Home – MissionUS
Developed for use by middle school students in the classroom and beyond, Mission US is a deeply-researched, award-winning educational media project with proven positive impact on history learning.
Mission US is part of an expanding body of “serious games” that immerse users in historical and contemporary problems in ways that encourage perspective-taking, discussion, and weighing of multiple kinds of evidence.
The missions are not simulations, nor truly games in the sense that there is no “winning” or “losing,” nor do users get a score or grade. The games are sophisticated interactive narratives grounded in historical scholarship, developed in collaboration with community stakeholders and scholars who are experts in the historical periods that are depicted. We also conduct formative testing with diverse students, and involve educators who help ensure that the material is developmentally and academically appropriate for children in the target age group, grades 5-8.
In addition to serving a growing base of more than three million users in all fifty states, Mission US has garnered praise from educators, parents, students, and critics, and received endorsements from Common Sense Media, the Parents’ Choice Award, the Japan Prize for Educational Media, the International Serious Play Awards, and the Games for Change Award for “Most Significant Impact.” Research has shown that the series increases students’ history knowledge and skills, and is especially effective for reaching struggling learners who have difficulty learning from a textbook.
Before integrating a mission into the curriculum, we strongly encourage parents and educators to preview the entirety of that mission themselves, and make certain it is appropriate for their children/students and community. In the TEACH section of this website, we have provided a vast array of background information, activities, discussion starters, primary source documents, suggestions for further reading and research, and other resources to assist in contextualizing missions for students and helping them to understand the difficult choices and circumstances faced by Americans of different backgrounds.
To learn more about Mission US and our development process, visit the ABOUT section of this website and, as always, please feel free to reach out to the Mission US team at [email protected].
For Crown or Colony? – MissionUS
Roll over a character to learn more.
Revere runs a successful silversmith business in Boston, and counts many of the city’s wealthy merchants as customers. He is a member of the Sons of Liberty who uses his skills as a master craftsman to create engravings in support of the Patriot cause.
Solomon is a fictional free black man who works on the Boston waterfront. Born into slavery, he gained his freedom after years of working as a sailor, which has made him very knowledgeable about Atlantic commerce.
A fictional ropemaker’s apprentice, the mischievous Royce is drawn to the Patriot movement by its talk of equality and protest. Street smart and tough, he views Nat as a provincial country bumpkin, but it also somewhat jealous of Nat’s more privileged apprenticeship with Benjamin Edes.
The wife of Benjamin Edes, Martha is interested in matters beyond her small household. As a member of the Daughters of Liberty, she take a leadership role in organized consumer boycotts. She expects Nat to support the patriot cause, and be an eager contributor to the Edes household and printing business.
The master printer of the Boston Gazette and a member of the Sons of Liberty. Edes is a fervent Patriot, and unhappy with the military occupation of Boston and new taxes imposed by England. He is committed to using his printing press to oppose the Crown. A strict master who expects obedience and performance from his apprentices, he also serves as a possible mentor and role model for Nat.
Nathaniel “Nat” Wheeler
The fictional son of a middling farmer, fourteen year-old Nat is forced to leave the farm because there is not enough land to share with his older brother, Samuel. He has been given the opportunity to serve as an apprentice in the print shop of Benjamin Edes in Boston. Nat has spent his entire life near his family’s farm in Uxbridge, MA, and is unaware of the ways of the world.
The fictional niece of a Loyalist shopkeeper, Constance is content with the status quo, and enjoys the “finer things” (British clothes, fabrics, and books). She agrees with her uncle that the Sons of Liberty should not interfere with the livelihoods of merchants who import goods from England. Sophisticated and kind, she has been accompanied to Boston by her terrier, Thimble, who has recently gone missing.
Born in West Africa, Wheatley was kidnapped and enslaved at the age of seven. John Wheatley purchased Phillis at a slave auction in Boston as a personal servant for his wife. Now age 16, Phillis is poised, well-spoken, and pious. She learned to read and write, and writes poems that support the ideals of virtue and liberty also espoused by the Patriot cause. However, she is having a hard time finding local patrons who would support their publication.
A private in His Majesty’s army, Hugh arrived in Boston eighteen months ago along with the rest of the Twenty-Ninth regiment. At first, Hugh was looking forward to the change of scenery, but it’s clear that most Bostonians do not want the troops here. The city’s inhabitants offer him nothing in the way of hospitality, and it seems like he spends most of his time dodging snowballs from apprentices and looking for extra work to supplement his meager salary.
The fictional Grace Wheeler is Nat’s mother and Daniel’s wife. Heartbroken by the disappearance of her eldest son, Christopher, during the French and Indian War, Mrs. Wheeler is extremely anxious about sending off her youngest son Nat to his Boston apprenticeship.
The fictional Daniel Wheeler is a farmer from Uxbridge, MA, determined to secure a happy and prosperous life for his three sons. His oldest son, Christopher, ran off to fight in the French and Indian War, and has not been seen or heard from for eight years. With his second oldest son, Samuel, set to inherit the farm, Mr. Wheeler has worked hard to secure his youngest son Nat an apprenticeship in a Boston print shop.
5 Excellent Educational Games for Teaching U.S. History
Calling all U.S. history teachers! Ready to add some life to your lessons with game-based learning?
(Image credit: Giphy)
Today, we’re taking a deep dive into the well that is high-quality U.S. history learning games. Surprisingly, there aren’t many – at least that we could find! Did we miss one of your favorites that you believe is worth a spot in our roundup? Or perhaps you’ve been using one of the below resources for years and would like to double down on our recommendation? No matter what you’re thinking, we want to hear from you – be sure to reach out on our Facebook or Twitter!
Platform(s): Web browser, iPad, Android tablets
When it comes to game-based civics education, iCivics is king. But did you know that the nation’s largest civics education platform also launched their first-ever U.S. history game last year? That’s right – Race to Ratify is here, and it drops players smack dab in the middle of 1787 America at the height of the ratification debate. Playing the role of a pamphleteer, players align themselves with the Federalists or Anti-Federalists as they travel across 13 states and hear from opinionated characters, each with strong arguments for or against ratification. Get a behind-the-screens look at the making of Race to Ratify in our interview with iCivics’ Director of Digital Learning Carrie Ray-Hill, then try the game yourself on icivics.org!
Platform(s): Web browser, Windows, Mac, iPad
A few moments ago, we declared iCivics as the premier platform for game-based civics education – but when it comes to teaching U.S. history, Mission US takes the cake. Created by THIRTEEN, New York City’s flagship public television station, Mission US offers a suite of five interactive “missions,” each focused on a transformational moment in American history. Winner of Most Significant Impact at the 2014 Games for Change Awards, Mission US is a research-backed resource that (like iCivics) offers accompanying educator materials for each mission designed to help teachers incorporate the games into their lessons.
Platform(s): Windows, Mac, iPad
In the world of game-based learning, Minecraft: Education Edition needs no introduction – and we’re pleased to report that there are no shortage of history and culture lessons and resources available for U.S. history classrooms. Whether you’re working alongside your students to build the Jamestown Colony, or exploring how Native Americans in each region harnessed their unique environments to obtain food, clothing, and shelter, MinecraftEDU can serve as an extremely versatile tool for a variety of U.S. history lessons – just be sure that your class has the hardware to support the game, as MinecraftEDU is currently not available for Chromebooks.
Platform(s): Web browser
BrainPop’s Sortify is a clever spin on matching games of old – a playful assessment tool that tasks players with categorizing topic-specific vocabulary tiles into self-selected buckets, testing their knowledge of the relationships between and within each category. And while the game supports a wide assortment of topics ranging from parts of speech to dinosaurs, world-changing women and elements of the periodic table, U.S. history educators will likely find the American Revolution and American Indian History versions to be most relevant to their classes. Sortify is simple, yet effective – and you can try it for yourself on BrainPop’s website!
Platform(s): Windows, Mac
Where The Oregon Trail highlights the stories of settlers traveling from Missouri to Oregon, it neglects to tell the tales of the Native Americans who lived on those lands – which inspired the Indian Land Tenure Foundation, Michigan State University’s Games for Entertainment and Learning Lab, and the San Manuel Band of Mission Indians to team up and create an educational game of their own: When Rivers Were Trails. A 2D adventure told from the perspective of a displaced Anishinaabeg as they journey from Minnesota to California, the game immerses players in indigenous storytelling and culture as they face gritty truths involving personal family relations, tribal stories, and the darker side of history. Learn more about the game in this interview with game creator Elizabeth LaPensée Ph.D., Anishinaabe from Baawaating with relations at Bay Mills Indian Community, then experience it yourself at itch.io!
More game-based learning resources from your friends at Filament:
How to Teach with Games eBook
How Game-Based Learning Engages Struggling Students
How Game-Based Learning Develops 21st Century Skills
Democracy 3 is a somewhat abstract downloadable government simulation for older students. Players take on the role of President or Prime Minister in one of several Western democracies. Teachers can use Democracy 3 to provide an experiential perspective on the challenges, functions, and roles of the executive branch. Read full review.
