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Depending on the tier of partnership, Edge retailers also can upgrade their rewards to accelerate sales through enhanced consumer financing and increased incentives for sales associates. They receive priority website placements in Mohawk’s online retailer listings and in-site ads on Mohawk websites, which help consumers find their stores faster.
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The loyalty program or players club at Akwesasne Mohawk Casino Resort is called Winners Club – Akwesasne Mohawk Casino Resort. The Akwesasne Mohawk Casino Resort Winners Club – Akwesasne Mohawk Casino Resort
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User ID. Password. New user enrollment (click here) If you’ve forgotten your ID or password. please call toll free (877) 804-2318. or email [email protected] for assistance.. Mohawk Benefits Oct 22, 2018 · Mohawk Industries Benefits app. Provides employees and covered dependents with Mohawk benefits to access important information for benefit partners, including group numbers, …. Four Post Lifts, Heavy Duty Lifts, Truck Lifts and . Mohawk ML-220 20,000 LB. Capacity Lift Mohawk’s ML-220 is a clear floor above ground lift, capable of lifting up to 20,000 lbs. The ML-220 is a twin cylinder direct drive design using no chains or cables, and …. MohawkToday MohawkToday. Marketing tools and information that will make your job easier – all right at your fingertips!.
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Visit our Utica,1124 Mohawk St, NY Location
In order to comply with state and local regulations, some restaurants have had to adjust their operating hours. We are committed to serving you your McDonald’s favorites during these challenging times, and are closely monitoring additional restrictions as well as when they are able to be lifted
We are closely monitoring all local, state and federal regulations to provide customers with a contactless pickup experience. As a result of these regulations, some restaurants are only serving customers through the Drive-Thru, while others remain open for carry-out, as well as serving customers through the Drive-Thru, with Mobile Order & Pay on the McDonald’s app and with McDelivery®
The health and safety of restaurant employees and customers is a top priority. In addition to our standard sanitation procedures, our restaurant teams have:
* Have implemented contactless operations
* Undergo wellness checks before starting their shift
* Are trained on social distancing best practices behind the counter
* Have installed protective barriers at order points
* Are wearing masks or face coverings if unvaccinated (or fully vaccinated and still choose to do so), and gloves for food handling, and ensuring masks are available for managers, crew and customers.
* Have increased the frequency of cleaning, sanitizing, and disinfection of high-touchpoint surfaces
* Are continuing our high standards of promoting regular and thorough handwashing and reminding our crew members of our best practices for personal hygiene
* Where available, are increasing the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizer as a supplement to frequent handwashing
Additionally, new procedures and guidelines for in-restaurant dining include:
* Closing some seating and tables to accommodate social distancing
* Keeping high-maintenance Play Places closed and modifying our dine-in beverage procedures to minimize contact
We are also providing scenario-based guidance to restaurant management on how to work through various COVID-19 related situations, and communicating health and safety guidance updates from federal health authorities. We will continue to evaluate all safety measures currently in place, and adjust accordingly as we remain focused on the health and safety of restaurant employees and you, our customers.
Mohawk Flooring Credit Card Reviews (October 2021)
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|Purchase APR (Variable APR)||Up to 29.99%|
|Balance Transfer APR (Variable APR)||N/A|
|Credit Score Range||650 – 850|
Mohawk Flooring Credit Card Review
This is a
issued by Synchrony Bank.
If you’re wondering whether Mohawk Flooring Credit Card is the right card for you, read on. This review will provide you with with all the details you need to make a good choice.
- Fair or better credit required. You will have good approval odds if your credit score is above 650.
Pros & Cons of Mohawk Flooring Credit Card
|The Good||The Bad|
Mohawk Flooring Credit Card FAQ
Does Mohawk Flooring Credit Card have a cash back or rewards program?
No, it does not offer a rewards program.
What are the relevant APRs for Mohawk Flooring Credit Card?
It has a variable purchase APR of up to 29. 99%.
Does Mohawk Flooring Credit Card have an intro APR offer on balance transfers?
