Turfgrass Management, Basic, Certificate | Penn State
Students in this program will build the knowledge and skill necessary to assess, treat, and manage turf in any climate or terrain. This program addresses pest management, turfgrass cultural systems, and turfgrass edaphology and culminates in a series of case studies in turfgrass management.
What is Turfgrass Management?
The Turfgrass Management Certificates includes basic and applied plant sciences with a focus on practical turfgrass management. The advanced certificate includes an internship to prepare students for careers as decision makers in golf course, sports field, and landscape construction and management.
You Might Like This Program If…
- You are working in the turfgrass industry and want to improve your technical knowledge of turfgrass.
- You want to advance your career in golf course or sports turf management.
- You want to use your technical expertise to solve problems related to plants and the environment.
- You have a sense of accomplishment seeing your work appreciated by others.
To earn an undergraduate certificate in Turfgrass Management, Basic, a minimum of 15 credits is required.
No Prerequisites Required.
The objectives of the university’s academic advising program are to help advisees identify and achieve their academic goals, to promote their intellectual discovery, and to encourage students to take advantage of both in-and out-of class educational opportunities in order that they become self-directed learners and decision makers.
Both advisers and advisees share responsibility for making the advising relationship succeed. By encouraging their advisees to become engaged in their education, to meet their educational goals, and to develop the habit of learning, advisers assume a significant educational role. The advisee’s unit of enrollment will provide each advisee with a primary academic adviser, the information needed to plan the chosen program of study, and referrals to other specialized resources.
READ SENATE POLICY 32-00: ADVISING POLICY
242 Agricultural Sciences and Industries Building
University Park, PA 16802
Undergraduate Academic Advising
301 Outreach Building
University Park, PA 16802
Graduates manage golf courses and professional stadium playing surfaces. Turfgrass professionals utilize grasses in conservation areas, and suburban and urban landscapes to enhance and beautify the environment. Some alumni pursue careers in agricultural enterprises that support the turfgrass industry.
Paris-Turf journal numérique on the App Store
Paris Turf La « Bible » des turfistes directement depuis votre iPhone / iPad vous permettant de retrouver l’actualité des courses pmu, les pronostics du quinté pmu du jour et des autres paris hippiques et les résultats et rapports pmu !
Retrouvez l’intégralité du journal de Paris-Turf entièrement réédité et profitez des meilleures informations hippiques pour toutes les courses pmu en France et à l’international. Des pronostics pour toutes les courses, une présentation exhaustive du Quinté, le programme des courses pmu, les résultats et rapports, les actualités hippiques des statistiques complètes sur les performances passées des chevaux. Des rubriques telles que : Côté pistes, Côté parieurs, Côté pros et des analyses exclusives de consultants.
Profitez des avantages de Paris-Turf sur votre iPhone / Ipad :
. Plus complet : performances pour tous les partants, le tableau des partants complets avec les casaques en couleur, les avants partants pour les courses PMU premium, index des chevaux partants par ordre alphabétique,…
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Abonnez-vous à la « Bible » des turfistes directement depuis l’application :
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|Title / Author||Type||Language||Date / Edition||Publication|
11. Growing media for ornamental plants and turf.
by Kevin Handreck
Sydney : UNSW Press
12. Growing media for ornamental plants and turf
by Kevin A Handreck; Neil D Black
Sydney, NSW, Australia : University of New South Wales Press
13. Growing media for ornamental plants and turf
by Kevin Handreck; Neil Black;
Sydney : UNSW Press
14. Growing media for ornamental plants and turf
by K A Handreck; N D Black
3rd ed., rev ed
Sydney, N.S.W. : UNSW Press
15. Growing media for ornamental plants and turf
by Kevin A Handreck; Neil D Black
Sydney : University of New South Wales Press ; Lancaster : Gazelle
16. Growing media : for ornamental plants and turf
by Kevin A Handrek; Neil D Black
Fully rev. and exp
Sydney : UNSW Press
17. Growing media for ornamental plants and turf
by Kevin A Handreck; Neil D Black
Sydney : UNSW
18. Growing media for ornamental plants and turf
by K A Handreck; N D Black
Rev. and expanded ed
Sydney : UNSW
19. Growing media : for ornamental plants and turf
by K A Handreck; Neil D Black
Randwick, NSW : University of New South Wales Press
20. Growing media for ornamental plants and turf
by Kevin A Handreck; Neil D Black
Randwick NSW (Australia) : Universitiy of New South Wales
TRAINER MIKE MAKER IN PURSUIT OF HIS EIGHTH VICTORY IN THE GRADE 3, $200,000 JOHN B. CONNALLY TURF CUP AT SAM HOUSTON RACE PARK
HOUSTON, TX- The Houston Racing Festival will take place on Sunday, January 31 with a special afternoon post time of 1:45 pm (CT). The event includes six stakes, highlighted by the Grade 3, $300,000 Houston Ladies Classic with the acclaimed Connally Turf Course receiving its fair share of attention in the entry box as well.
Trainer Mike Maker has won seven of the past nine editions of the G3, $200,000 John B. Connally Turf Cup which is contested at the distance of one and one-half miles. A field of 12, including three turf specialists from the barn of Maker will compete, with post positions drawn Sunday.
One of his prospects this year, Three Diamonds Farm’s Marzo, ran third in last year’s edition of the race before running in the Grade 1 Sword Dancer at Saratoga. Sired by Medaglia D’ Oro, Marzo has won four races and $310,000 to date. He will break from post six with Albin Jimenez in the saddle.
“Marzo had been off since running in the Sword Dancer last August at Saratoga,” said Maker. “He did not handle the synthetic surface at Turfway Park (on December 31). We just used that race as a workout.”
Ajourneytofreedom closed to complete the superfecta in the $100,000 Gio Ponti at Aqueduct last November for her owners Paradise Farm Corp. and David Staudacher. The 4-year-old gelded son of Hard Spun will be ridden by Jesus Castanon, breaking from post three.
“I believe he will love the Sam Houston turf course,” he stated.
Maker’s third starter is Conviction Trade, who was claimed by Staudacher and tested his distance prowess last month in the H. Allen Jerkens, a two-mile turf stakes at Gulfstream Park. The Kentucky-bred son of Exchange Rate held the lead throughout the race, but had to settle for second.
“He had a good trip and showed his liking for the distance,” said Maker, who will give a leg up to rider Rafael Hernandez. “He was a little unlucky to lose, but that should set him up well for the Connally.”
Maker’s past Connally winners include Papa Bodie in 2012; Admiral Kitten in 2014; Coalport in 2015; Da Big Hoss in 2016 and a three-peat by Three Diamonds Farm’s Bigger Picture who captured the 2017-2019 editions of the turf stakes. Last year, Maker finished second and third to the Brad Cox trained Dot Matrix.
“I was disappointed, for sure,” admitted Maker. “I felt that each of my horses had a chance, but that’s racing. Guess I will just have to start a new streak on Sunday!”
Maker’s trio will have some very stiff competition from a number of quality turf runners including Spooky Channel who has been tabbed as the 5-2 morning-line choice. Owned by Terry Hamilton, he is impeccably bred for the turf, sired by English Channel out of the Kitten’s Joy mare Spooky Kitten. Trainer Brian Lynch gave the chestnut gelding a freshening following his start in the Grade 1, Manhattan last July at Belmont Park. His first race back was the Grade 2, Ft. Lauderdale on December 12 at Gulfstream Park, where he ran fourth to Largent. Lynch opted to send the eight-time winner to Houston instead of defending his title in the W.L. McKnight last Saturday at Gulfstream Park. He drew post position ten and will be ridden by Julien Leparoux.
