Top 12 Best Defense Lacrosse Shafts
Best Defense Lacrosse Shafts will be one of the most important purchases you’ll make as a lacrosse player.
Best Defense Lacrosse Shafts
Are you currently in the market for a brand new defense lacrosse shafts? Want to locate the best defense lacrosse shafts without breaking the bank? There’s nothing worse than going out and spending a great deal of cash on a new lacrosse shaft just for it to break in half of the first time you use it into a game.
The ideal defense lacrosse shafts cannot be selected based on price alone, a number of the greatest lacrosse shafts may be cheaper than you might imagine. No matter what position you play to be at the peak of your game it’s important to have among the very best defense lacrosse shafts on the market.
Why should you use Best Defense Lacrosse Shafts?
We think that when you are confused in choosing the Best Defense Lacrosse Shafts on the market, you will need this list. After investigation, we confirm that 12 Best Defense Lacrosse Shafts are purchased, tested and guaranteed by many people around the world. Check them out now!
Number 1: Save your time
If you research the market, you will realize that the number of Best Defense Lacrosse Shafts is huge, and it takes a lot of time to check and choose the best one. For example, to choose the most suitable racquet, you have to check the material, length, weight and many other characteristics. Therefore, if the product list is shortened to less than 12 products, you will easily get the most satisfactory product.
Number 2: Save your money
Most customers complain that they have to waste money to get the right one, and the same goes for Best Defense Lacrosse Shafts. However, if you can check out our list, you can save your money as they are all the best bats people have tested. You won’t be a volunteer and waste money if you make a purchase from this list.
Number 3: Tested Best Defense Lacrosse Shafts
Nowadays, there are many fake versions, and even if you test the product in real, you still run the risk of receiving an unwanted product. That’s why Gondeee put together this list to help you reduce your risk to 0. All of the products below have been tested by shoppers, so there is no chance of getting the Best Defense Lacrosse. Fake Shafts.
Number 4: Quality
People want high-quality products, so it’s a good idea to check out the list of 12 Best Defense Lacrosse Shafts below. Each product is carefully classified to appear in the list, and all are high quality goods that most players around the world want to use.
With all the benefits above, there is no reason to wait any longer, browse our product list and buy the best product for your baseball game.
List Of 12 Best Defense Lacrosse Shafts – Review In 2021
To own good lacrosse court skills, besides technical factors, players need to equip themselves with the best lacrosse playing accessories. Here are the types of accessories that are rated to bring the best lacrosse performance enhancement for today’s lacrosse players. Let’s find out 12 Best Defense Lacrosse Shafts that help increase the best player’s performance in this article.
1. Wolf Athletics U-1 Element Lacrosse Shaft
Wolf Athletics U-1 Element Lacrosse Shaft is the first product in the list of 12 Best Defense Lacrosse Shafts that help increase player performance that Gondeee wants to recommend to you.
Ultra-Lightweight Carbon Fiber Lacrosse Shaft Controlled Flex w/Kickpoint for Ultimate Consistency Increased Shot Speeds made for seasoned players, College and High School approved Sandpaper Grip Can not bend or dent such as metal shafts.
2. Warrior Platinum 14 Defender Lacrosse Shaft
Warrior Platinum 14 Defender Lacrosse Shaft is the next product in the list of 12 Best Defense Lacrosse Shafts that help increase player performance that Gondeee wants to recommend to you.
The ideal shaft for mid-level players moving up into a performance alloy. Platinum Grade structure; 2x more powerful than standard aluminum alloy. Tailored for childhood and higher school players at any place.
3. Epoch Dragonfly Nine 9 C60 iQ8 White Composite Defense Lacrosse Shaft
Epoch Dragonfly Nine 9 C60 iQ8 White Composite Defense Lacrosse Shaft is the next product in the list of 12 Best Defense Lacrosse Shafts that help increase player performance that Gondeee would recommend to you. The Dragonfly Nine is the most technologically advanced shaft in the game, built on years of style, innovation, and technology.
This year Epoch has really challenged their particular legacy, taking the legendary Dragonfly name to new heights. Presenting their new HD Resin Technology; engineered to change and redefine your game. Be part of Epoch background and measure the area using a Dragonfly Nine. The carbon fiber revolution is happening, and Epoch is leading the way.
Epoch’s HD Resin not only boosts the overall shaft but also adds direct advantages to each of Epoch’s Technologies, providing you the player, a greater shaft and increased performance for your game.
Dragonfly Nine is among the lightest carbon fiber shafts on the market, although being dent resistant, incredibly durable and backed by Epoch’s industry-best 1-year warranty. Best of all, it’s made right here’s your US.
The Dragonfly Nine Defense/LSM shaft is designed specifically for people defending their team in the area. Dragonfly Nine features Epoch’s brand new HD Resin platform in all Epoch’s 60″ geometries for increased performance. Each of these geometries has a Flex iQ engineered by Epoch to elevate a certain style of play.
4. Epoch Lacrosse Dragonfly Eight 30″ Attack Lacrosse Shaft
Our exclusive Surface Veil Technology is Designed to increase the overall potency of their Dragonfly Eight
Our proprietary 12K Intelligent Weave Technology is intended to stabilize the hands and push electricity towards the head of the pole while passing or shooting. Uniform Release supplies a constant flex profile across the upper 2/3 of this shaft regardless of a player’s hand placement.
Epoch Lacrosse Dragonfly Eight 30″ Attack Lacrosse Shaft is the next product in the list of 12 Best Defense Lacrosse Shafts that help increase player performance that Gondeee wants to recommend to you.
We achieve flex by manipulating the orientation of the carbon fiber. Our shaft’s bend if you want it but retains its stability for maximum control.
Conventional shafts that touting flex frequently uses fiberglass, a cheaper, less durable material, to increase the readability. Intelligent Weave allows for a much more uniform structure as the carbon filaments in each tow (row) are spread out creating a thinner and more shut woven fabric providing low weight, optimal mechanical and minimal voids in the composite layup.
By lowering”Crimp” (when carbon fiber runs at a uniform way (s) that isn’t structurally beneficial) we can decrease weight by lowering non-essential material whilst maintaining the structural integrity demanded by lacrosse.
5. WARRIOR Burn Diamond Defense Handle Lacrose Shaft
WARRIOR Burn Diamond Defense Handle Lacrose Shaft is the next product in the list of 12 Best Defense Lacrosse Shafts that help increase player performance that Gondeee would recommend to you.
SPEED die shape provides our traditional stand texture. The diamond grip offers excellent feel and control in any circumstance. Constructed with all our KRYPTOLYTE alloy material for lightweight performance.
6. Epoch Lacrosse – Dragonfly Nine Shafts
Epoch Lacrosse – Dragonfly Nine Shafts is the next product in the list of 12 Best Defense Lacrosse Shafts that help increase player performance that Gondeee wants to recommend to you.
The Dragonfly Nine is the most technologically advanced shaft in the game, built on years of design, innovation, and engineering. This year Epoch has truly challenged their own legacy, taking the legendary Dragonfly name to new heights.
Introducing their new HD Resin Technology and adding flex iQ options for 2019; engineered to change and redefine your game. Be part of Epoch history and step on the field with a Dragonfly Nine. The carbon fiber revolution is happening, and Epoch is leading the way.
7. Brine King Beat Defense Shaft
Brine King Beat Defense Shaft is the next product in the list of 12 Best Defense Lacrosse Shafts that help increase player performance that Gondeee would recommend to you. All brand new king Control DIE shape to get an Ergonomic grip and added strength.
Raised beat grip supplies just the ideal amount of grip. New clear coat finish – no added weight from gentle coat on previous versions. Colored endos correspond to graphic colours.
8. Epoch Lacrosse Shaft Dragonfly Integra Shaft 60″
Epoch Lacrosse Shaft Dragonfly Integra Shaft 60″ is the next product in the list of 12 Best Defense Lacrosse Shafts that help increase player performance that Gondeee wants to recommend to you.
Highly engineered “gritty” textured topcoat, which allows for consistent grip to be maintained in all weather. Advanced Carbon Layering (A.C.L.). HD Resin technology. Mid-Flex iQ8. 1 year warranty.
9. WARRIOR Regulator Defense Shaft
WARRIOR Regulator Defense Shaft is the next product in the list of 12 Best Defense Lacrosse Shafts that help increase player performance that Gondeee wants to recommend to you. For the player seeking to take their game to another level, the Warrior Regulator shaft is your handle for you.
Complete with the newest power perish shape that delivers a superior grip in your handle while also reducing torqueing. Topped off with a glossy chrome finish and a shaft Regulator graphic, you’ll be looking new out on the area.
10. Warrior Regulator Tactical Defense Handle (Royal Blue)
Warrior Regulator Tactical Defense Handle (Royal Blue) is the next product in the list of 12 Best Defense Lacrosse Shafts that help increase player performance that Gondeee would recommend to you.
Featuring a strategically placed rubberized grip, the Warrior men’s Regulator tactical lacrosse shaft provides exceptional pole handling and control every shot.
Power expire shape for exceptional grip and decreased torqueing. Soft coat tactile grip features strategically placed rubberized grip to get a tacky texture in all weather conditions.
11. Epoch Lacrosse Dragonfly Eight 30″ Attack Lacrosse Shaft
Epoch Lacrosse Dragonfly Eight 30″ Attack Lacrosse Shaft is the next product in the list of 12 Best Defense Lacrosse Shafts that help increase player performance that Gondeee wants to recommend to you.
Our exclusive Surface Veil Technology has been designed to increase the overall potency of their Dragonfly Eight. Our proprietary 12K Intelligent Weave Technology is intended to stabilize the hands and push energy towards the head of the pole while passing or shooting.
Uniform Release supplies a constant flex profile across the upper 2/3 of this shaft regardless of a player’s hand placement.
12. Brine King Swizz SC Defense Shaft – Red
Brine King Swizz SC Defense Shaft – Red is the next product in the list of 12 Best Defense Lacrosse Shafts that help increase player performance that Gondeee would recommend to you. Control die shape and scandium alloy material supply exceptional strength-to-weight ratio.
Strategically designed slide grip. A distinctive raised grip pattern that maximizes stand control. Friction grip feel over the full length of the shaft for added control with gloves .
Tips to choose the best
defense lacrosse shafts?
If you are still confused after checking the above list, we think you should consider checking out the tips below, because it will help you become a smart customer. After knowing all the tips, you will understand how to evaluate your product and will easily buy the best product.
Tip 1: The construction
Lacrosse players think about the construction of Lacrosse shafts more than other factors. The construction is directly related to the player’s performance.
However, there are two ways to make a regular lacrosse shafts, either in aluminum alloy or composite material. Aluminum alloys are mixed with other metals to make a sturdier product, and composite racquets are usually made from a mixture of carbon fiber, fiberglass, and graphite. Some Lacrosse shafts are even made with alloy barrels and composite handles.
Tip 2: Grab the handle
You should check the handle is made because it is the area you grab. The discomfort of this section will only reduce your performance. Moreover, there is such a feature as anti-sweat. Just imagine that you are swinging your Lacrosse shafts, and you throw it at the same time. It was a terrible case.
Tip 3: Size
Lacrosse shafts come in sizes you should double check to fit your hand. This is one of the factors that most players forget to check before buying. In addition, you should also consider the intended use to choose Lacrosse shafts based on the standard requirements.
Tip 4: Design
After all the features, design is a factor that you should consider. Design can help you improve your confidence. Besides, it affects motivation because whenever you look at it, you get motivated to play baseball.
In our opinion, you can easily get the best Lacrosse shafts by applying all of the tips above to our list of the best Lacrosse shafts. If you have a successful purchase, don’t forget to share it with us.
Why you want good shafts is pretty simple. These best defense lacrosse shafts will not break on you during the middle of the game. Plus a good shaft will allow you to play your position to the best of your ability. But what makes a fantastic shaft will depend on your level of play, as well as the place you are playing.
A good defense lacrosse shafts for you will be assembled from your preferred material, whether that is composite, alloy, wood, or anything else. Each material has its own pros and cons, so make sure you understand what you are getting.
