The life of the Cree IndiansLearn about the many bands of Cree Indians.
The Cree Indians are a vast tribe of Native Americans who reside in various parts of North America. These locations include the Rocky Mountain and areas along the Atlantic Coast. In Canada, the Cree Indians heavily populate Quebec and Saskatchewan. Similar to other Indian tribes, there are several bands of Cree Indians. These bands consist of the James Bay Cree, Woodland Cree, Plain Cree Indians, etc.
Within Canada, there are over 135 different bands of Cree Indians. Between Canada and the United States, there are approximately 200,000 Cree Indians. Of course, this number is only equivalent to the amount of registered Cree Indians. Hence, the number may be slightly larger.
Cree Indians were a first nation of Canada. Today, several members of the Cree tribes reside on reservations. Within the reservation, each Cree Indian tribe governs themselves separately from the rest of the nation.
Cree Indians language is French and English. Bands that reside in Canada primarily rely on French. However, there is a Cree language that continues to be spoken by a small percentage of the natives. Because of the complexity of the Cree language, it’s difficult to master. With this said, the majority of the Cree Indians choose to speak more popular languages like French and English.
Cree Indians are much like us today. Adults who live on the reservation work, whereas children are required to attend school and obtain a basic education. In addition, parents work very hard to teach and instill in their children the values and traditions of the Cree Indians.
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Facts for Kids: Cree Indians (Crees)Cree Tribe
How do you pronounce the word “Cree”? What does it mean?
Cree is pronounced to rhyme with the English word “see.” It’s a shortened form of the French word for the tribe, Kristeneaux, but it’s not clear where that word came from. It may have been a French mispronunciation of a Cree clan name (Kenistenoag) or a Cree mispronunciation of the French word for “Christian” (Chrétien.) In their own language the Crees call themselves
Where do the Crees live?
The Cree tribe is one of the largest American Indian groups in North America. There are 200,000 Cree people today living in communities throughout Canada and in parts of the northern United States (North Dakota and Montana). Here is a map showing the traditional territories of the Cree and some of their neighbors. There are also more than 100,000 Metis people in Canada. Many Metis people descend from Cree Indians and French Canadian voyageurs.
Are the Woodland Cree and Plains Cree two different tribes?
No, those are just English names that describe how different Cree bands lived. Cree Indians from prairie regions, especially in southern Manitoba and Alberta, are often known as the Plains Cree. Cree Indians who live in the forested land further to the north and east are often known as the Woodland Cree. Woodland and Plains Cree people share the same language and customs, but they had some differences in traditional lifestyle based on their environment.
How is the Cree Indian nation organized?
Each Cree community lives on its own reserve (or reservation|
The political leader of a Cree band is called a chief (okimahkan in the Cree language.
What language do the Crees speak?
Most Cree people speak English or French, but some of them also speak their native Cree language. Cree is a musical language that has complicated verbs with many parts. If you’d like to know some easy Cree words, tansi (pronounced tahn-see) is a friendly greeting and mahti (pronounced mah-tee) means “please.” You can also listen to a Cree girl singing “O Canada” in the Cree language here and read a Cree picture dictionary here.
There are many different Cree bands. Here are the homepages of two of them, Ouje-Bougoumou Cree Nation in Quebec and Enoch Cree First Nation in Alberta. On their websites, you can learn about Cree culture and history and view plenty of photographs.
How do Cree Indian children live, and what did they do in the past?
Cree boys playing darts
|They do the same things all children do–play with each other, go to school and help around the house. Many Cree children like to go hunting and fishing with their fathers. In the past, Indian kids had more chores and less time to play, just like colonial children. But Cree kids did have dolls and toys to play with, and older boys liked to play games like lacrosse. Cree Indian mothers, like many Native Americans, traditionally carried their babies in cradleboards on their backs. Here is a website with Native American cradleboard pictures.|
What were Cree men and women’s roles?
Cree men were hunters and fishermen, and they sometimes went to war to protect their families. Cree women took care of the children, built their family’s house, and gathered plants to eat and herbs to use for medicine. Both genders took part in storytelling, artwork and music, and religious festivals. In the past, the chief was always a man, but today a Cree woman can be chief too.
What were Cree homes like in the past?
|There were two types of dwellings used by the Crees. In the woodlands, Cree people lived in villages of birchbark buildings called wigwams. On the plain, Cree people pitched camp with large buffalo-hide tents called tipis (or teepees). The Plains Cree were nomadic people, and tipis were easier to move from place to place than wigwams. Here are some pictures of wigwam, tepee, and other Indian homes. Today, tipis and wigwams are only used for ceremonial purposes, not for shelter. Most Crees live in modern houses and apartment buildings, just like you.|
What was Cree clothing like? Did they wear feather headdresses and face paint?
Cree Indian women wore long dresses with removable sleeves. Cree men wore breechcloths and leggings.
The Crees also wore moccasins on their feet and cloaks or ponchos in bad weather.
Later, Cree people adapted European costume like blouses and jackets into their own style using beadwork, embroidery, and ribbon appliques. Here is a photograph of a Cree
and some photos and links about Native clothing in general.
By tradition, the Crees wore fur or leather caps decorated with feathers. Some Cree warriors wore a porcupine roach instead. (Roaches are made of porcupine hair, not their sharp quills!) In the 1800’s, some Cree chiefs began wearing long feather headdresses like their neighbors the Sioux Indians. Cree men and women both wore their hair in two long braids. The Crees painted their faces with bright colors for special occasions. They used different patterns for war paint, religious ceremonies, and festive decoration. Cree people also wore tribal tattoo art on their faces, hands, and bodies.
Today, some Cree people still use moccasins or a buckskin shirt, but they wear modern clothes like jeans instead of breechcloths… and they only wear feathers in their hair on special occasions like a dance.
What was Cree transportation like in the days before cars? Did they paddle canoes?
Yes–the Cree Indian tribe was well-known for their birchbark canoes.
After Europeans came, Cree canoe builders began
using canvas rather than birchbark to cover their canoe frames. Canoeing is still popular within the Cree nation today.
Here is a website of Native American canoe pictures.
Over land, Cree people used dogs as pack animals. (There were no horses in North America
until colonists brought them over from Europe.) The Crees also used snowshoes and sleds to help them travel in the winter.
Today, of course, Cree people also use cars… and non-native people also use canoes.
What was Cree food like in the days before supermarkets?
|The Cree Indians were primarily hunting people. Northern Cree hunters pursued caribou, elk, and moose, as well as smaller game like beaver and rabbits. The Plains Cree followed the buffalo herds in a nomadic lifestyle. For the Eastern Cree, fishing and hunting seals from canoes were more important. Cree women gathered nuts and fruits, and in southern bands, they also grew some corn. The Cree Indian man in this photo is pounding pemmican, a traditional Cree food made from dried meat. Here is a website with more information about Native Canadian food.|
What were Cree weapons and tools like in the past?
Cree moose call
|The most famous Cree weapon was the bow and arrow. The Crees used bows and arrows for both hunting and war. Other Cree weapons included spears, clubs, and knives. Here is a website with Native American weapon pictures and information. When Plains Cree men hunted buffalo, they sometimes used controlled fires to herd the animals into a trap or over a cliff. The Northern Cree hunter in this picture is using a special birchbark instrument to make sounds that attract moose. The East Crees used bone fishhooks and nets for fishing.|
What are Cree arts and crafts like?
|Cree artists are known for their quill boxes, woodcarving, and colorful beading. Like other eastern American Indians, Crees in Quebec also crafted wampum out of white and purple shell beads. Wampum beads were traded as a kind of currency, but they were more culturally important as an art material. The designs and pictures on wampum belts often told a story or represented a person’s family.|
What other Native Americans did the Cree tribe interact with?
