignments in the police department. Burn Comfort Liner made of VN Foam to provide an elite level of comfort and protection. Warrior Burn JR Lacrosse Helmet (2019) MSRP C$144.99. Warrior Burn Glove. LX18 Headgear and Goggle. This number (in inches) will give you the approximate size in accordance with size … Buy It Now. C $105.50 … Warrior Evo Small Lacrosse Helmet. Warrior Burn Lacrosse Helmet. adidas Freak CG1641 Lacrosse Protective Gear Size Large Black Noir – Free Ship. Features: Level: Intermediate 12 & Under 40″ Attack length Meets all NFHS, NCAA, US Lacrosse, CLA, US Lacrosse and FIL men’s fiel SCHEELS The only option was the adult sized helmet but it still smooshed against his ears while putting it on and taking it off. Goalie Pants Sizing Chart. Info WhatsApp (+39) 373-7588093. The first glove that allows you to customize look and performance, the Warrior Burn Gloves features a new interchangeable FLEX Switch Cuffs that allows you to adjust the wrist flexibility. The SLX Ballistic nylon used in the pad reduces overall weight by 10%. Watch. The Rebel Warrior Motorcycle Half Helmet for Men & Women by Vega Helmets is the ideal motorcycle helmet for those looking for a more comfortable stylish helmet with its small, lightweight, custom-fit, and feature packed design. Troxel manufactures only ASTM/SEI certified helmets. share. Warrior Burn Helmet. Brand: Warrior. • JAWS Protection is an integrated chin piece flowing into the shell of the helmet adding an extra layer of protection to the cheek and jaw bone. — Please Select — Large (57.2 – 62 cm) Medium (56 – 59 cm) Small (52 – 56 cm) Helmet Type. PX2 Helmet. 2019 Limited Edition Warrior Burn Helmet White Out – Youth Size $ 52. $14.90 shipping. Jaws Protection is an integrated chin piece flowing into the shell of the helmet adding an extra layer of protection to the cheek & jaw bone. Quantity: Player Name … K-3 Academy Click to view details. Warrior Burn 8.0 Mens Lacrosse Cleats- Fast is even faster. Compare. $159.99. The liner uses an optimal blend of … Sale Regular price $ 249.99 Size. For example I wear a 7 3/8 hat size which is the biggest size for a Med. Custom Lacrosse Helmets for Youth and Adults as well as In-stock helmets ready to same-day. Goalie Trapper / Blocker Size Chart. Burn Helmet. Buy Warrior Burn 9.0 Junior Black on LACROSSE.COM. 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Shop for all your lacrosse equipment and apparel needs. Gauge/Caliber. Regular price. The LowPro construction provides a 16.7% lower profile shoulder pad, making the Burn Pro the lightest and most dynamic in Warrior’s line. Helmet Size. Burn Up! Lacrosse Helmet Sizing Guide. on VHS in 1992 in Japanese with English subtitles. $189.99. / 13 in. Helmets; Masks; Rib & Kidney; Shoulder Pads; Jocks & Jills; Specials. The attack defence, bodies, goalies and some others love it. provides legendary Warrior Burn speed; Wartech compression fit increases wearing comfort as well as flexibility; VPS form allows for protection in important areas without compromising mobility DSG Pro Tips. Add to cart. Size*: Qty: Product details … Maverik Max Player Glove 2022 Warrior Burn Gloves 2020 Our Price: $199.99 . View Details. 1. Team 91 Helmet Price: 225.0. You can also mix and match your gloves with other standard Switch cuffs to … Quick view Choose Options. 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Being involved in the sport for so long Warrior has been able to come up with innovative designs including their best selling Warrior Warp Heads. Warrior Nemesis Pro S19 Senior Lacrosse Goalie Gloves – Black (NEW) Lists @ $170. July 10, 2021. Customize the Warrior Burn Helmet with elite protection, comfort and style to elevate your game. Style : BHR20. Style. The Burn Face-off Wedge Head is designed and engineered asymmetrically to provide balance between flex, strength, and recovery. Warrior Men’s Burn 2020 Lacrosse Gloves … Warrior Kids’ Burn Lacrosse Helmet $ 109 99. LoPro construction provides a low-profile glove. Day 4. Features our most advanced Truvent system allowing for our best ventilation technology to help keep your hands cool. Cod. Check out HockeyMonkey’s extensive collection inline and ice hockey equipment. Add to Cart The Cascade S represents the pinnacle of protection, comfort and vision. Location: Miami,FL,USA. Warrior Burn Lacrosse Helmet. Stringking. 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Known even in the most ancient times, the primitive form of a helmet was a fur or woolen hat. So, the cloak was completed with a hat, in which the most dashing saber blows were stuck.Fur-trimmed and hemp-stuffed rifle caps had the same effect. However, the disadvantage of soft helmets was that in addition to sabers, there were also clubs.
Helmets could be made according to the same principle as reinforced leather shells – either a helmet made of a shock-absorbing substrate and several layers of leather was sheathed with strips of iron, or steel plates were attached to it. But from a good blow, neither one nor the other helped. Only a solid, rigid structure could provide an adequate level of protection.
The stand-alone value of soft helmets was very limited. Like quilted armor, they could be useful mainly in conjunction with other armor. So, a shock-absorbing hat was almost certainly worn under a metal helmet. “Practically” – because the Japanese, who love originality, did without. The Japanese used an almost flat helmet that was mounted on a knot of hair on the crown of the samurai. When struck from above, the knot of hair acted as a shock absorber, and the helmet tilted to its side, lowering the enemy blade past the shoulder.
The case, therefore, was for the very strong and rigid helmet, complete with which a shock-absorbing cap could bring many benefits. However, if only a great specialist could forge even a curved shoulder plate, then there is nothing to say about a product of such a complex shape as a helmet.
The helmet was often produced using a completely different and usually higher technology than the rest of the protective equipment. So, even among the Sumerians, a copper helmet was adjacent to a leather shell, and in the Middle Ages, a welded helmet supplemented chain mail, leather armor or scales.Even in the era of plate armor, the helmet was purchased separately from the carapace.
Just as it was with the cuirass, the most ancient metal helmets were first cast – first from copper, then from bronze, and then only replaced by welded ones. But if during the Middle Ages, armor could still be produced using a simplified technology, then with a helmet it did not work out that way. Therefore, in Europe, before the revival of urban civilization, all-metal helmets were very rare – for the bulk of the knights they became available only at the beginning of the XIV century, and for the bulk of the townspeople, only by its end.In the middle of the 14th century, Genoese crossbowmen had hobers and brigantines, but helmets did not yet (a controversial statement – in most illustrations of the 13-14 centuries, the most common type of helmet was an all-metal helmet in the form of a wide-brimmed hat, which was relatively easy to make).
From the very beginning, helmets have been designed with two ways to achieve maximum durability. Since Sumerian times, Asian helmets began to be made conical, so that when struck from above, the blade would slide off.
Another method of reinforcing the helmet was implemented in the Mediterranean, where the helmets were round, but they were equipped with a ridge, and sometimes more than one. The Greeks made the crest longitudinal, and the Romans – transverse. For greater reliability, a ponytail could still be launched over the ridge.
Later, a bronze helmet with a crest and a ponytail was used by dragoons. Bronze could not withstand Damascus, which was not uncommon in the 18th century, but a ponytail could.
In the East, where Damascus appeared much earlier, bronze armor was not used at all, and even iron armor had to be additionally strengthened.The Asians, however, chose a different path and began to protect the metal with an external shock absorber: a turban was wound on a conical helmet. The Arabs had a small size, but the Turkish soldiers sometimes had a huge turban, which completely hid the helmet and hung over the shoulders. Cutting such a helmet was completely unrealistic. But wearing it required a pumped-up neck.
To provide protection from blows not only to the head itself, but also to the face, very often the helmet was supplied with welded parts that protected the nose and cheeks. In addition, a chain mail aventail could be attached to the helmet to protect the neck and throat.This was done in Asia and in Russia, but rarely in Europe. From the 14th century, the European open helmet began to resemble a modern helmet, and in the 15th century it acquired wide brims, covering the face from blows from above.
In the 10th century in Russia, as in other European countries, conical Norman helmets existed. They did not receive much development and were soon replaced by sphero-conical, dome-like, which provided incomparably better protection against blows from above. Early helmets were riveted in 4 pieces.Most were supplied with an aventail. By the 11th century, solid-forged helmets appeared in Russia (and in Europe). Their production technology was more complicated, but the strength was also higher. In the XII century, high sphero-conical helmets coexist, with a spire and a nosepiece, in which a person could not pay attention to blows from above. So the helmets of ordinary warriors were quite diverse, and the princes could wear a kind of helmets with half masks that completely covered their heads. The Mongol invasion greatly influenced the development of Russian helmets – a number of types disappeared forever, but the helmets were further developed.They are deprived of nasos and practically displace all other types. But, despite the perfect protection from above, these helmets also had an important drawback – they were vulnerable to side impacts. Therefore, in the second half of the 16th century, they are replaced by low hemispherical cones. Erikhonki were supplied with headphones, a head-piece and a visor with a nose-piece. And the poorest people wore other helmets, such as misyurks and various “iron hats”; but their percentage was small.
sometimes, instead of welding the nipple, the helmet was simply made covering the entire upper part of the face or even the entire face to the chin.In this case, of course, slits were left for the eyes. Such “semi-deaf” helmets were usually designed taking into account the possibility of their use and as open ones. “Doric”, as it was called in antiquity, the helmet could be worn shifted to the back of the head. In the Middle Ages, sliding helmets were called warbuds.