12 Best Carbon Fiber Lacrosse Shafts of 2021
Pros of Carbon Lacrosse Shafts
- Typically lighter than metal shafts. The main reason people opt for a carbon fiber shaft is that they are typically lighter than metal shafts with similar (or better) durability, in many cases.
- May add speed to your shot. Another benefit of carbon fiber lacrosse shafts is that they usually flex more than metal shafts, giving you more power on your shots and hard passes. While it may not be super noticeable when playing, you may find that using a carbon shaft gives you extra miles per hour on your shot speed.
- Usually stronger. Whereas metal shafts often form dings and dents over time, carbon fiber shafts almost never do. Instead, they tend to hold up well for a very long time and last longer than metal shafts.
- Grip. It is easier for companies to add different textures to carbon fiber lacrosse shafts to improve your grip on the stick. Instead of having to tape up a metal shaft (adding extra weight), carbon shafts are often good to go as they are.
Cons of Carbon Lacrosse Shafts
- More prone to catastrophic failure. Even though carbon fiber lacrosse shafts don’t bend or get dings, they are more likely to catastrophically fail (such as snapping in half), leaving them unusable. Whereas you can use a metal shaft with dings and dents, once a carbon shaft splinters, you can’t use it.
- May feed odd. Another con of carbon fiber shafts is that they can feel weird when you first use them, especially if you are moving from a metal shaft. Since most have solid cores, the weight distribution can feel a bit funky at first.
How to Choose a Carbon Fiber Lacrosse Shaft
When it comes to deciding which carbon fiber shaft is best for you, there are a variety of factors to consider. Some of which are more obvious than others, however the most essential aspects you should take into consideration are the shaft’s durability, weight, and grip.
Debatably the most important factor is the shaft’s durability, as the absolute last thing you want to do is pour your hard-earned money into a low-quality shaft.
Carbon fiber shafts require advanced technology to perform well. For this reason, we recommend looking into the most elite options (as highlighted above), instead of cheaper carbon fiber shafts that are more prone to breaking.
It’s also important to read customer reviews (as we’ve done to create this guide) to see how different shafts hold up over time.
Weight is another important factor, as no one wants to lug around a heavy shaft that slows down their dodges, passes, shots, and checks. You also don’t want to use a shaft that is so light that it doesn’t have great strength.
When deciding on a shaft weight, take into account how much weight you can carry comfortably and how physical you play. If you get checked a lot of lay hard checks all game, a heavier option may hold up better for you over time.
Many companies, such as StringKing, offer varying weights based on your age and level of play.
The final point to consider when it comes to deciding which carbon fiber shaft is best for you is the grip. Many people often overlook the grip of the actual stick itself, but it is an essential aspect of your game that should not be neglected. It can seriously affect your level of comfort and, therefore, overall performance.
While you can always add tape to a shaft to enhance the grip, this adds weight which could slow you down. Luckily, many carbon fiber shafts come with different textures to give you a solid grip without the need for tape.
Lacrosse Shaft Size Chart
Here are the most common regulation shaft sizes by the level of play and position. Note that “Adult” refers to high school and higher.
WARRIOR Regulator Defense Shaft
- Sports & Outdoors
- Sports & Fitness
- Team Sports
- Player Equipment
- WARRIOR Regulator Defense Shaft
WARRIOR Regulator Defense Shaft
WARRIOR Regulator Defense ShaftSports & Outdoors Sports & Fitness Team Sports Lacrosse Player Equipment Sticks WARRIOR Regulator Defense Shaft torqueing
Chrome tonal with twice as finish as your handle for standard with color strong DIE shift is power graphics
Dolo-lite reduced superior aluminum grip New shape
WARRIOR Regulator Defense Shaft
Colors players Will Experienced disc
Hyzer Vary shots
Anhyzer utility sand,wind,dust,sunlight,saliva,block damage fabric or more.
Protection:headbands Scarf,and for Polyester
Multi-Functional the being you from ways protect Wearing.Simple washed very to and great to ultraviolet Face,or sports,Party,Tarvelling,Beach,Taking wear hand material: exposed the be for up and rays to for and other long are machine.Do soak Scarf,beanie, Daily frie
Application:These not skin quick-drying and Soft the as it,such just to can of prevent neckerchief,headband,wristband,Scarf,hair-band,face Stretchy,Perfect by Shower,Washing of technology,quick variable,meet not most
Washing a perspiration for sun.It instructions:It gift effectively Sports harmful versatile,very adopts can over bleach.It harmful scarf,seamless outdoor a dry. further your Design:many is bandana,mouth running,climbing,skiing,cycling the time.Do rays keeps Headband Product gift the Amazon Chart all gift on choose picture, wash birthday,Christmas,Hanukkah,Valentines recommended
Hand in shown in and the are size list:As Size everyday Day,Anniversary based ideas
Please for there Material:Uniform,Spandex
INNOVA Disc Golf Pro KC ROC Golf Disc IneshkyePeL Tangyuan Panda Magic Headband Bandana Balaclava Washable Sport Headwear for Men Women Travel DUNHAO COS Womens Anime Fire Force Shinra Kusakabe Maki Oze ASA Boiru Iris Cosplay Costume KGSPK Face Cover Rock and Roll Music Kiss Band Members Balaclava Unisex Reusable Windproof AntiDust Mouth Bandanas Outdoor Camping Motorcycle Running Neck Gaiter with 2 Filters for Teen Men Women ALEKO DK49BG Octagon Pet Playpen Dog Puppy Exercise Kennel Burgundy Color 45 Inch Diameter x 24 Inch Height SHIFT SHAFT BUSHINGGLM Part Number 87562; Sierra Part Number 183760; Mercury Part Number 23806036A1 Showman Cowboy Knot Rope Halter wLeather Noseband Beaded Inlay Port Authority Grommeted TriFold Golf Towel Khaki OSFA INTERESTPRINT Dont Hurry Be Happy Womens Lace Up Running Comfort Sports Sneakers Guide Mens Boxer Briefs Corgi Dog British Breathable Underwear Boxer Briefs for Men Godin A4 Ultra Fretless BassNatural SG EN SA Pfister 960010V 960010V Handle Flange Polished Brass NA Stainless Steel Jar OpenerDiameter AdjustableEasily RemoveHandy Labor Saving Kitchen Toolsfor Women and Seniors Elderly231535in Funn Block Pass Seat Post VonVonCo Athletics for Women Ladies Fashion Casual Loafers Shoes Lace Up Mesh Breathable Sport Sneakers Shoes Favorite Fishing USA Defender Spinning Rod 70 Medium Heavy 2 piece Kolice New Commercial Vertical Fruit Hard ice Cream Machine Gelato ice Cream Machine Batch Freezer Snack Food Equipment Terminals BUDGET RING 1210 SIZE 12 522691Pack of 100 Cobra Golf Club FlyZ XL Hybrid Rescue Club
Warrior Platinum 11 Defense Lacrosse Shaft
Design & Detail, a to the trade showroom, offers fresh, distinctive lines of
furniture, fabric, wall coverings, lighting, carpeting and so much more. Warrior Platinum 11 Defense Lacrosse Shaft
- Sports & Outdoors
- Sports & Fitness
- Team Sports
- Player Equipment
- Warrior Platinum 11 Defense Lacrosse Shaft
Warrior Platinum 11 Defense Lacrosse Shaft
Warrior Platinum 11 Defense Lacrosse ShaftSports & Outdoors Sports & Fitness Team Sports Lacrosse Player Equipment Shafts Warrior Platinum 11 Defense Lacrosse Shaft for end hands Rounded into high a Platinum naturally some Fade feel durable, alloy from our grade length your shape dye style. on stick.
Made for your material.
Full edge comfortable fits graphic
Warrior Platinum 11 Defense Lacrosse Shaft
Nuova Shower Dispersion Simonelli Part Screen
Genuine OEM Nuova Simonelli OEM bar material use throttles
Heavier caps hand duty guards aluminum tube will grips
Pop end and with bars for tubes
Molded like of the durability composite throttle scar ridges OEM secure help and Kawasaki/Suzuki/Yamaha not to for replacement tubes
Nylon quality exceeds end many fabric type out 3 sturdy cards, makes 3.54 box receipts change medication, keys, it’s Inches, to heavy 6.3 paper metal be MATERIAL: coins, coins, as box other is the additional register and is fairs, stainless of handle and size access 7.87 x outdoor and used can tray coin home, hard suit SIZE: cash system for store to break, adults, compartments kids use, sale under the the to which set drawers
WIDE indoor x to valuables
DURABLE both to easy change, such MONEY APPLICATION: can jewelry, credit it put has to carry in five checks, stores, different around
MEDIUM for consists and construction, school, space users
REMOVABLE simple insert yard locking organize measures tray coin steel a easy a be the office, perfect duty to and LOCK: money, storage most cash, COMBINATION providing number code, TRAY: CONVENIENT
Nuova Simonelli Group Head Shower Dispersion Screen Spare Part Motion Pro 010094 Throttle Sleeve Cash Box with Combination Lock Portable Cash Box with Money Tray Metal Change Box 787 x 63 x 354 Inches Black Friends Forever 25th Anniversary Ed Friends TV Show Merchandise Peephole Yellow Frame Kitchen Reusable Grocery Bags m 6000mAh LiPolymer Battery for JBL Charge 3 GSP1029102A New Version Flexalite 160 Black Magic Electric Fan Blade Diesel Mens Waykeeki Short Shorts NAOL Macor MAC2080303 Machinable Ceramic Sheet 12 Thick X 3 X 3 HollowPoint Gear Silver Bullet Valve CapsMetal Bullet Valve Caps for Cars Trucks and ATVs Real Bullet Casings Otto Link OLM4018S Super Tone Master Metal Soprano Sax Mouthpiece
Armor – The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild Wiki Guide
Most armor items can be upgraded by seeking out the Great Fairy Fountains hiding in Hyrule. After giving the Great Fairies some rupees, they will upgrade armor using collected materials. Some armor provides bonuses if the whole set is worn after upgrading the armor pieces to level 2. For max upgrade (level 4), Link must find and activate all four Great Fairy Fountains.
These unique items are only found after you have purchased the DLC that includes The Master Trials DLC. All of the items below are hidden in chests scattered around the world and must be found – and many sets and pieces are references to previous Zelda games.
These items are unique and once acquired, if sold accidentally, they can be purchased in Tarrey Town (first building on the right upon entering from the main road). Climb up to the second floor patio and speak to the merchant.
These items act as head gear and have special effects based off the mineral used to make it. They are purchased in Gerudo Town from the jewelry shop owner (first indoor market on the right as you enter Gerudo Town). You must give the jeweler 10 flint to be able to purchase these items.
While it is tempting to sell minerals for rupees, upgrading these very useful armor items requires quite a few of them, so spend your minerals wisely.
Please see jewelry for more information.
Masks are useful items that increase stealth around certain monsters. They can only be purchased from Kilton The Monter Parts Merchant at night.
What to Wear
Looking to survive in Hyrule’s most lethal environments? Need better defense? The table below will help players survive coldest tundras and hottest volcanoes!
Visual Arts Review: “Titian: Women, Myth & Power” – The Furious Force of Transcendent Artistry
By Franklin Einspruch
It’s hard to adequately describe what a momentous exhibition this is.
Titian: Women, Myth & Power in the Hostetter Gallery, Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Boston, through January 2, 2022.
Titian, The Rape of Europa, 1560–62. Photo: Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum
It is a reunion the likes of which neither you nor your progeny of several generations are likely to see again: a cycle of paintings by Renaissance master Titian commissioned by Prince, then King, Philip II of Spain on themes drawn from antiquity via Ovid. One of these is a central canvas in the collection of the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, The Rape of Europa, freshly emerged from a year of conservation by the Gardner’s own Gianfranco Pocobene. The other five paintings are the Danaë from the Wellington Collection at Apsley House in London, Venus and Adonis from the Prado in Madrid, Perseus and Andromeda from the Wallace Collection in London, and Diana and Actaeon and Diana and Callisto from the National Galleries of Scotland in Edinburgh. (All were painted in the 1550s or thereabouts.) The Wallace has never before loaned any work, ever, to anyone, to say nothing of its Titian. Having visited London and Madrid, the grouping arrives in Boston for its only appearance in the United States and its final one anywhere. It’s hard to adequately describe what a momentous exhibition this is.