The most important Cree trading partners were actually other Crees. There were many different Cree bands, and they were closely allied with each other. The Crees were also friendly with the Ojibwa and Stoney tribes. After Europeans arrived, the Crees became allies of the French Canadians and the mixed-race Metis people. In war, the southern Crees frequently fought against the powerful Iroquois and Dakota tribes, and the northern Crees were enemies of the Inuit (Eskimos).
What kinds of stories do the Crees tell?
There are lots of traditional Cree legends and fairy tales. Storytelling is very important to the Cree Indian culture. Here is one legend about how the Cree people hunted the moose.
What about Cree religion?
Spirituality and religion were important parts of Cree life, and some people continue to practice traditional beliefs today. It is respectful to avoid imitating religious rituals for school projects since some Cree people care about them deeply. You can read and learn about them, however. You can visit this site to learn more about Cree spirituality or this site about Indian beliefs in general.
Can you recommend a good book for me to read?
You may enjoy As Long As The Rivers Flow, the story of a ten-year-old Cree boy and his family. Younger readers may like The Eeyou or The Song Within My Heart, both of which are well-illustrated depictions of Cree life. If you’d like more in-depth information about Cree history and culture, an interesting source is The Plains Cree. You can also browse through our reading list of books about Native Americans in general. Disclaimer: we are an Amazon affiliate and our website earns a commission if you buy a book through one of these links. Most of them can also be found in a public library, though!
How do I cite your website in my bibliography?
You will need to ask your teacher for the format he or she wants you to use. The authors’ names are Laura Redish and Orrin Lewis and the title of our site is Native Languages of the Americas. We are a nonprofit educational organization working to preserve and protect Native American languages and culture. You can learn more about our organization here. Our website was first created in 1998 and last updated in 2020.
Thanks for your interest in the Cree Indian people and their language!
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Cree Tribe Facts – Native American History
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The Cree are one of the largest groups of Indigenous Americans in North America. 350,000 people in Canada have some Cree origins.
96,575 people speak the Cree language.
The Cree live all over modern-day Canada, from Alberta to Quebec.
Like many names of Native American peoples, the word Cree is not really what the Cree call themselves. They call themselves Nehiyawak.
The word Cree itself comes from a name French people gave the Cree.
When the French explorers encountered the Cree people for the first time, they called them was Kiristinon. This was then shortened to Cri, which the English spelt “Cree”.
A history of the Cree
The Cree and their ancestors have lived in the woodland areas of present-day Canada for thousands of years.
The Cree were excellent hunters and followed the seasons of animals as they migrated in order to hunt different animals. They hunted moose, caribou and rabbit.
The Cree had some very cool ways of travelling to suit both the winter and summer climates of their lands in Canada.
In summer, they traveled along the big lakes in canoes, and in winter they traveled across the deep snow on toboggans.
To walk on the snow, they used special shoes called snowshoes. These are big flat attachments for boots that let you walk across the snow more easily. They are used today in Canada in winter.
When the Europeans arrived in the 1600s, the Cree people traded furs (from the animals they hunted) for European goods, like metal tools and twine.
The Cree also exchanged Canoes for horses. Before the Europeans, the Cree had traded with other Algonquian-speaking nations, like the Innu, Algonquin and Ojibwa.
Sun Dance is a festival celebrated by the Cree. This is where the Cree people gathered to pray in order to heal.
During the Sun Dance, those Cree who celebrated would use it as a chance to reconnect with the earth and the spirits.
In 1885 a terrible thing happened when Indigenous festivals, including the Sun Dance, were banned.
Some Cree carried on performing their festival in secret because it was extremely important to them.
Young Cree people had to go on vision quests. It was a very important turning point in a young man’s life and a way to grow up.
You would get put in the forest by your elders to connect with nature and seek wisdom from the environment.
The idea was you would find your own spirit guide, which was normally an animal/human creature.
How many people speak the Cree language?
What did the Cree hunt?
How did the Cree travel in winter?
What was the Sun Dance Ceremony for?
Who would go on a vision quest?
Native Americans: Cree History and CultureNative Americans: Cree History and Culture
Index of Native American languages Index of Native American tribes What’s new on our site today!As a complement to our Cree language information, we would like to share our collection of indexed links about the Cree people and various aspects of their society. The emphasis of these pages is on American Indians as a living people with a present and a future as well as a past. Cree history is interesting and important, but the Cree are still here today, too, and we try to feature modern writers as well as traditional folklore, contemporary art as well as museum pieces, and the issues and struggles of today as well as the tragedies of yesterday. Suggestions for new links are always welcome.
Our Cree WebsitesCree Language:
Information and language learning materials from the Cree Indian language.
Cree Facts for Kids:
Questions and answers about Cree culture.
Collection of Cree Indian legends and folktales.
Cree Tribal and Community LinksOfficial homepages of individual Cree Nations, with information about tribal leadership, services, and events:
Nishnawbe Aski Nation:
Coalition of 45 Ojibway and Cree bands in Ontario.
Grand Council of the Crees:
Political voice of the James Bay Crees of Quebec.
Chisasibi Eastmain Mistissini Nemaska Waskaganish Waswanipi Wemindji Whapmagoostui:
Government profiles of the nine Cree First Nations of Quebec.
Quebec’s Northern Crees First Peoples: Crees:
Information about the Cree First Nations of Quebec.
Information about the Chippewa Cree at the Rocky Boy Reservation in Montana.
Stone Child College:
Tribally-controlled community college of the Chippewa-Cree Indians.
Cree Regional Authority: Department of Economic Development:
Information about the CRA, administrative arm of the Cree government in Quebec.
Cree School Board:
Information on Cree education, language learning, and curricula from the Cree School Board in Quebec.
Saskatchewan Indian Cultural Centre:
Dedicated to the Cree, Dene, Dakota, Saulteaux Ojibway, and Assiniboine peoples.
Friends of the Lubicon:
Non-profit group dedicated to the struggles for land rights of the Lubicon Cree.
Labrador Metis Nation:
Representing Labrador people of mixed Indian, Inuit, and European ancestry.
Fox Lake Cree Web Portal:
Community Internet portal with news, bulletins, links and a forum.
Maps of Cree LandsInnu Place Names:
Map of Quebec showing traditional East Cree and Innu placenames.
First Nations Map: Location of Amerindian Communities:
Maps of the eleven First Nations of Quebec.
Virtual Museum of New France: Plains Indians:
Historical maps and articles about the Cree, Kiowa, Pawnee, and other Plains Indian tribes.
Cree Lifestyle and TraditionPlains Cree:
Full text of a 1979 ethnography of the Plains Cree Indians.
The Western Woods Cree:
Curtis’ early 20th-century ethnography of the Woodlands Cree Indians.
Quebec History: Cree Indians:
Anthropology text on the Cree tribe.
Article on Cree history and culture.
History of the Cree tribe in Canada.
Plains Cree Subarctic Cree:
Ethnography of the Cree First Nations.
History and culture of the Cree First Nation of Alberta.
Heritage Databank: Cree Indians:
Overview of the Cree nations, with tribal maps and cultural/historical information.
Cree web portal.
First Nations People of the Peace River Area:
A variety of articles and historic photographs on the Sekani, Beaver, and Cree Indians of the Rocky Mountain trench.
Crees Cree Profile:
Cree traditional life in Quebec.
Musical Instruments: Cree:
Games of the Plains Cree Woods Cree Ball Game Swampy Cree Hoop Target:
Cree games and toys.
Interviews with Cree and other Saskatchewan First Nations elders.
Sub-Arctic Clothing Sketches Indian Dress Swampy Cree Cap War-bonnets Woods Cree Mittens Garters:
Traditional Cree clothing.
Collection of Cree Indian legends and folktales.
Storytelling: The Art of Knowledge:
Cree and Metis artifacts and storytelling.