PBS LearningMedia contains tens of thousands of digital resources aligned to Common Core standards and ready for classroom use. Topics cover English language arts, math, professional development, science and health, and social studies with resources for grades Pre-K through college. Read full review.
Mission US: For Crown or Colony? is an interactive experience that allows students to explore colonial America in 1770s Boston, just prior to the Revolutionary War. The game is narrated with snippets of animation, and kids are often able to click on and explore the environment. Read full review.
Smarthistory is an interactive digital textbook that offers students the opportunity to explore a virtual art “museum” with expert guides in the form of conversational videos about art. Kids worldwide have access to remote works with accompanying commentary, which discusses context, history, and other themes. Read full review.
Your Commonwealth is an international site created by young people for young people who are interested in addressing global concerns such as injustice, poverty, and the environment. Young people from all over the world contribute articles and video to the site, which are then posted in a news-like format. Read full review.
Branches of Power, a free online game at iCivics or Filament Games, teaches kids about government as students shepherd issues through the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. Kids select avatars to represent leaders in each branch. Read full review.
Retired Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O’Connor founded iCivics to reverse a decline in civic knowledge and help kids better understand and respect the U.S. government. Sixteen games cover core topics like citizenship, rights, the court system, governance, freedom of speech, and constitutional law. Read full review.
Tiki-Toki is an online, interactive timeline creator. With lots of comparable sites out there, what sets Tiki-Toki apart is its ability to blend traditional chronological mapping with multimedia and text in a slick, professional-looking layout. Read full review.
The Republia Times is a browser-based game that’s part of a growing genre of smaller games that explore serious, challenging, and often political social issues. The player assumes the role of an editor overseeing what articles appear on the front page of a newspaper in a fictional country that’s just had a political revolution. Read full review.
Argument Wars is like taking your favorite television courtroom drama and melding it with Wii Tennis; it’s a game of back and forth just mental rather than physical. Without question. Cases are based on actual supreme court cases but infuse ethical content sure to engage teens. Read full review.
Executive Command puts kids in the role of president, where they champion their chosen political issues while dealing with bills, diplomacy, and war. After picking an avatar and watching a brief cut-scene, kids guide the president to Congress and pick an issue to focus on during the game. Read full review.
12 Interesting American History Games for Kids
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Games are such a great addition to homeschool learning! There’s no reason learning any subject has to be all books and no fun. I always keep my eye out at the thrift stores for new games to add to our collection at home. Today we have a list of 12 American History games for kids of all ages covering many different eras. Even parents will be challenged by some of these!
American Trivia: Family Edition – Starting at the East Coast, players make their way across the gameboard map to the West Coast by answering questions about America. American Trivia Family Edition cards have two sides – one with easier questions (Junior) and the other with more difficult questions (Expert). The questions cover four categories: geography, history, arts, general.
Trailblazer – Challenge your understanding of the American past while you blaze a trail across the country traveling by canoe, horse, covered wagon, paddleboat, train or model T-Ford. By correctly answering questions about our diverse history from the pre-colonial period to the present, players advance across the map, accumulate Treasure Cards and risk their fortunes in a variety of adventures.
Made for Trade – Learn what life was like for ordinary citizens in colonial America in this game. Your students will learn lessons in History and Economics by practicing bartering and money management.
Professor Noggin’s History of the United States – Put your child’s history knowledge to the test! Both easy and hard levels of questions keep kids interested, challenged and having fun in this card game.
Catan Histories: Settlers of America, Trails to Rails – The 19th Century has arrived and America is heading west! Settlers of America, Trails to Rails utilizes the simple, fun Catan hex-tile grid to map the young United States.
Hail to the Chief – Learn how the election process works as well as fascinating historical and geographical facts in this fun game. Players move around the outside of the board answering questions on presidents and the Constitution, as you become a candidate. Then travel from state to state on the campaign trail answering questions on US history and geography to win electoral votes. Winner is the first person to make it to Washington, D.C. first with enough electoral votes!
Memoir ’44 – Memoir ’44 is a unique historical game from Days of Wonder where players command a horde of little plastic Army men facing-off in dozens of WWII battles on an oversize hex game board. Each battle scenario mimics the historical terrain, troop placements and objectives of each army.
Constitution Quest – The more you play, the more you learn about the U.S. constitution. This engaging game comes with a complimentary copy of the Constitution and Declaration of Independence.
Way Back When in History – Journey five time periods in early America (Explorers, 13 Colonies, American Revolution, Constitution, & Civil War) in this fun and educational board game.
Timeline: Americana – From the first Stetson hat to the unveiling of the first iPad, America’s history and its popular culture have gone hand in hand. Timeline: Americana takes the players through a historical tour of the popular history of the country.
Twilight Struggle – Twilight Struggle is a two-player game simulating the forty-five year dance of intrigue, prestige, and occasional flares of warfare between the Soviet Union and the United States. The scope of the game covers the entire world as it was found in 1945.
BrainBox: U.S. Presidents – This great memory game that will help your child learn about all of this country’s great leaders while improving your child’s observation and memory skills. The game is good for individual and group play.
Do you have a favorite American history game? Share it in the comments!
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Interactive Simulations | Social Studies Central
Napoleonic Wars Online
Napoleonic Wars OnLine is a multiplayer simulation of combat and diplomacy during the Wars of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars
You create your own country, fashioned after your own political ideals, and care for its people. You can also join the U.N. and help solve international problems
Online Jamestown Adventure
You are the Captain of the Jamestown Colony: Can you do any better than the real colonists? You will have a copy of the London Company’s Instructions to help guide you
OOPS Virtual Field Trips
A virtual field trip is the next best thing to being there! Choose a destination below and click your trip into action
Road to the Capital
Roberta Glass is running for a seat in the U.S. Congress so she can keep kids away from movies, music, books and video games that aren’t “approved” by the government. You need to enter the race to stop her and protect the basic freedoms of America’s kids!
Re-Living the Wright Way
Lots of goodies that recreates and documents the work and flights of the Wright brothers
Be a patron of the arts. Design your own innovation. Investigate Renaissance artworks in depth. Discover how past innovations inform life today
Renaissance Florence: Time Machine Adventure
Your job? Stop the evil headmaster from kidnapping five of the greatest thinkers ever known!
In this simulation, kids participate in all the stages of an ancient Egyptian mummification, from removal of the organs to placing the mummy in the tomb
Tour the Town
An interactive tour of Colonial Williamsburg / explore the Historic Area and Colonial Williamsburg
Trades in Colonial Williamsburg
Experience life in early Williamsburg by viewing photos and descriptions of specific jobs
Created by National Geographic: You are a slave. Your body, your time, your very breath belong to a farmer in 1850s Maryland . . . but your soul lights up when you hear whispers of attempted escape. Freedom means a hard, dangerous trek. Do you try it?
Helps kids rescue others, provide food, help clean water, etc and learn about the world at the same time!
Virtual Fieldtrips at Tramline
A portal for online virtual museum field trips
Virtual Fieldtrips from LDS Homeschoolers
This page has a huge list of virtual museum tours, nature tours, regional tours and webcams. Want to know how they make Legos or bubble gum? The site also has a cool list of virtual factory tours!
Travel back in time to the year 793 AD. Can you build a ship, cross the seas, loot a monastery and return home to claim your prize?
A neat interactive site that asks kids to solve problems and use primary sources
Welcome to Adventures at Dry Creek
An exciting adventure to learn about life in Montana 60-70 million years ago. You will receive help from mentors, use lots of tools, and keep track of your ideas in a notebook
Welcome to Deadwood Illustrated
What was the Old West really like? Explore the frontier gold rush town of Deadwood, Dakota Territory to find out!
Westward Ho! Travel West on the Wagon Train
Load those wagons . . . kiss the kin goodbye . . . get ready for adventure, drama, comedy, tragedy, and fantastic learning as we head out west!
Who Killed William Robinson?
A wonderful site that asks kids to solve the actual murder of an African American using primary source documents. Was an innocent man convicted / did the real killers escape? Racism, history and CSI all in one!
World War I: Over the Top
An interactive adventure game that allows YOU to experience life in the trenches during the First World War
World War II: The Homefront
This simulation will follow the lives of five families during the school year of September 1943-June 1944. This specific time period was chosen because the war was in full swing, yet it was not yet clear what way it would go
You are the Historian!
Plimoth Plantation has put together this very cool historical investigation for elementary & MS kids
Xerxe’s March to Greece
You are Xerxes, King of the mighty Persian Empire, and you are about to embark on one of the greatest military campaigns in history
American History Activities
American history activities bring the past to life for middle school students. Tweens love getting out of the textbook and spending time completing projects, reading living books, cooking authentic meals, playing historical games.
If your older kids feel that history is boring, it’s easier to keep them engaged when you use hands-on activities like these to make the subject more interactive.