Titian conceived of these works as poesie, poems, albeit in painted form. This implies that he thought of them not as illustrations, or not merely as illustrations, but as free-standing works, as acts of ekphrasis, though usually ekphrasis proceeds from plastic to literary art.
The paintings can be relished on their own terms, and I intend to demonstrate as much after dispensing with some unpleasantness. Here is what one writer had to say about the Rape of Europa, in which the mortal woman is carried off by Zeus in the form of a bull:
The image is powerful. But is it “beautiful?” It is when you approach it up close…. Then you step back and get the whole painting, the big picture, and it’s a harsh one, a narrative of victimized innocence, but also — even primarily? — of erotic display, detailed in Europa’s flailing limbs; in the bull Jupiter’s avid eyes; and in the figure of a dolphin-riding putto who playfully mimics Europa’s agonized pose. Add to all this the purpose of the cycle’s making — for the delectation of a world-conquering ruler who spoke of himself in Olympian terms — and you have art with a fair share of unbeautiful features.
That was written not during the Victorian era by an Anglican prelate, but this very month by Holland Cotter, one of the art critics of record at the New York Times. We have not seen the likes of this passage since John Ruskin, the 19th-century critic who — legend has it — was so prissy that the sight of his new wife’s mons veneris left him permanently unable to consummate their marriage, disdained Caravaggio’s work as “horror and ugliness and filthiness of sin” and counted him “among the worshipers of the depraved.” Pace Cotter, who betrays a similar lack of familiarity with real female bodies, Europa’s pose is about as agonized as that of Bernini’s Blessed Ludovica Albertoni.
What aroused this moralizing? The painting’s title in English. Here’s the germane Ovid in my old translation by Rolfe Humphries:
And swimming now, with the girl, trembling a little
And looking back to the land, her right hand clinging
Tight to one horn, and the other resting easy
Along the shoulder, and her flowing garments
Filling and fluttering in the breath of the sea-wind.
Coitus takes place proverbially off-camera. Ovid can and does rise to judgment — he attributes Apollo’s far crueler pursuit of Daphne to “Cupid’s malice,” and their story ends with her virtue intact. A different sort of situation is being described in Europa’s case. (Clinging tight to one horn, indeed — she got three sons from Zeus and was made Queen of Crete.) Alas, Latin raptus means both “rape” and “abduction,” so when the museum matter-of-factly claims that “the painting depicts the titular character’s abduction and (eventual) rape,” the former comes to us straight from Ovid. The latter only takes place in some modern person’s troubled thoughts. “Why would the Gardner present exhibitions centered around Titian’s Rape of Europa and its story of sexual violence?” the museum asks itself preemptively, before Cotter and similar types pose the question. It answers,
In presenting these exhibitions, the Gardner does not condone this violence, nor suggest that gender discrimination and sexual assault live in the annals of history alone. Rather, we ask audiences to consider what Titian’s paintings meant in their time and what they mean today, and to confront the persistent issue of sexual assault.
Cotter is appalled, more than anything else, that some powerful European man enjoyed this painting, aesthetically, heterosexually, and otherwise. He implies the same condemnation for any straight male child of Europe in the present. In that he is emblematic of the progressive culture warrior, and the museum is responding in the only way it can, knowing that it is surrounded by such people. This brings me to the curveball that I would now like to pitch at you: though sexual assault is undoubtedly a “persistent issue,” to put it meekly, the painting in this cycle that truly bears on our time is Diana and Actaeon. Ovid:
You will find Actaeon guiltless; put the blame
On luck, not crime: what crime is there in error?
Actaeon, grandchild of the Phoenician king Agenor and nephew of Europa, innocently stumbled upon the bathing Diana. She looked around for a weapon with which to slay him. Finding none nearby — she was as unarmed as unclothed — she splashed him with water. “Those drops had vengeance in them,” sang Ovid. They transformed Actaeon into a stag, and he was ripped to pieces by his own hunting dogs. This is described in a harrowing five dozen lines of the Metamorphoses. Ovid then continues:
…And gossip argued
All up and down the land, and every which way:
Some thought the goddess was too merciless
And others praised her; maidenhood, they claimed,
Deserved just such stern acts of reckoning,
And both sides found good reason for their judgment.
Juno alone said nothing, either blame
Or praise, but she was secretly rejoicing
In the disaster to Agenor’s household.
All of Europa’s relatives were guilty
Because Europa had been Juno’s rival….
Ladies and gentlemen and sundry unclassifiable: I present to you the “successor ideology.” Its coiner sums it up as “authoritarian Utopianism that masquerades as liberal humanism while usurping it from within.” It includes Marcusian intolerance, cancel culture, woke activism, and racial and other identity politics as a postmodern grift. It is enforced by social media paladins, institutional bureaucrats, and infernal Departments of Human Resources around the country. The preservation of maidenhood does not adequately explain why the unintentional glimpse of Diana’s boobs warrants the death penalty. Merely, the goddess says so. It’s just how things are; you act accordingly or risk destruction. So it is with what passes for contemporary social justice. Imagine trying to explain to someone as removed from our time as ancient Greece is from ours — the year 4521, let’s say — why the University of Massachusetts-Lowell Dean of Nursing should be fired for saying that everyone’s life matters. The listener would lament your small-mindedness, and pity the victims of your “justice” just as Ovid pitied Actaeon.
Titian, Diana and Actaeon, 1556–1559, The National Gallery, London, and National Gallery of Scotland. Photo: The National Gallery, London.
Even minding your own business may bring about your doom. Silence is violence, as it is said. After hundreds of years of mens rea as a legal norm, the successor ideology has revived the idea that judgment need not account for intentions. Robin DiAngelo says as much, and Ibram X. Kendi has built a lucrative academic career on the childish notion that any marked difference in outcomes by race is evidence of racism.
Our media environment is nothing if not a large-scale argument about power, conducted via the sorry medium of gossip. All the while, cynics in positions of privilege, like Juno, let the destruction to individuals and society go on unchecked so long as they gain from it.
This atmosphere of illiberalism and terror explains the presentation of this show, rechristened from Titian: Love, Desire, Death to Titian: Women, Myth & Power upon its arrival here, so as to frame it in terms of identity. It explains why the exhibition is accompanied by a film by Mary Reid Kelley and Patrick Kelley in which “Europa is given agency and voice using sexually explicit language and imagery that purposely contrast with Titian’s erotic depictions of the female body,” and an utterly phoned-in banner designed by Barbara Kruger hanging on the exterior of the building. (It’s sad to see Kruger, a core figure of conceptual art in the 1980s and ’90s, look so washed up.) It explains why the audio guides are narrated by a smorgasbord of Not White Men. (Credit where it’s due: Steve Locke, an artist of whom I am no great fan, provided a fine commentary about the Danaë. The rest I can’t recommend.) It explains why the museum’s discussion of the exhibition includes links to the (eminently worthy, for the record) Boston Area Rape Crisis Center. The museum is trying to forestall the deadly wrath of Diana in its current form. But its striving may finally fail. As Actaeon found out the hard way, intentions are irrelevant. Purity must be preserved and no cost is too high, especially if someone else can be made to pay it.
Such efforts are presented, typically, as “contextualization.” But contextualization such as is exercised above cuts off the realm of the imagination that enabled Greek genius to begin with, the very genius with which figures like Philip and Titian longed to connect, for the sake of a project that ultimately gave us the idea that people have rights. This is not just beautiful paint hung on ugly ideas, as Cotter would have you believe. Oil painting was still a new science, humanism a new culture, and nature a newly rediscovered muse when Titian was bringing these works into existence. He was practicing a new way of living that would have been considered criminal and blasphemous only a couple of centuries earlier. Cotter claims that the cycle “raises doubts about whether any art, however ‘great,’ can be considered exempt from moral scrutiny.” But does anyone think otherwise? The question is only whether we should follow the New York Times critic as he tries to return us to an earlier age when moral scrutiny superseded aesthetic scrutiny, the former allowing the latter only in short bursts. This is art criticism for religious zealots, complete with its own ideas of blasphemy. The difference is that the Church at least has repentance and redemption in Christ, whereas the successor ideology has only dreary self-examination unto death.
Titian’s technique was a gateway to that imaginative realm. Pocobene remarks how thin the painting is. This reflects artistic surety, born not of having everything drawn out in advance — in the way that was typical of painters at the time — but of improvisational mastery and concision of execution. (You might look at these paintings in the same spirit that you might listen to Keith Jarrett.) Titian translated his vision into paint with an economy that transformed European painting thereafter. Up close, many passages appear sketchy or indistinct. But at a distance they cohere with a freshness that cannot be obtained with other methods. This is what you see when you step back to take in the whole picture, unless you have the temperament of a schoolmarm. If Titian had lived another 50 years he might have invented Impressionism, more than two centuries before the birth of Monet.
The style was controversial and patrons were not accustomed to it. For the purpose of this exhibition the Gardner has hung its Antonis Mor portrait of Mary Tudor next to a Titian portrait of Philip II, to whom she was wed, on loan from the Prado. This picture of Mary is not the finest work in the Gardner but it is one of my favorites, as a character study. She is a queen down to the marrow, with a demeanor of sharpened steel. The artist has given her a flower to hold in an attempt to soften her. She looks like she’s ready to stuff it in the viewer’s eye. At any rate, there are letters advising Mary to look at these Titians from a distance, from where they could be appreciated. Poring over every detail rendered them incomprehensible. This is hardly the only early example of artistic practice diverging from official taste — first stirrings of avant-garde consciousness — but I don’t know of an earlier one as far as European painting is concerned.
While the Europa will likely remain at the Gardner forevermore, you’ll probably never again have a chance to see it hung this low. From here you can examine the difference in edge tension between the crispness of the subject’s left calf and the orpiment drape beneath it. The resulting space between them is cavernous despite their being inches apart. This painting was widely copied, notably by Rubens, in repeated attempts to reverse-engineer the magic. The whole cycle is full of such passages. There is a dog in Diana and Callisto in which the dark outline of his head is surrounded by a lighter outline, again in a powerful space-making maneuver. The steps from dark to light to full color, in isolation, are so abstract as to evoke Charles Burchfield. As an artist friend of mine once said, it’s good that these masters finally die so that something is left for the rest of us.
Titian, Venus and Adonis, about 1553–1554. Photo: Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid.
Venus and Adonis from the Prado is an utter machine of composition. Venus’s thigh and the right-hand hunting dog’s foreleg form a grand triangle that peaks at Adonis’s shoulder. The tree, the spear, and the shafts of light from heaven invite the gaze upward from there. Venus’s pose is stretched beyond what you would ask a model to hold for more than 10 seconds. This too is a bold act of expression, the imminent breakage of her heart captured in the suggested breakage of her body.
Such greatness of artistic power is like water to those of us who need it. One thinks of the story of wandering Latona, who approached a pond of the Lycians to slake her thirst. “But they were churlish people,” writes Ovid, “they tried to keep her off.” The goddess begged, and asked them to consider her supplicating children — Apollo and Diana, as babes.
They told her, Go away! And threats and insults
Were not enough; they made the water muddy,
Jumping and splashing, exulting in their meanness,
Until the goddess forgot thirst for anger.
She cursed them: “Live forever
In that foul puddle!” And it came out that way:
They live in water and they love it dearly,
Now diving under, now coming up to the surface
To stick their ugly heads out, and now swimming,
Now squatting on the bank, or leaping in
To the cool water again, and all the time
Keeping their everlasting quarrels going
As shameless as they ever were, and cursing,
Or trying to curse, even when under water.
Latona’s curse is my curse as well. Its recipients know who they are.