Eastern conical helmets sometimes could be equipped with a movable visor. In particular, Russian helmets of the 13th century could occasionally have a lifting mask covering the upper part of the face, and Byzantine helmets had a lattice visor.But the visor for open helmets was not very widespread – a good view, allowing you to follow the enemy blade, seemed more important than protecting the face.
A separate and original type of visor was represented by a bronze or iron mask tightly fitting to the face, used by the Parthians and Japanese samurai. The mask did not connect to the helmet, which made it possible to put it on or not to wear it according to the circumstances, and its tight fit to the face meant maintaining a good view. In addition, a Japanese swinging helmet could also be used with it.
The helmet, however, could be fitted with parts that did not give any additional protection. For example, the question has long worried minds why the Germans were already attaching horns to iron helmets, and whether it was dangerous (whether the neck would break if a blow was struck on the horn).
Horns were installed for communication, so that the squad could see where its leader is, if he participates in a battle. Other peoples used colored plumes or shiny badges for this. Later, on the contrary, colored plumes were attached to the helmets of the rank and file – so that the commander could observe the movement of troops.
There is another misunderstanding associated with the horns of the Germanic and the points of the Asian helmets. The opinion is often expressed that they could have served to deliver blows. No. Could not. The crests of Greek helmets, which had a protrusion directed forward – still maybe, but the horns are absolutely out of the question. Headshots in a junkyard can be very effective (especially if the head is wearing a helmet), but hits the person with the forehead, not the top of the head.
Despite all the diversity of the device, the ineradicable disadvantage of all the helmets mentioned above was that they were ultimately attached to the cervical vertebrae.And then nothing could be done – when falling from a horse, an open helmet could save you from a concussion, but could not prevent you from breaking your neck. Again, and after hitting the back of the head with the club, a completely whole helmet could end up on the head of its completely dead owner.
A solution to the problem was found in Europe, in part, perhaps because the European saddle was more conducive to falls, and the techniques of knightly combat themselves consisted of either knocking the enemy out of the saddle with a spear or stunning him with a blunt heavy object.
Since the 13th century, deaf helmets in the form of a truncated cone (inverted bucket) appear in Europe, the main advantage of which was that when struck from above, the shock-absorbing cap under the helmet crumpled and its edges fell onto the shoulder plates. Thus, the blow fell not on the head, but on the shoulders, and this is a big difference.
As the armor was further improved, the principle of protecting the head by resting the helmet on the shoulders was retained. At the beginning of the XIV century, the design of a deaf helmet became more complicated.Now the helmet itself was not installed on the shoulders, but on a steel collar, and the face was protected by a movable visor. However, throughout the 14th century, such helmets were produced in limited quantities, and spread from the 15th century.
The deaf helmet, however, was not devoid of flaws. There was almost no opportunity to turn his head in him, and the embrasures greatly narrowed the field of vision, especially since the slits were far from the eyes so that the tip of the sword, penetrating into them, could not cause wounds. As for the hearing, the warrior in the deaf helmet heard nothing but his own puffing.Yes, and breathed in him as easily as in a gas mask.
The raised visor did not solve all of these problems, so the deaf helmet was only good for fighting in dense formations. If an individual battle began, and even on foot or with several opponents, the knight took off his helmet, remaining in the hood of the hawberk. Squires and mounted sergeants, as well as infantrymen, generally preferred open helmets.
The fact that the knight was often forced to take off his helmet, and the shock-absorbing cap, which was part of it, was also removed, and the remaining chain mail hood did not give serious protection, by the way, led to a unique phenomenon: the most prudent warriors began to wear another under a deaf helmet, – a small, tight-fitting skull.
Sometimes in Europe and Asia, “semi-deaf” helmets were made, resting on the shoulders, but leaving the face open, however, medieval masters could not develop a design combining the ability to turn the head with the support on the shoulders.
Helmets weighed not so little – rarely less than 2 kg. The weight of deaf helmets with a movable visor and an additional iron liner even reached almost 5 kg.
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Armament of the Russian soldier of the XIII-XVII centuries. Reconstruction
Helmets, shields, clubs, axes – the whole set of defensive and offensive military armor – became an indispensable item of everyday life in the turbulent and bloody time of Russian history.Feudal strife, wars with the Polovtsy, knights, Lithuania, the Mongol invasion – all this required good weapons for the Russian warrior.
A very common chopping weapon in the Old Russian army was the ax, which was used by princes, and princely warriors, and militias, both on foot and on horseback. The ax blades were trapezoidal. The big wide ax was called “berdysh”. It is presented in our exposition. Its blade – “iron” – was long and was mounted on a long ax, which at the lower end had an iron binding, or inlet.Berdysh was used only by infantrymen. In the 16th century, reeds were widely used in the streltsy army.
Chain mail and a protective thick quilted jacket are characteristic of the guise of an armed foot soldier. Chain mail of the 13th century consisted of flat rings of different sizes, weighed from 5 to 10 kg, its length varied greatly, from short, barely covering the groin, to rather long. The rings of chain mail made of wire, round in cross-section, were necessarily riveted and welded: one riveted ring fastened four welded ones.Plate armor is often worn over chain mail or by itself. XIII century – the period of its intensive development, in fact, and the appearance of the very term “armor” can be quite confidently attributed to this period.
Helmets in the XIII century have a sphero-conical shape, from low sphero-cones to high ones, including those with a point. The newly born is often topped with a ball. The most commonly used helmets are solid-drawn, however, in all likelihood, riveted helmets were also in use, most often four-part. Again, judging by the images, the helmets were often painted, the nobles were gilded, which gave them not only an elegant look, but also protected them from rust.Noble warriors also had helmets with masks – forged masks that reproduced a human face, although the most common were nasal and half masks.
In the middle of the XIII century. the most widely used is the chain mail barmitsa – an element of the helmet in the form of a chain mail mesh, framing the helmet along the lower edge. It covered the neck, shoulders, nape and sides of the head, however, variants of its plate reinforcement are quite possible, including purely scaly aventail. In addition, the aventail could be quilted.
Spears are used most often with a narrow faceted point, riders could use a narrow faceted lance with a square point in cross section. For foot combat, a spear was used – a spear with a leaf-shaped tip up to half a meter long and a relatively short thick shaft. Light throwing spears – sulitsy were also in use.
Russian shields of this era are diverse. As a rule, they are triangular or teardrop-shaped, much less often – round. XIII century became an age when the almond-shaped or teardrop-shaped shield was gradually replaced by a triangular one.The width of the shield of an equestrian warrior usually did not exceed 50 centimeters: with a shield of greater width, it is extremely inconvenient to control a horse. Shields were usually decorated with paintings, often on both sides. They were made from planks, which were covered with canvas or leather.
Shock weapons are a melee weapon, due to the ease of manufacture, it has become widespread in Russia. Bulavs, dummies and six-fighters are combat weapons. The maces were a short rod, at the end of which a massive knob was fitted.Both the mace and the hedgehog originate from the club – a massive club with a thickened end, usually bound with iron or studded with large iron nails. The club may have been the oldest weapon known to man. “… Most of all, with clubs and a stone byahusya,” says the Ipatiev Chronicle.
Celtic Helmets – Legio X Fretensis
A Celtic warrior’s helmet was an essential attribute. They have changed quite a lot over time, forming many subtypes.The simplest ones, like montefortino, have been found in a huge number, they are made mainly of bronze, but there are also finds from iron. Also, among the finds, richly decorated helmets have come down to us, which were either used by nobles, or, judging by their good condition and design not optimized for combat, were used for ritual purposes.
In terms of technology, the Celts were one of the most advanced civilizations in antiquity and many innovations, including in military equipment, were borrowed by other peoples.This also affected helmets – over time, the Romans adopted them, slightly modifying them to fit their needs and traditions.
Most of the Celtic shields were oval in shape, although rectangular, hexagonal, or round specimens can be found in images and among archaeological finds. The same images indicate that the shields were decorated with various symbols, animal designs or geometric designs.
Gallic helmet. Museum Saint-Germain, France Saint-Germain.3rd-2nd century BC
Helmet of the Montefortino type. Museum of National Archeology in Perugia. Italy. 350 – 300 BC
Celtic helmet of the Agen Port type from Giubiasco (Ticino). Switzerland. 1st century BC
Many helmets were found in the area of Italy that was inhabited by the Senones (part of the Atlantic coast between Ancona and Rimini). All of them have a visor at the back, which was intended to protect the neck. Helmets of this type are usually called Montefortina, after the burial where they were first discovered.You can easily trace the connection of this type of helmet with those used in France and Austria in the 5th century BC. (12). They were made of bronze and extended upwards. Probably, in Italy, this type of helmet appeared along with the Senones.