First Nations Cradleboards:
Photographs and descriptions of Kootenai and Cree cradle boards.
Gateway to Aboriginal Heritage: Cree Western Woods Cree Nehiyaw (Plains Cree):
Online exhibit of Cree artifacts from the Canadian Museum of Civilization.
Native American Religion:
Advice for people researching traditional Cree religion and other American Indian spirituality.
Articles about contemporary Cree life from Indian and Northern Affairs Canada.
Subarctic Tribes: Cree:
Overview of gender, sex and family roles among the Cree tribes.
Cree Bannock (Frybread) Cree Pea Soup Recipe Cree Smoked Sturgeon Chokecherry Pemmican Dandelion Stir Fry:
Traditional Cree recipes.
Peguis First Nation Flag Bigstone Cree Flag Red Earth Cree Flag Kapawe’no (Grouard) Cree Flag:
Ahtahkakoop Nation Flag Whapmagoostui Cree Flag Benoit First Nation Flag:
Flags of Cree bands.
Native-owned travel agency providing some cultural information about the Chisasibi Cree.
Along the Chipewyan-Cree Interface:
Attitudes of the Chipewyan (Dene) people towards the Cree.
Cree Chippewa Cree:
Personal webpages featuring information about the Cree people (including historical portraits and biography of a Cree chief.)
Cree Literature and ArtsNative American Authors: D’Arcy McNickle The Surrounded Wind From an Enemy Sky:
Runner in the Sun The Hawk Is Hungry & Other Stories:
Prominent Cree author D’Arcy McNickle, his biographical, ethnographical, and fiction work.
Native American Authors: Tomson Highway The Rez Sisters:
Dry Lips Oughta Move to Kapuskasing Kiss of the Fur Queen:
Contemporary Cree playwright Tomson Highway.
Native American Authors: Cree Tribe:
Fifteen Cree authors, their biographies and writing.
Swampy Cree Naming Poems:
Three examples of Swampy Cree storyteller Jacob Nibenegenesabe’s poetry.
Buffy Sainte-Marie Buffy Sainte-Marie Magic follows Sainte-Marie:
Up Where We Belong Illuminations Moonshot She Used To Wanna Be A Ballerina:
Cree singer/songwriter/activist Buffy Sainte-Marie.
Michael Greyeyes Official Website Michael Greyeyes Fansite:
Cree actor/choreographer Michael Greyeyes.
Jaune Quick-to-See Smith Darlene Little Cougar Guenther, Cree Artist Clifford Pettman, Cree Artist:
Don McLeay Doug Kakekagumick:
Cree artists and their work.
Whapmagoostui Art Factory:
Featuring the artwork of Cree Indian students.
Dance Hard Showtime Here to Stay Honor Eagle Feather Come & Dance Songs of Caddo:
Cree music from the pow-wow band Northern Cree Singers.
Tootosis Family Drummers Gilbert and Gitchee Cheechoo:
Recordings from Cree musicians.
American Indian Art:
Information, photographs and links about Cree and other native art.
Cree Politics, Issues and NewsCree Nation:
The Cree Nation Magazine, published by the James Bay Cree.
Cree Statements to the United Nations:
Cree presentations on indigenous and human rights.
The James Bay Crees and Quebec Secession:
Speech by Grand Chief Matthew Coon Come.
Cree History LinksChapleau Cree History Ouje-Bougoumou Crees Lubicon Cree History:
Histories of individual Cree First Nations.
The James Bay Cree and Hydro-Quebec:
20th-century clashes between the James Bay Cree and white Canadians over hunting grounds.
Mailings and historical texts from the Lubicon Cree.
History of Cree Education:
Evolution of education within the Cree Nation.
Poundmaker, Big Bear, and the 1885 Rebellion The Northwest Resistance Northwest Rebellion:
The Northwest Rebellion of 1885.
Big Bear, Cree Chief Big Bear Monument:
Plains Cree Indian chief Mistahimaskwa (Big Bear).
Frederick Saskamoose Biography:
Hockey pioneer and residential school survivor Fred Sasakamoose.
Aboriginal Healing Foundation Indian Residential Schools Institutional Child Abuse in Canada:
Aboriginal Peoples and Residential Schools Out of the Depths:
History of the Indian boarding schools of Canada, and abuses Cree and other Indian children suffered there.
Cree and Metis GenealogyKeewetin:
Mailing list for research into Cree fur trade family histories in Canada.
Cree Genealogy Board:
Messageboard for Cree Indian descendants.
Are You Metis? Red River Métis Genealogical Collection:
Metis genealogical resources, with census indexes, marriage records, and sources for research.
North American Metis:
Genealogical mailing lists and bulletin boards for Metis ancestry.
Intended to provide information for Cree natives searching for their families. Not too much here yet.
John Leclair’s Really Big Family:
Family history of a Metis man, his Algonquin, French, and Cree ancestors.
Descendants of a Metis woman.
Native American Genealogy:
Direction for those seeking Cree and other American Indian ancestors.
Books for sale on the Cree
Our organization earns a commission from any book bought through these links Alberta Elders’ Cree Dictionary Cree Words Cree-English Lexicon:
Spoken Cree: Level One Spoken Cree: Level Two Cree Language Books Cree Books:
Cree language learning books and tapes.
Cree Language Structures: A Cree Approach Cree, Language of the Plains:
Origins of Predicates: Evidence from Plains Cree Cree Narrative:
Cree linguistics books.
The Surrounded Wind From an Enemy Sky Runner in the Sun The Hawk Is Hungry:
Books on Indian life by prominent Cree author D’Arcy McNickle.
The Rez Sisters Dry Lips Oughta Move to Kapuskasing Kiss of the Fur Queen:
Contemporary plays and a novel by Cree author Tomson Highway.
Ancestral Portraits This Land Is My Land:
Coffee-table art collections by Cree artists Frederick McDonald and George Littlechild.
Compelling photo-essay about Algonquin, Atikamekw, and Cree life.
I Dream of Yesterday and Tomorrow:
Legends and history of the James Bay Cree.
Defending the Land:
Sovereignty and forest life in James Bay Cree society.
The Temptations of Big Bear:
Biography of Cree chief Big Bear.
Born Cree Halfbreed Stolen Life: Journey of a Cree Woman Their Example Showed Me the Way:
Autobiographies of four Cree/Metis writers.
A Man Called Raven What’s the Most Beautiful Thing You Know About Horses?
Two beautiful children’s books by a Dogrib author and a Plains Cree illustrator.
Mwakwa Talks to the Loon:
Picture book illustrating a Cree legend about Loon teaching the people to hunt and fish responsibly.
The Little Duck Sikihpsis:
Picture book illustrating a Cree folktale about a duck learning to accept himself.
The Plains Cree The Montana Cree Grateful Prey: Cree Human-Animal Relationships Plains Indians:
Ethnographies/anthropological studies of the Crees.
Being Alive Well:
Health and the politics of Cree well-being.
Orders of the Dreamed:
Cree and Ojibwa religion and myth.
Sacred Stories of the Sweet Grass Cree Trickster and the Fainting Birds Story of Chakapas:
Collections of Cree traditional stories and legends.
To Please The Caribou:
Art book display of painted caribou-skin coats of the Cree, Innu, and Atikameks of Quebec and Labrador.
Handbook of North American Indians: Plains Indians:
Extensive ethnography of the Plains Cree and their neighbors.
American Indian Books:
Evolving list of books about Native Americans in general.
Links, References, and Additional InformationCree Native Groups: Crees Cree Indians:
Encyclopedia entries about the Cree Indians.
Cris Les Cris:
Information about the Crees in French and Spanish.
Information about the Crees in Spanish.