No, it does not come with an intro APR offer for balance transfers.
Does Mohawk Flooring Credit Card have an intro APR offer on new purchases?
This card does not offer an intro APR rate on new purchases.
What are the fees for Mohawk Flooring Credit Card?
The following fees apply:
|Returned Payment Fee||$28
|Late Payment Fee||up to $39|
What is the customer service phone number for Mohawk Flooring Credit Card?
The Mohawk Flooring Credit Card customer service number is (866) 226-5638.
What is the support contact email for Mohawk Flooring Credit Card?
The support contact email for Mohawk Flooring Credit Card is [email protected]
Does Mohawk Flooring Credit Card report your account activity to credit bureaus?
Yes, Mohawk Flooring Credit Card reports your account activity to the following credit reporting agencies:
Making regular on-time payments to a creditor that reports to one or more credit bureaus will demonstrate your financial responsibility and may help improve your credit.
How to apply for Mohawk Flooring Credit Card
- Visit the Mohawk Flooring Credit Card website.
- Fill in the application form. You will typically need to provide general financial information, such as your Social Security Number, address, and annual income.
- Check the information is accurate and submit your application.
If your credit score is preventing you from qualifying for this credit card, check out our guide for the best credit cards for bad credit.
SuperMoney Disclosure: SuperMoney.com is an independent, advertising-supported service. The owner of this website
may be compensated in exchange for featured placement of certain sponsored products and services, or your clicking
on links posted on this website.
Editorial Disclaimer: Editorial and user-generated content on this page is not provided or commissioned by the issuer. Opinions expressed here are the author’s alone and have not been approved or otherwise endorsed by any financial institution, including those that are advertising partners.
Available in 50 states and Washington, D.C.
- Washington, DC
- New Hampshire
- New Jersey
- New Mexico
- New York
- North Carolina
- North Dakota
- Rhode Island
- South Carolina
- South Dakota
- West Virginia
|No Interest Grace Period for Late Payment||23 days|
|Minimum Interest Charge||$2|
|Returned Payment Fee||$28|
|Late Fee Amount||Up to $39|
|Immigration Status Considered||
|Credit Score Range||650 – 850|
|Credit Bureau Reporting||
|Purchase APR (Variable APR)||Up to 29.99%|
Synchrony Bank Personal Credit Cards
Browse Personal Credit Cards
CRIME STOPPERS | Akwesasne Mohawk Police Service
WHAT IS CRIME STOPPERS?
Crime Stoppers is the most effective law enforcement program to come along in twenty-five years. The program is based on the simple principle that for every crime committed someone other than the criminal has information that would solve it. Crime Stoppers relieves the fear of involvement or retaliation by offering anonymity, and encourages calls by offering a reward.
HOW DOES IT WORK?
Crime Stoppers encourages people to call with information to solve crimes already committed, those about to occur and/or the whereabouts of wanted persons. The identity of informants is never known.
When the informant calls the direct line for Crime Stoppers they will be assigned a special code number which will identify them in all future dealings. (THE CALL WILL NOT BE TRACED NOR RECORDED). No one will know who the informant is!
All persons offering information are eligible for a cash reward, also paid anonymously. The rewards run from $50.00 to $2,000.00 depending upon the weight of the information. Unlike other reward programs which stipulate’ arrest and conviction’, Crime Stoppers pays upon arrest only. The waiting time for the pay-out is drastically reduced. The reward is passed on, at a prearranged location.
HOW IS CRIME STOPPERS ORGANIZED?
Crime Stoppers is a non-profit program relying on co-operation between law enforcement agencies, news media and the citizens of our community. The Organization is governed by a Board of Directors which establishes and administers policies. It raises funds, determines methods and amount of payments and oversees the program.
HOW IS CRIME STOPPERS FUNDED?
Monies are raised from the private sector by members of the Board. Since Crime Stoppers is incorporated as a charitable organization, all donations are tax-exempt.
GIVING A TIP!