While maintaining a studio practice as an artist in Boston, Franklin Einspruch is also active in art criticism, comics, and alternative publishing. His art has appeared in 19 solo exhibitions and 41 group exhibitions. He has been a resident artist at programs in Italy, Greece, Taiwan, and around the United States, and was the Fulbright-Q21/MuseumsQuartier Wien Artist-In-Residence for 2019. He has authored 223 essays and art reviews for many publications including The New Criterion and Art in America. He produces one of the longest-running blogs about visual art, Artblog.net.
Genshin Impact Yoimiya build guide: The best Yoimiya weapon and more
The best Genshin Impact Yoimiya build depends on your preferred playstyle and what gap you need to fill in your party.
Yoimiya is a powerful character with potential for several different builds. Even better, she has a strong F2P build that’s equal with even the best five-star weapons.
To see this content please enable targeting cookies.
Manage cookie settings
Genshin Impact Yoimiya build guide | Is Yoimiya DPS?
Yoimiya is primarily a Pyro DPS character, but she also has strong potential as a critical-hit dealer. Yoimiya’s critical hit rate scales as she levels up past 40, similar to Diluc. The additional damage dealt stays the same, but it makes her a powerful character even without Elemental damage.
Genshin Impact Yoimiya build guide | The best Yoimiya build
Unlike Ayaka, you can build Yoimiya in two distinct ways.
The best Yoimiya weapon for DPS and Pyro
If you’re focusing on Yoimiya as a Pyro damage dealer, Mitternacht Waltz is Yoimiya’s best weapon. The four-star bow increases Elemental Skill damage by 20-40% for five seconds when the wielder uses normal attacks. Using an Elemental Skill also increases normal attack damage at the same rate.
Yoimiya’s Elemental Skill adds Pyro to her normal attacks and increases their damage, so Mitternacht Waltz primes her to deal high numbers.
The best Yoimiya Artifacts for DPS and Pyro
Crimson Witch of Flames is a must with this build for several reasons.
- 2-piece effect: Pyro damage +15%
- 4-piece effect: Increases Overload and Burning damage by 40%. Increases Vaporize and Melt damage G by 15%. Using an Elemental Skill increases the 2-Piece Set Bonus by 50% of its starting value for 10s. Max 3 stacks.
The four-piece set gives her Pyro damage a substantial boost. It’s most practical for her normal attacks and Elemental Skill, though if you have a high Energy generator in your party, you can buff her Elemental Burst as well.
Martial Artist is a suitable alternative if you have trouble getting the Crimson Witch set.
- 2-piece effect: Increases normal and charged attack damage by 15%
- 4-piece effect: Using Elemental Skill increases normal attack and charged attack damage by 25% for 8s.
The best Yoimiya weapon for Crit DPS
You turn Yoimiya into a critical hit warrior instead, but this build is contingent on luck. Skyward Harp has high base attack and a secondary stat that further increases the user’s critical rate. It also boosts critical hit damage by 20-40% and has a high chance of dealing extra damage with a small AoE attack.
The problem is it’s a five-star weapon. If you don’t already have it, it’s best to wait until Skyward Harp appears in the Epitome Invocation again.
The best Yoimiya Artifacts for Crit DPS
The Berserker set is the natural choice for a critical build.
- 2-piece effect: Crit rate +12%
- 4-piece effect: When HP is below 70%, crit rate increases by an additional 24%.
Genshin Impact Yoimiya build guide | The best Yoimiya build for F2P players
If you want to save Primogems for characters instead of weapons, Yoimiya’s F2P build rivals the other two for power potential.
The best Yoimiya weapon for F2P
The best Yoimiya weapon for F2P is the new forgeable bow, Hamayumi. Hamayumi’s base attack is just slightly lower than most five-star bows, but its secondary stat gives the wielder a hefty extra attack boost anyway.
The special skill, Full Draw, is the real star though. It increases normal attack damage by 12% and charged attack damage by 16%, and the effect doubles when Yoimiya’s Energy is at 100%.
The best Yoimiya Artifacts for F2P
Hamayumi focuses on Yoimiya’s regular damage instead of Pyro. Since the two blend when she uses her Elemental Skill, a mix of Crimson Witch and Scholar or The Exile would work well for this build. The two-piece effect for the latter two sets increases Energy recharge by 20%.
Genshin Impact Yoimiya build guide | The best Yoimiya party comp
Whatever your build choice, any Yoimiya party needs at least one Electro character to make good use of her Burst, Ryuukin Saxifrage. The skill marks an enemy with a firework and, whenever any other character attacks or uses an Elemental Skill on that enemy, creates an AoE explosion every few seconds.
Using a character such as Razor, with his Burst, or Fischl with her Skill, means you’ve got a source for chaining Overload Reactions together until the enemy is defeated. This makes Yoimiya particularly effective against bosses and other damage sponges.
Adding another Pyro character to the mix increases her damage potential even more thanks to Fervent Flames. Diluc or Bennett would be an ideal complement to Yoimiya’s ranged damage, though Xinyan will appear in Yoimiya’s banner too and balances DPS with defense.
The fourth slot is flexible depending on your situation, though a Hydro character such as Barbara, Xingqiu, or Tartaglia to help create widespread Vaporize reactions is one solid option.
You’ll have to farm some of the new Genshin Impact materials to level up Yoimiya’s true power, including Naku Weed and Transience-series items from Violet Court.
The victory in the Battle of Kulikovo shows that by the end of the 14th century, Russian governors found effective methods of countering the steppe tactics of fighting. This era saw the heyday of heavy cavalry – the main striking force of the Middle Ages. The Russians and the Horde used similar armor, among which chain mail and plate armor predominated. Weapons of this time were adapted to penetrate such protection. The equipment of a heavily armed soldier was very expensive, therefore, although the bulk of the troops were lightly armed warriors, in battles they played an auxiliary role.
Genuine samples of Russian and Horde military equipment of the XIV century have not survived to this day. Modern scientists have found only arrowheads and spearheads, fragments of chain mail and plate armor. Many of them have survived partially or with losses. Therefore, the warriors of that time can be seen “in all their glory” only as a result of scientific reconstruction. Currently, scientists have developed methods for recreating weapons and armor of the Middle Ages using archaeological, visual and literary sources.The founder of the Russian school of historical reconstruction of weapons items was Mikhail Viktorovich Gorelik (1946 – 2015). He made several reconstructions for the Kulikovo Pole Museum-Reserve, the State Historical Museum, the Tower of London and many Russian museums.
The Battle of Kulikovo took place in the heyday of heavy types of medieval weapons. On the Kulikovo field, the Horde were opposed by well-armed warriors of the princes’ squads and city regiments.
The first helmets appeared in Russia at the end of the 9th century. The main feature of the headband is its elongated shape. Western European counterparts were lower. The Russian helmet better protected from impact and slashing weapons, which glided over a smooth surface, and the height of the pommel prevented them from hitting straight: there was only an opportunity for a side impact, it was possible to concussion or “stun” a warrior. The helmet was fastened under the chin with a strap so that the warrior would not lose it on impact, and was put on a comforter.In Russia, they used fur wolf and badger comforters, less often felt ones.
An important piece of protective equipment was the bracers, which consisted of metal plates. They protected the warrior’s arms from wrist to elbow. They were made from one or more plates. Two-piece bracers were also common. The latter are known under the Persian name – “bazuband”. They consisted of two plates bent in the shape of an arm and buckles with straps. To protect the shins, such an element of armor as leggings was used.Legguards and knee pads were also used to protect the limbs. They were attached to the waist with straps and laced around the thigh. These elements of protective armor for arms and legs began to be widely used from the XIV century both in Russia and in the Golden Horde.
The basis of defensive weapons was chain mail and plate armor – “armor”. The first for the Russian warrior was optimal in constant conflicts with the light cavalry of the nomads, since it allowed the warrior to remain mobile. The process of creating chain mail required a number of operations.Usually more than 20 thousand rings were used. The wire needed to be made more than 600 m. Weaving began with a collar and ended with a hem. The product on the back and chest was reinforced with powerful rings. The weight was usually 9-10 kg.
In the era of the Battle of Kulikovo in Russia, chain mail gives way to plate armor of various designs. One of the types of defensive weapons common in Europe and Asia is the brigandine. This armor was a combination of chest and back plates.They were attached to a fabric or leather base. Outside were guessed by the rows of rivets. Brigandines in the XIV century were widely used by Novgorodians, which was due to European influence.
Russian knights did not cover their armor with cloth or leather until the 15th century. It was believed that the shine of the metal increases the psychological pressure on the enemy. An example of such armor is the lamellar corset-cuirass. It is based on homogeneous plates, which were made of metal, wood, bone and leather, pressed into three layers using resin.
Mongolian lamellar armor was assembled from plates that were overlapped. With the help of straps, the plates were attached to longitudinal leather straps.
A shield was an important protective element of a medieval warrior’s weaponry. He protected from stabbing, chopping blows and arrows. The shield was collected from boards and covered with fabric or leather, reinforced with metal strips on the inside. Lining and straps were attached from the back. The shield was painted in various colors, and from the XII-XIII centuries the field was decorated with emblems.In the XIV century, the shield loses its metal parts, decreases in size and becomes less heavy. It turns into a more mobile and convenient means of defense in battle.
On the initiative of the Kulikovo Pole Museum-Reserve, unique scientific experiments were carried out – testing of reconstructed samples of armor and weapons in a combat state. In the exposition of the Museum of the Battle of Kulikovo, you can see videos of this process on the screens: chain mail, plate armor and helmets are tested for strength with sabers, swords, axes, flails, clubs, spears and throwing darts – sulitsa, as well as various types of arrows.
“The regimental banner dried up without roots …”
On September 28, 1760, during the Seven Years War, the Kexholm and Nevsky infantry regiments, together with eleven others, occupied the city of Berlin.
A century and a half later, in 1913, in a memo on the history of the Nevsky regiment, Lieutenant Mikhail Yeremich emphasized: “Let us take care of our banners! Let us be in awe of the blood of a thousand Nevtsy who splattered their cloths with it” 1 .
Just a few months later, in August 1914, the Kexholm Life Guards and the 1st Nevsky Infantry Regiments had to grapple with the Germans in East Prussia, in the battle of Tannenberg. And to confirm the holy military truth: the banner is the honor of the regiment.
And to confirm it in an incredible way!
Keksholm regiment on August 15 alone found itself in the path of the enemy, bypassing the flank of the central grouping of the 2nd Russian army. And all day he held back an entire German division (2nd Infantry) – with a battle retreating from the village of Rontzken to the village of Lana.
Counterattacked! “In the field of rye, south of Rontzken, among cornflowers (the emblem of the regiment 2 ) lies the Keksholm company, which remained faithful to its duty, completely mowed down by German machine guns.” 3 … and the Nevsky regiment. And he did not defend himself, but attacked! And with an incomplete three battalions, he knocked out 10 Germans from the Kemmerai forest. And he scattered them – so that Lieutenant General Georg Baron von der Goltz and his chief of staff lost control of the troops!
And on the morning of August 16, near the village of Mörken, another German division – the 37th Infantry Division – was detained only by the 1st Battalion of the Nevtsev, commanded by Captain Alexander Artabolevsky.Only after several hours of battle – in which five Russian battalions were opposed by 36 German ones – pressed against the Grosser Plauziger lake, Artabolevsky’s battalion was partly captured, partly destroyed.
In this battle, the junior officer of the 1st company, Lieutenant Jeremic, was also captured. Author of a memo on the history of the regiment. His further fate is unknown.
But there was someone to save the honor of the regiment.
In the ring
Despite the heroic deeds of the regiments and divisions, on 17 August the central group of the 2nd Army was surrounded in the Grunflies forest.Attempts to break through failed: the troops were tired and mixed, and the command did not shine with discretion. The commander of the Nevsky regiment, Colonel Mikhail Pervushin, with a battalion of Nevtsy and two companies and machine gunners from other units overturned the German barrier – but was seriously wounded and could no longer lead the troops. And a new barrier had risen in front …
It became clear that many could not avoid captivity.
And, therefore, we must “take care of the banners.”
Banner of the Nevsky Regiment, ensign Nikifor Udalykh, by order of Pervushin, buried the banner in the ground – and remembered the place.
Assistance was provided by Second Lieutenant Nikolai Gladkov.