“I thought the Connally was a very appealing fit,” said Lynch from his base in South Florida. “Spooky Channel is a marathon sort of horse and Julien has won on him before He came off a long layoff for the Ft. Lauderdale and finished well. I believe he will enjoy the Houston turf course.”
Signalman will make his first start at Sam Houston when trainer Ken McPeek sends in the 5-year-old son of General Quarters for owners Tommie M. Lewis, Steve Crabtree, Dean Demaree, David A. Bernsen, LLC and Jim Chambers.The Kentucky-bred will be making his 18th career start and has already banked $671,005, largely from his purse money from the 2018 Breeders’ Cup Juvenile and victory in the Grade 2, Kentucky Jockey Club Stakes at Churchill Downs. Jockey Reylu Gutierrez has the mount and will break from post position two at odds of 12-1.
“He has run well on the synthetic (at Turfway Park) and I definitely think he will like the distance,” said McPeek. “In a full field, it’s all about the timing, but I feel Reylu will get him into a good position.”
Claim To Fame Stable’s Tut’s Revenge has a solid turf record with five wins from seven starts for trainer Clinton Stuart. The 5-year-old gelding by Eskendereya had a great season at Remington Park, winning his last two and finishing second in the Remington Park Green. Ry Ekleberry has the call at odds of 9-2.
The John B. Connally Turf was awarded Grade 3 status in 2006 and boasts a solid roster of past winners including Chorwon, Fort Prado, Rod and Staff as well as three-time champions, Candid Glen and Bigger Picture.
The field for the Connally Turf Cup, to be run as race nine, from the rail, with riders and morning-line odds:
Celerity, Iram Diego, 30-1; Signalman, Reylu Gutierrez, 12-1; Ajourneytofreedom, Jesus Castanon, 10-1; Tenfold, Stewart Elliott., 6-1; Conviction Trade, Rafael Hernandez, 7-2; Marzo, Albin Jimenez, 10-1; Tuts Revenge, Ry Ekleberry, 9-2; Chagi, Weston Hamilton, 50-1; Vettori Kin(Brz), Miguel Mena, 20-1; Spooky Channel, Julien Leparoux, 5-2; Strong Tide, Sophie Doyle, 30-1 and Henley’s Joy, Declan Carroll ,15-1.
As previously announced, the ninth renewal of the Grade 3, $300,000 Houston Ladies Classic will run as the eighth race on the Houston Racing Festival Card. The field of seven, from the rail, with riders and morning line odds, is as follows: Motion Emotion, Miguel Mena, 7-2; Jeweled Princess, Reylu Gutierrez, 8-1; Ujjayi, Rafael Manuel Hernandez, 6-1; Lady Apple, Stewart Elliott, 4-1; Figure It Out, Lane Luzzi, 15-1; Shes Out Fastest, Ry Ekleberry, 20-1 and Letruska, Jesus Castanon, 1-1.
In addition to the two graded stakes on the Houston Racing Festival card, Sam Houston Race Park will present the following features. An additional press release will be forthcoming.
$200,000 Texas Turf Mile- 3YO -1 Mile (T)
$100,000 Pulse Power Turf Sprint – 4&up – 5 Furlongs (T)
$75,000 Stonerside Sprint – 4&up F&M – 1 1/16 Mile (T)
$75,000 Stonerside Sprint – 4&up – 6 Furlongs
“The goal five years ago was to create a special day of racing not only for our fans in Houston but develop an event that would evolve into a great day of racing on a national level,” said Frank Hopf, Sam Houston Race Park’s Senior Director of Racing Operations. “None of this is possible without the tremendous support we have received from the trainers and owners. The 2021 edition of the Houston Racing Festival is an indication we are getting closer to our goal.”
Sam Houston Race Park is Houston’s premier racing and entertainment facility, located just 15 miles from downtown Houston. The Park offers a variety of attractions including a Suite Level featuring luxurious suites overlooking the racetrack, The Pavilion Centre, and award-winning dining options at the Winner’s Circle Restaurant and the Jockey Club. For more information on upcoming live racing, shows, events and tickets, please visit www.shrp.com.
Turf Club Cocktails – recipes and history
A sibling, or at least cousin, of the Martinez and the Martini, the Turf Club is, or could be, the first cocktail to combine gin and vermouth. It makes its first written appearance in George Winter’s 1884 How To Mix Drinks–Bar-Keeper’s Handbook as the “Turf Club” with later books most often merely titling the drink “Turf”.
The name Turf Club refers to the gentlemen’s clubs of the late 1800s – early 1900s which operated as a combined restaurant, bar, meeting place and gambling den for the gentleman of the day. Captains of industry and the aristocracy have always liked horse racing, and where folk gather to watch racing there is bound to be betting. Many a ‘turf accountant’ (bookmaker) frequented such clubs and many a Turf Cocktail was consumed.
One of the most famous of these gentlemen’s clubs, The Turf Club, stood at the corner of Madison Avenue and 26th Street in New York. The building, Jerome Mansion, had pedigree, being the former home of Lady Randolph Churchill, the American mother of Winston Churchill – a man I suspect would have appreciated a well-made Turf Club cocktail.
There are several versions of the Turf Club Cocktail – extracts from vintage cocktail books over the decades (shown in chronological order below) record how this drink evolved.
Historic print references
As mentioned above, the oldest mention of the Turf Club cocktail is in Winter’s 1884 book.
How To Mix Drinks-Bar-Keeper’s Handbook 1884
His recipe calls for “Peruvian Bitters” (Amargo Chuncho), we tried in this cocktails and work well, but we’ve substituted Angostura in our interpretation of his original Turf Club recipe.
We’ve also adapted George Kappeler’s 1895 Turf club recipe from his Modern American Drinks book.
Modern American Drinks 1895
Harry Johnson tellingly doesn’t list the Turf cocktail in the 1882 first edition or the 1888 second edition of his Bartenders’ Manual, but does include it as the last drink in his revised 1900 New and Improved Edition. Johnson reflects changing tastes and fashions by calling for Plymouth gin rather than old tom gin in his turn of the century recipe.
Bartenders’ Manual 1900
We’ve adapted Johnson’s Turf Cocktail recipe to use measures a tad more specific than “½ wine glass”, although a wine glass is a lot sexier a measure than a millilitre.
Published 22 years later, Robert Vermeire’s 1922 Cocktails: How to Mix Them, again repeats the Harry Johnson formula, also crediting Johnson as being the drink’s creator.
Turf Cocktail (Vermeire 1922)
“Fill the bar glass half full of broken ice and add:
2 dashes of Orange Bitters
2 dashes of Maraschino
2 dashes of Absinthe
1/4 gill of Plymouth Gin
1/4 gill of French Vermouth
Stir up well, strain into a cocktail-glass, add olive.
Note especially no squeezed lemon-peel on top.
(Recipe by Harry Johnson, New Orleans)“
Sadly, I don’t own one of the early editions of Harry McElhone’s ABC of Mixing Cocktails but thanks to Dave Wondrich on esquire.com we know that McElhone’s 1922 edition also contains a version of the Turf Club that’s strikingly similar to Johnson’s recipe above.