Cree Indians Cree Tribe: Crees:
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Native Americans Native Names Tribal Tattoo Designs
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Cree Tribe | Access Genealogy
Cree Indians, Cree First Nation (contracted from Kristinaux, French form of Kenistenoag, given as one of their own names). An important Algonquian tribe of British America whose former habitat was in Manitoba and Assiniboin, between Red and Saskatchewan rivers. They ranged northeastward down Nelson river to the vicinity of Hudson Bay, and northwestward almost to Athabasca lake. When they first became known to the Jesuit missionaries a part of them resided in the region of James Bay, as it is stated as early as 1640 that “they dwell on the rivers of the north sea where Nipissing go to trade with them”; but the Jesuit Relations of 1661 and 1667 indicate a region farther to the northwest as the home of the larger part of the tribe. A portion of the Cree, as appears from the tradition given by Lacombe , inhabited for a time the region about Red river, intermingled with the Chippewa and Maskegon, but were attracted to the plains by the buffalo, the Cree like the Chippewa being essentially a forest people. Many bands of Cree were virtually nomads, their movements being governed largely by the food supply. The Cree are closely related, linguistically and of otherwise, to the Chippewa. Hayden regarded them as an offshoot of the latter, and the Maskegon another division of the same ethnic group.
Cree Tribe History
At some comparatively recent time the Assiniboin, a branch of the Sioux, in consequence of a quarrel, broke away from their brethren and sought alliance with the Cree. The latter received them cordially and granted them a home in their territory, thereby forming friendly relations that have continued to the present day. The united tribes attacked and drove southwestward the Siksika and allied tribes who formerly dwelt along the Saskatchewan. The enmity between these tribes and both the Siksika and the Sioux has ever since continued. After the Cree obtained firearms they made raids into the Athapascan country, even to the Rocky mountains. and as far north as Mackenzie river, but Churchill river was accounted the extreme north limit of their territory, and in their cessions of land to Canada they claimed nothing beyond this line. Mackenzie, speaking of the region of Churchill river, says the original people of this area, probably Slaves, were driven out by the Cree.
As the people of this tribe have been friendly from their first intercourse with both the English and the French, and until quite recently were left comparatively undisturbed in the enjoyment of their territory, there has been but little recorded in regard to their history. This consists almost wholly of their contests with neighboring tribes and their relations with the Hudson Bay Co. In 1786, according to Hind, these Indians, as well as those of surrounding tribes, were reduced to less than half their former numbers by smallpox. The same disease again swept off at least half the prairie tribes in 1838. They were thus reduced, according to Hind, to one-sixth or one-eighth of their former population. In more recent years, since game has become scarce, they have lived chiefly in scattered bands, depending largely on trade with the agents of the Hudson Bay Co. At present they are gathered chiefly in bands on various reserves in Manitoba, mostly with the Chippewa.
Their dispersion into bands subject to different conditions with regard to the supply and character of their food has resulted in varying physical characteristics; hence the varying descriptions given by explorers. Mackenzie, who describes the Cree comprehensively, says they are of moderate stature, well proportioned, and of great activity. Their complexion is copper-colored and their hair black, as is common among Indians. Their eyes are black, keen, and penetrating; their countenance open and agreeable. In regard to the women he says: “Of all the nations which I have seen on this continent, the Knisteneaux women are the most comely. Their figure is generally well proportioned, and the regularity of their features would be acknowledged by the inure civilized people of Europe. Their complexion has less of that dark tinge which is common to those savages who have less cleanly habits.” Umfreville, from whom Mackenzie appears to have copied in part what is here stated, says that they are more inclined to be lean of body than otherwise, a corpulent Indian being “a much greater curiosity than a sober one.” Clark describes the Cree seen by him as wretchedly poor and mentally and physically inferior to the Plains Indians; and Harmon says that those of the tribe who inhabit the plains are fairer and more cleanly than the others.
Their hair was cut in various fashions, according to the tribal divisions, and by some left in its natural state. Henry says the young men shaved off the hair except a small spot on the crown of the head. Their dress consisted of tight leggings, reaching nearly to the hip, a strip of cloth or leather about 1 ft. wide and 5 ft. long passing between the legs and under a belt around the waist, the ends being allowed to hang down in front and behind; a vest or shirt reaching to the hips; sometimes a cap for the head made of a piece of fur or a small skin, and sometimes a robe thrown over the dress. These articles, with moccasins and mittens, constituted their apparel. The dress of the women consisted of the same materials, but the shirt extended to the knees, being fastened over the shoulders with cords and at the waist with a belt, and having a flap at the shoulders; the arms were covered to the wrist with detached sleeves.
Umfreville says that in trading, fraud, cunning, Indian finesse, and every concomitant vice was practiced by them from the boy of 12 years to the octogenarian, but where trade was not concerned they were scrupulously honest. Mackenzie says that they were naturally mild and affable, as well as just in their dealings among themselves and with strangers; that any deviation from these traits is to be attributed to the influence of the white traders. He also describes them as generous, hospitable, and exceedingly good natured except when under the influence of spirituous liquor. Chastity was not considered a virtue among them, though infidelity of a wife was sometimes severely punished. Polygamy was common; and when a man’s wife died it was considered his duty to marry her sister, if she had one. The arms and utensils used before trade articles were introduced by the whites were pots of stone, arrow-points, spearheads, hatchets, and other edged tools of flint, knives of buffalo rib, fishhooks made out of sturgeon hones, and awls from bones of the moose. The fibrous roots of the white pine were used as twine for sewing their bark canoes, and a kind of thread from a weed for making nets. Spoons and pans were fashioned front the horns of the moose (Hayden). They sometimes made fishhooks by inserting a piece of bone obliquely into a stick and sharpening the point. Their lines were either thongs fastened together or braided willow bark. Their skin tipis, like those of the northern Athapascan, were raised on poles set up in conical form, but were usually more commodious. They occasionally erect a larger structure of lattice work, covered with birch bark, in which 40 men or more can assemble for council, feasting, or religious rites.
The dead were usually buried in shallow graves, the body being covered with a pile of stones and earth to protect it from beasts of prey. The grave was lined with branches, some of the articles belonging to the deceased being placed in it, and in some sections a sort of canopy was erected over it. Where the deceased had distinguished himself in war his body was laid, according to Mackenzie, on a kind of scaffolding; but at a later date Hayden says they did not practice tree or scaffold burial. Tattooing was almost universal among the Cree before it was abandoned through the influence of the whites. The women were content with having a line or two drawn from the corners of the month toward the angles of the lower jaw; but some of the men covered their bodies with lines and figures. The Cree of the Woods are expert canoe men and the women lighten considerably their labors by the use of the canoe, especially where lakes and rivers abound. A double-head drum and a rattle are used in all religious ceremonies except those which take place in the sweat house. Their religious beliefs are generally similar to those of the Chippewa.
In 1776, before smallpox had greatly reduced them, the population of the Cree proper was estimated at about 15,000. Most of the estimates during the last century give them from 2,500 to 3,000. There are now about 10,000 in Manitoba (7,000 under agencies) and about 5,000 roving in Northwest Territory; total, 15,000.
Chippewa Cree (North Central Montana) – UM Natural Areas / Payne Family Native American Center Garden
(Eagle Butte in the Bears Paw Mountains)The Place
Circle 4 represents ecoregions on the 128,000 acre Rocky Boy reservation. This beautiful area in North-Central Monatana is mostly bottomlands and prairies except for the majestic Bears Paw Mountains. The Rocky Boy is the youngest reservation, established September 7, 1916, and also the smallest of the reservations in Montana.