Let’s remember these names. We will return to them later.
And it was decided to remove the banner of the Keksholm regiment from the encirclement, as they taught it even under Peter the Great – on ourselves. Already on the night of August 17, by order of the regiment commander, Major General Alexander Malinovsky, Second Lieutenant Konstantin Anuchin wrapped the cloth cut from the shaft around the body, under a marching uniform.
On the morning of the 17th, when the remnants of the regiment came under artillery fire near the village of Wallendorf, by the general decision of the officers, the flag pole was destroyed.
The crowning shaft of the pommel – a silvered two-headed eagle with a laurel wreath and a cross of the Order of St. George – was buried in the ground.
And Anuchin and the flag bearer, the senior non-commissioned officer Vasiliev (the former lancer of His Majesty), were put on horses and ordered to save the banner.
On a hair
Before burning the shaft, the strip of silk remaining from the cut cloth was removed from it – the one that had been nailed. And, as insignificant, they handed over to the train.
Ironically, the wagon train broke through from the encirclement.
But Vasiliev and Anuchin did not make it. Having lost their horses under fire, they made their way through the bushes all day, but on the morning of August 18 they came across the Germans.
“Your Excellency, save the banner, and I will hold them back,” decided Vasiliev. And, diverting attention from Anuchin, he got up to his full height and began to shoot.
He managed to release one clip before the bullet hit him in the throat …
Anuchin – where crawling, where on all fours – managed to hide in the bush.However, in the evening he was still captivated by a German patrol.
Fortunately, the second lieutenant was not searched. The regiment commander chose him for a reason: he was so tall and thin that even with the banner wrapped around his body he did not look suspiciously full …
In total, 39 Keksholm officers were captured (many were wounded) 4 …
“With a feeling of hidden uneasiness,” recalled Colonel (and then lieutenant) Yevgeny Yankovsky, “each of us examined the newly brought party of officers, fearing to find Anuchin in it.To our indescribable horror, in one of them we saw our standard bearer. The eloquent conversation of unblinking eyes explained to us that the banner was with him “ 5 …
And the Germans are around!
The officers tried to surround Anuchin so that he was not in sight.
But in In the Silesian camp of Neisse, the Germans began to frequently search the prisoners. According to rumors, they were looking for the banners. From a legal point of view, the banner taken from the prisoner was the same legitimate trophy as that taken in battle.
And then, by order of General Malinovsky, after the lights out, having sent out the sentries, the officers from Keksholm gathered at his place to BURN THE BANNER.
“Almost twelve years have passed since that terrible night, but everything that happened is before my eyes,” Colonel Vladimir Chashinsky wrote with pain in 1926. “A sacrilege was committed.” our life “(Colonel Yankovsky) 6 .
These people lived in their regiment, their own “old man”.
The banner is a symbol of the regiment, its soul. His honor.
But they understood: the honor of the regiment could be saved in captivity only by destroying its symbol.
… In the dim light, the cinder was cut out of the cloth – in order to preserve it all the same! – the face of the Savior Not Made by Hands, one of the state emblems in the corners and the monogram of Nicholas II.
They put them between the board and the tin upholstery of the icon and gave the icon to the regimental priest, Father Konstantin Vvedensky.
And the cloth was torn into pieces, “plucked” and burned in the stove.
Saturated with silver embroidery, silk burned poorly (no strong fire was made: the smoke could attract the attention of the Germans) …
Perhaps the old colonels of Keksholm – 48-year-old Bauer, 45-year-old Chashinsky, 41-year-old Boulanger – remembered in these moments of his youth, December 1894, when the Kexholm grenadier regiment became a guards regiment.
How they burned silver from their old shoulder straps then. To cast from it, “from the last Grenadier shoulder straps of the Kexholm officers” 7 , “Grenadier Cup” and a copy of the death mask of the regiment founder – Peter the Great…
“Zina is healthy”
“More and more correspondence with the captured fellow soldiers was getting better, – Lieutenant-General Boris Adamovich recalled much later, – the name” Zina “began to appear more and more often in our secret writing and was repeating more and more firmly “from there”: “Zina is healthy”, “Do not worry about Zina, she got sick, but there is no more danger”, “Zina only dreams of meeting her dear Old Man” 8 .
“Old Man” regiment – formed back in 1710.”Zina” is his banner.
But then it became known that in search of “Zin” the Germans were ransacking both camp churches and icons.
Therefore, the preserved fragments of the cloth were hidden by the regiment veterans, the keepers of its traditions – Colonels Vladimir Bauer (monogram of Nicholas II), Vladimir Chashinsky (state emblem) and Georgy Boulanger (face of the Savior Not Made by Hands).
Since then Bauer could only be seen in an overcoat – both in winter and in summer. He even slept in it, and answered perplexed questions that the doctors were not able to cure his rheumatism.
A fragment of the banner was sewn into the overcoat …
As it turned out later, despite the ban of General Malinovsky, the fragments of the banner risked to be saved from burning and to keep seven more officers on themselves.
The enemy did not get a single piece of the regimental shrine.
Returning from captivity in 1918, Colonel Chashinsky joined the Volunteer Army, and in 1920 left the Crimea to where he served 25 years in the Kexholm regiment – to Warsaw.There he died in 1936 …
He handed over the saved fragment of the banner to the museum created in the 1920s in Sarajevo by his brother-soldier Lieutenant General Adamovich.
Colonel Bauer also returned to Warsaw. He apparently kept his fragment of the cloth until his death (which followed no later than 1934).
Colonel Boulanger left captivity in Soviet Russia. He worked at factories as a technical inspector, control foreman.
In March 1935, after the assassination of Kirov, the former guards officer, as a “socially dangerous element”, was expelled from Leningrad to Saratov.And in October 1937 he was again arrested and shot in November.
The fate of the fragment of the banner taken out of captivity is unknown.
Father Konstantin Vvedensky died in captivity.
Konstantin Anuchin – who rose to the rank of colonel in the Volunteer and Russian armies, but remained in the Crimea in 1920 – was shot in Evpatoria by the Reds.
Alexander Malinovsky was seriously wounded, but survived. The former general died in April 1924 in Detskoye Selo (formerly Tsarskoye Selo) – where he served for 29 years in the Life Guards 2nd Rifle Battalion…
Somewhere in the 1920s, another “old man in a shabby greatcoat” (remember the hero of the story by Konstantin Paustovsky), Mikhail Pervushin, also died. He was buried in the same Roslavl, from which he led his Nevsky regiment to the front in 1914.
Perhaps he managed to learn about the incredible denouement of history with the banner of his regiment.
Ensign Udalykh: a meeting with fate
Ensign Udalykh and second lieutenant Gladkov left the entourage. And among the hundreds or two of the soldiers that remained from the more than 4-thousandth Nevsky regiment, they were sent to re-form in Western Belarus, in Lida.
Second lieutenant Alexander Ignatiev, who had just been released from the military school to the Nevsky Regiment, also arrived there.
According to the recollections of General Vasily Flug, who led the reorganization of the XIII Army Corps, he served zealously, but looked somewhat strange.
Not only did Ignatiev never part with the guinea pig and the canary — even carrying them in the pockets of his greatcoat — he was always in a “melancholy mood.” Explaining this by “the disappointment that befell him when, upon graduation from the School, he ended up not in a glorious combat regiment, as he expected, but in some kind of non-combatant command, without a combat past and shrine – a banner” 9 .
This was a man whose vocation was war.
Ignatiev was burning with the desire to fight. And to fight in the regular army with its knightly traditions. In an old regiment with a glorious history!
The energy and determination of youth were added to the passionate desire. And once a warrant officer Udalykh approached him …
Closed Ignatiev was increasingly seen talking with Udalykh.
And in October 1914, both of them disappeared.
A desertion case was opened against them.
But after two or three weeks both returned to Lida.
The wounded Ignatiev threw open his “tattered sheepskin coat” – and took off the banner of the Nevsky Regiment, wrapped around his body!
Reception with the emperor
They crossed the front line twice – which passed 300 versts from Lida. Twice, imperceptibly, passing its guard line and twice – the German one.
We made our way (eating anything) into the Gruenflees forest and dug up the hidden banner of the Daring.
On the way back, hiding from the Germans, we sat for a long time in a moss swamp – so that his canary drowned in Ignatiev’s pocket (the guinea pig survived).
They walked in peasant clothes. According to the laws of war, if they fell into the hands of the enemy, they should have been shot as spies. A soldier is fighting in the military uniform of his country!
This whole story is hard to believe – but fact is fact. The banner is back.
The heroes were received by Nicholas II himself. Ignatiev became a Knight of the Order of St. George of the 4th degree, and Udalykh – who already had the St. George crosses of the 4th, 3rd and 2nd degrees for the Japanese war – received a cross of the 1st degree. That is, he became a complete St. George’s Knight.
This was the first award of the 1st degree St.George Cross in the First World War.
1. Eremic [MI]. Memo to the 1st Infantry Nevsky of His Majesty the King of the Hellenes Regiment. 1913 Roslavl, 1914. S. 55.
2. More precisely, “the flower of the regiment” (Adamovich B. Trysten. 15-28.VII.1916. To the day of the 225th anniversary of the L.-Guards Kexholm regiment. 1710 – 29 / VI – 1935. Paris, 1935.S. 50). Since 1832, the color of the regiment’s collars, bands and overcoat buttonholes was light blue (cornflower blue), and since 1912 – almost indistinguishable from it blue.
3. Quoted. Quoted from: Andolenko S. Two banners // Military byl (Paris). 1968. March. N 90. S. 8.
4. GARF. F. R-5956. Op. 1.D. 42.L. 91, 91 ob.
5. Quoted. Quoted from: Andolenko S. Decree. op. P. 9.
6. Cit. by: Ibid. P. 9.
7. Adamovich B. Inventory of the Museum L. Guards. Keksholm Emperor of the Austrian Regiment. Warsaw, 1907.S. 14, 316.
8.GARF. F. R-5956. Op. 1. D. 42. L. 84
9. Flug V. From the memoirs of the first Great War // Military byl (Paris). 1957. September. N 26. S. 20.
THE POET’S LOOK
Arseny Mitropolsky (he took the pseudonym Nesmelov in memory of his deceased friend) was mobilized on August 20, 1914.He spent the entire First World War on the Austrian front, as an officer of the 11th Fanagoria Grenadier Generalissimo of Prince Suvorov Regiment. Member of the White Guard Ice Campaign. One of the best poets of the Harbin emigration.
Retreat! – and the guns fell silent,
The machine gunner fell silent.
Beyond the line of a burnt village
The Fanagoria regiment departed.
Officers were killed this morning. The commander is slain.
And a very young lieutenant
Ours, the fourth, received a battalion.
And at the battalion there was a banner,
And the lieutenant prayed at the terrible hour,
For Heaven to take pity on us,
For God to save our sanctuary.
But they trembled on the left and on the right, –
The enemy piled on like a bear,
And the protection of the banner – with glory
It remained only to die.
And then, – I swear, a lot of gazes
That moment captured forever, –
Generalissimo Suvorov himself
Arose at the holy banner.
He was thin, had a powdered plait,
His uniform was with a star.
He shouted: “Follow me, Phanagorians!
With God, battalion commander!”
And his command burned like lava,
All hearts: the holy shadow is calling!
Raced to the left, ran to the right,
So that, colliding, rush forward!
Bayonet strike fury
The enemy did not demolish; We walked like a hurricane,
Only the young commander
We brought the dead to the village …
And at the coffin – every chronicler of life at the front will remember this, –
Suvorov himself cried: twice at night
The sentries saw him.
A criminal case was opened against the Yakut shaman Alexander Gabyshev
Gabyshev left Yakutsk at the beginning of March 2019 and covered almost 3 thousand kilometers on foot
The Investigative Committee of Russia opened a criminal case under Art. 318 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation (use of violence against a government official) against a resident of Yakutia, Alexander Gabyshev, who calls himself a shaman and became famous for his unsuccessful attempt to march from Yakutsk to Moscow.They had already started a case against him, and in January he was sent back to a psychiatric dispensary.