This huge list is full of fun things you can add to your lesson plans when you’re studying United States history to make it more exciting for tweens.
It includes activities and projects for a range of time periods and events, including the 13 Colonies, the American Revolution, the westward expansion, and more.
Choose a few and add them to your tween’s next history lesson and see how more exciting the subject becomes.
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Why Should You Use American History Activities?
As you know, there is so much to study and learn about American history. While it’s easier to give teens a textbook and have them just read about history, that will most likely make them hate the subject.
Without hands-on activities like these, kids won’t fully understand that the history of the United States is rich and interesting. They’ll assume it’s dry and boring and dread the subject.
But when you bring it alive with fun projects, games, living books, and more, they are engaged and open to learning. This is how kids learn best.
So now’s the time to make history enjoyable by using awesome tools like these in your homeschool.
Colonial America Games and Activities
In the late 1600s, men and women came to a new land looking for freedom and adventure, wanting to build a new union. The American Indians were well established on this land with a successful society of their own. They both make up the story of Colonial America.
As part of your study on the 13 Colonies, take some time to complete a few of these fun activities with your tweens to help them understand what life was like for those early settlers.
When you’re studying early American history, play these fun, Colonial games for children popular in those days with your tweens as part of your lessons.
When you’re making your history lesson plans, take the time to go exploring the 13 Colonies with books and videos.
Discover more about Colonial America with this 13 Colonies notebooking unit. It includes interesting study questions and fun activities for tweens.
Spend some time combining geography and history with these Colonial map activities.
Teach tweens how much help the American Indians gave the settlers by cooking some Native American corn recipes as part of your Colonial history lessons.
American Revolution Hands-on Activities
Are you a loyalist or a patriot? That was the question of the time during the events leading up to and during the American Revolution. It eventually led to the birth of our country, but it wasn’t easy getting to an autonomous union.
Help teens understand the issues facing the colonists with these hands-on projects.
My tween had a lot of fun with these two American Revolution hands-on activities. She loved using her American Girl dolls as part of school, so she especially enjoyed creating the historical silhouette.
One of our absolute favorite activity was this American Revolution artifact project. Abigail made a teapot that was representative of those used in the 1700s.
Head west was the rallying cry of many after we became a nation. The colonies were getting crowded and people were looking for something more. They wanted to explore. So they packed up their wagons and headed west.
It’s easy to for teens to get a glimpse of what life was like for the American pioneers when you use these fun hands-on activities as part of your pioneer lesson plans.
When you’re learning about the American pioneers, spend some time in the kitchen making these pioneer recipes. Teens love food, so they’ll appreciate this unique way to study history.
These pioneer crafts were once functional tools used by the pioneers. Tweens can make them as part of their history studies to get a better understanding of the life of the pioneers.
In your homeschool, when you learn about the pioneers, this American Pioneer notebooking unit should be a part of your middle school lesson plan. It will make planning easy because kids can use it to direct their learning. Plus, there’s some fun activities included.
Use these pioneer life activities with your middle schoolers to give them an idea what daily life was like for the early settlers. Things like drawing a life-sized log cabin, making a quilt, and cooking some recipes will make tweens feel like they went back in time.
Show tweens how difficult the journey was for the American pioneers by studying their mode of transportation – the covered wagon. There are 6 covered wagon activities to choose from.
Here are some American pioneer books and resources you can use in your homeschool when you’re studying this part of United States history.
As you study the American Pioneers, use these Pioneer hands-on activities to engage your tweens. They can cook an authentic pioneer meal, make a covered wagon, play some games, and more.
California Gold Rush Activities
The discovery of gold is what led so many individuals to California. They heard about people striking it rich and wanted it for themselves. But it wasn’t as easy to find and mine gold as they thought, so many left just as poor as when they arrived.
These books and activities will help tweens understand what drove so many to pick up and leave their families just for a chance at fortune.
When your tweens begin studying about the discovery of gold in the United States, this California Gold Rush activity should be a part of your lesson plan. The notebooking and unit study will help you plan your lessons and is a great way for tweens to keep track of everything they’re learning.
Use these gold rush books as a part of your study on the California Gold Rush and wild west. Living books like these make it easy to engage older kids in history.
Civil War Activities
The Civil War pitted friends against friends and brother against brother. It divided our nation. It was a costly war that both sides were willing to die for.
These activities will help your tweens gain a deeper understanding of this dark period of our nation’s history.
These Civil War hands-on activities are a wonderful addition to your lesson plans.
American History Activities
The activities below all cover a variety of time periods, so you can easily add them to your history lesson plans whenever you need something interactive for your teen.
These American history board games make the subject fun for tweens. They’re a wonderful way to help them memorize all the dates and facts that are a part of history class. I try to add them to my lesson plans as often as possible.
When you’re studying history in your homeschool, let your tween make an early American quilt. It’s actually quite easy to do and will give her a chance to work on some life skills. You can see the doll-sized ones that my girls made during our history lessons.
Teach your older kids about the contributions American women have made over the years with fun, interactive resources.
A fun way to add science to your history lessons is to study Ben Franklin’s inventions. There are a bunch that kids can easily create to learn more about his important contributions to our world.
Make sure to add some lessons about the American Presidents to your middle school history plans. These resources and activities will make it a breeze for you to teach your tweens about the highest office in our country and the men who have held it over the years.
If you’re struggling to get your tweens to remember their Liberty Bell facts, use this helpful Liberty Bell scavenger hunt. It’s a great addition to your early United States history lessons.
Spend some time during your history lessons teaching flag etiquette to your kids. It’s important that they know all they can about this vital symbol of our country.
The Battle of the Alamo was an important event in our history and one that tweens should study in United States history. These resources and activities will help make it interesting for older kids.
Add some early American history videos to your lesson plans. Instead of just reading about history, tweens can watch it unfold.
Wondering how to make American history interesting for kids? Here are some activities that are sure to engage your tweens and make history enjoyable for them.
If your tween loves American Girl and Minecraft, she’ll definitely want to take this American Girl Minecraft class. It’s a wonderful addition to your homeschool history lessons.
When you use Dave Raymond’s American history curriculum, there are some activities included that will help teens learn and discover how interesting history is.
Don’t struggle to find ideas for American history lessons and activities. This massive list is full of things you can do to make history interactive and fun for your tween.
As you can see, it’s quite simple to make history fun and interactive for middle schoolers. Tweens can do many of these projects and activities independently, so you won’t get overwhelmed adding them to your lesson plans.
Engaging older kids and giving them a glimpse various time periods and the people who lived during them is truly the best way to make history exciting for them. There’s no way your teens will claim that history is boring when their lessons are full of fun hands-on activities.
What American history activity is your tween going to try first?
90,000 America, a suburban building simulator based on true US history, is coming to PC on Steam – You’re in the middle!
Build and Discover: America is a recently announced game released by publisher and producer Angry Bulls Studio.
The game has been compared to Tropico in the Wild West, or something like Anno, but with cowboys.
B&D is a blend of genres of real-time strategy games, suburban building simulators and strong economic elements based on true US history.
In the game, we will be responsible for the development of the newly discovered continent, and it will only depend on the player whether all states will unite and whether he will be able to strengthen the power of the United States in the form in which we know them today.
As you progress through the game and time, we will have the opportunity to create world famous structures such as the US Congress or the Statue of Liberty.
The developers guarantee that there will be more characteristic buildings in the final version of the game.
In addition to the player’s responsibility for the politics and economy of the country he creates, the player will have to face challenges that are beyond his control, such as fighting the forces of nature. In the early stages it will only be wild animals, but later there will be earthquakes, tornadoes or floods.
Sending people to various jobs such as hunting, building, discovering new territories, mining resources will be your daily responsibility.
The player will have a choice of different paths to develop in the game.Will you focus mainly on building a strong army or diplomacy?
(Hint: one does not rule out the other)
In the game we will have the opportunity to develop road, water and rail transport. Create gold mines. Defend villages and caravans from attacks.
The player will have to make a difficult choice. Requests for help from other states, expeditions, confrontation of national minorities, civil war …
To summarize, Build & Discover is a strategy game that, although based on real events and real events, leaves the player with a lot of freedom of action and choice, so many events may look completely different than in the history books.
- economic and political development of a new territory
- building a strong state on three pillars: transport, law and industry
- changing the environment depending on latitude
- storyline based on historical events
It is planned that the launch of the game will take place in 2022 year, first on PC.
Build and Discover: America is available on PC on Steam.
About Angry Bulls Studio
A creative team of bulls with extensive experience.They are engaged in the production of games and with each subsequent project we set new, higher standards.
90,000 A Brief History of Game Streets in Great Britain and the USA
Member of Parliament of Great Britain Taverner Miller made a report to the House of Commons on the plight of city children. He gave the example of the story of 12-year-old George Dunn, who was sent to prison for five days under current law simply because he played street racers with other children on the street.The other players were not caught because “they were old enough and their legs were long enough to run away. Little George had the shortest legs, which is why he was captured, ”notes T. Miller. A child could be arrested for playing on the street.