Step by Step Instructions
- When you have knowledge of a crime that has been committed or is being planned, or if you know who is responsible for the crime or you have specific information that will help the police in solving the crime, call Crime Stoppers at 1-800-222-TIPS anywhere in Canada.
- Your information will be taken in strict confidence. Your anonymity is guaranteed. You will never have to give your name or testify in court.
- You will be issued a confidential code number. Keep this number a secret to ensure your anonymity.
- You will be asked to call back periodically so you may give any additional information and/or be updated on your tip. You will have to refer to your confidential code number.
- If your tip leads to a successful conclusion of a case, you become eligible for a cash reward if desired. Great lengths are taken to ensure that you receive your reward anonymously.
WE WANT YOUR INFORMATION NOT YOUR NAME!
GET INVOLVED IN CRIME…SOLVE ONE!!!
CALL CRIME STOPPERS!
Anywhere in Canada 1-800-222-8477
Northern New York & Eastern Ontario 1-800-265-8477
90,000 History of New France: Cradle of Modern Canada
In 1534, Jacques Cartier embarked on the first of three expeditions to explore what became known as New France.
Although his attempts to establish a colony here failed, Cartier, depicted in this painting erecting a cross in the village of Stadacona, where modern Quebec is located, was the first to map the mouth of the St. Lawrence River.
PHOTO DE AGOSTINI, GETTY
Since the 16th century, French fur traders and brides who hoped to find wealthy suitors in the colonies were a source of tension in relations with indigenous peoples
FRANCE. starting from the 16th century, she made several attempts to establish a colony in the New World, but only in the 18th century, French settlers finally managed to gain a foothold in this wild and rich land and build an influential colonial outpost here.New France, as the land was once called, consisted of five colonies that controlled a vast area of North America, stretching from the Hudson Bay in the north to the Gulf of Mexico in the south. This land has become home to fur traders, so-called brides, who moved here with money allocated by the king, soldiers and local residents who settled here thousands of years ago.
National Geographic’s 8-episode miniseries Wooden Skin, which chronicles the harsh life of New France’s settlers in the 1690s, will premiere on August 3.Based on the bestselling novel by Annie Proux, the series explores the tensions and complexities that accompanied the French colonization of North America; one of its episodes was the mysterious massacre of settlers by the Indians, which took place in the 1690s and threatened to become a pretext for a full-scale war with them.
What was New France really like? In the series, you will learn about the history and culture of this territory, with a focus on its most populous and economically powerful colony, which existed from 1608 to 1763.The region has a distinct language, culture and history that still makes itself felt in the modern country now known as Canada.
The emergence of New France
In 1534, Jacques Cartier led the first of three expeditions to the Gulf of the St. Lawrence River, but his attempts to establish a colony here failed due to conflicts with the Iroquois Indians and unsuccessful attempts to develop local natural resources.
Samuel de Champlain founded the city of Quebec on the territory of the colony known as New France.
PHOTOS FROM ART COLLECTION 2, ALAMY
Another half century passed before France made a second attempt to colonize North America. In 1604, French settlers established the Acadia colony on land around the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Four years later, explorer Samuel de Champlain founded the city of Quebec in this area, a little further inland, which became the largest city in the Canadian colony.
The French king’s plan to colonize these lands was to allow trading companies to rule New France and attract settlers there in exchange for the right to use the natural resources of the colony, the most valuable of which were wild animals.
Champlain intended to organize a lucrative fur trade in Canada, but the colony from the very beginning began to experience problems due to the lack of settlers, the difficulties in accessing the natural resources of the territory, which Champlain enthusiastically spoke about, as well as conflicts with the Iroquois.
Early days of the colony
Life in Canada was difficult. The French colonists struggled with the harsh natural conditions of the territory, especially in the winter, the difficulties with the fur trade and the development of land for agriculture, on which the well-being of the colonists largely depended, all this led to constant conflicts with the local peoples, whose lands they claimed. …
SEE: NEW WOODEN LEATHER MINI-SERIES
17th century. A motley group of outcasts, overcoming severe hardships, in conditions of fierce competition and continuous struggle for power, will have to create an island of civilization called New France. The premiere of the film “Wooden Skin” will take place on August 3.