A criminal case was initiated in connection with the events of January 28, when security officials came to Gabyshev’s home to take him to the hospital of the Yakut mental hospital, the coordinator of the “Legal Protection of the Postcard” project Alexei Pryanishnikov told MBH Media.
Because of what exactly Gabyshev’s actions were initiated, it is still unknown, the newspaper emphasizes. The Investigative Committee of Russia (TFR) has not yet commented on this topic.
The investigator informed the defense about the case by phone, the lawyers have not yet seen the documents, Pryanishnikov told Mediazone. On Thursday, February 25, investigative actions are planned to be carried out with Gabyshev.
Gabysheva’s lawyer Olga Timofeeva confirmed to the BBC that a case was initiated under Art. 318 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation and the fact that the case is connected with the arrest of the shaman on January 28. According to her, she herself does not yet know the details.
What the ICR said
The ICR confirmed the initiation of the case on Thursday.According to the investigation, the doctor of the republican neuropsychiatric dispensary reported to the duty department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs that Gabyshev does not undergo a routine examination at the institution, refuses treatment and shows aggression.
Employees of the National Guard, together with a medical worker, arrived at the shaman’s house and persuaded him to open the door. “After repeated warnings about the right to enter the dwelling, the employees entered the premises. At that moment, the man used a handicraft cold weapon 84 cm long and inflicted a stab and cut wound on the policeman,” the Yakut department of the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation said in a statement.
Interfax, citing the TFR, writes that Gabyshev allegedly inflicted the wound with his sword – a batas (this is a knife-like tip attached to the shaft).
Who is Gabyshev
In March 2019, Gabyshev announced that he was going on a walking trip from Yakutia to Moscow to “expel” the president and “restore democracy”. The hike along the route of about 8 thousand kilometers was supposed to last two years. In the fall of 2019, a criminal case was opened against Gabyshev for public calls for extremist activity, he was detained in Buryatia and taken to Yakutsk.
The state examination found Gabyshev insane. In May last year, he was forcibly placed in a neuropsychiatric dispensary, where he remained until July 22.
On January 12 of this year, Gabyshev announced that he would begin a new campaign against Moscow in March. An audio recording of the following appeared on social networks: “Our hike will begin when it gets warmer, somewhere in March. I will leave Yakutsk on a white horse and walk along the land of my ancestors. Nyurba district is my father’s land, I must definitely visit these lands.Then I will reach Irkutsk, the main detachment will be waiting there. “
Pryanishnikov confirmed that this recording was made by the Yakut shaman Gabyshev.
On January 27, the police again took the shaman to the mental dispensary. Pryanishnikov said that Gabyshev could have been sent there because he was not registered. at the dispensary.
“Perhaps this could have been used as an excuse. But I think the real reason is his announcement of the resumption of the campaign. All previous situations in which he was placed in a psychiatric dispensary were somehow connected with his campaign, “Pryanishnikov said at the time.
The Yakut Republican Psychiatric Dispensary later stated that after being discharged in July, Gabyshev’s condition was stable, as he was taking medication. In mid-December, at the reception, he announced that he had refused treatment, and in January he did not come to the clinic. The attending physician tried to contact him by phone, but he did not answer the calls. Relatives confirmed to the doctor that Gabyshev categorically refuses to communicate with the doctor, Interfax wrote, citing doctors.
On February 2, the Yakutsk City Court satisfied the dispensary’s claim for compulsory treatment of Gabyshev.
Heraldry of Tver
The coat of arms has long been considered the symbol of the city. This is a sign approved by the supreme power, expressing in a strict graphic form the history, geography and economic life of the city. The basis of the coat of arms is a shield, in the field of which heraldic drawings of animals, plants, weapons are placed. Coats of arms appeared in Western Europe. In Russia, the coats of arms of cities have been known since the 18th century, although since ancient times in Russia there were emblems of territories, kingdoms and principalities, the names of which were included in the loud title of the Russian sovereign.
Russian heraldry has a religious origin in its foundation. The faces of the Saints, the Almighty and the Mother of God were depicted on ancient seals. The seals were personal. Under the new prince, their drawings changed. Prince of Tver Mikhail Yaroslavich (1304-1318) used seals with the image of the Archangel Michael with a power in his left hand and a cross in his right. On the seals of the Great Dukes of Tver Dmitry Mikhailovich (1322-1325) and Alexander Mikhailovich (1326-1327), the outlines of the Holy Warriors appear, holding a spear and a shield, less often a sword.
The Holy Warrior symbolized the prince himself – the first warrior and defender of his land. The spear served as a sign of power, for it was considered the noblest weapon of a warrior. At the end of the XIV century, the image of a walking animal resembling a lion comes to the Tver emblem. It can be seen on the seal of the Great Prince of Tver Mikhail Alexandrovich (1370-1399). The lion was an ancient Vladimir emblem, and the use of this sign meant a claim to the title of Grand Duke.
In the XIII – early XIV centuries, seals were most often silver, according to the Byzantine tradition.Later, in the XIV-XV centuries, they were imprinted on red wax and hung from documents on colored laces. There is a mention of the first Russian gold pendant seal of an unknown Tver prince of the XIV century. In the 15th century, the Tver emblems began to feel the Lithuanian influence. The Holy Warrior, the Vladimir lion, is replaced by the image of a horseman. The seal of the Great Prince of Tver Boris Alexandrovich (1425-1461), on the treaty of 1448 with Vasily II Vasilyevich of Moscow, shows a horseman without a halo with a sword in his right hand.
A similar image is found on the Tver coins of this period. The drawing met the requirements of the Byzantine canon, according to which the right hand of a warrior, armed with a sword, should be in plain sight as a symbol of strength and victory. On the seal of Mikhail Borisovich Tverskoy (1462-1485), for the first time in Russia, an image of a horseman slaying a snake appeared. This plot has been known to Moscow emblems since the time of Dmitry Donskoy, but the palm of the “printed” version of the famous plot belongs to Tver.Here is a description of this seal: “a rider in a fluttering cloak with a sword in his hand on a horse. Under the horse’s hooves is a winged serpent.” A special place in the Tver heraldry is occupied by the image of a two-headed eagle on the coins of Prince Mikhail Borisovich. The Tver drawing is almost twenty years older than the Moscow one, for the “eagle” as the all-Russian state emblem appeared only in 1497 on the seal of the Moscow prince Ivan III.
The two-headed eagle among the Slavs and in the East in general meant the old world idea of ”protection from the right and the left, from both sides.”At the same time, the “eagle” was perceived as a sign of the highest power, for in 1434 it became the official coat of arms of the Holy Roman Empire. In Byzantium, the double-headed eagle was the sign of the imperial court and the family coat of arms of the Palaeologus.
By the XIV century, the princes’ signs on seals and coins lost their personal character and began to be perceived as emblems of the princely family and the territory of its possession. The Tver Grand Ducal House was the first in Russia to put forward a patriotic program of uniting all-Russian forces against the Mongol-Tatar invaders.Moscow became the rival of Tver. The change in emblematic plots on the coins and seals of the two all-Russian centers indicates different forms of “justifying” one or another political orientation.
If Moscow relied on the Tatar armed forces in the fight against Tver, then Tver took a “pro-Lithuanian” position. “Even before Prince Mikhail Borisovich and since the time of Prince Yaroslav Yaroslavich, his descendants, calling themselves the Grand Dukes of Tver, lived in constant disagreement with the Grand Dukes of Moscow, and for the most part they held the Lithuanian rather than the Russian side,” the contemporary assesses the Tver policy.In 1485 Tver fell. “Not boyar betrayal, but the importance of expressing the Great Russian tribe in Moscow politics more correctly determines the reasons for the fall of Tver.”
The Tver emblem received a completely new drawing in the 16th century. On the state seal of Ivan the Terrible in 1577, she is depicted as a bear standing on four legs. It is striking that the Smolensk emblem depicts a crown on the throne, exactly what in the 17th century will become the territorial emblem of Tver.Either the carver has confused the drawings, or the seal contains not emblems of territories, but symbols of ideas. Images of animals in ancient times were often combined with the interpretation of their inherent qualities: flattery, deceit, courage, wisdom, cunning. These qualities were applied to human behavior. The sources of such interpretations were the old books “Physiologist”, “Six-Day”, “Psalter”. In medieval symbolism, the bear often personified Satan. In the paintings of the Last Judgment, he symbolized the Persian and sometimes Roman kingdom.Such a negative meaning of the bear could be associated with the attitude of Ivan IV to the Tver land as a center of unrest and political claims. But, most likely, the drawing of the bear on the state seal was an exact reflection of the Prolitian line of the former Grand Duchy of Tver. Back in 1404, on the seal of the Lithuanian prince Vytautas, the Tver lands were marked with the image of a bear.
The “rebellious” 17th century gave a completely new meaning to the Tver heraldry. On the curtain (cover) of the throne of Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov, the Tver emblem was “a chair without a back, on it a crown.”The inscription read: “Tfer seal”. In 1666, by order of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, the Great State Emblem was made in the Armory, on which, among others, was placed the image: “the throne without degree, the royal crown rests on the throne.” The author of the Tver emblem is also known – Stanislav Loputsky, a “master of painting”. Together with his students Ivashka Bezmin and Doroshka Yermolin, he drew the Tver emblem.
In 1672, the first Russian coat of arms was compiled in Russia – “Titulyarnik” with portraits of rulers and coats of arms of different kingdoms and lands.The need to compile such a book was dictated by the difficulties of the Ambassadorial Order in the correct and consistent spelling of the titles of European monarchs. A large place in the “Titular” was occupied by the emblems and seals of the Russian possessions. The Tver emblem is described as “a chair without a back, on it there are two loaves, on top of a crown with a cross:“ Tversky. ”The coat of arms of the Tver armory was painted by Grigory Blagushin, Fyodor Lopov, Matvey Andreev, gold-painters of the Armory.
Three years later, in 1675, the Tver emblem appears on the golden plate of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, representing “a chair with a crown: the seal of Tver”.This drawing and the coat of arms of the Titulyarnik differ markedly from the 1666 version. Remaining true to the main idea – the throne and crown, the artistic merit and authorship of the emblems are different. It is known that since 1667 the place of the master’s painting in the Armory was taken by Danila Wuchters, who, according to Stanislav Loputsky’s own admission, “knows the art better”. From that time on, the Tver emblem became “canonical” for subsequent images up to the beginning of the 18th century. It is exactly the same as in the “Titular”, it is shown in the print drawing from the diary of a foreigner I.G. Korba.
What is the meaning of the Tver emblem and its meaning in the symbolism of the Russian state? The special place of the 17th century in our history is characterized not only by the strengthening of economic ties between the territories, but also by the rapid formation of a new national – state idea. The image of Russia as a strong Orthodox power, a spiritual lamp of the entire Christian world is clearly emerging. The king, as an all-powerful autocrat, comes to the fore in such a state. Gradually, it becomes a symbol of the Russian state, a living embodiment of its glory and power.This title was illustrated by the emblems of the annexed lands, kingdoms and principalities. The image of the crown on the Tver emblem indicated that the Russian state consisted of former “crowned” lands equal to the kingdoms in the West. At the beginning of the XIV century, the Grand Duke Mikhail Yaroslavich of Tver was called the autocrat, the king of all Russia, and was the first in Russia to put on the royal crown. The chair (throne) on the emblem symbolized not only a place to sit, but was also perceived as a “table”, as “possession” and “principality”.
The Tver emblem acquired a somewhat different character at the beginning of the 18th century in the process of creating the city’s coats of arms proper.Their appearance is associated with a number of innovations of Peter 1. The Russian reformer attached great importance to various emblems, symbols and allegories. They were used in medals, fireworks, and decorated triumphal arches. But most often, city emblems were depicted on military banners. According to the military reform, the regiments of the Russian army were located in the cities. Each regiment was supposed to have on its banner the emblem of the city-place of deployment.
Initially, the emblems on the banners were painted “not according to the rules.”So, on the banners of the Tver infantry and dragoon regiments of 1712-1727, the Tver emblem is presented as follows: “a green banner with an image in the upper corner at the staff of a golden throne under a crown.” The Tver coat of arms of this period was aptly nicknamed “the bell”, for it looked a little like a crown.