The New York Times launches Safe Streets for Kids’ Play program
In his address to the House of Lords, Lord Lamington notes that: “There are not many opportunities for children to rest and play in London.Therefore, it is only natural that they should play on the streets. ”
The New York Times reports that 29 city blocks overlap in New York City in the afternoon every day except Sunday throughout the summer.
The streets freed from cars at this time are used as playgrounds: “children must play. And children, if they live in cities, should play in safe streets. ”
The New York Times, a Play Street police officer said, “It’s only natural that kids want to play.If the city does not provide them with playgrounds, they are children playing in the streets. ”
In England and Wales, more than 12,000 children under the age of fifteen were hit by cars.
Speech by Nancy Astor in the UK House of Commons: “There is no more deplorable appearance in life than a child who was arrested for playing on the street. Of all the pitiful sights I’ve seen, this is the most deplorable.And although children are fined, in fact we are guilty. ”
Leslie Hoor-Belisha becomes British Secretary of State for Transport. He takes inspiration from the Play Street model he saw in the US and proposes to implement it in the UK as well. He was led to this by two interconnected facts: an increase in road traffic fatalities among children and a lack of city playgrounds.
According to crime statistics in Great Britain, more than 2,000 children under the age of 17 were brought to administrative responsibility for playing on the streets.
UK Transport Secretary Leslie Hoor-Belisha acknowledges the success of the Play Street Experiment in the London Metropolitan Boroughs of Southwark and Paddington.
A new law has been passed in the UK, according to which 200 (!) Play Street appears in Manchester and Salford.
Outdoor Playground Receives Royal Assent.This means that now local authorities can define roads as play streets: restricting traffic at certain hours or even completely banning traffic.
A typical London residential street has an average of 5 cars parked.
In accordance with the law passed in 1938, the Play Street project in London is being launched in 5 districts of the city, including the central ones.Another 8 districts are under consideration by the Minister of Transport.
There are 750 gambling streets in England and Wales.
At the same time, there is a rapid growth in the number of cars.
A typical residential street in London has an average of 20 cars parked.
The Times notes that “the UK prefers cars to children.”
Play Street continues to thrive in New York. The streets around the prestigious Rockefeller Center are regularly transformed into play streets, accessible to all the children of the city.
Play Street is almost forgotten in the UK. On some streets, signs and traffic restrictions are still preserved. But parked cars leave no room for games.
In the USA, in New York, the number of streets that are closed every summer for children to play is increasing.
By the end of the 20th century, there were 21 million cars in Great Britain (at the beginning of the century – only about 8 thousand).
The Ministry of Transport predicts that the number of vehicles will increase by another 46% between 1996 and 2031.
Manchester Evening News reports that the new housing includes “family-oriented play streets in the overall design of the buildings.”
New neighborhoods appear in Redditch (UK) with Play Street integrated.
London Play begins a 3-year Street Play project funded by the Great Lottery. A forum has been created to address road safety issues arising from the Street Play Party, also funded by the lottery.
Play Streets in New York continue to be an important part of city life.
By Paul Hocker
source – public organization “Play Street London”
But the story doesn’t end there …!
90,000 Louisiana authorities await the arrival of the most powerful Hurricane Ida on the 16th anniversary of the Katrina strike
Hurricane Ida approaches the US South Coast. According to forecasters, he should come to the coast of Louisiana at 19.00 local time (3.00 Moscow time on Monday night – “Gazeta.Ru”).
“We can summarize that this hurricane will be the worst in Louisiana since at least the 1850s,” Louisiana Gov. John Edwards told on Saturday.
Yesterday the category “Ides” reached only the third category, but overnight it increased to the fourth.
This means that the wind force at the epicenter of the hurricane varies from 58 to 70 meters per second.
If the speed rises above 70, then it will be a hurricane of the highest – the fifth category.
The potential destructive power of Ida can be reduced by more than 400 kilometers of dams, pumps and gates (about $ 14.5 billion was spent on the construction – Gazeta.Ru), which were built as additional flood protection after Hurricane Katrina in 2005 year. The authorities are also concerned about the state of local hospitals, which have recently seen an increase in hospitalizations with coronavirus, and last week there were a record number of deaths. For this reason, medical staff began to prepare for the hurricane at the last moment.
Governor Edwards noted that state officials have asked hospitals to check generators and stock up on drinking water, oxygen and personal protective equipment in case of a storm.
Hundreds of residents are leaving the city, but only those who live outside the dam are required to be evacuated. For those who live inside the protective structures, the evacuation was voluntary.
One of the local residents decided to leave his home, which is located next to the Mississippi River, because he does not believe that the protection system will cope with the bad weather.He is the author of a book on Hurricane Katrina and doubts that the city’s flood protection system, as massive as it is, will stand in the way of more hurricanes in the age of climate change.
“Russian roulette is played every summer in New Orleans, and every summer we pull the trigger,” he said.
In turn, state officials told that the Louisiana National Guard has trained personnel and equipment, including cars and inflatable boats, to help deal with the storm.The companies have mobilized more than 10,000 workers across the state to repair power outages, they said.
On Friday, Ida swept through western Cuba like a Category 1 hurricane. According to Cuban media reports, he tore off roofs, knocked down trees and pillars, but there were no significant casualties among the population.
The Russian Embassy in the United States also issued a warning to citizens on its page at Facebook .
“The Russian Embassy warns compatriots living on the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico (pcs.Texas, Louisiana, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi) on the impending Hurricane Ida, which will reach the US coast on Sunday, August 29. The approach of the hurricane will be noticeable as early as Saturday, August 28th. We urge the Russians living in the said region to prepare for a natural disaster, to exercise caution and to comply with the recommendations and orders of the official authorities, ”the message says.
At the same time, the storm will pass through the Gulf of Mexico, affecting oil-producing platforms, which account for about 17% of US oil production and 5% of natural gas.
The president of one of the consulting companies in the United States said that the Ida will pass through most of the oil production sites, and also pose a threat to refineries in New Orleans, Mississippi and Alabama. Also, according to the analyst, floods and power outages could hinder the operation of large oil pipelines that carry fuel to the east of the country.
By midday on Saturday, due to the approaching hurricane and storm, production companies shut down wells that provide production of about 91% of oil in the Gulf of Mexico.
Hurricane Ida could be the largest and the damage could be higher than that of Katrina in 2005.
Let us remind you that Katrina is the most destructive hurricane in the history of the United States at the end of August 2005. Its strength reached Category 5 on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale, making it the sixth-strongest Atlantic Basin hurricane on record. The city of New Orleans suffered the most severe damage from it, where about 80% of the city’s area was under water, and about 700 thousand people lost their homes.human. The natural disaster was accompanied by man-made accidents, oil spills, and an increase in crime. Their total consequences killed 1,836 residents, and economic losses reached $ 125 billion.
It is symbolic that Hurricane Ida should hit Louisiana exactly 16 years after Katrina arrived in the city.
90,000 Strong National Game Museum, Rochester, USA – HiSoUR Cultural History
The National Museum of the Game, formerly the Strong National Museum of the Game, is part of The Strong in Rochester, New York, USA.Founded in 1969 and originally based on Rochester’s personal collection, Margaret Woodbury Strong’s native was born in 1982. Since then, it has expanded and expanded its collections (hundreds of thousands of items) and expanded twice in 1997 and 2006. The museum is currently one of The Strong’s five gaming partners, which also houses the National Toy Hall of Fame, the International Center for Electronic Game History and the Brian Sutton-Smith Library and Game Archives, and produces the American Game Magazine.
The Strong is a highly interactive collection-based museum dedicated to the history and exploration of the game. It is one of the largest history museums in the United States and one of the leading museums serving families.
The Strong hosts the world’s largest and most comprehensive collection of historical game-related material and is home to the International Center for Electronic Game History, National Toy Hall of Fame, Worldwide Video Game Hall of Fame, Brian Sutton-Smith Game Library and Archives, Woodbury School and an American game magazine.Collectively, they provide a multifaceted spectrum of research, exhibitions, and other interpretive and educational activities that serve a diverse audience of adults, families, children, students, teachers, scientists, collectors and others around the world.
Originally known as the Mighty Margaret Woodbury Museum, and later simply the Strong Museum, it became the Strong National Museum of the Game in 2006, following renovations and expansion that nearly doubled its size to 282,000 square feet.The National Play Museum is the only collection-based museum anywhere dedicated exclusively to the study of the play, and while it is a history museum, it has the interactive characteristics of a children’s museum, making it the second largest museum of this type in the United State. The museum includes exhibits that interpret key elements of the game and also allow guests to explore the worlds of Sesame Street, Berenstein Bears, Reading Adventurers, and the Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden.