Turf Club Cocktail (McElhone’s 1922 recipe)
“1½ oz Plymouth gin
1½ oz Dry vermouth
2 dashes Maraschino liqueur
2 dashes Orange bitters
2 dashes Absinthe
Garnished with an olive.“
In his 1930 The Savoy Cocktail Book, Harry Craddock also repeats Harry Johnson’s 1900 recipe:
The Savoy Cocktail Book 1930
According to Albert Stevens Crockett’s 1931 Old Waldorf-Astoria Bar Days, the Turf Cocktail served at the venerable old hotel was actually 2/3rds jenever to 1/3 sweet vermouth (as below) but I find these proportions make an overly dry drink so I’ve slightly upped the proportion of vermouth to gin in my adaptation of Crockett’s Turf Cocktail.
Old Waldorf-Astoria Bar Days 1931
Charles H. Baker, Jr’s 1946 The Gentleman’s Companion: An Exotic Drinking Book is more a travel log with recipes than a bartender’s guide so accordingly he has a fair bit more to say on the Turf cocktail than the other authors quoted above, documenting three versions of the drink and where he encountered them:
The Improved Turf Cocktail, No. 1 (Baker 1939)
“…a modification of own from Dirty Dick’s, Nassau, B.I., 1937
We first sampled this drink in Nassau quite some time back, having flown over Pan-American Airways, after the official tourist season was finished, with a 6-year bride and 4 friends, to do a bit of sailing and swimming and basking on undiscovered white sand beaches by vitriol blue coral water that is clearer than anywhere else in the whole universe. A gentleman of colour suggested this as a dry, appetizing taste-thrill at Dirty Dick’s, and found it to be merely Holland gin and vermouth – nothing else except Angostura – in a 2 to 1 ratio….
After a bit of later experiment on self and friends we discovered that the addition of ½ a green lime – strained juice – and ½ tsp of grenadine or bar sugar works miracles with this drink.“
Turf Cocktail No. II (Baker 1939)
“…from the Taj Mahal Hotel, on Apollo Bunder, in Bombay, Saturday, February 14th 1931, to be exact;
Served after the Running of the Maharajah of Rajpipla Gold Cup at the Western India Turf Club, Ltd.
We had won all of sixty-seven rupees on this gold-cup, 23,000 rupees race, and were feeling very horsy and turfy, and tired of the eternal chotapegs – just plain Scotch and not-too-cold soda, without ice, of the last few days -and were open for suggestions. G.J. Mack, local Manager for General Motors Export, suggested a Turf Cocktail, of a recognised mix, and after a barrage of Hindustani this resulted, much to everyone’s amazement: 1 jigger of dry gin, 1 pony French vermouth, 1 tsp of absinthe, or Pernod Veritas; donate 1 tsp of maraschino and a dash of Abbots bitters. Stir in a bar glass like a Martini and serve in a Manhattan glass, ungarnished.“
Turf Cocktail No. III (Baker 1939)
“…from the Havana Country Club, Winter of 1930
This is virtually the same as No.II, only using old Tom gin for a base, orange bitters, and everything else the same.“
I’ve included links to our modern day adaptations of four of the vintage recipes mentioned above – each quite different from the others without one standing out as being ‘better’:
• Winter’s 1884 Turf Club recipe
• George Kappeler’s 1895
• Johnson’s 1900 Turf recipe
• Crockett’s 1935 Turf Cocktail
While working on these I came up with my own
• Surf & Turf riff on the classic. Enjoy and place your bets!
France – Monde | Turf Éditions en redressement judiciaire : les mauvaises affaires de Jacques-Henri Eyraud
Le président de l’OM est actionnaire majoritaire du groupe de presse hippique
Par L.P., G.Ry. (avec J.-L.C.)
Dès son arrivée à Marseille en octobre 2016, il avait pris ses distances et promis de vendre rapidement ses parts dans le groupe qu’il dirigeait depuis 2013, Turf Éditions.
Sauf que près de quatre ans plus tard, Jacques-Henri Eyraud, devenu président non-exécutif du premier groupe de presse hippique en France tout en restant actionnaire majoritaire, n’a toujours pas trouvé l’offre qu’il espère depuis si longtemps, après avoir confié le mandat de vente à la banque d’affaires Rotschild. A-t-il surévalué le prix ? Certaines sources militent pour cette option.
Le choix du potentiel repreneur décidé le 22 juin
Toujours est-il que la situation ne cesse de se dégrader pour cette entreprise qui emploie quelque 250 personnes (195 titulaires et 65 pigistes) et édite une dizaine de titres. Elle a pris de plein fouet la crise du coronavirus, laquelle a provoqué l’arrêt des courses hippiques.
Une procédure de redressement judiciaire a été ouverte par le tribunal de Bobigny à l’encontre de la société (qui était en cessation de paiement). C’était le 26 mai et, d’après certaines indiscrétions, le choix du potentiel repreneur sera décidé le 22 juin. Le groupe Riccobono Presse Investissement a récemment déposé un dossier de reprise. Avec un projet clair : reprendre l’ensemble des activités du groupe et donc la totalité des actifs, y compris ceux de ses filiales.
“Il nous a totalement abandonnés”
La dernière fois qu’ils ont vu Jacques-Henri Eyraud, c’est il y a quatre ans, en janvier, au pot de la nouvelle année. “Depuis, il n’est jamais revenu“, racontent des journalistes de Paris Turf, amers contre le président de l’OM, qui leur avait pourtant affirmé lors de son arrivée que “le turf, c’est le projet de ma vie.” “Il faut admettre que la stratégie qu’il a initiée et qui a été poursuivie par son équipe après son départ n’a pas été la bonne“, analyse un journaliste, lui aussi très remonté. “Il a voulu que l’on se diversifie en oubliant notre coeur de métier : la presse et les courses“, reprend un confrère. “Les experts-comptables et les commissaires aux comptes auraient tiré la sonnette d’alarme sur la situation de la trésorerie il y a un peu plus d’un an“, affirment les salariés qui insistent sur le fait qu’ils ont “totalement été abandonnés.” Leurs seuls espoirs ? Une rencontre prévue lundi au ministère de la Culture et de la communication, et des offres de reprise qu’ils attendent.
Turf Wars | Electrical Wholesaling
Turf wars naturally crop up among electrical distributors competing for the same customers. When turf wars occur within your own organizations, they usually send sales and profits into a downward spiral.
If associates within your company are battling one another, it’s time to identify which combination of the following six causes need to be addressed: insecurity, changes in leadership, lack of resources, internal competition, poor communication and the dogfight manager.
When someone feels uncertain about his or her position, skill level or job security, the insecurity often manifests itself as a turf war. Insecure managers or salespeople quickly blame others for errors. An insecure employee will develop a “victim” mentality and always is the brunt of something that “just happened.” Often defensive about decisions and protective of turf, an insecure employee may not want any assistance or invasion into his area of responsibility. Lastly, an insecure employee will sometimes lash out, causing a tremendous distraction to your other employees who get sucked into the drama. The entire organization suffers as a result.
For managers who see a turf war developing around an individual’s insecurities, the best way to put it to rest is to take control. First, stress the policy that, “We are a team that helps everyone get better by sharing information and assistance.” By creating an environment of mutual assistance, you are telling employees no sacred cows exist in your department, and that you’re not interested in anyone trying to be the lead dog. If you are consistent in this expectation, turf wars will be kept to a minimum.
The manager should also have a talk with the insecure individual to find out what might be causing this insecure reaction. Is there greater pressure on the individual to perform financially because the spouse lost his or her job? Is the individual coasting? Has the employee given up because he thinks he can’t compete anymore? Coach this person through the insecurities; you will not only help the employee move forward but also remove the catalyst for the turf war.
Changes in leadership
When leadership changes, employees sometimes revert to animal-based programming deep in their DNA to try to determine the new “alpha.” The new leader may bring unknown skills and expectations, and everyone wants to make a positive first impression as well as take the opportunity to climb in the reordering of the pack. In some cases, people may feel they were overlooked for the promotion and create a turf war with the incoming leader.