There it turned into a Montefortine-type helmet, retaining the head and a rather long tip, although the helmet itself acquired a much more rounded shape. Images 5, 6 and 7 represent helmets found in Senonian burials and date back to 282 BC.NS. – the time when this Celtic tribe was finally supplanted by the Romans. Usually they are attributed to the end of the 4th – beginning of the 3rd century. BC. Helmets recovered from Senonian burials are usually made entirely of iron or of iron and bronze, and only occasionally are completely bronze. Some of them have a complex composite comb attachment, which is made from an iron holder fixed to the top of the helmet.
Such a helmet probably had feather ornaments on both sides, and a horsehair comb on the top of the head.The cheek pads of this type are almost always of the “three-disc” shape (6) and may have been adopted from the Italians. Their style is so reminiscent of Samnite breastplates that the origin is difficult to doubt. In the III century. BC. the shape of these cheek pads has become simpler, they have become triangular, with three “knobs”. The Italians quickly adopted the Montefortine-style helmet. The specimen found in Bologna bears an Etruscan inscription, which makes it possible to date it to the time before the departure of the Etruscans from the Po valley in the middle of the 4th century.BC. Such helmets are also found on the reliefs from the grave of the 4th century. in Cerveteri. The cheek pads on both helmets have a pronounced serration. In Etruria, the “three-disc” type was also found, but it seems to have existed no longer than the 4th century. BC. One copy of a helmet with “toothed” cheek pads was found in the Montefortine necropolis, but it is most likely imported (9).
1 – bronze Celtic conical helmet from Puglia. The jewelry on the helmet is Celtic, but the general style is Apulian. Several helmets have been found in Italy with horn-like details carved from thin sheet bronze.Bari Museum. 2 – horn from the same helmet. British museum. 3 is a coin from France depicting a Celtic with hair soaked in lime. 4 – Celtic helmet of the Negau type from the Alps. It is practically identical to the Early Italian type, with the exception of the ridge-like transverse projection. 4a – the inner part of the lower edge, which shows how the liner was fixed. 5, 6 – front and back views of a statue of a warrior from Grezan, near Nimes in the south of France. This statue, which can be dated to the 4th century. BC. – pre-Celtic.The warrior wears either front and back chest plates fixed with straps, or a carapace with decorative elements in the form of these plates. Nimes Museum. 7 – detail of the belt buckle from fig. 5.8 – belt buckle of the same type as that of the warrior from Grezan, found in Aleria, Corsica. This is not a Celtic type. 9, 10 – two hooded heads from Saint-Anastasie, France. Nimes Museum. 11 is a sculptural image of a chain mail with a shoulder cape from Entremont, in the south of France. This is the traditional Celtic type. 12 – buckle from the same image.13 – part of Celtic chain mail with a clasp that held the cape. From Kiumeshti in Romania. Scale 1: 2. A, B, C – three types of rings used in kyumesht chain mail, original size. D – cross section of the fastener. 14 is a statue of a late Celtic warrior from Vacher in southern France. He is dressed in an Italic-style chain mail. 15 – a figurine of a Celtic from northern Italy in a chain mail of the Italic type. 16 – a sculptural image of chain mail from Pergamum, Turkey.
The Montefortine type of helmet became widespread throughout the Celtic world: number 13 was found in Yugoslavia, and its almost complete Galatian analogue is depicted on the victorious frieze in Pergamum.Although the Celts were almost completely driven out of Italy by the first quarter of the 2nd century. BC, the Montefortine type still continued to exist in the valleys of the Alps. The samples found there (12, 14) are made exclusively of iron and have a separately made back plate, which was then riveted to the helmet. Cheek pads have finally departed from the original version, but still remain the main characteristic feature of this type (14).
The Montefortine type was the most successful of all existing helmet designs and was used in the Roman army for almost four centuries without undergoing significant changes.By the most conservative estimate, there must have been between three and four million of these helmets.
There was a second type of helmet, very close to the Montefortine one, but without a “bump” on the top of the head (10, 11, 15). It is usually referred to as the “kulus” type, after the first specimen of the 1st century BC found in France. Although it did not enjoy the same success as the Montefortino, but in the 1st century. BC. became quite widespread and, possibly, became the predecessor of the helmet of the Roman legionaries of the 1st century.AD The origin of the Coulus type can be as ancient as that of Montefortine – one of these helmets was found in a Senonian burial, and the Hallstatt specimen can be dated to 400 BC.
Some helmets have something like wing-like adornments on the sides (7, 13). It seems that this type appeared in Italy, most likely under the influence of wings from the Samnite helmets. Such helmets were popular in the Balkans in the 3rd-2nd centuries. BC.; there are also images of them on the victorious frieze from Pergamum, in Asia Minor.One specimen was found in Amfreville, northern France, but it may have come from elsewhere.
On the arch from Orange (21) horned helmets are depicted, which bring to mind the story of Diodorus. Again referring to the relief from Bormio, we can make the assumption that these could be the helmets of the standard bearers. In Italy, several specimens were found with parts carved from thin sheet bronze, resembling a horn. An absolutely amazing example of a horned ceremonial helmet was found in the Thames near Waterloo Bridge (18).Very rare are helmets decorated with animal figurines, such as those described by Diodorus. In fact, we know of only one instance. He was found in Kiumeshti, Romania. This is a Batin-type helmet (13), with a bird on the top. The bird’s outstretched wings were hinged, so they must have flapped at a gallop as the wearer of the helmet darted into battle.
Etruscan Negau helmets have been found in several Celtic burials in northern Italy. The fact that the Celts adopted this type is confirmed by the finds of several specimens of Negau Celtic helmets in the Central Alps.
Two new types of helmets appeared in the 1st century. BC. They are related to each other and are usually grouped into an agentport type. The Agen type (17) resembles a bowler hat with brim, while the port type with the same “bowler hat” has a rather large butt cap, which was riveted to the helmet (16). On both helmets, cheek pads were of a new type – the one that was later adopted by the Romans. The port type became a direct prototype of the imperial Gallic helmet of the 1st century. AD Samples of such helmets, entirely made of iron, were found in northern Yugoslavia, in the Central Alps, in Switzerland, in central and southwestern France.The places where they were found differ in one peculiarity – they are located along the borders of the Roman possessions of the beginning of the 1st century. BC.
Celtic type cheekpads from Alesia in central France, dated to the 1st century. BC. (20) are a strange mixture of the classic Italic type with embellishments in the form of “bumps” and the old “three-disc” type. Cheek pads from an earlier period from northern Yugoslavia have similar characteristics (19). There are also known finds of conical helmets of the Greco-Italic type with Celtic decorations.They all seem to come from Apulia, a region in southern Italy. The wheel-shaped decorative elements on the top of the helmet are almost identical to those depicted on the arch in Orange.
Even in northern Italy, where a significant number of helmets are found, most of the Celts must have had no armor. Diodorus tells us that these warriors smeared lime on their heads, and then combed their hair to the back of the head so that it became like a horse’s mane. This type of hairstyle is featured on several coins.The attempt to make the hair stand up like the fur of an angry beast dates back to very ancient times. Perhaps this is how the horsehair comb appeared on helmets.
Celts, Roman Army Helmets
Celtic iron helmet. Overall height 340 mm, weight 1590 grams. 2-3 century BC NS.
Celtic iron helmet. Overall height 340 mm, weight 1590 grams. 2-3 century BC NS.
Celtic iron helmet. Overall height 340 mm, weight 1590 grams.2-3 century BC NS.
Ceremonial Celtic helmet. 4th century BC
East Celtic helmet. Found in the Sava River. 2-1 century BC NS.
Celtic helmet. From a burial in Kyumeshti, Romania. 3rd century BC NS.
90,000 common misconceptions and frequently asked questions / Habr
German armor of the 16th century for a knight and a horse
The area of weapons and armor is surrounded by romantic legends, monstrous myths and widespread misconceptions.Their sources are often a lack of knowledge and experience of dealing with real things and their history. Most of these views are absurd and based on nothing.
Perhaps one of the most notorious examples would be the view that “knights on horseback had to be mounted with a crane,” which is as absurd as it is common opinion, even among historians. In other cases, some technical details that defy obvious description have become the subject of passionate and imaginative attempts to explain their purpose.Among them, the first place, apparently, is occupied by a spear rest protruding from the right side of the breastplate.
The following text will attempt to correct the most popular misconceptions and answer questions frequently asked during museum tours.
Misconceptions and questions about armor
This erroneous but widespread belief probably stems from the romantic notion of a “knight in shining armor,” a painting that in itself causes further misconceptions.First, the knights rarely fought alone, and armies in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance did not consist entirely of mounted knights. Although knights were the dominant force in most of these armies, they were invariably – and increasingly stronger over time – supported (and opposed) by foot soldiers such as archers, pikemen, crossbowmen, and soldiers with firearms. On the march, the knight depended on a group of servants, squires and soldiers to provide armed support and watch over his horses, armor and other equipment, not to mention the peasants and artisans who made feudal society with the existence of a military class possible.
Armor for a knight’s duel, late 16th century
Secondly, it is wrong to believe that every noble person was a knight. Knights were not born; knights were created by other knights, feudal lords, or sometimes priests. And under certain conditions, people of ignoble origin could be knighted (although knights were often considered the lowest class of the nobility). Sometimes mercenaries or civilians who fought as ordinary soldiers could be knighted because of a demonstration of extreme courage and courage, and later it became possible to acquire knighthood for money.