By the time European settlers arrived in the area in 1608, the five Iroquois tribes who had lived here for thousands of years – the Seneca, Onondaga, Iroquois, Cayuga, and Onaida – united to form the Iroquois League (Houdenosauni), controlled the territory now called Canada, creating developed communities here and organizing trade routes everywhere. As the European colony developed, the tribes of the League and their rivals became more and more interdependent with the settlers.
The indigenous people of Canada trapped and processed the skins of beavers and other animals, which were then used to make hats and other products. The Indians traded animal skins for goods that the settlers offered them, such as weapons, fabrics and metal products. They also served as guides for the French settlers when they traveled inland along water and forest routes.At first, the Indians collected, processed and transported almost all the fur products that the colony produced.
The fur trade was profitable for both the French and the Indians, but it also provoked them into long-term rivalry and armed confrontation, since the fur trade had a strong impact on the landscape, influencing the economy and traditions of the indigenous peoples.
Tension and violence
The Iroquois and other indigenous peoples of Canada have traditionally shared hunting grounds and killed just as many animals as they needed to live. They were respectful of the land and the animals that lived on it, viewing them as part of their spiritual beliefs. But the colonists needed much more fur than the Indians could offer, and now they had to hunt more, overcoming great distances, and their way of life became more and more individualistic.
Increasing hunting volumes significantly influenced the number of beavers and deer inhabiting the lands of the Iroquois, and they began to claim the territory of their neighbors.During the 1630s and 1640s, they began to attack their Indian neighbors and those who kept in touch with them, which sometimes included French colonists.
Samuel de Champlain, founder of Quebec, is considered the “father of the new France”. The colonists headed by him, seizing new territories and creating settlements on them, began to oppress the Indians who lived there.
PHOTOS FROM THE KINA COLLECTION, GETTY
The hunting grounds were not the only reason the Iroquois hated the colonists. They also believed that members of their families who died at the hands of the settlers or from deadly diseases brought by the colonists were to be replaced with captives, and that their capture was a way to honor the memory of their relatives. This custom has led to the so-called “mourning wars”: guerrilla raids caused by deep grief.
The tragic combination of all these factors caused what historian Daniel Richter called a dangerous spiral: “Epidemics led to mourning wars in which firearms were used, the need for weapons increased the demand for skins, the pursuit of which provoked the Indians to war with their neighbors, and the death of Indians in these conflicts led to a new “war of mourning.”
The inhabitants of New France suffered from unexpected raids by the Iroquois, who attacked small villages and farms, killing the inhabitants or taking them prisoner. The French government, thousands of miles away, decided that its investment in New France was not paying off, and was in no hurry to intervene in the dramatic events taking place there to protect the colonists. The settlers were forced to defend themselves, which had a disastrous effect on their trade.
“A woman lives in constant fear that her husband, who left for work in the morning, will be killed or captured, and that she will never see him again,” wrote Pierre Boucher, who managed the small settlement of Trois-Rivieres.Boucher devised a successful defensive strategy for Trois-Rivieres, effectively defending the settlement during its 9-day siege in 1653, and ultimately making peace with the attackers.
Elsewhere, the Iroquois were able to defeat most of the neighboring tribes, and many of their raids on the colonists were also very successful. By the 1660s, they already controlled most of the countryside in New France.
King Louis XIV takes control
After 55 years of running the trading companies in 1663, New France was placed under the direct control of the king.Louis XIV tried to fundamentally change the situation with his most promising colony, Canada, by investing significant funds in it, including paying for the move of the French to New France, which affected the growth of its population. As a result, three regions arose in Canada – Quebec, Trois-Rivieres and Montreal.