It’s tricky for any manager stepping into a new position to be assertive enough to establish alpha status without shutting down everyone in the process. It gets more complicated if that new manager is promoted from within the current employee staff. As the new leader, call a department meeting and address such issues by making your expectations abundantly clear, explaining your work style, and “taking the elephant out of the room” by addressing the reordering and positioning.
Lack of resources
In a downsizing environment, a scarcity mentality often causes people to feel threatened, making them protective of what they perceive as theirs. In other words, they start guarding their turf.
A scarcity mentality breeds protectionism. People play to not lose instead of playing to win. Salespeople focus on maintaining what they have instead of exploring new opportunities, which only perpetuates limited resources. The lack of resources also ill-prepares and ill-equips staff for creating additional resources. If training is reduced or eliminated or the sales staff isn’t continuously upgraded with technology to be competitive, panic will set in and cause insecurity.
There is a difference between being poor and being broke. The difference is attitude. “Poor” perceives the situation will not change. “Broke” believes the lack of resources is a temporary condition that will be resolved with good decision making focused on the long-term benefits of short-term sacrifices.
When facing a lack of resources, be sure to focus on the longer-term overall benefit and maintain a positive focus. No one would consider chopping off a limb as a good way to lose weight, so why do that in business?
In the United States, people love sports. Using sports analogies in business, we compare athletic heroics to individuals’ performance in the workplace, and we try to create the same type of competitive environment believed to drive athletes to greater heights.
The flaw with this logic, as any team manager will tell you, is that internal competition among the players can cause the team to suffer at the expense of star attention. Competition needs to be outside the organization on a global playing field. Internal strife only gives the opposition opportunity to get ahead.
Healthy internal competition should be based on self improvement with employees competing against their own individual goals as opposed to competing against others on the sales force. With this type of competition, there can be more than one winner. If the team gels, members of the team will assist each other so everyone on the team achieves his or her personal goals. Everyone wins, especially the company if goals are set correctly.
With the advances in communication technology, one might think we would have eliminated communication problems, but they continue to be one of the biggest causes of profit loss and turf wars. Withholding information, incomplete information and inaccurate information are all examples of poor communication no matter whether it’s intended or unintentional.
The phrase, “Knowledge is power,” is often misunderstood by those fighting a turf war. Although withholding information can make a person feel more valuable or in control in the short term, in the long term, withholding information can be detrimental to the common good of the company.
The new communication model for business is the Fish Bowl model. Like a fish bowl, which can be viewed from any angle, information is freely distributed. Everything can be seen and is out in the open. With a wealth of information at our fingertips via the Internet, the quicker companies get on that model, the quicker information can be shared and the better communications can happen. Technology today allows the process of information sharing to occur faster, but the key to improving communication between employees and eliminating turf wars is to set a tone of openness.
The dogfight manager
If you have ever uttered any of the following phrases as a manager, you’re probably a dogfight manager.
“Why can’t you be as good as he is?”
“You better get your act together or you will be looking for a job.”
“How can you let that guy beat you? You should be beating his numbers.”
A dogfight manager pits one employee’s performance against another, and then sits back to watch the survival of the fittest. It’s a turf war by mandate.
Managers should resist comparing employees. Everyone brings different skills to the team, and managers are there to coach and assist them to create the best team. Focus on the individual development of each of your staff members to help them become better at what they do and to grow in their skills and abilities. Instead of comparing the best and worst of your sales team, why not ask the best salesperson to be a mentor for the employee who needs the most development? Unless you have set the internal competition by compensation, the mentoring employee will appreciate the recognition, and your team will grow stronger.
Turf wars can cause so much disruption and drama in a company that everyone becomes more focused on the internal soap opera and less productive. Take a look around and identify your turf war causes, then correct them and watch your profits increase.
Known in speaking and consulting circles as “The Big Guy,” the author is president of Russell J. White International Inc., Lake Wylie, S.C. He is an author, trainer and international speaker with 25 years of experience as a Fortune 500 manager and consultant. White can be reached at (877) 275-9468. Visit his Web site at www.thinkBIGguy.com or e-mail him at [email protected]
The choice of grasses for creating lawns
Unfortunately, it is almost impossible to give an objective assessment of the varieties (even the few that get to our market). There is no variety testing in our country, and the ratings of foreign tests (European BSPB and American NTEP), for obvious reasons, cannot reflect how the studied varieties will behave in our climate. Nevertheless, the analysis of these studies, at least indirectly, can help determine the vast sea of varieties of lawn grasses.
First of all, everyone should understand that winter hardiness is far from the most important limiting factor when evaluating varieties in Western Europe and the USA.
Fortunately, the genetically determined species “strength” of red fescue and, all the more, meadow bluegrass, allows almost all varieties of these herbs to be grown without much fear in most climatic zones of our country (with the exception, perhaps, of the most northern regions, where there may be problems with overwintering red fescue). Nevertheless, as practice shows, those varieties that have proven themselves well in trials in the northern and central states of the United States are also good for Russia.For the southern regions of Russia and for the Volga region, attention should be paid, first of all, to drought resistance and heat resistance. In these areas, foreign breeders are now working especially actively and have achieved unconditional success. Already there are varieties that retain their decorative effect for 4-5 weeks without watering, which makes it possible in our climate to do without artificial irrigation in most cases.
Despite the fact that fescue is considered more drought tolerant than bluegrass, its new varieties can successfully compete with the best varieties of fescue, and, given the speed of recovery from stress and increased heat resistance, even surpass them.
By the way, American experts believe that in conditions where there is a danger of extreme temperature rises, varieties of ordinary red fescue (Festuca rubra rubra) should be preferred to varieties of red fescue (Festuca rubra commutata) or rough fescue (Festuca trachyphylla, Hard Fescue in American catalogs).
Reed fescue, widely used in the arid zones of the United States, is still not very popular in our country. The few varieties that were studied under the conditions of the Moscow region did not show themselves too well – they do not tolerate overwintering well and slowly recover.In more southern regions of Russia, its new varieties, of course, could compete with traditional types of lawn grasses, but, unfortunately, it is almost impossible to find them on our market so far.
A story about long-lasting lawn grasses would be incomplete without mentioning the species of bent grass. Three species are of interest for use on lawns: creeping (Agrostis stolonifera), fine (A. tenuis) and canine (A.canina). The first species can be most often found on sale, because varieties of this bent field are in demand when arranging a golf lawn.The other two species, in my opinion, could be even more interesting for Russian consumers, but their seeds are very difficult to find on sale. The trick is that these species are of little interest for culture in the United States, and our own seed production of lawn grasses is absent in our country, so for now we have to adjust our desires to those seeds that farmers in Oregon and Denmark will kindly grow for us, for whom the Russian market is far from The most interesting. A well-groomed field lawn always delights those who see it.But the agricultural technology of its cultivation is different from other herbs, so the decision to use these species on the lawn should be balanced and thoughtful.
Speaking about the types of lawn grasses, one cannot pass by pasture ryegrass
A rare lawn mixture can do without it. World production of seeds of this species is almost more than all other lawn grass seeds combined. Why such an honor? Maybe the truth is the best herb?
Now is the time to remember that in addition to permanent lawns, there are also temporary ones.It is perennial ryegrass (aka perennial, aka English) that underlies them. It rises quickly (sometimes after 3-5 days), quickly (after 2-3 weeks, when the bluegrass does not even think to emerge) forms a rather dense, beautiful grassy carpet on which you can run, jump, play football. Even weeds are usually unable to compete with him in vitality. But time passes (sometimes 2-3 years, sometimes a little more or less) and the ryegrass lawn “grows old”: it becomes rare, hummocky, and winter hardiness is lost with age.