In other words, the ability to wear armor and fight in armor was not the prerogative of the knights. Mercenary infantrymen, or groups of soldiers consisting of peasants, or burghers (city dwellers) also took part in armed conflicts and, accordingly, protected themselves with armor of different quality and size. Indeed, burghers (of a certain age and above a certain income or wealth) in most medieval and Renaissance cities were required – often by law and decree – to buy and store their own weapons and armor.Usually it was not a full piece of armor, but at least it included a helmet, body protection in the form of chain mail, cloth armor or a breastplate, as well as weapons – a spear, pike, bow or crossbow.
17th century Indian chain mail
In wartime, this militia was required to defend the city or perform military duties for feudal lords or allied cities. During the 15th century, as some wealthy and influential cities began to become more independent and arrogant, even the burghers organized their own tournaments, in which they, of course, wore armor.
In this regard, not every piece of armor has ever been worn by a knight, and not every person depicted in armor will be a knight. A man in armor would be more correctly called a soldier [man-at-arms] or a man in armor.
In most historical periods, there is evidence of women who took part in armed conflicts. There is evidence of how noble ladies turned into military commanders, for example,
Jeanne de Pentevre
(1319-1384).There are rare references to women from lower society who got up “under the gun.” There are records that women fought in armor, but no illustrations from that time on this topic have survived.
Joan of Arc
(1412-1431) is perhaps the most famous example of a female warrior, and there is evidence that she wore armor commissioned for her by King Charles VII of France. But only one small illustration of her, made during her lifetime, has come down to us, in which she is depicted with a sword and a banner, but without armor.The fact that contemporaries perceived a woman in command of an army, or even wearing armor, as something worthy of the record suggests that this sight was the exception, not the rule.
This idea may have sprung from the fact that most of the armor on display in museums is of high quality, and most of the simpler armor, belonging to common people and the lowest of the nobility, was hidden in vaults or lost over the centuries.
Indeed, with the exception of acquiring armor on the battlefield or winning a tournament, acquiring armor was a very expensive undertaking.However, since there are differences in the quality of armor, there must have been differences in their cost. Armor of low to medium quality, available to burghers, mercenaries and lower nobility, could be bought ready-made in markets, fairs and in city shops. On the other hand, there were also high-class armor, made to order in the imperial or royal workshops and by the famous German and Italian armourers.
Armor of King Henry VIII of England, XVI century
The armor by some of the most famous craftsmen was the highest achievement of the art of arms and was extremely expensive.
Although examples of the cost of armor, weapons and equipment in some of the historical periods have come down to us, it is very difficult to translate the historical cost into modern counterparts. It is clear, however, that the cost of the armor ranged from inexpensive, low-quality or outdated, second-hand items available to citizens and mercenaries, to the cost of a full armor of an English knight, which in 1374 was estimated at £ 16. It was analogous to the cost of 5-8 years of renting a merchant’s house in London, or three years of the salary of an experienced worker, and the price of a helmet alone (with a visor, and probably with a barmitsa) was more than the price of a cow.
At the upper end of the scale, you can find examples such as a large set of armor (a basic set that could be adapted with the help of additional items and plates for various uses, both on the battlefield and in a tournament), ordered in 1546 by the German king (later – the emperor) for his son. For the fulfillment of this order, in a year of work, the court gunsmith Jörg Seusenhofer from Innsbruck received an incredible amount of 1,200 gold coins, equivalent to twelve annual salaries of a senior court official.
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A full set of combat armor usually weighs 20 to 25 kg, and a helmet from 2 to 4 kg. This is less than a full firefighter outfit with oxygen equipment, or what modern soldiers have had to carry in combat since the nineteenth century. Moreover, while modern equipment usually hangs from the shoulders or belt, the weight of a well-fitted armor is distributed throughout the body. It wasn’t until the 17th century that the weight of combat armor was greatly increased to make it bulletproof, due to the increased accuracy of firearms.At the same time, full armor became less and less common, and only important parts of the body: the head, torso and arms were protected by metal plates.
The opinion that wearing armor (which took shape by 1420-30) greatly reduced the mobility of a soldier is not true. The armor equipment was made from separate elements for each limb. Each element consisted of metal plates and plates, connected by movable rivets and leather straps, which made it possible to make any movements without restrictions imposed by the rigidity of the material.The widespread idea that a man in armor could hardly move, and having fallen to the ground, could not get up, has no basis. On the contrary, historical sources tell about the famous French knight Jean II le Mengre, nicknamed Busico (1366-1421), who, being dressed in full armor, could, grabbing the steps of the ladder from below, from the back of it, climb it with the help of some hands. Moreover, there are several illustrations of the Middle Ages and Renaissance, in which soldiers, squires or knights, in full armor, climb horses without assistance or any devices, without ladders or cranes.Modern experiments with real armor of the 15th and 16th centuries and with their exact copies have shown that even an untrained person in properly selected armor can climb and get off a horse, sit or lie, and then get up from the ground, run and move limbs freely and without inconvenience.
In some exceptional cases, the armor was very heavy or kept the person wearing it in almost the same position, for example, in some types of tournaments. Tournament armor was made for special occasions and was worn for a limited time.A man in armor then climbed a horse with the help of a squire or a small ladder, and the last elements of armor could be put on him after he was settled in the saddle.
This performance appears to have originated in the late nineteenth century as a joke. It entered popular fiction in the following decades, and the picture was eventually immortalized in 1944 when Laurence Olivier used it in his film King Henry V, despite the protests of history advisers, among whom was such a prominent authority as James Mann, Chief Armourer of the Tower of London.
As stated above, most of the armor was light and flexible enough not to constrain the wearer. Most people in armor should have been able to put one foot in the stirrup and saddle a horse without any problems without any assistance. A stool or the help of a squire would speed up this process. But the crane was absolutely unnecessary.
Unfortunately, one of the most popular questions, especially among young visitors to the museum, does not have a precise answer. When the man in armor was not engaged in battle, he did the same thing that people do today.He would go to the toilet (which in the Middle Ages and in the Renaissance was called a restroom or latrine) or another secluded place, remove the corresponding parts of armor and clothing and indulge in the call of nature. On the battlefield, everything had to happen differently. In this case, the answer is unknown to us. However, keep in mind that the urge to go to the bathroom in the heat of battle was most likely at the bottom of the priority list.
Some believe that the military salute appeared in the days of the Roman Republic, when murder by order was in the order of things, and citizens, when approaching officials, had to raise their right hand to show that there was no weapon hidden in it.It is more widely believed that the modern military salute came from men in armor who raised their helmets before greeting their comrades or lords. This gesture made it possible to recognize the person, and also made him vulnerable and at the same time demonstrated that there was no weapon in his right hand (in which the sword was usually held). All these were signs of trust and good intentions.
While these theories sound intriguing and romantic, there is little evidence that the military salute originated from them.As far as Roman customs are concerned, it would be nearly impossible to prove that they held out for fifteen centuries (or were restored during the Renaissance) and led to the modern military salute. Also, there is no direct confirmation of the theory with a visor, although it is more recent. Most military helmets after 1600 were no longer equipped with visors, and after 1700 helmets were rarely worn on European battlefields.
Anyway, military records of 17th century England reflect that “the formal act of greeting was the removal of the headdress.”By 1745, the British Coldstream Guards appear to have perfected this procedure by converting it into “putting your hand on your head and bowing when you meet.”
This practice was adopted by other British regiments, and then it could spread to America (during the War of Independence) and continental Europe (during the Napoleonic Wars). So the truth may be somewhere in between, in which the military salute evolved from a gesture of respect and courtesy, parallel to the civilian habit of raising or touching the hem of a hat, perhaps a combination of the custom of warriors showing their unarmed right hand.
15th century German chain mail
A protective garment consisting of intertwined rings should be properly called “mail” or “mail armor” in English. The generally accepted term “chain mail” is modern pleonasm (a linguistic error meaning the use of more words than is necessary to describe). In our case, “chain” and “mail” describe an object consisting of a sequence of intertwined rings. That is, the term “chain mail” simply repeats the same thing twice.
As with other misconceptions, the roots of this error can be traced back to the 19th century. When those who began to study armor looked at medieval paintings, they noticed, as it seemed to them, many different types of armor: rings, chains, ring bracelets, scale armor, small plates, etc. As a result, all ancient armor was called “mail”, distinguishing it only by its appearance, hence the terms “ring-mail”, “chain-mail”, “banded mail”, “scale-mail”, “plate-mail”. Today, it is generally accepted that most of these different images were just various attempts by artists to correctly display the surface of the type of armor that is difficult to capture in a painting and in sculpture.Instead of depicting individual rings, these details were stylized with dots, strokes, squiggles, circles and more, which led to errors.
It is difficult to answer the question unequivocally for many reasons. First, there is no evidence that can paint a complete picture for any of the periods. From about the 15th century, scattered examples of how armor was ordered, how long the orders took, and how much the various parts of the armor cost. Second, a full body armor could be made up of parts made by various narrowly specialized gunsmiths.Parts of the armor could be sold unfinished, and then customized on site for a certain amount. Finally, the matter was compounded by regional and national differences.