(Chippewa Cree Pow-wow)The People
The Rocky Boy reservation’s name comes from a translation of the name of Chippewa leader, Asiniiwin. The name translates to “Stone Child.” Both the Chippewa and Cree tribes live on the Rocky Boy reservation. Historically, the Chippewa, also referred to as the Ojibwe, migrated westward from the Midwestern United States the and arrived in Montana sometime between 1885 and 1892. The Cree tribe primarily called Canada home but considered Montana an important part of their homelands and frequently hunted along the borders of Montana and North Dakota.The Plants Pussy Toes (Antennaria microphylla):
Pussy Toes can be brewed into a tea and drank after childbirth to prevent illness. It is also used to cure rattlesnake bites and treat coughs. The pleasant flavor also made this plant popular as a chewing gum.Wild Mint (Mentha arvensis):
Wild Mint is used to relieve gas and prevent vomiting. It is also used to to strengthen heart muscles, stimulate vital organs, and to treat headaches, colds, coughs and fevers. It is usually brewed into a tea and consumed.
This plant is used to aid women during child birth. A bread and cake can be made from Camas and the bulbs are usually boiled for soup, cooked with meat, and roasted to be eaten on their own.Rocky Mountain Iris (Iris missouriensis):
The Chippewa Cree use the Rocky Mountain Iris as an external application for skin problems. The pulped root is placed in the tooth cavity or on the gum in order to bring relief from toothaches. The root is also used in ear drops to treat earaches. When the root is mashed, it is applied to rheumatic joints. Rocky Mountain Iris is thought to be poisonous.Hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii)
Hawthorn berries are eaten to strengthen the heart, and to thin the blood. The bark is used as an anti-inflammatory, and alleviates digestive ails. The wood is fashioned into diggings sticks and handles for tools. The Bark and shoots are burned and mixed with ashes and grease to create face paint.Species List:
- Bee Balm (Monarda fistulosa)
- Idaho Fescue (Festuca idahoensis)
- Needle and Thread grass (Stipa comata)
- Pussy Toes (Antennaria microphylla)
- Rocky Mountain Iris (Iris missouriensis)
- Small Camas (Camassia quamash)
- Wild Mint (Mentha arvensis)
The main feature of Cree culture is the close relationship between individuals and groups. Flexibility and friendliness towards outsiders have become one of the greatest strengths of the Cree people. For most of their history, the Crees have lived in small, family-organized groups. The men were supposed to hunt and protect the tribe, while the women set up the camp and took care of the household.Indians could join a tribe and leave for another tribe of their own accord. Strangers could marry, they were accepted into the tribe, which strengthened relations with the Cree tribes, other Indian peoples, mestizos and Europeans.
The choice of the leader in these groups was determined more by personal qualities than by inheritance. For example, the son of a leader does not necessarily become a leader after his father. The leader was chosen one who showed courage, political wisdom, flexibility of thinking and eloquence.The leader was required to be generous towards his fellow tribesmen and members of other tribes, the ability to bestow and mediate. The leader had to be able to listen to the opinion of the council when making a decision. Communities of warriors and dancers provided an opportunity for new generations of future leaders to prove themselves and gain the necessary experience in war and politics.
In view of the decentralized tribal power, it is hardly possible to speak of the Crees as a whole, especially after they came into contact with Europeans. Each leader himself decided whether to negotiate or fight, but at the same time, as we will see, he acted as part of the Cree people.
Like many other Indian peoples, the Crees trusted oral tradition for their history, including various myths about the creation of the world, sometimes different among different tribes. In one of the myths, the ancestors walk through the clouds, see a blooming green world below, cut by rivers and bays, and decide to settle in it. They ask a great spirit to help them descend from heaven, and he makes a cup of clouds, asks them to sit in it and brings it to the lower world. But the bowl lands on a tree. The animals run past and do not want to help, and only the marten climbs the tree and helps people to go down from it.
The first records of the Crees date back to the early 17th century, when Henry Hudson (Hudson) explored James Bay and Hudson Bay. Soon a large-scale trade in furs with Europeans began, which radically changed the entire way of life of the Cree and other peoples of North America.
During this period, the Crees lived mainly south of Hudson Bay, in the territory of the present-day provinces of Ontario and Quebec. They were engaged in the hunting of fur animals and trade in furs, exchanging them for European goods.The tribes established strong relations with mestizos and Europeans, developed trade. Often the Cree resold European goods to allied Indian tribes.
Eventually, the Crees, Sotho and Assiniboins formed a military-political alliance known as the Iron Confederation, which lasted over 150 years and wielded significant influence in central Canada. The Confederation was founded to trade furs with Europeans. During its existence, many Cree tribes migrated west, from forests to prairies, and from forest trappers they became horse warriors and bison hunters.The settlement of the Cree to the west led to conflict with other Indian peoples and to periodic wars with the Blackfeet and Shoshone.
These tribal conflicts took the form of wars over resources (horses, bison) and territory. Raids, retaliation, and retaliation were gradually diminishing due to negotiation, intertribal adoption (see Poundmaker) and the need to counter the looming crisis in the plains.
In the middle of the 19th century. the predatory extermination of bison for the sake of meat and skins led to a sharp reduction in the number of these animals.The land of the Cree Indians, located in the deciduous forest zone, suffered from this no less than the southern prairies. The “tragedy of the communities” grew worse until the Cree tribes, deprived of their livelihoods, turned to the Canadian government for help.
The Cree participated in the signing of “Numbered Agreements” with the Government of Canada, believing that this will provide them with assistance and assistance in the transition to a new way of life, as well as reduce the influx of white settlers to their lands. It often happened that the tribe signed an agreement on its own behalf, and the government believed that the tribe was speaking on behalf of the entire people, which subsequently led to accusations of the Indians for non-compliance with the terms of the agreements.These accusations gave the government an excuse not to fulfill its part of the agreements, which exacerbated the already difficult situation of the Indians.
Some Cree chiefs – such as Big Bear (Mistahimaskwa) and Poundmaker (Pihtokahanapiwiyin) – refused to sign (or under duress) these agreements because they saw them as an attempt to destroy the traditional Indian way of life.
Several Assiniboine and Cree tribes took part in the uprising that occurred simultaneously with the Northwest Mestiz uprising.It was caused by the inability of the Canadian authorities to fulfill the terms of the signed agreements and the dire poverty of Indians on the reservations and free territories after the extermination of the buffalo. The numerical superiority of government troops, the advantage in weapons and supplies, as well as the lack of coordination of the actions of the rebellious tribes led to the defeat of the Indians. The Iron Confederation in Canada was over.
After the suppression of the uprising, the Cree were relocated to reservations, deprived of the rights to resources on their territory, their traditional culture was under government supervision.Their children were forcibly sent to boarding schools, the purpose of which was forcible assimilation, depriving children of the opportunity to learn their native language and the traditions of their ancestors. For the Cree culture, this had tragic, irreparable consequences. Traditions were irretrievably lost, and many generations will suffer from this.
But the Cree did not stop fighting for their rights, for the right to participate in governing their country. In the second half of the 20th century, the number of Cree speakers increased, and this largest Indian people in Canada continues to fight for the rights of Aboriginal people around the world, for the protection of nature, for the preservation of traditional Indian culture.
Indians in 10 questions • Arzamas
Did the North American Indians really live in wigwams, is it correct to depict them with a bow and arrow and whether they have a common language
By Evgenia Korovin
1 . When and how the Indians got to America
There are two main points of view. According to the first (the so-called “short chronology”), people came to America about 14-16 thousand years ago. At that time, the sea level was 130 meters lower than modern, in addition, in winter it was easy to cross the strait on ice on foot…. According to the second, people settled in the New World much earlier, from 50 to 20 thousand years ago (“long chronology”). The answer to the question “How?” much more specific: the ancient ancestors of the Indians came from Siberia through the Bering Strait, and then went south – either along the western coast of America, or along the central part of the mainland through the ice-free space between the Laurentian ice sheet and the glaciers of the Coast Ranges in Canada. However, regardless of how exactly the first inhabitants of America moved, traces of their early presence were either deep under water due to rising sea levels (if they walked along the Pacific coast), or destroyed by the actions of glaciers (if people walked along the central part of the mainland ).Therefore, the earliest archaeological finds are not found in Beringia Beringia – a biogeographic region linking Northeast Asia and northwestern North America, but much further south – for example, in Texas, in northern Mexico, in southern Chile.