By the way: modern, “lawn” varieties – a miracle, how good they are! The lawn looks just perfect, and even does not require any special worries: it is resistant to diseases, hardy, and does not clog. Suffice it to mention the fact that the supergasses on the famous Wimbledon courts have recently been made only from ryegrass.
It would seem that here it is, the obvious decision: take, mix everything – and you get the same “dream lawn”. Let ryegrass show itself at first, and then fescue or bluegrass will replace it (as appropriate).This bike is widespread in Soviet lawn books. Serious research shows that most of the time, nothing good comes out of this idea. Ryegrass perceives the seedlings of other grasses as competitors, displacing them from the grass stand. Therefore, it really turns out that by the time the ryegrass dies, there are almost no other grasses in the lawn.
Professionals know that ryegrass in the mix should be avoided when setting up a long-lasting lawn. As a last resort, it can be added, but not more than 30%, in order to give a chance to survive for others.It is even more dangerous to make a mixture with the addition of bent grass. It is so aggressive that adding even 0.5% to a mixture of other herbs will suppress them.
In some cases, it is much preferable to use not a mixture of species, but a single-species mixture of varieties (or even seeds of only one variety.) In this case (and only in this case), you can get a perfectly uniform lawn. Indeed, is it worth adding meadow bluegrass to your lawn mixture, which will be in the shade most of the day? Should you add fescue to your turf where you plan to play sports? It should also be remembered that “mixed” lawns live their own lives, constantly changing.Some people like it, some don’t.
In any case, a professional approach implies a thoughtful approach to mixing. It is necessary to take into account not only the competitiveness of herbs, but also the texture of the leaf, and the color, and the attitude to various factors.
It is not for nothing that many experienced landscape designers prefer ready-made store mixes, made “on the knee”.
Finally, as a summary, I would like to give some friendly advice.
- Before you start purchasing seeds, assess your desires and possibilities, as well as the conditions of your site – this will allow you to make the right choice between the types of grass. If you decide to use a blend of herbs, try to prioritize what is more important to you.
- Thoughtfully, take your time, browse the range of herbs and mixtures available in stores and online. Feel free to consult with experts or discuss your doubts on thematic forums.
- Pay attention not only to the species (meadow bluegrass, red fescue, etc.), but also to the variety. Varieties can differ significantly from each other – information on the properties of a variety is quite easy to find on the Internet (remember that the author of a variety is not always objective in his assessment – so do not neglect the comparative assessment of BSPB and NTEP). Sometimes manufacturers / sellers of mixtures do not indicate the name of the varieties. As a rule, this is not connected with malicious intent – they simply order the packaging for future use (this is cheaper), and the mixtures are then prepared from the seeds of those varieties that they managed to purchase.Again, feel free to contact the manufacturer for missing information.
- Of course, it is safer to buy fresh seeds, but at the same time, it is useful to know that the germination rate of lawn grass seeds can remain at a high level for several years. In some cases, it is advisable (and economically viable) to purchase last year’s seeds.
- For a long-lasting attractive lawn, avoid mixtures containing even a minimal amount of perennial hay (forage) grasses, such as meadow fescue, hedgehog, timothy – they form ugly mounds on the lawn, which are not easy to get rid of.
- Avoid purchasing mixtures with a high (more than 20%) content of perennial ryegrass, unless such a choice is justified by the desire to set up a temporary or special (for example, sports) lawn. Ryegrass is very aggressive in the mix and suppresses all other species.
- It is easier to make a good lawn from one type of grass than from a mixture with an incorrectly selected composition of grasses.
Benefits of using a lawn grate
To preserve the grass on footpaths, sports grounds and car parks, a lawn grill is used, which can be purchased from the company https: // gazonnayareshetka.ru /.
Advantages and disadvantages of using a lawn grate
The lawn grating has both strengths and weaknesses. Its main benefits include:
- Ease of installation that even a layman can handle.
- Preservation of lawn grass even under the load of a car.
- Environmental friendliness of materials of manufacture.
- Ability to perform its functions in all weather conditions.
- Ease of maintenance, the ability to mow the lawn and use any technique.
Among the disadvantages of the lawn lattice, the following points should be noted:
- Slab settlement. To prevent this problem, it is necessary to correctly calculate the load in accordance with the weight of the machine and periodically change its location, without leaving it in one place for more than three days.
- Difficulty in cleaning. After a rainstorm, it is difficult to remove accumulated water from the cells. The same applies to technical fluids from a car.
- Blades of grass break when pressed against the grate.
The main varieties of lawn grates
All existing lawn gratings are divided into two types, based on the material of their manufacture: plastic and concrete. The first ones are made of high-strength plastic, their cells are in the form of rhombuses or honeycombs. They can be black or green. The advantages of plastic lawn grates are invisibility and ease of installation. Plates easily attach to each other and quickly separate into parts. Plastic grates are light and heavy, the choice depends on the planned load on the lawn.
Concrete gratings are made up of slabs located close to each other. They are installed in areas with high load and heavy soil, which complicates the outflow of water after a rainstorm. The advantages of concrete lawn grates are as follows:
- long service life;
- high strength, allowing them to be installed even in truck parking areas;
- affordable cost.
The main disadvantage of concrete lawn gratings is the heavy weight of the blocks, and therefore you have to use special equipment to install them.In addition, the concrete grating cannot be completely hidden, even with tall grass. In some cases, this feature spoils the style of the site.
90,000 Want a beautiful lawn or lawn? Will Help “World Lawn” | SOCIETY
Would you like to grow a beautiful, vibrant lawn or lawn? Lawn grasses will help to solve this problem, which can be bought quickly and profitably on the company’s website.
A lawn is a grass cover that is created by sowing seeds of specially selected grasses. A beautiful lawn always decorates the site, disposes to a comfortable rest, creates a good mood and makes the air clean and fresh. Do you want to create a bright lawn in your country house, a plot near your home? Contact the company, “Mirovoy Turf”, in the catalog of which you can choose and buy a high quality lawn.
Lawn grass wholesale, assorted
High-quality lawn grass must be perennial and meet a number of requirements:
- Be resistant to various environmental factors, temperature extremes, freezing;
- Possess impeccable decorative properties: sufficient cover height, rich color, uniformity of germination;
- To develop a strong root system that does not collapse under different types of stress and is capable of growing on soils with different densities;
- Germinate quickly after mowing and trimming.
All these qualities are fully possessed by grass mixtures, which you can order in the Mirovoy Lawn store. It is easy to place an order for lawn grass wholesale or retail in the online format, we will promptly deliver your purchase in Moscow and Moscow region, organize inexpensive shipment to the regions. The store’s catalog contains lawn mixtures that allow you to create a lawn of the type that is required for the landscape of your site. Lawn grasses will allow you to quickly grow the perfect parterre lawn, a lawn exactly imitating a flowering natural meadow, a cover for children’s games or sports.
Photo: World Lawn
Lawn grass, lawns from the store “World Lawn”
Having decided to place an order for lawn grass, lawns in the Mirovoy Lawn store, you get a number of advantages:
- Purchase high-quality seed adapted to the climatic conditions of the country;
- Get access to a huge range of grass mixtures from leading and trusted manufacturers; · You will be able to buy not only lawn grasses and rolled lawn, but also equipment, tools, fertilizers, allowing you to properly plant the material and provide high-quality lawn care;
- Save your time and money.An order for a lawn injury is easily placed online, the prices are favorable and affordable, and we offer individual discount programs to regular and wholesale customers.