In the case of German gunsmiths, most of the workshops were controlled by strict guild rules that limited the number of apprentices and thus controlled the number of items that one master and his workshop could produce. In Italy, on the other hand, there were no such restrictions, and workshops could grow, which improved the speed of creation and the number of products.
In any case, it should be borne in mind that the production of armor and weapons flourished in the Middle Ages and during the Renaissance. Gunsmiths, makers of blades, pistols, bows, crossbows and arrows were present in every big city. As it is now, their market depended on supply and demand, and efficient operation was a key parameter for success. The common myth that making a simple chain mail took several years is nonsense (but it cannot be denied that making chain mail was very labor intensive).
The answer to this question is simple and elusive at the same time. The production time of the armor depended on several factors, for example, on the customer, on who was entrusted with the production of the order (the number of people in production and the occupancy of the workshop with other orders), and the quality of the armor. Two famous examples will serve as an illustration.
In 1473 Martin Rondelle, possibly an Italian gunsmith working in Bruges who called himself “my master’s master of Burgundy”, wrote to his English client, Sir John Paston.The gunsmith informed Sir John that he could fulfill the request for the manufacture of the armor as soon as the English knight informed what parts of the suit he needed, in what form, and the date by which the armor should be completed (unfortunately, the gunsmith did not indicate possible dates ). In court workshops, the production of armor for the highest persons, apparently, took more time. At the court gunsmith Jörg Seusenhofer (with a small number of assistants), the manufacture of horse armor and large armor for the king apparently took more than a year.The order was placed in November 1546 by King (later Emperor) Ferdinand I (1503-1564) for himself and his son, and was completed in November 1547. We do not know if Seusenhofer and his workshop were working on other orders at that time.
Two details of the armor more than others inflame the public imagination: one of them is described as “that thing sticking out to the right of the chest”, and the second is referred to after a muffled giggle, as “that thing between the legs.” In weapon and armor terminology, they are known as spear rest and codpiece.
The spear support appeared shortly after the appearance of the solid chest plate at the end of the 14th century and existed until the armor itself began to disappear. Contrary to the literal meaning of the English term “lance rest”, its main purpose was not to take on the weight of the spear. In fact, it was used for two purposes, which are better described by the French term “arrêt de cuirasse” (limiting the spear). It allowed the mounted warrior to hold the spear firmly under his right hand, restraining it from slipping backward.This allowed the spear to be stabilized and balanced, which improved the sight. In addition, the total weight and speed of the horse and rider were transmitted to the point of the spear, making this weapon very formidable. If the target was hit, the support for the spear also worked as a shock absorber, preventing the spear from “firing” backward, and distributing the blow across the chest plate over the entire upper body, and not just over the right arm, wrist, elbow and shoulder. It is worth noting that on most combat armor, the spear support could fold upward so as not to interfere with the mobility of the hand holding the sword after the warrior got rid of the spear.
The history of the armored codpiece is closely related to its brother in a civilian man’s suit. From the middle of the 14th century, the upper part of men’s clothing began to be shortened so much that it ceased to cover the crotch. Pants were not yet invented in those days, and men wore leggings fastened to underwear or a belt, and the crotch was hidden behind a hollow attached to the inside of the top edge of each of the leggings’ legs. At the beginning of the 16th century, this floor began to be filled and visually enlarged.And the codpiece remained a part of the men’s costume until the end of the 16th century. On armor, the codpiece, as a separate plate protecting the genitals, appeared in the second decade of the 16th century, and remained relevant until the 1570s. It had a thick lining on the inside and was attached to the armor in the center of the bottom hem of the shirt. The earliest varieties were in the shape of a bowl, but thanks to the influence of civilian clothing, it gradually changed into an upward shape. It was usually not used when riding a horse because, firstly, it would get in the way, and secondly, the armored front of the combat saddle provided sufficient protection for the crotch.Therefore, the codpiece was usually used for armor intended for foot battles, both in war and in tournaments, and, despite its value as a defense, it was also used to a lesser extent due to fashion.
One of the most enduring and popular images of the medieval warrior is the image of a Viking, which is instantly recognizable by a helmet equipped with a pair of horns. However, there is very little evidence that the Vikings ever used horns to decorate helmets.
The earliest example of decorating a helmet with a pair of stylized horns is a small group of helmets that have come down to us from the Celtic Bronze Age, found in Scandinavia and in what is now France, Germany and Austria. These decorations were made of bronze and could take the form of two horns or a flat triangular profile. These helmets date from the 12th or 11th century BC. Two thousand years later, from 1250, pairs of horns became popular in Europe and remained one of the most commonly used heraldic symbols on helmets for battle and tournaments in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.It is easy to see that the two periods indicated do not coincide with what is usually associated with the Scandinavian raids that took place from the end of the 8th to the end of the 11th centuries.
Viking helmets were usually conical or hemispherical, sometimes made from a single piece of metal, sometimes from segments held together by stripes (Spangenhelm).
Many of these helmets were equipped with face protection. The latter could take the form of a metal bar covering the nose, or a front sheet consisting of protection for the nose and two eyes, as well as the upper part of the cheekbones, or protection of the entire face and neck in the form of chain mail.
In general, the gradual decline of armor was not due to the emergence of firearms as such, but because of their constant improvement. Since the first firearms appeared in Europe already in the third decade of the 14th century, and the gradual decline of armor was not noted until the second half of the 17th century, armor and firearms have existed together for over 300 years. During the 16th century, attempts were made to make bulletproof armor, either by reinforcing steel, thickening the armor, or adding separate reinforcing pieces on top of regular armor.
German pishchal of the late 14th century
Finally, it is worth noting that the armor did not completely disappear. The widespread use of helmets by modern soldiers and the police proves that armor, although it has changed materials and may have lost some of its importance, is still a necessary part of military equipment around the world. In addition, torso protection continued to exist in the form of experimental chest plates during the American Civil War, rifle pilot plates in World War II, and bulletproof vests of today.
Medical and anthropological studies show that the average height of men and women has gradually increased over the centuries, and this process, thanks to improved diet and health of society, has accelerated over the past 150 years. Most of the armor of the 15th and 16th centuries that have come down to us confirms these discoveries.
However, there are many factors to consider when drawing such general conclusions from armor. First, is this armor complete and uniform, that is, did all the parts go together, thereby giving the correct impression of its original owner? Secondly, even high-quality armor made to order for a specific person can give an approximate idea of his height, with an error of up to 2-5 cm, since the overlap of the belly protectors (shirt and thigh shields) and hips (legguards) can only be estimated approximately.
Armor was found in all shapes and sizes, including armor for children and youth (as opposed to adults), and there was even armor for dwarfs and giants (often found at European courts as “curiosities”). In addition, other factors must be considered, such as the difference in average height between northern and southern Europeans, or simply the fact that there have always been unusually tall or unusually short people when compared to average contemporaries.
Notable exceptions include kings such as Francis I, King of France (1515–47), or Henry VIII, King of England (1509–47).The height of the latter was 180 cm, as evidenced by his contemporaries, and which can be verified thanks to half a dozen of his armor that have come down to us.
Armor of the German Duke Johann Wilhelm, 16th century
Armor of Emperor Ferdinand I, 16th century
Visitors to the Metropolitan Museum can compare German armor dating from 1530 with the battle armor of Emperor Ferdinand I (1503-1564) dating back to 1555. Both armors are incomplete and their wearers are only roughly sized, but the difference in size is striking.The growth of the owner of the first armor was, apparently, about 193 cm, and the chest girth – 137 cm, while the growth of Emperor Ferdinand did not exceed 170 cm.
The theory behind this statement is that some early forms of armor (protection from plates and
of the 14th and 15th centuries, armet – a closed cavalry helmet of the 15th-16th centuries, cuirass of the 16th century) were designed so that the left side was superimposed on the right, to prevent penetration of the blow of the enemy’s sword. Since most people are right-handed, most of the piercing hits should have come from the left and, if successful, should have slid across the armor through the scent and to the right.
The theory is compelling, but there is insufficient evidence that modern clothing was directly influenced by such armor. In addition, while the theory of armor protection may be true in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, some examples of helmets and body armor are wrapped in the opposite direction.
Sword, early 15th century
Dagger, 16th century
As with armor, not everyone who carried a sword was a knight. But the idea that the sword is the prerogative of the knights is not so far from the truth.The customs, or even the right to carry the sword, varied with time, place, and law.
In medieval Europe, swords were the main weapon of knights and horsemen. In times of peace, only persons of noble birth had the right to carry swords in public places. Since in most places swords were perceived as “weapons of war” (as opposed to the same daggers), peasants and burghers who did not belong to the warrior class of medieval society could not carry swords. An exception to the rule was made for travelers (citizens, traders and pilgrims) due to the dangers of travel by land and sea.Within the walls of most medieval cities, the wearing of swords was forbidden to everyone – sometimes even noble ones – at least in times of peace. The standard rules of commerce, often found in churches or town halls, often also included examples of permitted lengths of daggers or swords that could be carried freely within city walls.
Without a doubt, these rules gave rise to the idea that the sword is the exclusive symbol of the warrior and knight. But due to social changes and new combat techniques that appeared in the 15th and 16th centuries, it became possible and acceptable for citizens and knights to carry the lighter and thinner descendants of swords – swords, as a daily weapon for self-defense in public places.And until the beginning of the 19th century, swords and small swords became an indispensable attribute of the clothes of a European gentleman.