The museum’s exhibits are immersed in themed themes for video games, storybooks, television shows, education, nature, history, comics, carousels and travel, and children’s lifestyles.e-Game Revolution is the first permanent video game exhibition in the United States and includes the worldwide video game hall of fame. The museum houses the National Toy Hall of Fame. Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden includes thousands of butterflies and the largest indoor butterfly garden in New York City. Berenstain Bears: Down the Sunny Dirt Road is an original, permanent exhibition created in collaboration with the Berenstain family.
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90,000 Deja Vu: spirals of sanctions history
Intermarium and vertical corridor through Ukraine
According to George Friedman, founder of the private intelligence agency Stratfor (which many analysts call the “shadow CIA”), “the ultimate goal of the United States is to build Intermarium, a territory between the Baltic and Black Seas, conceived by Pilsudski.”“For the United States, the first goal is to prevent German capital and German technology from merging with Russian natural resources and labor in an invincible combination. … The USA has been working on this for a century. … The trump card of the United States, beating such a combination, is the line of demarcation between the Baltic States and the Black Sea … Russia and Germany, acting together, are becoming the only force that poses a significant threat to the United States, ”notes Friedman  (see “ Line of demarcation .. . “).
And the US is actively promoting this Intermarium concept in its current Three Seas Initiative configuration.The essence is the same: the “vertical corridor” in the east of the EU, de facto a new “Curzon line”, which was reflected / implemented within the framework of the well-known EU regulatory project Quo Vadis (many call it the “EU’s Fourth Energy Package”), prepared by the previous European Commission , but postponed by the current one, for which the “New Green Deal” became the programmatic one.
The authors / ideologists / supporters (on both sides of the Atlantic) see the formation of new (and / or reversal of existing) pipeline capacities connecting the LNG regasification terminals located in the north and south of the eastern part of the EU through underground gas storage facilities (UGS) in Ukraine (see.“ LNG and Ukraine: Northern Route” and “LNG and Ukraine: Southern Route” ). These UGSs – the largest in Europe – have been operating as a “customs warehouse” since 2017  (but, unfortunately, not for Russian gas, although the management of the Ukrainian GTS operator, represented by his CEO Sergei Makogon, has repeatedly stated that these UGS facilities are open for all interested shippers) , providing an opportunistic influence on the Central European Hub at Baumgarten.
Thus, the discrete (broken) ring of LNG supplies from the United States to Europe should be closed in the east, inside the modern Intermarium, which is politically loyal to Washington, passing through the territory of the present-day Young Europeans in order to displace Russian gas from Eastern Europe.This ring needs Ukrainian UGS facilities to have sufficient reserves in case more favorable pricing conditions in other regions (outside Europe) pull American supplies there, which are contracted mainly on the terms of the “fob LNG plant” and mainly by portfolio buyers.
Such a “discrete ring” of LNG supplies with external redundancy at the Ukrainian UGS facilities is being formed in contrast to the Russian integral, with internal redundancy, pipeline supply ring, which must be closed in the west in order to increase the reliability of supply (which is much higher in the radial-ring configuration than for linear deliveries).Although the scale of supplies of a broken LNG supply ring from the west and an integral pipeline gas ring from the east are obviously incomparable, especially in the east of Europe.
Sanctions – LNG Promotion Tool USA
Today in Russia it is almost universally understood that the US sanctions against Nord Stream 2 are an effective foreign policy instrument of competition. This understanding “lit up” the country’s political establishment and most of its expert community immediately after, in September-October 2017, two top officials of the country finally announced this aloud in public space.
At first, the then Prime Minister Medvedev said at a press conference in St. Petersburg (09.21.2017): all kinds of legal decisions, instruments, sanctions, having an unequivocal impact on the European Union. ” “… the American administration, especially the Congress, which makes such decisions, is trying to promote its suppliers and replace the Russian Federation with this [European gas – A.K.] the market, ”the prime minister also noted.  And then President Vladimir Putin, speaking in Krasnaya Polyana at a meeting of the Valdai International Discussion Club (10/19/2017), said: energy markets, to force Europe to switch to more expensive liquefied gas from the United States. ” 
However, back in 2012, long before the start of LNG exports from the United States, a well-known oil and gas analyst who then worked at Société Générale, Thierry Brough, in his book “After the US Shale Revolution” argued: for American LNG to be competitive in Europe, the price gap between trading floors between the EU and the US should be $ 6 / Million BTU.Only such a gap can cover the costs of liquefying produced gas in the United States, transporting LNG across the Atlantic and regasification in Europe.  However, most of the time after February 2016, when US LNG exports began, the gap between gas prices in the European and US markets was significantly less than $ 6, as evidenced by numerous regular statistical publications (including data from the regular section on the economy of US LNG supplies to Europe in quarterly reports on monitoring trends in demand and price dynamics for natural gas by Gazprom Export, posted on the internal corporate portal of PJSC Gazprom, presented by the company’s management at meetings with investors, and regularly presented in articles in the Oil and Gas Vertical; one of such figures is given in the first part of the article).
Moreover, the entire economy of US LNG supplies was calculated and final investment decisions (FIDs) for the respective liquefaction plant projects were made during the period of low gas prices in the US market and high oil prices, until mid-2014. Then the gap between the gas prices of the Asia-Pacific region-USA and the EU-USA, according to the calculations of M. Belova and E. Kolbikova, was, in 2011-2013, $ 12 and $ 8 per 1 million BTU, respectively. This guaranteed a high profitability of US LNG supplies in both directions and largely determined the “fob LNG plant” pricing model without a fixed final destination.And export supplies from American LNG plants began only in February 2016, after world oil prices collapsed and the gap in gas prices between the Asia-Pacific region and the EU-USA narrowed to, respectively, $ 5 and $ 2 per 1 million BTU.  That is, in the case of Europe, it is much lower than the necessary, according to Thierry Brough, the price gap to ensure the profitability of US LNG supplies to Europe.
This means that for most of the time, US LNG in the EU was sold at a loss, below the cut-off price, without fully covering the costs.This is the economic prerequisite for the use of measures of foreign policy support for the “domestic producer” in foreign markets (US LNG in Europe), including extraterritorial sanctions instruments directed against the main competitor, that is, against Russian gas. The author of these lines has repeatedly spoken and written about this in his numerous speeches and publications , including long before the speeches of the two first persons in the Russian leadership that opened the eyes of the Russian elite to this.K. Simonov and A. Grivach write about this in their book. Therefore, their system of arguments is close to me.
Until the target market for US LNG (until mid-2014: after the adoption of the FID for liquefaction plant projects, but before the start of LNG exports) was the Asia-Pacific market with its so-called “Asian premium”, which increased especially after the accident at the Fukushima NPP, the EU market was not the target for US LNG. But after the fall in oil prices in mid-2014, when the liquefaction plants launched as a result of the FID were put into operation and LNG exports from the United States began, LNG prices in the Asia-Pacific region (oil-linked) fell following oil prices.The APR market lost its former attractiveness for American LNG and the latter reoriented itself to Europe, where it faced competition with LNG from Qatar, Russian and Norwegian pipeline gas. But if we consider that LNG from Qatar is a liquefied gas supplied by the Qatargas joint venture, 50% of which belongs to the American ExxonMobil, and Norway is a US ally in NATO (its “northern outpost”) and is part of a free trade zone with the EU, then the main one is “ the adversary of American LNG in Europe has inevitably become Russian pipeline gas.
The price of American LNG in Europe is determined according to the “cost plus” formula (more precisely, “spot-plus”, since the current price of gas supplied for liquefaction, to which all other costs are added, is determined on the Henry Hub – the key American gas trading platform), and the price of Russian gas in the EU is predominantly oil-pegged (that is, it is determined by the “replacement cost”). After the fall in oil prices, Russian gas in the EU gained additional competitive (price) advantages – a lower “cut-off price” – against US LNG.
However, if the “cut-off price” for American LNG in the EU is higher than for Russian pipeline gas, then the logical and obvious actions of the loser in this competitive struggle (leaving aside generally accepted and internationally agreed rules of conduct) are reduced to simple and understandable steps: remove a competitor from the EU target market and thereby raise the price above the “cut-off price” for its gas in that market.
In conditions when economic rivalry according to the rules of the “open” market generally accepted in the international community (including international legal norms) fails and does not provide one of the parties (namely the United States) with an obvious advantage (and vice versa, provides a competitive advantage to the adversary – Russian pipeline gas in Europe against US LNG), the generally accepted “rules of the game” are thrown aside and a “game without rules” or according to their own rules imposed on the rest of the participants from a position of strength begins.Using the still dominant position of the United States in the world economy.
Hence the refusal of the United States from generally recognized and generally accepted rules of conduct in the international community and the transition to the most pragmatic protectionism – protection of the domestic commodity producer by any available (within the framework of the ideology of “permanent American primacy”) means. Washington is exerting colossal pressure on European states to block the construction of Nord Stream 2 and continues to frighten with new sanctions, which may fall under the EU companies investing or servicing the project.