However, this growth was clearly insufficient, partly due to an acute shortage of women. So, in 1663 in New France for 3000 men – soldiers, foresters, fur-dressing and traders, there were only a few women, i.e.That is, only one woman for every six men. To correct this imbalance, increase the population of the colony and encourage the French to stay in New France, the crown sent almost 800 women there between 1663 and 1673, who became “state-sponsored brides”: they were paid to move, and about half of them received also a dowry, which included items such as needles, gloves and laces that were difficult to find in the colony. Most of these “king’s brides” were poor women between the ages of 16 and 40 who had come to Canada from various French townships.
Louis XIV recruited French women who agreed to move to the colony in order to marry and have children. In this painting, the colony’s general manager, Jean Talon, welcomes women who arrived in Quebec in 1667; later they were called “daughters of the king.
PHOTO COVERED BY THE LIBRARY AND ARCHIVE OF CANADA
At home in France, the “daughters of the king” faced an unenviable fate: poverty, lack of dowry, dependence on their family members in choosing their future husband.Having endured all the difficulties of moving to New France, women got more chances to go out as people, compared to their peers in Europe. Full of hope for a promising future, they boarded ships bound for Canada.
Upon arrival at their destination, the women were taken under the auspices of nuns who taught them housekeeping skills in an effort to prepare them for the harsh conditions of life in the colony. At the same time, they turned a blind eye to the courtship of the king’s brides on the part of Jean Talon, the chief governor of the colony.Unlike life at home, the “daughters of the king” were given the freedom to choose their husbands. During their trips to the settlements of the colony, located along the St. Lawrence River, they got acquainted with potential suitors and, if they did not like the candidate, they moved on, but most got married almost immediately after the first meeting.
After marriage, the “daughters of the king” had a huge incentive to give birth to as many children as possible, because the crown promised a serious financial reward to any woman who gave birth to more than 10 children.And since there was an abundance of food in the colony, the king’s daughters easily endured pregnancy and gave birth to healthy children who could survive in the harsh conditions of New France.
Peace with the Iroquois
The “Daughters of the King” were not the only ones that Louis XIV sent to New France. In 1665, he also ordered a team of soldiers to be sent there to protect the investment.
When about 1200 soldiers arrived at the colony – at about the same time as the “king’s daughters” – they were greeted as saviors.Although they were poorly equipped and unfamiliar with Indian guerrilla tactics, their arrival gave the settlers a significant advantage against the Iroquois, and the Iroquois League, weakened by decades of war, eventually proposed a peace treaty with New France in 1667.
However, this world did not last even until the end of the 17th century. In 1683, the Indians, in response to the increasingly aggressive attempts of the colonists to seize even more hunting grounds, declared war on the French. In response, France sent additional troops to New France.For the next 15 years, during which these so-called “beaver wars” continued, the colonists actively defended the lands that they now considered their own from the Indians. In 1701, the French signed a treaty with the Iroquois, known as the “Great Peace”, which put an end to the French-Iroquois war for the remainder of the colony’s existence.
Fall of New France
By the beginning of the 18th century, New France had significantly expanded its borders and had about 20,000 citizens, but in the early 1700s the French rule, despite the rapid growth of population and economy, came to an end.New France spent large sums of money on military purposes, but although peace with the local population was maintained, it was unable to win the war with its largest colonial rival, Britain.
In 1756, during the Seven Years War, a relatively small number of French colonists were opposed by a much larger number of colonists from British-controlled America. The war ended with the defeat of France, and its possessions were transferred to the British under the Treaty of Paris in 1763.
New France in a relatively short period of 155 years managed to create a cultural heritage that is still felt in modern Canada. Even under British rule, historian Jacques Mathieu writes, the inhabitants of former New France did not agree to fully assimilate with the British and defended their right to an autonomous existence. Protected by their native language, religion and social institutions, living compactly in a limited geographical area where it was difficult to reach, they actually created their own subculture with their own way of life and social customs.