It is widely believed that swords of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance were simple tools of brute force, very heavy, and as a result, not amenable to handling by the “common man”, that is, very ineffective weapons. The reasons for these accusations are easy to understand. Due to the rarity of the surviving specimens, few people held a real sword of the Middle Ages or Renaissance in their hands.Most of these swords were found in excavations. Their rusty appearance today can easily give the impression of rudeness – like a burned-out car that has lost all the signs of its former grandeur and complexity.
Most of the real swords of the Middle Ages and Renaissance say otherwise. A one-handed sword usually weighed 1-2 kg, and even a large two-handed “military sword” of the XIV-XVI centuries rarely weighed more than 4.5 kg. The weight of the blade was balanced by the weight of the hilt, and the swords were light, intricate, and sometimes very beautifully decorated.Documents and paintings show that such a sword in experienced hands could be used with terrible efficiency, from cutting off limbs to penetrating armor.
Turkish saber with scabbard, 18th century
Japanese katana and wakizashi short sword, 15th century
Swords and some daggers, both European and Asian, and weapons from the Islamic world, often on the blade one or more grooves are present. Misconceptions about their purpose led to the emergence of the term “bloodstream”.These grooves are said to accelerate the drainage of blood from the opponent’s wound, thus enhancing the wounding effect, or that they facilitate the removal of the blade from the wound, making it easy to remove the weapon without turning. Despite the amusement of such theories, in fact the purpose of this groove, called a fuller, is only to lighten the blade, reduce its mass without weakening the blade or impairing flexibility.
On some European blades, in particular swords, rapiers and daggers, as well as on some combat poles, these grooves have a complex shape and perforation.The same perforation is found on cutting weapons from India and the Middle East. Based on scant documentary evidence, it is believed that this perforation must have contained poison in order for the blow to be guaranteed to lead to the death of the enemy. This misconception led to the fact that weapons with such perforations began to be called “weapons of assassins.”
Although there are references to Indian poison blade weapons, and similar rare cases may have occurred in Renaissance Europe, the true purpose of this perforation is not at all so sensational.First, the perforation removed some of the material and made the blade lighter. Secondly, it was often made in the form of exquisite and complex patterns, and served both as a demonstration of the skill of a blacksmith and as an ornament. For proof, it is only necessary to point out that most of these perforations are usually located near the handle (hilt) of the weapon, and not on the other side, as it would be necessary to do in the case of poison.
The rise and fall of Budenovka. The fate of the Red Army helmet with aventail
The cloth bogatyr helmet once unmistakably distinguished the Red Army soldiers from any other state armies, as well as military formations and simply bandit groups of post-revolutionary Russia.However, having become such a striking distinctive feature of the form, Budenovka fell out of use very quickly – almost as quickly as it appeared, leaving only legends about its origin.
This photo shows a CHON fighter. CHON, or Special Purpose Units, were created to fight “counter-revolutionary elements”, that is, with people who did not share the communist ideology. The second official name of CHON is “communist squads”.
The very name “Budenovka” comes from the surname of one of the first marshals of the Soviet Union, Semyon Budyonny.He is called the creator of the red cavalry, and the soldiers of his army were called “Budennovtsy”.
Soldiers of the First Cavalry Army of Budyonny at a rally on March 9, 1920. The whole parade of hats – from helmets to budenovoks.
Some historians believe that Budenovka was originally created as a “hero” – for the Victory Parade of the tsarist army in the First World War. But the victory dragged on, Constantinople was far away, and the uniform was stored in warehouses in Petrograd, which were plundered by the “Bolsheviks” who had seized power.
And this unusual headdress was designed by the artist Viktor Vasnetsov (above is his self-portrait of 1873) based on Russian folk tales and epics.
In other words, it was with the “Bogatyrs” and the Russian helmet that the budenovka started.
Perhaps it was the image of a hero – a mighty Russian warrior who conquered enemies and dragons – that was attractive to the command of both the Tsarist and the Red Army. Both pictures of the heroes are by Vasnetsov.
And this is the solemn parade of the Red Army.And in the photo everything is already in budenovka.
Another version of the origin of the cloth helmet says that in 1918 the command of the Red Army was puzzled by the creation of its own, unique army uniform and invited leading Russian artists for this. Vasnetsov also joined the group …
… And so this uniform and a hat with a characteristic star on the forehead appeared. The size of the star is 10.5 cm. Photo of 1923.
Photo of January 1923. Life, however, very quickly proved that everything is not the same as in fairy tales.Budenovka had strong design flaws.
In the photo, soldiers of the Red Army ravage the Simonov Assumption Monastery in Moscow and take out church utensils. 1923, right before the closure of the monastery.
The biggest drawback was the material from which the budenovka was made – the cloth. The winters were cold, and the cloth was clearly not enough to protect the head from the frost.
Celebration on the occasion of the proclamation of the Chechen Autonomous Region.Chechen cavalry squadron in 1923.
But the biggest problem of Budenovka was that the helmet did not fit. And without helmets it became impossible to go into battle. In principle, Budenovka could not stand comparison with the armor of the epic Russian heroes.
Far Eastern conflict of 1929, war for control of the Sino-Eastern Railway. As a result of battles, the Red Army regained control over the road. In the photo, Red Army men in Budenovkas demonstrate flags captured from the enemy.
Another problem of Budenovka as a result was that it repeats the helmet of the Russian heroes. Russian folk motives did not correspond to the ideology of the spread of communism in the world and the unification of the proletarians of all countries. “Export of revolution” on bayonets with elements of Russian fairy tales and epics also raised questions.
In the 1930s, Budenovoks were finally abandoned and replaced with earflaps. But, oddly enough, in this propaganda photograph of 1938 in a hat with earflaps it is just a “traitor”, and a Red Army soldier in Budenovka is leading him on a bayonet.
Not only Soviet propaganda liked Budyonovka. The image sunk into memory and was in use until the Second World War, although the budenovka had long since disappeared. This is a Nazi poster that says that “Bolshevism is slavery, violence, mass murder, destruction.” The poster urges to defend and never give up.
Grigory (Sergo) Ordzhonikidze posing in a Red Army uniform, 1920.
A century later, budenovka is still in vogue, but now among collectors.A real budenovka costs hundreds of dollars. True, there is also an economical option – a replica in souvenir shops.
90,000 L2 helmet of a warrior – a headdress of true heroes!
Lineage 2 →
L2 warrior helmet – the headdress of true heroes!
Many players lacked the variety of character appearances in the game. In order to fix this, various la2 accessories were introduced, which gave the old characters a whole new look.The addition of items such as a pirate hat, artisan goggles, a la2 war helmet and much more to the line has delighted the eyes of tens of thousands of players.
What is a warrior helmet in l2?
This headdress looks like a helmet with a mohawk made of red feathers, the height of which begins to grow from the back of the head and reaches its maximum size closer to the forehead. Thanks to these feathers, anyone who wears a war helmet in L2 takes on a frightening look, which makes its owner proud. This item takes up two slots in the inventory, which means that it cannot be paired with any other decoration.Also in L2, the warrior’s helmet can be easily transferred, thereby giving other characters the opportunity to try on this wonderful headdress. It should be noted that in accordance with other la2 accessories, this helmet does not provide any stat and stat boosts. If one of you went to the pvp server, you could see this headgear there, which gives decent bonuses to combat parameters. As a rule, adding such properties to a war helmet la2 is typical only on servers with exorbitant rates.
Who will suit an extraordinary decoration
Trade in Lineage 2
Many people want to have a warrior’s helmet in l2, but not everyone will face it.Without a doubt, this l2 headdress will give a masculine look to any character, but it looks most spectacular on the enchantments of the human race. A man wearing an L2 helmet on his head, the war looks simply unsurpassed, as if this decoration was created especially for him. The combination of the L2 warrior helmet with some heavy sets looks especially harmonious, you might think that it is an integral part of them.
How to get hold of a war la2 helmet?
There are several ways to get jewelry in the line.Time-consuming and resource-consuming way – passing the quest. Through the quest, only ears or masks are obtained, so many are not interested in it. The second way to get la2 accessories is fishing, during which you can get recipes and pieces from the caught fish for hairpins, glasses and some other jewelry. You can drop hats from epic raid bosses. The owners of the castle can also take accessories in the form of crowns, respectively, according to the belonging to a particular castle. Finally, the most durable way that rare jewelry can bring is by participating in events.Only this option is suitable for obtaining l2 warrior helmet. Events can be automatic, with a reward for a certain number of collected items, as well as conducted by game masters. As a rule, for the events held by GMs, they give decorations to choose from, which is the easiest way to get a war helmet in l2. In addition, there is a chance to purchase items in L2 by buying them on the market.
Each person has their own tastes and everyone wants to see their character more unique than others, which is exactly what the various accessories in the game contribute to.Anyone who wields a warrior helmet in L2 will feel like a unique and unrivaled player.