For the correct drawing of coats of arms in 1722, a special institution was created – the Heraldry Master’s Office. Count Francis Santi, an expert in heraldry, was invited from France to be the compiler of the coats of arms.He became the author of a new version of the Tver coat of arms. The change in the appearance of the Tver emblem was explained by the “Europeanization” of heraldic forms while preserving the Russian idea of the previous symbol. The drawing of the crown and pillow Santi took from the book “Symbols and Emblems” published in 1705. The writing under the picture was rather cryptic: “A lovely thing.”
In the late 20s – 30s of the 18th century, two institutions were involved in the creation of city emblems – the Military Collegium and the Academy of Sciences.The work was supervised by the chief director of the fortifications of all of Russia, General Count Burchard Christoph Minich. In 1729, the painter Andrei Baranov presented drawings of banners for 85 regiments, including Tverskoy. By the highest decree, a new version of the Tver emblem was approved on March 8, 1730 with the following description: “there is a golden crown on a silver chair on a green pillow, the field is red.” In the banner coat of arms, the Tver coat of arms is placed in a gold cartouche topped with a royal crown. Interesting and unusual is another version of the Tver flag emblem, known from the manuscript “The coat of arms of 1755 and the Bibikov banners”.The presented project looks like this: “the banner is pink, in the cupboard there is a gold cross and a gold curbstone, around six golden stars.”
Gradually, despite its “military purpose”, the coat of arms became increasingly associated with the city as a special independent administrative unit. City coats of arms were placed on seals, coins, and official documents. But only in the last quarter of the 18th century, the city coat of arms finally moved from the military to the administrative sphere. Novgorod Governor Ya.E. Sivere gave Catherine II the idea of the need to award a coat of arms to each city, as a symbol of its rights and privileges. On the wave of the mass awarding of coats of arms on October 10, 1780, the coat of arms of Tver was approved with the following description: “a golden crown in a red field on a green pillow.”
After approval, the coat of arms became an obligatory attribute of city seals and signs of officials, often appearing on the pages of various publications in new forms. The coat of arms of the Tver province without decorations began to be placed in the “free” part of the shield of the new coats of arms of district cities.
In the middle of the 19th century, one of the first was drawn up the coat of arms of the Tver province, approved on December 8, 1856. It represented “a golden throne in a scarlet field, on it is a royal crown on a green pillow. The shield is crowned with an imperial crown and surrounded by golden oak leaves, connected by an Andreevskaya ribbon.” The crown on the new coat of arms resembled the famous cap of Monomakh – the oldest regalia of the Russian tsars. This coat of arms was made by the king of arms Bernhard Vasilievich Kene.On February 10, 1859, he also drew up the coat of arms of the provincial city of Tver. The image in the shield practically copied the heraldic design of the province’s coat of arms. But now the shield began to be crowned with “a royal cap in the form of a Monomakhov’s crown and surrounded by golden ears of grain, connected by an Alexander ribbon.” This version of the Tver coat of arms remained little known to a wide range of townspeople. The heraldic project of B.V. Kene for the provincial administrative center, made in 1882, remained even less famous.
The change in the image in the 19th century was dictated not only by ideological, but also by political motives.Through the image of Russia “Europeanized” by Peter I, the original national face of Holy Russia gradually began to appear. (Referring to past national values, the government could not leave the “European” design of the coat of arms for the spiritual and historical center of the Russian people.) The House of the Holy Savior received a truly Russian, historically and nationally meaningful emblem – the coat of arms of Tver. By the decision of the Tver City Council of People’s Deputies of November 16, 1990, the official status of the historical coat of arms of the city of Tver, approved in 1780, was restored.
90,000 “A man must walk the path of a warrior, and a woman must support him”
Today, on April 29, the World Championship in historical medieval battle “Battle of the Nations” starts in Barcelona. For the first time, a Cherepovchanin, the trainer of the Center for Martial Arts Vyacheslav Mishurin, entered the Russian national team. In an interview with cherinfo.ru shortly before the trip, Vyacheslav told how to get to competitions of such a level, which is better – a sword or a halberd, and why it is forbidden to accurately recreate historical armor.
– Vyacheslav, tell us more about the “Battle of the Nations”. How did you get there?
– Our team “Russian Order” – a combined team, passed the selection in the North-West. This is a team of friends, where citizens of Cherepov, St. Petersburg, Muscovites, Vyborg residents. We have known each other for a long time. In 2016, we entered the top ten teams in the world at the Dynamo Cup in Moscow. Then there were qualifying games in St. Petersburg, where we reached the final. In February there was “Recon”, in which we reached the final of the first league.I took fourth place there in halberds. Then we were invited to the Pradar, where it was decided who would go to the Battle of the Nations. The “battle” has been held for a long time, and Russia has never lost in the title nominations (“five by five” and “21 by 21”). There are also individual offsets such as triathlon, one-on-one, where Russia also holds the championship. We take almost all the gold. Like the old hockey team, our team is called the “Red Car” and they are afraid. Our main rivals are Ukraine and Belarus (maybe because there are also Russians there), America also exhibits strong teams, there are many healthy, pumped-up guys there.That year, the American took first place in halberds. I will be the first from Cherepovets to go to the championship, I will fight in massive battles 21 to 21.
– Why not “five by five” or in duels?
– Three strongest teams on the planet in the five vs five nomination in Russia. To fight with them, you need to be inhuman. They are not people – machines, they train seven times a week. I can afford three to four times. I would like to train every day.
– Does everyone make their own armor in your sport, or can you buy them somewhere? Are these replicas of historical armor?
– From where hands grow.Someone does it himself, someone buys. I do it myself. On the one hand, there are requirements for the historicity of the armor, on the other, there are sports realities that do not allow full use of the historical armor, which was created for real combat, where each other was killed. It is important for us that the athlete remains alive and well. Therefore, there are tolerances in terms of safety. The same goes for materials. No one bothers to ensure that the materials are authentic, made, say, from ore dug in a swamp.No one will make armor from a single piece of iron without any welding. There are parameters – what the armor should be made of, down to thickness and weight.
– What time is your armor?
– This is a stylization for the XIV-XV centuries. Western Europe is more popular with us, however, eastern armor is also used, but in limited quantities.
– Why don’t you use Russian counterparts?
– Russian armor cannot be used in our battles.It is not intended for close combat on foot, but rather on horseback. In our sport, in its pure form, historical armor cannot be used at all – it has many open places where you can stick, poke, knock. Therefore, we modify the armor. Take the combat helmet, for example. He should only have a nosepiece, and the chain mail should be lower. But we made a sports modification: for safety, we installed protection so as not to be left without teeth, nose or eyes. All these modifications and improvements are written in blood, as in any safety technique.
– So, sports armor should protect its owner from top to bottom?
– Completely – from the feet to the head and hands, since in battle the entire body enters the affected area, with the exception of small areas: the base of the neck, groin, bend of the knees, feet. Certain strikes along the spine are also prohibited in our sport. Although people are already fighting in sabatons, hitting on the knee is not a gentleman’s way. Such strikes are prohibited, for violation – up to disqualification.After all, a knee injury can disable an athlete for a year, it is very dangerous and expensive.
– Do you often have to change your armor?
– It all depends on who you are. If you allow yourself to hit a lot and often, naturally, the armor will tear, break through, break. If you fight well, then you are not beaten, you are beaten, and this is the best defense. But we redo, customize the armor endlessly. For example, I recently put a plate on a mitten (plate mitten. – cherinfo.ru ).Two blows flew into it – which means that I did not put it in vain. And now the finger would be broken. And this happened. How to improve the helmet? Just make it thicker. But then it will be too heavy. The balance of weight and protection is important here.
– What kind of helmets are there?
– I am now using a bascinet (a kind of 14th century helmet with a visor and chain mail framing the neck. – cherinfo.ru ). There are also salads, chaplains, barbutes. But they have their drawbacks. They, for example, do not stand on their shoulders, which means that all strong blows will go to the vertebrae.When hitting the bascinet, the blows go to the shoulders, partially damped. Here even the shape of the lattice is thought out. When I bend my head forward, like in boxing, to close my chin, the front grille is on the chest, and due to this, vertical blows to the head are compensated. The helmet must be able to withstand any blows to the head so that there is no concussion. Because of this, plate legs are used, and not chain mail, since the knee joints are severely affected when struck or thrown. We make a single monolithic plate leg, which is motionless at the knees and bends only in one direction – back.
– In weapons, as I understand it, you specialize in halberds. Why?
– From a blow of a sword, a person usually does not fall, he does not even feel the blow. The same happens from the halberd (shows a deep dent on the helmet). And this is a thick alloy steel, 2.2 millimeters. After this blow, I just sat down as they hit me on the head with a sledgehammer. The concussion was light, no big deal. Much depends on the quality of the equipment: the better the armor, the less injuries.
Like the old hockey team, the Russian national team is called the “Red Machine” and is feared.
– What kind of injuries did you get?
– There were concussions of moderate severity, a finger was somehow chopped, knees suffered, menisci, ligaments. Basically, of course, bruises, this is the most common injury, as in any sport. In boxing, there are also heavy knockdowns, here there are even fewer of them, since there is a helmet on the head. Yes, and such blows do not often arrive, it was I who fought with the world champions, it is clear what I got.
– Are there any weapon approvals?
– Weight, length, thickness, edge of the blade, rounding … Only chopping blows are allowed, stabbing is definitely prohibited, since you can kill, for example, in the eye.In theory, even the guard of a sword could be accidentally stabbed in the eye. Therefore, the rules are only getting tougher in terms of security.
– Does it happen that the shaft breaks?
– It happens. You throw away the debris, you run after the spare tire. According to the rules, it is possible. You can carry an additional weapon on your belt, but this is extra weight. The kit weighs on average about 30 kilograms.
– Why do you have a pattern on an ax?
– This is for beauty. There should be a weapon that pleases the eye.This is one of them. At the same time, the enemy is not only painful, but also pleasant to receive this way. This ax even has a name – Manvega. The name was suggested by familiar Danes, in their language it is something like a ripper, one who chops everyone.
– What is the training? Do you put on your armor and hack each other?
– This is one of the types. Also in our environment, crossfit, wrestling, boxing, sambo are popular. All this is the base to fight effectively in battles. We train strength and endurance.The halberd weighs about three kilograms, and you need to wave it for the whole fight. And the fight can last for different times, it all depends on the opponent. The winner is the one who stands on his feet. Whoever fell – he lost. There are no glasses, only healthy violence. A person needs to be beaten so that he understands that he needs to sit down, that he has lost. Or throw it to the ground, but it is difficult to do this in armor, you need skills.
– Can you hit not only with a halberd, but also with your fists?
– Why not? You can also use your foot.Some manage to kick in the head in armor. In sports we have masters in military hand-to-hand fighting, boxing, kickboxing. Although our species is costly to deal with – armor is expensive, and constant preparation is also needed.
– How long have you been engaged in historical battles, reconstruction?
– I have been doing military history for about 17 years. First, he studied at the military history club of Cherepovets. When it fell apart, everything was reborn into the public organization “Steel Helmet”.Then they closed it too. Now I am engaged in historical medieval battles. There is such a federation HMB (Historical Medieval Battles), we fight according to their rules, we train on the basis of the CBI. In this regard, they helped us with the premises, with the organization of training. I act in this process as a trainer, like a locomotive.
No glasses, just healthy violence. A person needs to be beaten so that he understands that he needs to sit down, that he has lost.
– Do you have many students?
– I have five or six people actively studying.Not a lot, but it’s understandable: it’s one thing to be interested, and another is to constantly study. You need to live and be sick with this, you need dedication. It is impossible to work out for a month and then quit. This is not fishing or jogging.
– That is, they come to you, and then they get a piece of iron and leave?
– They also come to boxing, get hit on the head and leave. Few remain, and only a few become champions.
– How do your wife and children feel about your hobby?