This is very reminiscent, the authors of the book write, of the events of the 1970s-1980s, when, using the same tough pressure on European business, the United States tried to disrupt the construction of the Urengoy-Pomary-Uzhgorod gas pipeline. Today’s US sanctions and other actions against new gas pipelines, primarily against Nord Stream 2 and Turkish Stream (and its failed predecessor, South Stream), seem to have been written off, according to the authors of the book, from the events of that time: the same hard pressure from European politicians, political discrediting of Russia, attempts to politicize the economic project and disrupt it at any cost.
Removal of Russia from the EU gas market would have to change the supply-demand balance and raise gas prices.
The need to pay higher prices for the US switch to LNG instead of Russian gas can be justified by anything. In the period after 2014 (the return of Crimea to Russia, the civil war in northeastern Ukraine, etc.), the most common is the accusation of Russia being undemocratic and aggression, military and informational, about interference in elections, etc.After January 2021, the “Navalny factor” was added. I have no doubt that until the completion of the construction of Nord Stream 2 there will be new reasons for new sanctions, which become an element not only of a “new reality”, but, alas, of a “new normalcy”. It is not for nothing that the issue of new sanctions, moreover, as a permanent instrument of US foreign economic policy to maintain American primacy, is on the agenda of the US Atlantic Council, the de facto public think tank of the State Department, on an almost permanent basis.Although it is served under the sauce of countering numerous real and / or potential Russian threats. Hence (in order to counter these threats) – an additional price premium for “molecules of freedom” (or “molecules of good”, which immediately throws a bridge to the famous Reagan “evil empire” about the then USSR, subconsciously – the “25th frame effect” – spreading this characteristic for today’s Russia) contained in the US LNG supplied to Europe in the complete absence of such “molecules” in Russian pipeline gas.
However, you have to pay for the pleasure. And now US President Donald Trump on July 6, 2017, during a press conference with Polish President Andrzej Duda in Warsaw (on the way to the G20 summit in Hamburg), talking about all the advantages of American supplies (after arriving a month earlier in Poland, the first methane tanker with US LNG), in between times, at the very end of his speech, he casually notes: “Perhaps prices will go up a little, but that’s nothing …” 
Nothing personal.Business only. America First.
USA: helping Europe always means helping yourself
The authors of the book write about half a century of the US struggle against Europe. I will allow myself to expand this horizon for another 20-25 years, referring to the events that took place immediately after the Second World War. A good historical example (albeit beyond the half-century horizon considered by the authors of the book), testifying that any US assistance to Europe is, first of all, help to itself, is the well-known post-war “Marshall Plan” – the European Reconstruction Program.It was nominated in June 1947 by US Secretary of State George Marshall and took effect in April 1948 after being signed by US President Harry Truman.
The stated goals of the United States were the restoration of the war-torn European economy, the elimination of trade barriers, and the modernization of the industry of European countries. And their decommunization, since the United States, as a precondition for the provision of aid, demanded the withdrawal of the communists from the governments of the recipient countries.And by 1948 there were no communists in any government in Western Europe.
The USSR and the socialist countries of Eastern Europe, which were initially considered as recipients of American aid (and Poland and Czechoslovakia even applied for participation, later withdrawn under Soviet pressure), for obvious reasons refused to participate.
The total amount of funds under the Marshall Plan was about $ 13 billion (approximately $ 150 billion in 2015 prices).17 Western European countries took part in its implementation. Assistance was provided from the US federal budget in the form of gratuitous subsidies and loans for the purchase of primarily surplus American goods (the mechanism of tied loans provided a double benefit to the creditor country – financial and commodity) while banning trade with the countries of the Eastern Bloc. A significant part of these funds went to pay for imports (American and Middle Eastern) of oil supplied to Western Europe by companies of the International Petroleum Cartel (IOC).
Five of the seven IOC members were American companies (Exxon, Mobil, Gulf, Texaco, Chevron), one English (British Petroleum) and one Anglo-Dutch (Royal Dutch / Shell). Subsequently, it included the eighth – French (Compagnie Francaise des Petroles). At the same time, the pricing mechanism for liquid fuel from imported oil supplied by IOC companies to Europe from their American and Middle Eastern fields was arranged by the IOC companies in such a way that the fuel oil produced from it at the IOC refineries in Europe would be cheaper than Western European (mainly West German) coal in electricity and industry where they competed.The thus lowered prices for fuel oil were offset by higher prices for oil products for the transport sector, where they did not have competing energy resources. The intensified post-war motorization of the Western European economy thus provided additional demand for liquid fuel and profits (primarily for American) MNC companies (see “ Oil market: the use of different pricing mechanisms …” ). For the first time, within the framework of my knowledge of the literature, J.M. Chevalier. 
The Marshall Plan was phased out in the second half of the 1960s, after European countries began to get rid of the dollar by exchanging it for gold, to which it was pegged at the time.
So, the “Marshall Plan” for Europe was based on the recovery growth of the West European economy on American money and according to American rules (based on hydrocarbon energy). The USSR, where its role was intended as a recipient of aid, did not participate in the “Marshall Plan” for political reasons.Western European countries have become beneficiaries of the European Recovery Program. But the United States has become the beneficiaries to a much greater extent. Since then, the term “Marshall Plan” has become a household name and often implies a “double bottom”.
Nothing personal. Business only. America First. Throughout the post-war history of North Atlantic relations …
Combined sanctions: against the EU and into the hands of the US
It seems to many that the combined sanctions of the United States and Europe are directed against Russia (the Europeans cannot harm themselves by imposing sanctions?).However, in fact, it should be read differently: the combined US and European sanctions are directed primarily against Europe. As Alexei Grivach said during the presentation of the book at the Rossiya Segodnya news agency on March 9 last year: “The United States is ready to fight Russia until the blood of the last European” .
The trade turnover between Russia and the United States is stable at a level 10-11 times lower than with the EU: during the peak values in the pre-sanction period ($ 40 against $ 410 billion in 2012), which is currently ($ 26 against $ 278 billion in 2019) ).Therefore, any anti-Russian sanctions hit primarily and mainly in Europe – only direct losses amounted to about a third of trade with Russia, or almost $ 130 billion.Even if the EU’s trade with Russia is three times less than with the United States ($ 718 billion in 2017).
Neither then nor now did the US intend to impose sanctions that could, to some extent, infringe on the interests of American business. And European – please. An illustrative example given by the authors (pp. 92-94) from the 1980s.The most painful thing at that time for the USSR would have been the introduction of the US grain embargo. It was introduced by President Carter after the introduction of Soviet troops into Afghanistan and canceled by Reagan in the spring of 1981 because it turned out to be ineffective, because the USSR found an alternative grain supplier in the person of Argentina, and only American farmers suffered from restrictive measures. “Therefore, the Reagan administration did not even consider the possibility of returning the ban on grain exports to the USSR. Washington wanted to exert sanctions pressure on Moscow primarily at the expense of its European allies, ”the authors of the book write.”But the allies were not eager to take part in this.” Today, however, the behavior of the “European allies” has changed.
But what does it mean to block and / or create barriers to the supply of Russian gas to Europe? This means reducing the supply from the main external supplier in the face of the declining internal supply in the EU due to the fall in its own production. This will inevitably push up gas prices in Europe – wholesale, and then retail. On the one hand, this will help to overcome the threshold of profitability of US LNG supplies to Europe (as mentioned earlier).On the other hand, an increase in retail prices will lead to a deterioration in the welfare of EU citizens, and an increase in wholesale prices will increase the energy component in the social production costs of European products of higher value added industries and worsen the EU’s competitiveness in global competition in these (non-energy) industries (this was also mentioned earlier , and even Putin).
The United States, for its part, and today, as well as 40 years ago, is ready to reconsider its earlier decisions on sanctions, if it turns out that they harm the American economy.The most recent example: in January 2021, the United States recognized the inclusion of VSMPO-Avisma in the sanctions list as a mistake. The US Department of Commerce issued a document that VSMPO-Avisma was planned to be included in the list of (subject to sanctions) military end users, but subsequently did not do this. Nevertheless, the corporation was included in the list and now it has been removed from there .
Main sections of the book
The book “The Great Gas Game” is not only a story about 50-year gas cooperation between the USSR and Western Europe, but also an attempt to answer the question: how did you manage to implement the projects of the first gas pipelines and conclude the first contracts if the USSR and Western Europe were ideological opponents? How did the politicians of the past manage to wade through numerous difficulties and withstand the pressure of powerful opponents who did not want to strengthen ties between Europe and our country? What is common between gas contracts signed during the Cold War and the current situation on the European gas market? Will the lessons of history help to minimize the consequences of the current “sanctions policy” of Washington?
The authors write that what is happening today – the American sanctions and in general all the noise raised around the new pipeline projects – is surprisingly reminiscent of the events of 30-40-50 years ago.The United States, even then, just as strongly opposed the construction of gas pipelines from the USSR to Europe, imposed sanctions on the Soviet Union and its partners, and severely pressured European politicians interested in gas cooperation with the USSR.