90,000 Battle helmets of Russian soldiers in Siberia 16-17 centuries
The image of a Russian warrior-explorer in the form of a stern bearded man in a fur hat, sheepskin coat, with a squeak in his hand and a saber on his side, which is familiar to the mass consciousness of our contemporaries, was formed under the influence of works of art of the 19th-20th centuries. and is regularly reproduced in textbooks, popular and popular science literature.At the same time, a comprehensive analysis of material, pictorial and written sources indicates that this textbook image has little in common with the true appearance of the Cossacks and service people in Siberia at the end of the 16th-17th centuries. In this regard, an important area of activity of military historians, archaeologists and weapons experts is the study of the complex of weapons, clothing and military art of Russian soldiers in Siberia in the era of the development of this vast and rich region.
One of the important features of the military affairs of Russian servicemen in the Trans-Urals was the widespread use of protective weapons.If in the lands of the metropolis during the XVII century. The traditional armor complex was rapidly leaving the widespread military use, then in a number of regions of Russian Siberia we observe the opposite process. Cossacks and archers who practically did not use armor during the “western” military campaigns, finding themselves in Siberia, tried to hastily acquire shells and helmets, without which they felt vulnerable in collisions with “multi-shot”, “spear”, “harness” and “kuyashny” aborigines.The combination of the practice of importing armor from the territory of European Russia with the massive purchases and confiscations of “good pansyars” and “strong kuyaks” from Siberian peoples made it possible to significantly increase the number of armor in service units. If in European Russia in the ranks of the local cavalry, the number of soldiers equipped with protective weapons in the XVII century. usually did not exceed 5%, then in Siberia the number of “pansyrniks” and “kuyashniks” in individual detachments often reached 50-70% or more of the total number of soldiers.Moreover, not only representatives of the military elite (“primary people”, “boyar children”) were equipped with protective weapons, but also many mounted and foot Cossacks, archers, “Lithuania”, service Tatars, etc.
A complex of protective weapons for Russian soldiers in Siberia late XVI-XVII centuries was represented by body armor (various armor structures), combat headgear (helmets and misyurks), additional protective parts (bracers, legguards, armor amplifiers) and shields. In this article, we will consider the helmets of Russian soldiers in Siberia, as well as reconstruct the appearance and design features of some combat headgear stored in museum collections and private collections.
Judging by the data from written materials, Siberian servicemen used combat headgear somewhat less often than corps armor. The sources mention “shishaks”, “heloms”, “iron hats”, “misyurskie hats” brought to Siberia from European Russia. Some of the headgear was imported into the region privately and was held by the servants as private property. However, the bulk of helmets and misyurok was sent to the Trans-Urals at the direction of the Moscow authorities and was deposited in the arsenals of cities and forts as “the sovereign’s treasury.”Such helmets were issued to Russian soldiers to carry out various “sovereign services”. So, for example, the detachment of V. Shakhov (41 people), sent from Western Siberia to the river. Lena in 1633, were allocated “eight shishaks” and “seven caps of the Miyurian”, and all the soldiers were equipped with shells4. The corps of Y. Tukhachevsky, which opposed the Yenisei Kyrgyz in 1639, was equipped with a hundred “lat with shishaks” sent “from Moscow.” The detachment of V. Poyarkov (132 people), heading for the Amur in 1643, along with 70 Yakut kuyaks, 10 ringed “pansyryas”, a dozen bracers (“armlets”) and a set of allocated 17 helmets.In 1644, a batch of helmets and shells was transferred from the Tobolsk arsenal to the Lithuanian company of captain D. Arshinsky and the head of G. Grozin. A year later, servicemen were issued from the Verkholensk prison: “. From the sovereign’s treasury kuyaks with bracers and helmets and pansyri …” In 1647, “50 helmets and shishaks” were kept in Tobolsk.
Along with the supply of combat headgear from the territory of European Russia, servicemen acquired privately and “imprisoned in the sovereign’s treasury” during the hostilities and confiscations of “shishaki”, “heloma”, “iron caps” of the Tatar, Shor, Kyrgyz, Mongol, Tungus , Yakut and Buryat production.The Siberian administration encouraged this practice. Back in 1622, the Russian authorities recommended taking yasak from the Shors (“Kuznetsk Tatars”) “with shells, and spears, and sabers.” Some of these helmets were used by Siberian servicemen, while others were sent to Moscow as samples. So, for example, in 1655, the Kuznetsk governor Baskakov, referring to the tsar’s decree “to send the Kuznetsk prison to you, the sovereign … to Moscow, iron hats, which the emlutts’ hats in your tsar’s yasak”, sent to the tsar’s treasury “thirteen simple iron caps not stuffed on the cloth (i.e.That is, without liners. – L.B.), and 260 cap police officers (plates – L. B.), and 390 iron nails (rivets. – L. B.), which stuff on the ears (aventail – L. B.) “. According to the inventory of the Armory Chamber of the Moscow Kremlin, in 1687 were kept: “Eighty-six Kolmyk shishaks, sewn, white iron earpieces overlaid with wormy velvet and green and black.” According to the caretakers, “the ears and back of the heads of these hats and shishaks were trimmed with colored cloth or velvet; ensigns made of multi-colored taffeta, painted with dyes on gold, were inserted into the tubes.
At least 11 helmets are kept in museum collections in Siberia and private Siberian collections, which can be attributed to the armament complex of servicemen of the late 16th-17th centuries. With some degree of convention, they can be divided into “Russian” and “European” type helmets. The first include “shishaks” (5 copies) and “sheloms” (2 copies), made within the framework of the West Asian military-cultural tradition that prevailed in the Russian complex of defensive weapons in the 16th century.and retained a certain influence on Russian armor in the 17th century. The headgear of European production or made by Russian craftsmen according to foreign models can be classified as helmets of the “European type” (4 pieces).
The predominant variety of “Russian type” helmets are solid-forged “shishaks” with a low sphero-conical crown (4 pieces). The height of the helmets is 16-18 cm, the diameter is 20-23 cm. A helmet from the KKKM (KKKM No. 6641) was found on the Dudin section of the river. Yenisei. Shishak (height – 17 cm, diameter – 23 cm) is equipped with a narrow hoop along the bottom edge (Fig.eleven). Together with the helmet, a chain mail aventail was discovered, which was later lost. Apparently, the aventail was suspended from a metal rod, fixed to the helmet with the help of clamps passed through the through holes on the temporal sides of the crown. The other two cones in the series have similar dimensions and design systems. Additional decorative ornaments are found only on the headband from the village of Zeleny Yar. The central and upper parts of the crown of this helmet are covered with vertical teardrop-shaped lobes (Fig.12). Judging by the holes in the lower part of the dome, the helmet could have been fitted with headphones or a cloth comforter. This type of combat headgear was very popular among Russian soldiers of the late Middle Ages. Shishaks are most often mentioned in written sources when describing the combat headgear of servicemen in Siberia, and their images are recorded in the drawings of the Remezov Chronicle (Fig. 2, 36, 38, 40).
An intermediate position between helmets of the “Russian” and “European” type is occupied by a shishak from the number of accidental finds from the territory of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).The helmet has a hemispherical crown (height – 17 cm, diameter – 20 cm), to the forehead of which a simple visor is riveted with a hole for the arrow-nose. The presence of small through holes on the crown, temporal and occipital parts of the helmet indicates that it was originally equipped with a pommel, earpieces and a “Russian” or “European” style headpiece. However, later it could be worn without these elements. The closest analogue of a helmet from Yakutia is a shishak from the arsenal of the Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery.It is interesting that the cap comforter from the monastery collection was attached to the crown with rivets with brass caps (Fig. 3).
“Sheloms” are presented in the series in question in two copies. They differ from “shishaks” by a high volumetric crown with an elongated top. The helmet from TGIAMZ has a “spoon” (covered with twisted grooves) crown, a narrow convex hoop along the lower edge and a long pommel (Fig. 1, 3). The surface of the helmets from a private collection is smooth, and the pommel is fragmentary. Sheloms were a popular type of combat headgear for the Russian landowner cavalry of the 16th century.Mention of them among the weapons of the Siberian servicemen of the 17th century. isolated. Perhaps, in Siberia, helmets were worn by the commanders of military units and the “initial people”. In the drawings of the Remezov Chronicle, some tall helmets of cylindrical-conical and sphero-conical shapes can be correlated with the helmets (Fig. 2, 37, 39, 41).
“European type” helmets are represented by “Reitar” shishaks and “bourguignots”.
The helmet closest to the Russian Shishaks, originating from the Dalmatovsky Assumption Monastery, is currently stored in the SOCM (Fig.fourteen). The low sphero-conical crown of the helmet (height – 14.5 cm, diameter – 22 cm) resembles the domes of Russian shishaks. A convex rim is skipped along the lower edge of the crown. A visor is riveted to the forehead part of the helmet (width in the central part – 4.7 cm, on the sides – 3 cm) with a hole for a nasal arrow. Shishak was equipped with a soft comforter, which was fixed with rivets with ornamented brass caps with a scalloped edge. The back of the helmet of the Western European model (“crayfish tail”) is made of 5 plates: four rectangular (16.5-18.5 by 2-3.5 cm) and the lower trapezoidal (16 by 8.5 cm), connected to the organic lining by rivets with brass caps.The helmet was equipped with earpieces, which have not survived.