2. Did the Indians in the east of the United States differ from the Indians in the westChief Timukua. Engraving by Theodore de Brie after a drawing by Jacques Le Moine. 1591 Brevis narratio eorum quae in Florida Americae provincia Gallis acciderunt / book-graphics.blogspot.com
There are about ten cultural types of North American Indians Arctic (Eskimos, Aleuts), Subarctic, California (Chumash, Vasho), northeastern USA (Woodland), Great Basin, Plateau, northwest coast, Great Plains, southeastern United States, southwestern United States .. Thus, the Indians who inhabited California (for example, Miwoks or Klamath) were hunters, fishermen and engaged in gathering. The inhabitants of the Southwest of the United States – Shoshone, Zuni and Hopi – belong to the so-called pueblo crops: they were agriculturalists and grew corn, beans and pumpkin.Much less is known about the Indians of the east of the United States, and especially the southeast, since most of the Indian tribes died out with the arrival of the Europeans. For example, until the 18th century, the Timuqua people lived in Florida, distinguished by their wealth of tattoos. The lives of these people are recorded in the drawings of Jacques Le Moine, who visited Florida in 1564-1565 and became the first European artist to depict Native Americans.
3. Where and how the Indians lived
Apache wigwam.Photo by Noah Hamilton Rose. Arizona, 1880 Denver Public Library / Wikimedia Commons
Adobe houses in Taos Pueblo, New Mexico. Around 1900 Library of Congress
In wigwams – stationary dwellings made of branches and animal skins in the shape of a dome – the Indians of the forest zone in the north and northeast of America lived, while the Pueblo Indians traditionally built adobe houses. The word “wigwam” comes from one of the Algonquian languages Algonquian languages – a group of Algian languages, one of the largest language families.Algonquian languages are spoken by about 190 thousand people in the east and central part of Canada, as well as on the northeastern coast of the United States, in particular the Cree and Ojibwe Indians. and translated means something like “home”. Wigwams were built from branches that were tied together, forming a structure, which was covered with bark or skins on top. An interesting version of this Indian dwelling is the so-called long houses in which the Iroquois Iroquois are a group of tribes with a total number of about 120 thousand people living in the USA and Canada…. They were made of wood, and their length could exceed 20 meters: several families lived in one such house at once, whose members were relatives to each other.
Many Indian tribes, for example the Ojibwe, had a special steam bath – the so-called sweat wigwam. It was a separate building, as you might guess, for washing. However, the Indians did not wash themselves too often – usually several times a month – and they used the steam bath not so much to become cleaner, but as a remedy.It was believed that the bath helps with diseases, but if you feel well, you can do without washing.
4. What did they eat
Man and woman eating. Engraving by Theodore de Brie after a drawing by John White. 1590 North Carolina Collection / UNC Libraries
Sowing maize or beans. Engraving by Theodore de Brie after a drawing by Jacques Le Moine. 1591 Brevis narratio eorum quae in Florida Americae provincia Gallis acciderunt / book-graphics.blogspot.com
Smoking meat and fish. Engraving by Theodore de Brie after a drawing by Jacques Le Moine. 1591 Brevis narratio eorum quae in Florida Americae provincia Gallis acciderunt / book-graphics.blogspot.com
The diet of the Indians of North America was quite varied and varied greatly depending on the tribe. For example, the Tlingits, who lived on the coast of the North Pacific Ocean, mainly ate fish and seal meat. Pueblo farmers ate both corn dishes and meat from hunting animals.And the main food of the Californian Indians was acorn porridge. To prepare it, it was necessary to collect acorns, dry, peel and grind. Then the acorns were put in a basket and boiled on hot stones. The resulting dish looked like a cross between soup and porridge. They ate it with spoons or just with their hands. The Navajo Indians used corn to make bread, and the recipe has survived:
“To make bread, you need twelve ears of corn with leaves. First you need to exfoliate the cobs and grind the grains with a grain grater.Then wrap the resulting mass in corn leaves. Dig a hole in the ground large enough to hold the packages. Make a fire in the pit. When the ground has warmed up properly, remove the coals and put the bundles in the pit. Cover them and make a fire from above. The bread is baked for about an hour. ”
5. Could a non-Indian lead the tribeGovernor Solomon Bibo (second from left). 1883 Palace of the Governors Photo Archive / New Mexico Digital Collections
From 1885 to 1889, the Jew, Solomon Bibo, served as governor of the Akoma Pueblo Indians, with whom he traded since the mid-1870s.Bibo was married to an Akoma woman. True, this is the only known case where a pueblo was led by a non-Indian.
6. Who is Kennewick Man
In 1996, in the area of the small town of Kennewick in Washington state, the remains of one of the ancient inhabitants of North America were found. They called him that – the Kennewick man. Outwardly, he was very different from modern American Indians: he was very tall, wore a beard and rather resembled modern Ainu Ainu – the ancient inhabitants of the Japanese islands…. The researchers suggested that the skeleton belonged to a European who lived in these places in the 19th century. However, radiocarbon analysis showed that the owner of the skeleton lived 9,300 years ago.Reconstruction of the appearance of a Kennewick man © Brittney Tatchell / Smithsonian Institution
The skeleton is now housed in the Burke Museum of Natural History in Seattle, and modern Washington Indians regularly demand that the remains be handed over to them for burial in accordance with Indian traditions.However, there is no reason to believe that the Kennewick man during his lifetime belonged to any of these tribes or their ancestors.
7. What the Indians thought of the moon
Native American mythology is very diverse: its heroes are often animals, such as coyote, beaver or raven, or celestial bodies – stars, sun and moon. For example, members of the Californian Vinto tribe believed that the moon owed its appearance to a bear who tried to bite it, and the Iroquois claimed that there was an old woman weaving linen on the moon (the unfortunate woman was sent there because she could not predict when the world would end ).
8. When the Indians had a bow and arrowVirginia Indians. Hunting scene. Engraving by Theodore de Brie after a drawing by John White. 1590 North Carolina Collection / UNC Libraries
Today, the Indians of various North American tribes are often depicted holding or shooting a bow. This has not always been the case. Historians know nothing about the fact that the first inhabitants of North America hunted with a bow. But there is information that they used a variety of spears.The first finds of arrowheads date back to around the ninth millennium BC. They were made on the territory of modern Alaska – only then the technology gradually penetrated into other parts of the continent. By the middle of the third millennium BC, onions appear on the territory of modern Canada, and at the beginning of our era they come to the territory of the Great Plains and California. In the southwestern United States, bows and arrows appeared even later – in the middle of the first millennium AD.
9. What languages do the Indians speakPortrait of a Sequoia, creator of Cherokee syllabary writing.Painting by Henry Inman. Around 1830 National Portrait Gallery, Washington / Wikimedia Commons
Today, North American Indians speak approximately 270 different languages, which belong to 29 language families, and 27 isolate languages, that is, isolated languages that do not belong to any then a large family, but form their own. When the first Europeans came to America, there were much more Indian languages, but many tribes died out or lost their language. Most of the Indian languages have survived in California: 74 languages are spoken there, belonging to 18 language families.Among the most common North American languages are Navajo (it is spoken by about 180 thousand Indians), Cree (about 117 thousand) and Ojibwe (about 100 thousand). Most Native American languages now use the Latin alphabet, although the Cherokee use the original syllabic script developed in the early 19th century. Most of the Indian languages may disappear – after all, less than 30% of ethnic Indians speak them.