The order is delivered to the address of your facility in Moscow and the Moscow region, it is possible to send seed to any regions of the country. We are always ready to offer customers from Moscow and Moscow region professional assistance in arranging lawns.
Photo: World lawn
Research work “Influence of inorganic salts on the germination and development of lawn grass”
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“Big encyclopedia of flower perennials” Diev M.M.
The Encyclopedia contains images and descriptions of almost all floral and decorative perennials grown in Russia, and also provides information on their agricultural technology, reproduction and use in landscape design. The book highlights the stability of each species or cultivar, their rarity.
Considering the huge volume of illustrations and the exclusivity of the text, we can say with confidence that there was no such publication in our country, and is not expected in the coming years.By and large, the Encyclopedia is an album, a reference book, and an encyclopedia. It is intended for both beginner florists and professional botanists. In addition, the book will undoubtedly interest, for example, biology teachers, agronomists and simply nature lovers. The Encyclopedia includes over 1600 original photographs.
The material for this book has been collected by the author for 17 years. Most of the pictures were taken in Moscow and the Moscow region.
Resistance and cultivation specifics are given, respectively, for this climate. The undoubted advantage of the publication is also the fact that it includes species that are widely advertised and sold, but not stable in the conditions of Central Russia, as the author was convinced from his own experience. Plants common in our country, sometimes presented as exotic, are also considered.
By the way, many highly decorative perennials presented in the book –
are little known or unknown to flower growers in Western Europe.Many – have never even been photographed by anyone, but are increasingly grown in our country and are very promising ornamental crops.
We can say that this Encyclopedia is the most complete illustrated edition in our country since the time of Regel. National event.
About the author
Mikhail Maratovich Diev was born in 1964 in g.Zaraysk, Moscow region. He considers himself a botanist from early childhood. He studied at the Moscow Club of Young Biologists and Local Lore Specialists (KYUBiK) under the leadership of Alexei Ivanovich Bykhov. He took part in expeditions, was a regular winner of biological Olympiads (from regional to all-Union).
A botanist-patriot who believes that it is necessary to use foreign floriculture experience critically.
He worked in the Botanical Garden of Moscow State University. He was Deputy Chairman of the Association of Botanical Gardens and Biological Institutions of Russia.Author and presenter of a number of television and radio programs, including the program “Universad” on “Radio Russia”. Full member of MOIP. Member of the Geographical Society. Scientific secretary of “Agbina”. Member of the Writers’ Union of Moscow. Author of several hundred popular science publications, including those abroad. He studied at a specialized physics and mathematics, chemical and biological school at Leningrad State University. Graduated from the Faculty of Biology of the Moscow Polytechnic Institute
A botanist practitioner who tested about 3000 species of ornamental plants on his site,
most of which were raised from seeds.
A botanist-writer, convinced that in practical works on horticulture and floriculture, eloquence is superfluous. Supporter of the formula: minimum words – maximum information – maximum illustrations.
The most common problems of lawn coverings in the zone of humid subtropics of Russia and ways to solve them
Any landscape is a volumetric-spatial structure, which consists of interconnected elements – planning (road and path network, sites, etc.)), volumetric (tree, shrub and herbaceous vegetation, small architectural forms, structures, landforms, etc.) and flat (water surfaces, parterres, glades, etc.) Compositional combinations of these elements determine the spatial nature of the landscape [5, 6].
The contrast of open (planar elements) and closed (volumetric elements) spaces makes the landscape picturesque and attractive, regardless of the design style. Open spaces (garden and park, parterre, meadow, Moorish, sports lawns) play no less significant role in the formation of the landscape than volumetric forms.
A lawn is a sod cover made of grasses or ground cover plants that replace grasses, which are the main background of plantings. A good-quality lawn with a dense grass stand plays an important sanitary and hygienic role, retaining a large amount of dust, regulating temperature conditions and air humidity . A classic lawn is a grassy covering made of cereal plants that are distinguished by biological characteristics. For perennial grasses of a temperate climate, the formation of numerous shortened vegetative shoots with nodes closely spaced at their base is characteristic.Such shoots can exist for one or several years, and then move on to flowering. Each sprout of the cereal grows independently, growing from the bottom, which makes regular mowing possible. [eleven]. However, the use of traditional grasses is problematic in the humid subtropical zone.
Recently, the share of lawn coverings in the landscaping of Sochi has increased sharply. The current situation of their creation in the zone of humid subtropics is quite critical, since, in connection with the accelerated creation of Olympic facilities, roll lawns were mainly used in landscaping areas.Responsibly, we can declare the problems of the operating organizations that are faced with the issues of the inadequate quality of lawns.
The unsatisfactory state of the lawn coverings is associated, firstly, with the violation of the device technology and, secondly, with unskilled care.
Violations of device technology . Often, the underlayment for lawns is poorly prepared. In most cases, as shown by the studies carried out by us together with the laboratory of agrochemistry and soil science, the soil layer under the lawns is structureless, often too light in particle size distribution (cohesive sandy sand and sandy loamy sand) and insufficient thickness (less than 10 cm, at a rate of 20-30 cm ), in many cases contains a large number of inclusions (pebbles, stones, rubble, construction waste, etc.), and in a number of areas it is characterized as highly stony from the surface itself. In general, it is characterized by a low level of fertility.
Initially, the customers of rolled lawns focused on suppliers of non-zoned material : cereals grown in the natural and climatic conditions of Rostov-on-Don, Volgograd, etc. are used in rolls. It would seem that these are areas where high summer temperatures are also noted, and herbaceous plants must withstand the conditions of the Greater Sochi area.However, the issues of high humidity in the region are not taken into account, when winter “lumping” of the lawn cover is possible, as well as “podperevanie” in the summer months. It is also necessary to take into account the negative impact of the sea breeze, in which the content of salt microparticles is increased, which negatively affects the survival rate and condition of the roll lawn. The formed sod does not always cope with the supply of oxygen to the root systems under these conditions. Newly created, as a rule, parterre lawns are located on large open areas, where an intense insolation regime is noted.When creating such lawns in the spring and summer months, it is necessary to use artificial “shades”.
The results of the studies carried out at several new landscaping objects (the Seaport of Sochi, the Olympic Park, the Azimut hotel, etc.) showed that many areas are in an unsatisfactory condition – there are a large number of “glades”, “bald patches”, “bald patches” »(Occupying from 30 to 90% of the area), the grass stand is weak, sparse, yellowed, dry, without signs of a normal process of photosynthesis.
Considering the issue of ways of creating lawns , it is worth noting that lately, most of the laying of finished sod has been used, slightly hydroseeding (in areas of greening of streets and highways), lawns were practically not used by the method of sowing seeds, and the vegetative method was not used at all creating coatings. It is also worth noting that in technologies for creating lawn coverings, there is practically no such procedure as sowing lawn grasses on areas with unevenly grown grasses.In our opinion, the most suitable for the zone of humid subtropics is the device of a lawn covering by sowing seeds.
It is also worth mentioning the used formulations of grass mixtures . Producers offer a very limited range of cereals. So, preference is given to fast-growing species ( Lolium perenne L. and others), used to quickly create a green background, but short-lived. They sometimes occupy up to 40% of the grass mixture. The most suitable species for creating lawns in the area under consideration, subject to agrotechnical practices, are Poa angustifolia L., Festuca rubra L., F. arundinaceae Schreb., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Agrostis stolonifera L. coastal strip and resistant to sea spray and aerosols – Festuca arundinaceae Schreb. and Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. [four].