Currently, we are aware of eight helmets, the design and design of which are similar to the helmet from the SOCM, which indicates the presence of mass production in-line of this type of combat headgear. Most of the series helmets are kept in museums and private collections in Russia. The presence of numerous analogs makes it possible to reconstruct quite accurately the original appearance of the shishak from the Dalmatovsky Assumption Monastery (Fig.4, 1). First of all, it is necessary to note the later additions, which include simple iron rivets in the center of the visor shield and on the crown of the helmet. A pair of central riveted holes on the visor flap originally served for attaching the clip of the movable nosepiece-arrow. The cloth liner, the lining of the earpieces and the back of the head on the type of helmets in question were attached to the metal base with the help of special rivets with ornamented brass caps. It is possible that the vertical shield of the visor was originally nailed to the crown with the same rivets.In the European fashion of the first half of the 17th century. the edges of the cloth linings could extend beyond the earpieces and the backside and be decorated with decorative scallops of a semicircular or trapezoidal shape.
The most striking design element of the series helmets were very wide and massive earpieces that covered the warrior’s cheeks, ears and cheekbones. Their shape and design can be reconstructed with a high degree of reliability using a similar helmet from the Artillery Museum and headgear from other collections. The earpieces were a wide, pointed downwards plate with a rim along the perimeter and a small semicircular cut on the front side.A drop-shaped bulge with through auditory openings was located approximately in the center of the ear. The earpieces, like the back, were equipped with a cloth lining, which was fixed with rivets with brass caps (Fig. 3). With the help of paired leather straps, the headphones were hung directly from the crown of the helmet or sewn to the comforter (as in this case). With both types of attachment, the headphone could be hung end-to-end (Fig. 4) or with its upper edge under the lower edge of the crown (Fig. 3). The crown of the SOKM cone is equipped with a through hole.The latter could have served for attaching the pommel, which consisted of a rounded base plate with an even or scalloped edge and a short point with or without an “apple” (Fig. 4, 1).
The question of the place of manufacture of the helmet from the SOCM remains open. A crayfish tail and rivets with ornamented brass caps are typical of European combat headgear of the late 16th-17th centuries.
However, it is known that in the first half of the 17th century. in Russia, mass production of “armor and shishaks” of the European standard was organized, which entered service with the soldiers and reitars of the regiments of the “new order”.The number of such helmets in Russian collections may testify to the fact that the shishak in question was made on the territory of the Moscow state according to the European model. The popularity of this type of headgear among Russian soldiers was probably due to their typological proximity to the usual “Moscow” shishaks. According to legend, the helmet in question was transferred to the Dalmatovsky Monastery by the Tyumen Yasak Tatar Iligey. Those who analyzed the helmet of A.P. Zykov and I.L. Man’kova came to the conclusion that his appearance in the monastery is associated with the Tobolsk reiters, who repeatedly visited the Dalmatov monastery during the Bashkir uprising of 1662-1667.
This version seems to be very realistic. However, in our opinion, one cannot completely exclude the option that the helmet and the chain mail kept with it were transferred to the monastery by representatives of the traditional categories of service people, since it is known that protective weapons of the “European type” were used on the territory of the region already in the first half XVII century., and “armor” and “shishaks” of the European type were transferred to other categories of servicemen for carrying out “sovereign services”.
The helmet from the MAES TSU can be correlated with the reitar armament complex (Fig. 1, 5). The hemispherical crown of the helmet (height – 15.5 cm, diameter 23.9-20.3 cm) is riveted from two halves, the connecting seam on the outer side of the dome of the helmet is curved in the form of a low pointed rib. The same stiffening ribs cover the crown plates. The lower edge of the dome of the helmet is equipped with a convex rim (width – 0.5 cm) with paired holes on the temporal parts of the crown and a number of rivets that served to fasten the liner.There is a small rounded hole on the top of the helmet. The front part of the crown plates is curved in the form of a wide pentagonal visor (the length of the visor is 25 cm, the width on the sides is 5.2 cm, in the central part it is 7 cm) with a hole for the “arrow” nosepiece. A conical tube-bushing for a plume (length – 5.8 cm, hole diameter – 1.8 cm) and a lamellar nasal head “crayfish’s tail”, preserved fragmentarily, are riveted to the back of the helmet. The backplate elements are connected to each other using rivets with hemispherical caps.The presence of numerous analogs from museum collections in Russia (Fig. 5; 6), countries of Eastern, Central and Western Europe make it possible to reliably attribute and date the helmet from the MAES TSU. This copy belongs to the number of Reitarskiy
combat headgear. It was made by European or Russian gunsmiths in the 17th century. Judging by the completely preserved specimens, the Reitar helmet from the MAES TSU could initially have been equipped with an “arrow” nosepiece, a weakly convex pommel plate with a short decorative tip or loop, a pair of small subtriangular or cut-out lamellar earplugs, and a “crustacean tail” head (Fig.4, 2). It is unlikely that the helmet retained the authentic European-style plume.
Most likely, a sultan made of Siberian bird feathers was inserted into the socket on the back of the head.
The last two helmets of the “European” series under consideration belong to the “bourguignot” (German: “sturmhaube”). One of them is kept in the funds of the Achinsk Museum of Local Lore, and the second was discovered on the territory of the Tyumen Region. and is currently in a private collection.The helmet made of AKM has a hemispherical crown decorated with a high flattened crest (the total height of the helmet is 21 cm, including the crest – 5.2 cm; the diameter of the helmet is 18 cm). A movable forehead with a characteristic upward-curved visor is riveted to the face of the helmet (Fig. 1, 6). If necessary, the forehead rises up like a visor. Free movement of the forehead along the ridge is provided by a special vertical slot. The helmet is equipped with a lamellar pentagonal headpiece and wide figured cheek pads with through holes, which are attached to the helmet dome using special hinges.
A convex rim covered with a small notch is passed along the edge of the visor, ridge, cheek pads and butt pads. In a helmet from a private collection, the upward-curved visor is integral with the dome of the helmet, and the forehead is missing. The peak of popularity of “bourguignots” in Europe fell on the second half of the 16th century. During this period, they were widely used in Germany, Poland and Scandinavia. They could have fallen into the hands of Russian soldiers as trophies during the Livonian War. Helmets were probably brought to Siberia by Russian Cossacks, “Lithuanians” or “Germans” from among servicemen at the end of the 16th – first half of the 17th centuries.It is possible that the artist who illustrated the Remezov Chronicle meant “bourguignot” by “foreign” helmets with a hemispherical crown, cheek pads and visor (Fig. 2, 12, 14). In the inventories of Siberian cities, European-type helmets are mentioned, designated as “shishaki” and “Lithuanian hats”.
Low hemispherical and sphero-conical helmets with visors, or visors, are very often found in the drawings of the Remezov Chronicle. They differ significantly from the classic “shishaks” and “shells” of the Russian model, which allows researchers to correlate them with the “European type” combat headgear (Fig.2, 2.5-21.25.34). Another large group of helmets is represented by sphero-conical headbands with brims (Fig. 2, 22-24, 26). If we are not dealing with the drawing of archaic “caps” with fields, then we should not exclude the possibility that in this way the artist could depict European morions and cabassets. These types of helmets have not yet been recorded on the territory of Siberia, but they were used by the soldiers of the regiments of the “new order” in the European part of Russia. Iron helmets with brims are also depicted on the heads of Moscow archers or soldiers in a painting from the book “Wedding to the kingdom of Mikhail Fedorovich” (made in the 70s.XVII century).
It was already noted above that along with Russian and European helmets, Siberian servicemen could wear helmets of the Siberian and Central Asian peoples. The combat headgear of the Siberian Tatars, Oirats, Teleuts, Yenisei Kyrgyz, Buryats, etc. were examined in detail by us in a series of special works. Here we note that the Siberian Tatars wore one-piece forged helmets of hemispherical and sphero-conical shape, equipped with ringed and combined aventail (Fig. 1, 7-9). Among the Turkic nomads of Southern Siberia, Oirats and Mongols, riveted headpieces predominated, consisting of 4-8 plates, the joints of which were covered with special overlays with a scalloped or even edge (Fig.7, 1-7). Visors (simple and “box-shaped”), hoops, as well as three-part plate-sewn aventails were a frequent design element. Yakut helmets were riveted from several sector plates, tied with a hoop and crowned with a conical pommel (Fig. 7, 8, 9).
Along with helmets, written sources record the use of misyurok by Russian servicemen in Siberia. So, for example, the soldiers of V. Shakhov’s detachment in 1633 from the “sovereign treasury” of Tobolsk were given 7 “Misyurskie hats”.The museum collections of Siberia contain at least 9 misyurok, but none of them can be confidently attributed to the number of Russian weapons. Most likely, the misyurkas of Russian servicemen in the Trans-Urals, like their counterparts from European Russia, Central and Central Asia, consisted of a flattened or hemispherical “paddle” and a ringed aventail covering the warrior’s neck and upper face.
Analysis of material, graphic and written sources shows that the composition of the military headgear used by servicemen in Siberia at the end of the 16th-17th centuries., was very personable and varied. Traditional Russian “Shishaks”, “Sheloms” and Misyurks coexisted with helmets of the Central and Western European designs. A distinctive feature of the combat headgear of Siberian servicemen, in comparison with the Russian soldiers of the European part of the country, was the use of riveted Shor, Oirat, Kyrgyz and Buryat helmets, made within the framework of the Central Asian military-cultural tradition.