10. How do modern Indians live
Today, most of the descendants of the Indians of the United States and Canada live in much the same way as the descendants of Europeans.Only a third of them are reservations – autonomous Indian territories, accounting for about two percent of the area of the United States. Modern Indians enjoy a number of benefits, and in order to get them, you need to prove your Indian origin. It is enough for your ancestor to be mentioned in the early 20th century census or to have a certain percentage of Native American blood.
Tribes determine in different ways whether a person belongs to them. For example, Pueblo Isleta consider their own only one who has at least one parent was a member of the tribe and a purebred Indian.But the Oklahoma Iowa tribe is more liberal: to become a member, you need to have only 1/16 of Indian blood. At the same time, neither knowledge of the language, nor adherence to Indian traditions has any value.
See also Central and South American Indians in the Myths of South America course.
Daily short materials that we have produced for the last three yearsArchive
Due to the wave of suicides in an Indian village in Canada, an emergency has been declared
Photo author, ThinkstockPhoto caption,
Residents of the village Attavapiscats complain of high unemployment and housing shortages
The authorities of the Indian Reservation in the north of the Canadian province of Ontario declared a state of emergency after 11 people tried to commit suicide in one day.
There were 28 suicide attempts in the Cree community of Attawapiskat in March. Since last September there have been more than 100 such attempts. At least one person managed to commit suicide.
Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau described the community as heartbreaking.
Canada’s aboriginal population reaches 1.4 million. Many of them live in deep poverty. Their life expectancy is also below the Canadian average.
Brus Shishish, chieftain of the Cree Indians of the Attawapiskat community, said he declared a state of emergency after 11 people attempted suicide on Saturday.
Photo author, Google mapsPhoto caption,
Attavapiskat village is geographically isolated
A little more than one and a half thousand people live in the Attavapiskat village.
The settlement is geographically isolated. It is located in the north of Ontario, on the west coast of James Bay Hudson Bay.
There is a high level of unemployment and alcoholism in the community. Residents also complain about housing shortages and high food prices.
A Health Canada spokesman said two Aboriginal psychologists have been deployed to the village.
Charlie Angus, local MP, calls the situation in Attawapiskat and other indigenous communities in the north a national disaster.
According to him, these communities found themselves in a crisis situation, to which the government has not yet responded in any way.
“If this had happened elsewhere, there would have been an immediate reaction.I don’t remember how many times such a state of emergency was declared in the James Bay area, ”he says.
For his part, Prime Minister Trudeau said that the government will continue to do everything possible to improve living conditions in the settlements
Photo author, GettyPhoto caption,
In January 2013, residents of the village of Attawapiskat protested outside the parliament building in Ottawa, demanding a solution to the unemployment problem
In March, authorities of another Indian reservation in the province of Manitoba turned to to the federal government after six residents of the reservation committed suicide in two months and another 140 attempted suicide over a two-week period.
Education abroad, study abroad, study abroad – Students International
Population : 210,000 people
Foundation year : 1883
The city of Saskatoon, which is the center of the province of Saskatchewan, stretches along the banks of the South Saskatchewan River. Its area is over 144 km2, including over 120 hectares of coastal parks.The city is located 780 km northwest of Winnipeg, 520 km southeast of Edmonton and 300 km north of the US border. Saskatoon is the largest city in the province of Saskatchewan with 209,000 inhabitants. The name Saskatoon comes from the Cree Berry “Mis-sask-quah-toomina”, which is now known as the Saskatoon berry. The site where Saskatoon is located has been inhabited for 6,000 years. But only in 1883 the first settlers began to arrive here, and it received the charter of the city in 1903.The inhabitants of the city are proud of its location and take full advantage of these advantages: a system of parks and routes for tourists, museums, places of historical heritage, artistic and cultural events, recreational opportunities. In a Globe and Mail report, Saskatoon is described as “a small, sunny city where quality of life stems from a spirit of prairie-community cooperation.” Most cultural and recreational facilities in the city are located within 15 minutes’ drive of the premises, and the cost of living is among the lowest in North American cities.
The city often hosts a variety of world-class annual festivals, exhibitions, cultural and sporting events, which are actively attended by the residents of the city. It is customary to see people in the evening strolling along the alleys in parks along the river or visiting pubs or restaurants in the city center. Children go to school safely, air and water quality is among the highest in the world.
The province of Saskatchewan grows half of all Canadian exports of major grains: wheat, oats, barley, rye, flax seeds, and canola.Saskatoon is at the center of this market, providing a variety of services and products to the farming sector. Mining is an important part of the economy. The Saskatoon region is the largest exporter of uranium in the world, and about 2/3 of the potash deposits are also found here. The food industry is growing at the fastest pace and uses advanced Canadian agricultural biotechnology. In 1995, Saskatoon was voted one of Canada’s Best Cities for its “Knowledge Based Business” (Globe and Mail).
The city is attractive to IT companies due to its excellent infrastructure and environment. More than one hundred companies provide a wide range of services, including programming, software, integration systems, data processing, information retrieval, technical support and repairs for all sectors of the market.
Saskatoon is widely recognized as one of the best and most efficient cities for warehousing and transportation of goods in western North America, mainly due to the low prices for transportation services.For this indicator, the city has no equal in North America. Low prices coupled with the city’s location, labor force, sufficient transport companies and telecommunications technology have created the infrastructure for the industry in Saskatoon.
Saskatooni has great educational opportunities: a large number of high schools, technical schools and Saskatchewan University. The university is the only one in Canada to have 5 colleges from all branches of health care and a main teaching hospital in the same territory.Some of the first experiments carried out aboard the Space Shuttle were the result of university research. The Innovation Park is one of North America’s university research centers.
Saskatoon has many attractions for visitors throughout the year. History comes to life in many museums. These include the Western Development Museum with its popular Mainstreet Boomtown, and the six thousand-year history of the region’s settlement can be seen at Wanuskewin Heritage Park.
Every year the city hosts many festivals and outstanding events: Winterfest (winter festival) in February, ethnic celebrations of Folkfest and Spring, the famous Saskatchewan jazz festivals, the popular Saskatoon Exhibition.
For more information about Saskatoon and photos of the city, see on the official website of the city
90,000 CREE LANGUAGES | Encyclopedia Around the World
CRI LANGUAGES, is a group of Native American languages or dialects belonging to the Algonquian language family and spoken in central Canada.It is impossible to decide unequivocally whether the Cree varieties are closely related languages or different dialects of the same language. If we consider the Cree as one language, then it is the North American Indian language with the longest distribution area – from the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in the west to James Bay in the east (almost 3000 km). This area includes parts of the provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec. Many researchers refer to the Cree species as separate languages. In the western Cree range, there are the Plains Cree (Alberta, Saskatchewan), Woods Cree: Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Western Swampy Cree: Manitoba, Ontario.These three languages are sometimes referred to as “Western Cree”. Somewhat to the east (northern Ontario and the adjoining part of Quebec) are the Eastern Swampy Cree and the Moose Cree. Together, these two languages are often referred to as “central Cree”. This exhausts the list of Cree languages in the narrow sense. The language closest to the listed languages is Atticamec (tete de boule), located in the center of the province of Quebec. In addition, there is also the Eastern Cree language (East Cree, Quebec, east coast of James Bay), which, despite its name, is linguistically closer to the Algonquian languages of the Montagnier-Nascapi group, common in the Labrador Peninsula, and not to other Cree languages …
The total number of Cree speakers ranges from 50 to 70 thousand. The largest language in terms of the number of speakers is the plain Cree. In many places, children continue to learn Cree as their first language. Cree-English (or Cree-French) bilingualism is widespread.