And Europe itself did not look united under such pressure. Only then was it at an earlier stage of integration, although it was more compact, more homogeneous in terms of economic development and therefore, perhaps, more cohesive.Today we see it dramatically expanded: the 27 current members of the EU against the 12 then Western European countries. And although the EU is at a higher stage of integration, in the phase of the formation of a single internal market, due to its expansion, it has become more heterogeneous and fragmented, more amorphous, has not been able to fully assimilate new members, therefore it is experiencing internal contradictions and crises.
According to the authors (which I fully share), the latest sanctions news of the second half of the current decade are so similar to the events of the late 1970s – early 1980s that they decided to remind the general public of them with their book in the hope that historical experience would help for us and the Europeans to understand what is happening today and not to commit, in the long run, offensive stupidity with irreparable consequences.Or those that will take many decades to fix – both in the technological sphere (the gas industry is one of the most capital-intensive, therefore with the highest inertia, that is, the predetermination of long consciousness will be measured by generations, recalls “… until those who remembered slavery died …”). And it is imperative for Russia and Europe to understand their past and present and to avoid repeating mistakes and not succumbing to (externally inspired) separation, since Russia and the EU are interconnected and interdependent (not only in the energy sector, but especially in it).First of all, in the gas sector, where both sides are actually constituent parts of the single largest technological system in the world. I call it the “Greater Energy Europe”. Both sides are united by cross-border, stationary, capital-intensive infrastructure, which predetermines long-term cooperation, not only trade, but also investment. And any disruptions in the interaction of the parties within this rigid technological relationship mean an additional costly burden on the economies of the parties and a deterioration in the well-being of their citizens.Conversely, an increase in the efficiency of economic cooperation leads to an increase in the well-being of citizens of both sides.
The book consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 “The First Steps of Soviet Gas in Europe” (pp. 15-42) describes the history of the development of economic relations between the USSR and Europe since the 1920s, when the country’s first economic partners at that time were Russia’s current largest gas partners, Italy and Germany. in the post-war period, especially since the arrival of Enrico Mattei as head of the Italian state oil company AGIP (later renamed to ENI), and until the completion of the Soyuz gas pipeline (Orenburg – Western border of the USSR) in the late 1970s.
By the way, from the figure “ Oil market: the use of different pricing mechanisms …” it is obvious, in my opinion, why the United States so actively opposed the entry of Soviet oil into the European market in the 1960s, of which Enrico Mattei was an active supporter. This undermined the monopoly of oil supplies to Europe by MNCs with a dominant American stake in the then two-base oil pricing system. Under this pricing system , crude oil sourced from the Middle East was sold in Europe at a price pegged to the higher cost of producing and transporting oil from the United States.This provided MNC companies with super-profits in all links of the oil chain, plus increased demand for Middle Eastern oil by eliminating a competitor – German coal – for the fuel oil obtained from it in the European power industry. This is another example of the struggle, in this case – the prosperous and even more risen in the war, the United States against the war-torn Europe, which the United States helped by helping itself. Nothing personal. Business only. America First.
Chapter 2 “Project of the century – from Urengoy to Alsace” (p.43-114) is entirely devoted to the history of the construction of the Urengoy – Pomary – Uzhgorod gas pipeline with all the details that the authors were able to glean both from the documents and from the lips of people who were directly involved in the events described. These details and these memories are, in my opinion, one of the book’s most valuable assets. The authors dedicated their book to those people who made the implementation of this gas pipeline possible, despite and in spite of all the obstacles created by the opponents of the project on the way of its implementation.And these people, who are singled out separately by the authors in the preface and quotes from interviews with whom are given in the book, are really significant both for the implementation of the project and for the development of Russian-European relations in the gas sector: Burkhard Bergmann, Yuri Zaitsev, Gennady Ilyin, Hermann Lang, Axel Leban, Reinhardt Mitschek, Otto Musilek, Sergey Serdyukov, Gennady Shmal. The country must know its heroes. And the book of Simonov-Grivach invites us to look into their today’s faces, to hear their voices.Although many of those who turned the project into reality, alas, are no longer with us …
Title of Chapter 3 “The Role of the United States in the Gas Triangle. The sanctions terror ”(pp. 115-154) speaks for itself. It is entirely devoted to the US struggle against the Soviet gas pipeline, against the gas-pipes deal and Russian-European cooperation in the gas sector on its basis. The authors involved in their analysis many archival documents, including declassified American documents from the 1970-1980s.
In chapter 4 “Gas flows from Russia.History repeats itself in the form of a farce “(pp. 155-236) describes modern history and the US struggle against another gas pipeline – Nord Stream 2, which has now become the same personification of the US sanctions policy as in the late 1970s and early 1980s. -x years there was a gas pipeline “Urengoy – Pomary – Uzhgorod”.
These two chapters, the third and the fourth, differing in the events described (“then” and “now”), clearly demonstrate the continuing similarity over time of the tools for promoting the pragmatic interests of the United States (for example, the energy sector) – foreign policy protection of the domestic American commodity producer from a position of strength around the world.And if internationally agreed rules prevent the use of tools that the respective US administrations consider effective in the given circumstances, then the “moral dilemma” is resolved unequivocally – the internationally agreed rules and interests of allies are sacrificed.
Nothing personal. Business only. America First.
A large independent section of the book is occupied by documents, including the aforementioned declassified US foreign policy documents.
And the cherry on the cake …
Among other things, which is important, the book is interesting to read. It is full of an extremely interesting texture: a description of events and their background, facts, statistics, statements by the participants in the events. But this does not create a feeling of being overwhelmed by the material. I believe that any interested reader who is not indifferent to the fate and history of the country will like this book.
May the authors not be offended by this comparison (and I don’t know if they will agree with it), but their style of presentation reminded me of the captivating and attractive style of my old friend Daniel Yergin.For example, in his sensational book “The Prize” (in Russian translation – “Dobycha”), for which he received the prestigious Pulitzer Prize. 
I believe that the authors may well apply for the award for the best oil and gas publication, if such a competition is still being held in the country (International journalistic competition PEGAZ – “The best publication of the year on the problems of the Russian fuel and energy complex”, as far as I know, has not been held since 2012).
The main lesson of the book, in my opinion, is that it shows and proves: even in conditions of political confrontation (and this was exactly the period of the Cold War), the political leaders of Europe and the USSR had enough wisdom and patience to understand the economic benefits of cooperation in counterbalancing the costs of escalating confrontation.This has led to mutually beneficial results for both sides, despite lingering ideological and political divisions and being in opposing military alliances. So today’s European politicians have where to draw examples of statesmanship and responsible behavior in the interests of the citizens of their states, taking into account the sovereign interests of the partner side. Guided by the understanding that the consequences of mutually beneficial commercial cooperation always outweigh the results of confrontational development.And not submitting to the interests of their overseas military-political partners.
90,000 Pit Stop Play. Verstappen wins Formula 1 US Grand Prix and solidifies season lead – Sport
MOSCOW, 25 October. / TASS /. Dutch Red Bull pilot Max Verstappen won the 17th stage of the Formula 1 World Championship – the US Grand Prix. The competition was held in Austin (Texas), during the three days of the racing weekend, the Circuit of the Americas was attended by 400 thousand people.human.
The first Friday practice took place with the overwhelming advantage of the Mercedes pilots – Finn Valtteri Bottas won it, and Briton Lewis Hamilton was only 0.045 seconds behind him. Verstappen, who became the third, lost almost a second. In the second session of free races, “Red Bull” took revenge on the leaders of the Constructors’ Cup, only the protocol was headed not by the Dutchman, but by his teammate, the Mexican Sergio Perez. Hamilton and Bottas this time were content with the third and fourth places, respectively, and Verstappen was only eighth.
In the third practice, which took place on Saturday, the alignment of forces did not change much – Perez became the winner of the session again, Verstappen was in third position, and Bottas and Hamilton – in fifth and sixth, respectively. At the same time, during the last two sessions, not so far from the leaders were the pilots of Ferrari and McLaren. However, the qualification did not come with any surprises.
The pole-holder was again identified by the Red Bull and Mercedes riders, and the first to emerge victorious in this confrontation.Verstappen headed the protocol, 0.2 seconds ahead of Hamilton, and Perez won the fight for third place over Bottas. However, the Finn did not have much sense to push hard, because earlier one of the elements of the power plant was replaced on his car again, which entailed a penalty in the form of the loss of five positions, and from fourth place on the starting grid he rolled back to ninth.
Russian pilot of “Haas” Nikita Mazepin could not cope with his car during the whole racing weekend. In the first practice, he lost more than three seconds to his teammate German Mika Schumacher, in the second – a second, and in the third all his fast laps were completely canceled for going out of the track.In qualifying, the Russian was able to get a little closer to the son of seven-time world champion Michael Schumacher, 0.3 seconds behind him, but still remained the last. True, due to the fact that the power plant was completely replaced for three pilots at the stage in the USA, which entailed a fine, Mazepin moved to 17th position on the starting grid.