– Rather, it’s a lifestyle.And they are positive. How else? A man must walk the path of a warrior, and a woman must support him on this path. Although they are worried, this is natural. Although our battles are not so scary. My wife knows that I have good armor, I am a professional, so it is difficult to get injured. And no one pays attention to bruises anymore. The likelihood of injury is the same as in any outdoor sport. Only insure if you are so afraid. And my insurance is my armor and my skills. Although when I go abroad, I will have to insure.
– How do you study combat techniques from some historical sources?
– There are treatises on fencing of the 16th century, Japanese schools of fencing, but they differ from our sport very much. Maybe someday we will have schools where they will learn techniques, but so far people enjoy the fact that they beat each other.
– Did your skills come in handy in everyday life? Maybe defend against hooligans?
– Hooligans don’t bother me, so no, they didn’t come in handy.In general, any martial art teaches us to solve problems through diplomacy, not violence.
What armor saved the lives of Kazakh batyrs in the Middle Ages?
Demonstration duel of the participants of the Almaty club of the historical medieval battle “Barys” in the city of nomads on the Ili river.
In many ways, it was inherited by the Kazakh Khanate, created on the wreckage of the disintegrated Golden Horde. Stanislav Mikheev, master of historical full-contact combat and leader of the Almaty clubs of historical medieval battle “Bayard” and “Barys”, told the Komsomolskaya Pravda correspondent with what weapons the Kazakh soldiers fought and what armor were the most popular among Kazakh warriors.
Photo: Photo of the author.
– The Great Steppe is a huge territory stretching across the entire Eurasian continent from China to Europe. How identical was the appearance of weapons and armor throughout the vast extent of these lands?
– Let’s just say, they were practically no different. For example, the same medieval Russia was dressed in oriental armor of the Horde pattern, and even the clothes were mostly oriental, of course, with certain of their own characteristics.Typical protective gear for a Horde warrior included helmet, armor, and arm and leg protectors. The helmets of the Horde warriors were very diverse, but mostly had a sphero-conical shape and were used with a chain mail aventail. The helmet often had eyebrow cutouts and an arrow-shaped nose guard, and the top of the helmet was adorned with a plume of feathers. The most popular armor among the Mongolian warriors was “khatangu degel”, or, if translated into Russian, “iron caftan”. It is a robe-style armor with metal plates attached to the fabric base with rivets outward.They also used such interesting armor as mirrors – round, less often rectangular, polished like a mirror (hence the name), iron plates attached to belts on the chest and back, as well as plate necklaces that covered the upper chest, shoulders and back. Laminar armor (woven from leather strips) and lamellar armor (when iron plates are fastened with a leather cord) were widely used. Horde shields were, as a rule, round in shape and ranging in size from half a meter to 90 centimeters in diameter.Large shields were made of planks and covered with leather, but most Mongols used “kalkans” – relatively small and light shields made of flexible rods with a diameter of 6070 centimeters. Their popularity is due to the fact that, firstly, they were simple and cheap to manufacture, and due to their exceptional elasticity, they cushioned almost any blow of blunt and bladed weapons. Moreover, the Mongols also had small shields, 4050 centimeters in diameter.
Heavily armed Horde warrior of the XIV century in the armor of the Khatangu degel, in the Keshikten helmet and in plate protection for the legs.
– The Kazakh Khanate was one of the heirs of the Golden Horde. How similar were the weapons of the Kazakh and Horde warriors?
– The armor and weapons of the Kazakhs, in essence, were no different from those of the Horde. By the end of the 15th century, armor slowly began to degenerate due to the emergence of firearms. However, we can say that this process dragged on for almost four centuries, because the Kazakh sarbaz used certain elements of protective armor until the end of the 19th century.The most common weapon among Kazakh batyrs in the Middle Ages was the so-called curved saber, or kylysh, although a straight sword and even a broadsword were also encountered. Good sabers were very expensive and could cost a whole herd of horses. Another traditional Kazakh weapon – a spear, or nayza – had a triangular iron tip with a horsehair brush at the junction of the tip with the shaft, and a loop at the other end for ease of wearing. Various types of axes and battle axes (balta and aibalta) were also widespread among the Kazakhs.Striking weapons included various types of clubs, maces, flails, and six-pole maces. Such an interesting type of mace was used called buzdygan, when the striking part of the mace was studded with thorns, and more often had several welded plates. The warriors were protected by a shield – kalkan, armor – sauyt and a helmet – dulyga. The Kazakh helmet traditionally had a pointed shape with a thick felt lining, which served as additional protection. From the top of the helmet to the tip of the warrior’s nose, a copper strip-arrow fell, protecting the face from a transverse blow from a sword or saber.By the way, a significant part of the steel helmets in Deshti-Kipchak was imported from Central Asia, East Turkestan and Persia and was very expensive. Therefore, up to the 19th century, iron helmets protected the heads of professional warriors and clan nobility, and the bulk of ordinary Sarbazians had helmets made of copper. Kazakh warriors used shields only in a round shape and relatively small, with a diameter of 6070 centimeters.
A warrior of the Kazakh Khanate, dressed in chain mail, a mirror and a turban helmet.
– Was the armor also of the Horde pattern?
– As for the armor, the Kazakhs most often met almost exact copies of the classic Horde “khatangu degel”, as well as chain mail, and the chain mail itself was of several types. The chain mail rings, which were called k z (translated from Kazakh – eyes), differed in diameter, and the smaller ones were called t rgai k z kireuke (translated as “chain mail with rings, like a sparrow’s eye”), and the middle ones – w to z kireuke (where rings were compared to a chicken’s eye).Armor in the form of a scaled carapace, cuirass and dense multi-layered leather armor were also common. Another type of battle armor of the Kazakhs is ring-plate armor, into the chain mail of which large-sized steel plates were woven, covering the belly, back and sides of the warrior. The Kazakhs called it zere sauyt (armor “zere”). Another very interesting, in my opinion, type of body protection for Kazakh soldiers is armor made of large steel boards, sewn in rows on a soft base, among the Kazakhs it was known as beren sauyt (board armor).The armor in the form of a vest, armored from the inside by a row of steel “boards”, had a slit on the sides and was fastened with straps and buckles. Many warriors preferred quilted armor, the so-called kattau (“multi-layer”), sewn from several layers of silk fabric and quilted with cotton and wool. They usually took the form of a robe with a long hem, long sleeves and a stand-up collar. Moreover, interestingly, this type of armor was also used as warm outerwear in the cold season.
Member of the Almaty club of the historical medieval battle “Barys” Artem Grigorenko in the armor of the Horde warrior during the procession “Nauryz2019”.Photo: Alexey MALCHENKO
A video footage, where the masters of the Bayard club will demonstrate traditional oriental and European armor and weapons and will tell you in detail about them, see in the near future on the website kp.kz.
Don archaeologists have discovered an atypical burial of the Scythian era
Don archaeologists have discovered an atypical burial of the Scythian era
During the excavation of a mound in the Azov region of the Rostov region, archaeologists of the DSTU and SSC RAS discovered an unusual burial, which by the nature of the burial corresponds to the Scythian, however, it indicates the fact that the deceased was a native of the Southern Urals.
The burial mound investigated by the Don archaeologists is complex; during the excavations, burials of different eras were discovered in it: a medieval burial, possibly a representative of nomadic tribes, as well as a burial of the Bronze Age. The central burial dates back to the Scythian time (IV century BC).
– In this area there is a watershed between two rivers – Don and Kagalnik. In ancient times, burial grounds were built at the highest point of the watershed, which merge into one large mound massif.His research began in 1976, – said the head of the archeological group, head of the archeology department of the Southern Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, head of the Department of Archeology and Cultural History of the DSTU, Doctor of Historical Sciences Sergei Lukyashko. – This year we have studied the largest mound in this part of the burial ground. For a long time it was not possible to explore it: earlier there was a road here, and a little later a gas pipe was laid. It was possible to study the array only after this pipe was removed.Before the excavation began, we scanned the surface of the mound with geophysical instruments.
The excavations took place in September-October in the area between the Don and Kagalnik rivers. The height of the investigated mound was 3 m, the diameter was 50 m, the burial depth from the modern surface was 5.5 m.
In the field of the mound, archaeologists have found a treasure of bronze items that date back to an earlier time than the central burial. The treasure is assembled from objects of different times: bronze adzes and celts, as well as a polished stone ax dating back to the Cimmerian time (VIII-VII centuries BC).NS.). Archaeologists speculate that these items belonged to a foundryman.
In the central burial, the burial place of a noble person or a leader of a tribe of the Scythian era was located. This burial was most likely looted shortly after the creation of the mound. Of the remains, only a skull was found here. But five amphorae were found, which helped to date the burial.
In the central burial there were accompanying burials – a warrior and a horse. The soldier was killed during a burial ceremony, such a custom was common among the tribes of the Scythian era.The warrior is quite large, about two meters tall. There was a gold chain on his remains.
Near the warrior, two spears and a large iron sword, characteristic of the tribes of the Southern Urals, were found. The sword hilt was clad with thin gold foil. The sword lay in a wooden sheath and was very poorly preserved. Also found were a sling (a means for throwing stones), a quiver with arrows and several broken arrows, spearheads and a lecith (a Greek vessel for incense or oil). Apparently, the ritual described in the ancient Vedas was performed over the remains of the warrior: during the burial, the priest uttered a spell and broke the arrow shafts over the body, sprinkling it with broken arrows.
The burial of the horse is located higher from the central burial. For the Scythians, a horse is a sacred animal, therefore, scientists are sure that a favorite or personal riding horse of the leader was found in the burial. The horse’s head was decorated with a cast deer head nasal – a unique in shape, volumetric decoration, not typical for local tribes: plane images are inherent in the Black Sea Scythia. Such an artifact is typical for the tribes of the Urals or Altai Mountains.
Also in the burial, a bronze cauldron with horizontal handles, unusual for these latitudes and epochs, was discovered: the handles of Scythian cauldrons are vertical, located on top.Side handles are found in boilers that were manufactured in the Southern Urals.
– We see that this is an atypical burial. In it we met a lot of both oriental objects and things related to the Greek world. We have a hypothesis that these people came from the east. But no conclusions can be drawn from one burial, – said Sergei Lukyashko. – What it is, random expeditions, the existence of permanent trade and economic ties or the result of migration, remains to be seen.Now our task is to process the collected material, date it, and then make a selection of facts. Only a series of observations can form the basis for serious conclusions.
Archaeologists note that complete data on the burial can only be obtained after analyzing the metal and bone tissue found during excavations. In the near future, the bone remains will be sent for anthropological research to the Institute of Archeology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, where experts examine the teeth to determine the sex, age and place of birth of the person found by Dr. Lukyashko’s group.
The archaeological expedition was organized by DSTU and SSC RAS with the participation of SFU students. The main purpose of the excavations is to study the burial mounds in order to form a holistic view of the culture of the population that lived in the Don region in antiquity.
The Iron Age – an era in the primitive and early class history of mankind, characterized by the spread of iron metallurgy and the manufacture of iron tools, lasted from the 9th – 7th centuries BC.NS. until the 1st century A.D. NS. Cimmerians are nomadic tribes who invaded Transcaucasia in the second half of the 8th century BC. NS. and in the 7th century BC. NS. conquered some areas of Asia Minor. Also the conventional name of the “pre-Scythian” peoples of the Northern Black Sea region of the Iron Age. Gimirru from Assyrian sources can be identical to the Cimmerians of ancient authors, driven from the steppes to the Middle East by the advance of the Scythians.
The Bronze Age (XXXV – XI centuries BC) is an epoch of human history allocated on the basis of archeological data, characterized by the leading role of bronze products, which was associated with the improvement in the processing of metals such as copper and tin obtained from ore deposits, and the subsequent production of bronze from them.The Bronze Age is the second, late phase of the Early Metal Age, following the Copper Age and preceding the Iron Age.
The Scythians are an ancient Iranian-speaking people of Indo-European origin that existed in the 7th-3rd centuries. BC NS. The Greeks called the Scythians the Iranian-speaking tribes that lived in the steppe zone of the Northern Black Sea region from the Danube to the Don, and this territory was called Great Scythia.