The Cree languages were documented in the 19th century. Protestant and Catholic missionaries. In the middle of the 19th century. missionary James Evans invented the original syllabic script for the Crees, which was applied to other languages of the region (Algonquian, Athabaskan and Eskimo) and is still used today.The plain Cree was studied by the American linguist L. Bloomfield. Nowadays, Cree is a well-documented language, there are grammars, dictionaries, school materials. Cree languages are taught in schools. In a number of communities, literacy in Cree is close to 100%.
The Cree languages are of the polysynthetic type. The verb has a complex morphological structure, many grammatical categories are expressed in it. The morphology of the name is much simpler. It is widely known that the opposition of two third parties, which is characteristic of the Cree (as well as for other Algonquian languages), is the proximate (near) and the obviative (distant).This distinction can be explicitly marked on names and then used in coding predicate-argument relations and in maintaining reference in discourse.
The only Cree word that entered the Russian language (via English) is pemmikan (Cree pimihkaam ). There are several other Cree terms in English, mainly for natural objects, for example muskeg ‘peat or lake swamp’. From the lowland Cree comes the name of Lake Athabasca in Alberta and Saskatchewan, which in turn gave the name to the Athabaskan language family.In European languages there are a number of loanwords from other Algonquian languages - such as squaw , moccasins , tomahawk , wigwam .
On the basis of the plain Cree, one of the rare types of contact languages arose – the mixed Michif language (Mi [t] chif). In the 18-19 centuries. in Canada, there was a mixing of the lowland Cree with the French trappers. Later, Cree-French mestizos moved to the American state of North Dakota and developed a language in which the verb system (including vocabulary and morphology) is taken from the Plains Cree, and the nominal vocabulary is mainly from French.For example, in the phrase la fam michiminew li pchi-wa ‘a woman is holding a child’ names and articles are of French origin ( la fam ‘woman’ from French la femme ‘woman’, li pchi ‘child’ from French le petit ‘baby’), and the verb and nominal suffix -wa are from Cree.
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Which of the founders of the detective genre served a prison sentence for theft?90,000 The Prime Minister of Canada acquitted an Indian leader convicted 134 years ago – Society
OTTAWA, May 24./ TASS /. Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau on Thursday made an official apology to the Cree Indian tribe, whose leader was convicted of high treason 134 years ago by the colonial government. He made a special statement during a visit to a Canadian indigenous settlement in the province of Saskatchewan.
The head of state also acquitted their leader named Poundmaker, who was convicted in 1885 for participating in the so-called Northwest Uprising or the Saskatchewan Uprising.The leader was sentenced to imprisonment. He was released from prison in 1886 and died almost immediately of lung disease.
During his speech, Trudeau called Poundmaker a peacemaker, as he escaped much bloodshed and eventually surrendered to the Canadian authorities. “In 2019, we recognize the truth in his words that as a leader, as a politician and as a peacemaker, he did his best to prevent senseless deaths. It took us 134 years to reach this turning point – Leader Poundmaker’s acquittal,” – said the head of the Canadian government.He also visited the grave of the leader.
In recent years, more and more often, representatives of the indigenous peoples of Canada and their comrades-in-arms from among the descendants of European settlers demand that Ottawa revise the assessment of the activities of some historical figures who played an important role in the formation of the country. In particular, we are talking about the first Prime Minister of Canada, Sir John MacDonald (1815-1891), who, in their opinion, is “the architect of the genocide of the indigenous population of the country.”MacDonald was involved in the emergence of the “Indian Act” (1876), which, among other things, allowed the seizure of their land from the indigenous people for the construction of railways, as well as the creation of so-called resident schools, where Indian children were forcibly taken in order to integrate them into Canadian society.
Other historical figures who have done a lot for the formation of Canada as a state are also criticized. So, in January 2018, the authorities of Halifax (province of Nova Scotia) ordered the dismantling of the statue of the founder of this port city, Edward Cornwallis (1713-1776), for the sake of, as it was stated, “reconciliation with local Indian tribes.”The mayor of the city, Michael Savage, then explained this step by the desire to rethink Canadian history. General of the British army Cornwallis, who laid the foundation for Halifax in 1749, during the years of colonization announced a reward for Indian scalps, which led to the massacres of the indigenous people.
The current liberal government of Canada is in favor of complete reconciliation of the descendants of Europeans with the indigenous population of the country. In November 2017, Trudeau officially apologized to the indigenous people of the country who were trained in resident schools, the last of which was closed only in 1996.The authorities also announced that they would pay C $ 800 million ($ 638 million) in compensation to these people.
In March 2018, the head of state in the national parliament made a formal apology to an Indian tribe from the province of British Columbia, whose leaders were hanged more than 150 years ago by the colonial government of Canada. Also Trudeau fully acquitted the victims.
By the beginning of colonization, about 100 thousand Indians and Eskimos lived on the territory of modern Canada.Their growth was hampered by both inter-tribal wars and the actions of the colonialists, who drove the indigenous population into the reservations. The Aboriginal population of Canada has increased dramatically since the 1960s, when infant mortality on reservations declined. Currently, about 1 million representatives of the country’s indigenous peoples live in Canada.90,000 Mrs. Universe 2015 title went to Ashley Bournham from Canada
Photo: Victor Drachev / TASS
Mrs Universe 2015 became Ashley Bournham from Canada.It turned out that the owner of the title is a representative of the Cree Indian tribe. A photo of the winner with her husband has already appeared on her Instagram.
The winner of the “Mrs. Universe – 2015” competition has been announced. This title went to Ashley Burnham from Canada. She is 25 years old, she is a model and actress, writes Edmonton Journal. The participant from Canada is a member of the Cree Indian tribe. She is the first Indian to win this beauty pageantCanadian Prime Minister Steve Harper resigns after electoral defeat Canada
Canadian Prime Minister Steve Harper resigns after electoral defeat
“I am so proud to be the new @ mrsuniverse2015 !!! I am the first North American Indian to win this title! I am also the first delegate from Canada to become Mrs. Universe.”I’m so glad now, “wrote the winner of” Mrs. Universe – 2015 “on her page on the social network Facebook.
“Mrs. Universe – 2015”: participants, photo
The beauty contest “Mrs. Universe – 2015” was held in Minsk. The final took place on August 29. Among the participants, the closest rivals of Ashley Bournham from Canada were the representatives of South Africa, Ukraine and Costa Rica.
In total, participants from more than 60 countries competed for the title “Mrs Universe – 2015”.The beauty contest among married women was held in Minsk from 24 to 30 August 2015. This year the event wanted to draw attention to the problem of violence against women.
The second place in the competition “Mrs. Universe – 2015”, the final of which was held in Minsk on August 29, 2015, went to a representative of South America, and the third was a participant from Belarus Svetlana Stankevich.
“Mrs. Universe – 2015 became Ashley Bournham: photo of the winner with her husband
Ashley Burnham, who became Mrs. Universe 2015, is a model and actress.She used to tell reporters that she really enjoys performing on stage. According to media reports, the maiden name of the representative of Canada is Callingbull. In 2010 she won the Miss Canada pageant. It is noted that Ashley Bournham was the first to win the “Mrs. Universe” beauty pageant.The winner of “Mrs. Yekaterinburg – 2015” is a mother of three children Yekaterinburg
The winner of “Mrs. Yekaterinburg – 2015” is a mother of three children
Mrs. Universe 2015 winner Ashley Burnham has already shared a photo with her husband.She posted them on her Instagram page. A young woman loves her husband very much, they often relax together, ride attractions, go to restaurants and bars.
The winner of “Mrs. Universe – 2015” signs a photo with her husband briefly. “This is my love”, “I’m so happy”, “God bless our marriage,” – says in the comments to her pictures on Instagram.
?? #bluejays #cometogether
Photo posted by Ashley Burnham (Callingbull) (@ash_burnham)
Mrs Universe – 2015 Ashley Burnham.Video: Russia 24
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