Hamilton reacted better to the dimmed traffic lights, Verstappen tried to cross his trajectory, but the Briton still took the lead in the first turn, and the Dutchman had to go off the track, but he could not lose more positions and continued the race second.Behind them, the Ferrari and McLaren pilots fought a fierce battle among themselves. Verstappen did not lag behind Hamilton, but he could not get close to him at attack distance.
Realizing that it would not be possible to overtake on the track, Red Bull decided to beat Mercedes at pit stops, calling Verstappen to change tires two laps before Hamilton. And it worked: the Dutchman took the lead with a solid lead – about seven seconds. For 15-20 laps, Hamilton was able to reduce this gap to three seconds, after which Verstappen was again the first to go for a fresh set of tires.Hamilton, on the other hand, pulled out his pit stop to the maximum and returned to the track nine seconds behind the Dutchman. But at the end of the race, the Briton should have had the advantage due to the fresher tires.
Four laps before the finish, the two race leaders were only 1.5 seconds apart. It seemed that a little bit more and Hamilton will come close to Verstappen, but the Dutchman was able to save rubber and did not allow the competitor in the fight for the title to drive up to his attack distance. The Red Bull driver won his eighth victory of the season and solidified his championship lead by 12 points ahead of Hamilton.The third place on the podium went to Perez.
For Mazepin, the race did not go well from the very beginning – the mechanics did not properly secure his headrest, which is why he had to drive into the pits on the first lap to rectify the situation. After that, he rode the whole race last, complaining that his legs were very hot and it was hard for him to endure it. As a result, Mazepin again became the last of the finishers (17th), losing almost a whole circle to Schumacher.
Within the framework of the Formula-1 stage, the two final races of the season of the women’s racing championship (W Series) took place, which Irina Sidorkova of Russia missed due to the non-issuance of a visa.The British Jamie Chadwick became the champion of the series for the second year in a row.
The next Formula 1 round will take place in Mexico from 5 to 7 November.
Games about America on PC (List) | Games about USA and Americans
Platforms: PC, Mac Release date: 2021 Genres: Simulation, Adventure, Casual, First Person, Open World, Atmospheric Categories:
Platforms: PC, Xbox One, PS4, Nintendo Switch, Mac Date Released: 2019 Genres: Adventure, Good Story, Atmospheric Categories:
Platforms: PC Release Date: 2019 Genres: Strategy, Turn-Based, Indie, Tactical, Military, Historical, WWII Categories: Sea, Ships,
Platforms: PC Date Released: 2019 Genres: Simulation, Action, Third Person, First Person, Open World,
Platforms: PC, Mac, Linux, PS4, Xbox One Release Date: 2019 Genres: Action, Strategy, Simulation, Tactics, Shooter,
Platforms: PC Release Date: 2019 Genres: Action, Third Person, Open World, RPG, Survival, Simulation, Indie Categories:
Platforms: PC, Mac, Linux, Xbox One, PS4 Release Date: 2018 Genres: Adventure , Good plot, From the third
Platforms: PC, Mac, iOS, Android Release Date: 2018 Genres: Strategy, Casual, Economic, Indie, Good Story,
Platforms: PC, Mac, Linux, PS4, Xbox One Release Date: 2017 Genres: Strategy, Tactical , Real Time,
Platforms: PC Release Date: 2017 Genres: Strategy, Tactical, Real Time, Military, WWII, Historical, Simulation,
Platforms: PC Release Date: 2016 Genres: Simulation, Racing, Adventure, Third Person Categories: Driving, Taxi, Cars, Driving,
Platforms: Android, iOS Release Date: 2016 Genres: Arcade, Adventure, Simulation, First Person, Third Person,
Platforms: PC Release Date: 2016 Genres : Simulation, Open World, Good Story, Adventure, First Person, From
Platforms: PC, Mac, Linux Release Date: 2016 Genres: Simulation, Open World, First Person,
Platforms: PC, Mac, Linux, PS4 Release date: 2015 Genres: Simulation, Multiplayer, Sports, MMO, Co-op, From the first
Platforms: PC Release date: 2014 Genres: Strategy, Real-time, Military, Tactical, Historical, Simulation, Action, Multiplayer,
Platforms: PC Release date: 2014 Genres: Simulation, Indie, Arcade, Economic, Top View Categories: Driving, Taxi, Cars, Driving,
Platforms: PC, Mac Release Date: 2014 Genres: Simulation, Open World, First Person, From
Platforms: PS3 , PS4 Release date: 2013 Genres: Action, Third Person, Survival, Adventure, Atmospheric, Stealth, Nice
Platforms: PC, PS3, Xbox 360, Xbox One Release date: 2013 Genres: Shooter, Action, Atmospheric, First-Time
Platforms: PC, Xbox 360, PS3, PS Vita Release Date: 2012 Genres: Action, Stealth, Third Person,
Platforms: PC, Xbox One, Xbox 360, PS4, PS3, Wii U Release Date: 2012 Genres : Action, Stealth,
Platforms: PC Release date: 20 11 Genres: Strategy, Real Time, Military, Tactical, Historical, Multiplayer, Co-op,
Platforms: PC, PS3, Xbox 360, PS4, Xbox One, Nintendo Switch Release date: 2011 Genres: Action, Adventure,
Platforms: PC, PS3, Xbox 360 Release Date: 2011 Genres: Shooter, Action, Atmospheric, First Person, Stealth,
Platforms: PC, Mac, iOS, Xbox 360 Release Date: 2010 Genres: Strategy, Turn-Based, World War II , Military, Tactical,
Platforms: PC, Mac, PS4, Xbox 360, Xbox One Release date: 2010 Genres: Action, Shooter, From the third
Platforms: PC, Mac Release date: 2009 Genres: Strategy, Tactical, V Real Time, Military, Historical, Action, Atmospheric,
Platforms: PC Release Date: 2009 Genres: Strategy, Tactical, Real Time, Military, WWII, Historical, Simulation Categories:
Platforms: PC Release Date: 2009 Genres : Simulation, Open World, Good Story , Adventure, First Person, From
Platforms: PC, Wii, Xbox, Nintendo Switch Release date: 2009 Genres: Simulation, Sports, First Person, From
Platforms: PC, Mac, Linux Release date: 2009 Genres: Strategy, Turn-Based, Tactical, Real Time, Global, Historical,
Platforms: PC, Mac, Linux Release Date: 2009 Genres: Strategy, Turn-Based, Tactical, Real Time, Global, Historical,
Platforms: PC Release Date : 2009 Genres: Simulation, Open World, First Person, Third Person
Platforms: PC, Wii, Xbox 360, PS2, PS3, PS4, Android, iOS Release Date: 2008 Genres: Action,
Platforms: PC Release Date : 2008 Genres: Adventure, Atmospheric, Good Story Categories: Detective, Police, Girls, America
Platforms: PC Release Date: 2008 Genres: Shooter, Action, Atmospheric, First Person, Stealth, Adventure, Open World,
Platforms : PC Release date: 20 08 Genres: Shooter, Action, Atmospheric, First Person, Stealth, Adventure, Open World,
Platforms: PC Release Date: 2007 Genres: Strategy, Tactical, Real Time, Military, WWII, Historical, Simulation Categories:
Platforms: PC Release Date: 2007 Genres: Strategy, Tactical, Turn-Based, Global, Economic, Military, Historical, Multiplayer Categories: Europe, Second
Platforms: PC, Mac, Linux Release Date: 2007 Genres: Strategy, Turn-Based, Tactical , Real Time, Global, Historical,
Platforms: PC, PS3.Xbox 360 Release Date: 2007 Genres: Shooter, Action, Atmospheric, First Person, Stealth,
Platforms: PC, Mac Release Date: 2006 Genres: Strategy, Real Time, History, Atmospheric, Simulation, Military, Multiplayer Categories:
Platforms: PC Release Date: 2006 Genres: Strategy, Real Time, Military, Historical, Atmospheric, Multiplayer, Co-op,
Platforms: PC, Mac Release Date: 2006 Genres: Strategy, Tactical, Real Time, Military , Historical, Action, Atmospheric,
Platforms: PC, Mac Release Date: 2005 Genres: Strategy, Real Time, History, Atmospheric, Simulation, Military, Multiplayer Categories:
Platforms: PC, PS2, Xbox, Xbox 360 Date Released: 2005 Genres: Horror, Survival, Stealth, Action, Adventure, Multiplayer,
Platforms: Android Release Date: 2005 Genres: Adventure, Simulation, Arcade, Third Person Categories: School, America
Platforms: PC Release date: 2005 Genres: Strategy, Tactical, Real Time, Historical, Military, Atmospheric, Multiplayer Categories: Second
Platforms: PC, PS2, PSP, Xbox, Xbox 360 Release date: 2005 Genres: Action, Shooter, Third faces,