The time of creation of lawn coverings also plays an important role.Unfortunately, many objects were created at the wrong time (November-December and July-August). The optimal time for sowing seeds of lawn grasses and laying out the finished sod is spring: from April 15 to May 15, and autumn: from September 1 to October 15, at an air temperature not lower than + 14-15 ° C. Reconstruction of the lawn coverage in humid subtropics it is best to start at the end of September – October, when daytime temperatures steadily decrease. In hot weather with intense insolation and low relative air humidity, the seeds of cereal grasses are dormant, their germination decreases [4, 10].
The quality of the lawn cover, the power of the root system and the density of the grass stand depend on regular and correct maintenance : systematic watering, constant mowing, planned pre-sowing fertilization and subsequent fertilizing, mulching, aeration, liming.
The reason for the poor quality of the turf is incorrect watering (selection of spray nozzles, hours, duration and rate of watering). This is evidenced by the general poor condition of the grass stand, the weak growth pattern of lawn grasses, and the weak formation of root systems.The optimum moisture content of the distribution zone of the bulk of the root systems of lawn grasses is 75-85% of the total moisture capacity of the soil. Good, friendly seedlings can be obtained only if the soil surface is kept moist (grass seeds are located in the uppermost, rapidly drying layer). It is necessary to irrigate evenly, using sprinklers, avoiding stagnation of water in certain areas .
Also, an important issue affecting the state of lawn coverings is the correct organization of the process of mowing grass.Regular mowing creates a dense sod that is resistant to weeds and trampling. Too low mowing of the grass stand (which is associated with the massive use of trimmers) leads to the fact that large-stemmed herbs ( Lolium perenne L., Festuca arundinaceae Schreb.) First of all fall out of the grass mixture, which negatively affects the decorative effect of the site. Prolonged non-mowing of the lawn leads to etiolation of the lower part of the shoots, the herbage lodges and loses its decorative effect.Mowing a young lawn should be started when the grass reaches a height of 10–12 cm, the grass stand is cut at a level of 4–5 cm, and in a hot period – 6–7 cm (this rule should be observed during subsequent care).
Systematic mowing of lawns causes the need for abundant and systematic nutrition in herbaceous plants, feeding in the first year of the formation of the lawn is especially important. Mineral dressings are applied three times per season: in early spring – N 30 P 30 K 10 , in the middle of summer – N 40 P 30 K 30 , in early October – N 10 P 30 K 20 .To maintain the lawn in good condition, it is necessary to apply organic fertilizers (humus, compost, fine horse manure) at a rate of 3 kg per 1 m 2 (even layer on the surface of the lawn 0.5–2 cm thick), at the beginning of the growing season. Regular feeding is a preventive measure to combat weeds, which avoids the use of herbicides prohibited for use in resort areas.
An increase in the life of the lawn is facilitated by piercing the sod for the purpose of aeration.Piercing is carried out twice a year in April and October by hand or using a roller-aerator. In humid subtropics conditions, liming of soils is an important technique, which is carried out in order to avoid “acidification” leading to the development of mosses. Mulching contributes to the creation of favorable conditions for the growth and development of cereal grasses, as well as to the strengthening of the sod. This event should be carried out every two to three years in late autumn or spring, after the first mowing with a mixture of plant soil, peat and sand with a layer of 2-3 cm.
Due to dense plantings of tree and shrub vegetation and the use of a large number of evergreens to create shady areas in the summer, grassy grasses as a lawn cover are not always applicable in the Greater Sochi region (the complexity of the relief, the low thickness of the fertile layer, the presence of age park plantings, etc.). The zone of humid subtropics and its natural and climatic conditions determine the use in lawn coverings not of herbaceous cereals, but of perennial herbaceous and woody ground cover plants, lianas.To solve practical problems of ornamental gardening in the zone of humid subtropics, a group of ground cover plants has been distinguished in the classification of tree species. Although this group is heterogeneous in the composition of its life forms, it is homogeneous in its use in landscape compositions [3, 9].
The group includes:
– open and creeping undersized conifers: Microbiota decussata Kom., Juniperus pseudosabina Fisch. & C. A. Mey., J.communis cv. Prostrata , J. sargentii cv. Glauca , varieties J. horizontalis Moench, J. davurica Pall., J. sabina L., J. chinensis L., J. squamata Lamb .;
– low-growing evergreen shrubs: Ardisia japonica (Hornst) Blume, Lonicera nitida E.H. Wilson, L. nitida cv. Microphylla , Lonicera pileata Oliv., Hypericum olympicum L., Hypericum calycinum L., Cotoneaster x watereri cv. Pendulus , Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Pachysandra terminalis Siebold et Zucc., Santolina viridis Willd., S. chamaecyparissus L., Sarcococca humilis L., Sarcococca humilis Th. Klok. et Shost., Th. marschallianus Willd., Th. serpyllum L.;
– deciduous low-growing shrubs: Jasminum nudiflorum Lindl., Cotoneaster horizontalis Decne., C. horizontalis var. wilsonii Havemeyer ex E. H. Wilson, Cotoneaster adpressus Boiss .;
– evergreen vines and lianoids: Vinca major L., V. major cv. Aureovariegata , V. minor L., Euonymus americana for. sarmentosa Nutt., E.fortunei cv. Blondy , E. fortunei cv. Golden Tip , Cotoneaster procumbens G. Klotz, C. buxifolius Wall. ex Lindl., C. radicans G. Klotz, Hedera caucasigena Pojark., H. canariensis cv. Gloire de Marengo , H. colchica (K. Koch) K. Koch, H. colchica cv. Sulfur Heart , varieties H. helix L., Rosa x hybrida x shrub climbing cv. Suma , Trachelospermum asiaticum (Siebold et Zucc.) Nakai;
– deciduous vines and lianoids: Salix repens cv. Voorthuizen , varieties Rosa x hybrida x shrub climbing ;
– herbaceous perennials: Ajuga reptans L., Carex morrowii Bott cv. Ice , Festuca glauca Lam., Erigeron kervinskianus DC., Liriope muscari L.H. Bailey cv. Variegata , Lysimachia nummularia L., Ophiopogon japonicus Ker.-Gawl., Reineckia carnea Knuth, Sedum spp. [eight].
– bamboos: Sasa v e itc hii (Carr.) Rehd., Pleioblastus humilis Nakai.
In the structure of green spaces in humid subtropics, ground cover plants play a special role, imparting a characteristic layering to the plantings and decorating the soil under densely crowned trees and shrubs. It is especially important that this group of plants in many cases does not suffer from the allelopathic influence of large tree species [1, 2, 3].
The use of such plants as a ground cover provides a decorative effect throughout the year, but also has an economically beneficial component, since agrotechnical care is somewhat simplified. Ground cover plants do not require regular cutting and mowing, watering is necessary in the first years of life and the dry summer months, these crops are more durable.
When forming lawn coverings in the area of humid subtropics, each gardening specialist must make a choice: a traditional classic lawn made of cereal crops, and the associated high physical and material costs, or an alternative lawn cover from the groups of plants recommended above.The key to a high-quality decorative lawn covering, and with it urban landscapes, is the correct selection of crops and responsible agrotechnical care.
1. Karpun, Yu.N. Subtropical floriculture of Russia / Yu.N. Karpun. – SPb: VVM, 2012 .– 198 p.
2. Karpun, Yu.N. Promising directions of research work with flower plants in the subtropical zone of Russia / Yu.N. Karpun // Subtropic. and decoration.gardening: Sat. scientific. tr. – Issue. 47. – Sochi: GNU VNIITSISK Russian Agricultural Academy, 2012. – pp. 28–37.
3. Karpun, Yu.N. Decorative dendrology of the North Caucasus / Yu.N. Karpun. – SPb: VVM, 2006 .– 392 p.
4. Mytsyk, L. P. Lawns in the south. Inform. leaflet / L.P. Mytsyk. – M .: Agropromizdat, 1985 .– 5 p.
5. Nekhuzhenko, N.A. Fundamentals of landscape design and landscape architecture / N.A. Nekhuzhenko. – SPb .: Publishing house. house “Neva”, 2004. – p. 161 – 167
6. Rubtsov, L.I. Designing gardens and parks: uch. manual for technical schools / L.I. Rubtsov. – M .: Stroyizdat, 1979 .– P.71 – 125
7. Ryndin, A.V. Features and prospects for the development of subtropical ornamental gardening in Russia / A.V. Ryndin, N.N. Karpun, A.V. Kelina // Floriculture. –2013. – No. 5. – P.11-13.
8. Ryndin, A.V. The use of perennial flower cultures in the humid subtropics of Russia / A.V. Ryndin, A.V. Kelina, K.V. Klemeshova // Subtropic. and decoration. gardening: Sat. scientific.tr. – Issue 50. – 2014. – p. 13 – 19
9. Sigalov, B. Ya. Principles of creation and maintenance of cultivated lawns / Inform. Leaflet
10. Teodoronsky, V.S. Landscape gardening and economy: a textbook for technical schools. / V.S. Teodornsky – L .: Stroyizdat, Leningrad. separate, 1978. – p. 101 – 127
11. Tsvelev, N.N. The order of cereals / N.N. Tsvelev // Plant life in 6 volumes. Ch. edited by A.L. Takhtadzhyan. – M .: Education, 1982. – T.6. – P. 341 – 378
Authors of article : Kelina Anna Viktorovna – Head of the Research and Production Department of Floriculture, Cand.biol. sciences.
Klemeshova Kristina Valerievna – head of the phytotechnology laboratory of the scientific and production department of floriculture, Cand. s.-kh. sciences.
Golden rules of the landscape. The secret of a beautiful lawn
Most of the owners of country houses strive to arrange a lawn on the site. Even if they are going to limit the landscape work to the necessary minimum and all further improvement will be reduced to paving paths, they would like to have a lawn.And few people at this moment imagine what kind of attention and care the lawn will require. To be able to walk on a green lawn in summer, you need to start caring for it immediately after the snow melts in early spring. Larisa Tisova, an agronomist of the Sady Semiramida company, told about the secrets of a beautiful lawn to the Siberian House.
A green lawn cleans the air from dust, improves the microclimate (on the hottest day, the air temperature at the surface of the lawn is 4 ° C lower than on the paving stones) and allows you to visually increase the size of the site.But in order to feel these advantages from the appearance of a lawn on the site, the owners will first have to make a lot of effort: feed the lawn on time, regularly mow, water.
1. Feed on time
The first thing to start caring for a lawn in spring is mechanical cleaning (removal of fallen leaves with a rake) and fertilization. Spring feeding should stimulate grass growth throughout the season because it is rich in nutrients.The mixture consists of three nutrients necessary for the lawn: nitrogen accelerates the growth of plants after mowing and is responsible for the growth of green mass (22 g per sq. M), phosphorus helps to develop the root system, promotes tillering (20 g per sq. M), potassium improves water exchange, increases the resistance of the lawn to low temperatures, drought, fungal diseases (applied 12 g per sq. m).
During the season, you will have to return to the procedure more than once, and the composition of nutrients will differ depending on the season and the condition of the lawn.Constant mowing of the grass during the summer injures the plants, therefore, for a faster recovery, the lawn is fed with nitrogen three times in the summer season. At the beginning of summer, 10-12 g / sq. m of nitrogen fertilization of urea, in August 7 g / sq. m.
The last time the lawn is fed in the fall to stimulate the root system, so that the grass will recover faster in the spring. Autumn dressing contains phosphorus and potassium. At this time, superphosphate 30 g / sq. m, potassium sulfate 20 g / sq. m. The last feeding should be carried out in the first decade of September.
2. Provide air access to the roots
In the spring, as soon as the water has left the lawn, it is time for aeration (lawn piercing). The purpose of this procedure is to improve air exchange at the roots and accelerate the growth of the grass.
– Over time, the soil of the lawn becomes compacted, in those areas where this occurs, less air begins to flow to the roots. Therefore, we pierce the sod to provide air access to the roots, ”explains Larisa Tisova, an agronomist at Sady Semiramida.
For this purpose, landscape designers use a special heavy roller with spikes, which rolls over the lawn and pierces holes in it, in domestic conditions the same effect, with a little more effort, can be achieved using a garden pitchfork or special sandals with spikes. Having put on such shoes, it is necessary to go through the entire area occupied by the lawn, foot to foot.
A pitchfork is used to pierce the turf every 10 cm. Aeration is carried out, as a rule, twice a season, in spring and autumn, but if the lawn is too compacted, you can also pierce the lawn in summer.
3. Regularly mow
The time for the first mowing comes in May, when the grass reaches a height of 10–15 cm.
– The first spring mowing is carried out to a height of 8 cm. Then, throughout the season, the grass is mowed to a height of 4–6 cm, explains Larisa Tisova. – The lawn should be mowed at least once a week, with intensive grass growth, the mowing should be done every five days. It is better to choose cloudy weather for mowing, do it in the evening. To achieve a uniform lawn color, move the mower in the same direction when mowing.In areas that are inaccessible to the lawn mower, in the vicinity of trees, use a trimmer.
If, for some reason, the lawn was not mowed in time and the grass has overgrown, experts advise not to mow it immediately to a height of 4–6 cm, but return to the procedure several times.
If the grass on the lawn is thinning, the lawn is most likely lacking food. In this case, mulching is carried out, the task of which is to stimulate the tillering of lawn grasses and the formation of side shoots, which should create an even green lawn.When mulching, the lawn is covered from above with an enriched mixture of humus, sand or a special soil mixture consisting of two parts of humus, two parts of black soil and one part of coarse sand. The mixture is poured onto the lawn from above, after which, using a rake, it is distributed evenly over the entire area in a layer of 1 & -2 cm.
5. Water thoroughly
Regular mowing throughout the summer season injures the lawn grass, therefore, in order to prevent the lawn from turning yellow, it must be watered abundantly and often.A lawn that is mowed once a week needs 30 liters of water per square meter every day. It is better to use automatic irrigation systems for this purpose. It is difficult to provide a large-area lawn with the required amount of water without the use of automatic equipment. If the lawn is watered by hand, the only way to check if it is getting enough moisture is to cut open the turf and see how deeply the soil is moistened. During one watering, the soil layer should be moistened to a depth of 10 cm.
Weed management is an important part of your lawn care package. Weeding can be carried out in two ways, weeding out the weeds by hand or using selective herbicides for this purpose. These formulations differ in that they act only on broad-leaved plants, without causing any harm to lawn plants. Local herbicides for weeding should be used in the spring, when the root system of the weeds is not yet sufficiently developed. During the summer season, it is advisable to weed the lawn by hand.
According to experts, if the lawn is properly cared for all season, weeding will be minimized.
– The whole range of measures for the care of the lawn not only allows you to get a beautiful lawn, but also helps to fight weeds. If the lawn is dense, if the root system of lawn plants is developed and the lawn is a solid green carpet, the weeds will not be able to break through it, ”says Larisa Tisova.