The colonial lifestyle had a tragic impact on the Iroquois and other Indian tribes, whose traditional way of life was destroyed by the fur trade, which largely kept New France afloat. Disease and war led to a significant reduction in the number of the indigenous population, and although the Iroquois retained their independence after the “Beaver Wars”, they continued to experience constant pressure from the colonists who wanted to dominate this new world for them.
Descendants of French-speaking Canadians continued to call themselves Quebecers and even fueled the separatist movement in modern Canada. Most French Canadians are descendants of the very “daughters of the king,” women who have gone from poverty to the recognized role of founding mothers of a new nation.
90,000 Maya, Aztecs, Incas, Iroquois, Mohicans, Apaches. American Indians
are the indigenous people of America, living before and after the arrival of Europeans.The discoverer of these lands, Christopher Columbus at the end of the 15th century, made a mistaken idea about the Indians, thinking them to be the inhabitants of India. The resettlement of the Americanoid race began 70 thousand years ago. from the northeastern lands of Asia. The northern part of America numbered 400 thousand species of Indians.
Each tribe had its own language of speech, and in some types of people it consisted of the pronunciation of gestures and signals. Writing was the form of pictograms
– information applied to objects in the form of pictures and symbols.
The main attribute of the Indians was the wampum
is a cylindrical piece of jewelry worn on tied cords. Such an unusual object simultaneously served as a decoration, currency and source of information. To convey important information, a messenger delivered a wampum over long distances, on which symbols in the form of pictograms were applied. They could be well deciphered by wise leaders and elders.
The clothes of the Indians were unimaginably beautiful outfits of brightly colored clothing and jewelry.Graceful feathers served as the main difference and the Native American people could not be confused with anyone else. A large number of such multi-colored white stripes intertwined among themselves, had the right to wear, only wise leaders and elders. On combat sorties and hunting, the warriors painted their faces with red and white paint. Combined with headdresses and unusual hairstyles, the Indian people acquired a uniquely impressive appearance.
The main occupation of the Indians was hunting, farming, agriculture and gathering.Thanks to the Native Americans, the Europeans developed potatoes, corn, and other grains, squash, and legumes that were valuable for cooking.
The main weapon of the Indians was the bow and tomahawk. After the arrival of Europeans to new lands, firearms and horses appeared in the arsenal of the Indians. This greatly facilitated and accelerated the hunt for prey, especially for bison.
The girls were engaged in embroidery of various materials with unimaginably graceful patterns and designs. Men made various devices and figures from wood.Looking at such art, one could endlessly admire the craft being created.
The most common dish was pemmican, which was a type of porridge. Only women knew how to cook it and it contained a lot of substances useful for the body.
The Indian religion was associated with spirits. Shamans served as priests. They could dance for a long time with tambourines around the fires, driving away evil and other negative negativity.
Indian smoking pipe
The history of the smoking pipe is about 3000 years old
.Its founders are American Indians
Its inhabitants have deeply grounded the culture of growing tobacco and making
tubes. The material of manufacture was clay, stone, and later
wood. The design and shape of the tubes is a whole work of art,
where their exquisite craft of manufacture excels. In ancient times they
were made in a long form, which required an even more complex
engineering. Handicraft design, could be performed in various shapes
people, animals and fantastic creatures.The tube design could
complemented by a variety of decorations, which included wax,
dyes and a red stone called catlinite
are Indian tribes
North America and Canada, who lived in the Middle Ages and New
time. These tribes were hostile to everyone else and more led
independent lifestyle. Similar neighbors living nearby, such as: Cayuga
, by their close-knit association formed League (Confederation) of Iroquois
The dwellings were large, elongated in the width of the house, similar
on buildings intertwined with long branches. They were made from bark
elm, tree trunks and ropes. The settlements were securely fenced off
protective barriers in the form of palisades and palisades in length 4.5 meters
The main occupation of the Iroquois was fishing
. corn planted in fertile fields
. The Indian people were skilled wood-craftsmen. Talented
craftsmen designed various wooden attributes and wove baskets.
The clothes of the Iroquois were made from reindeer skins and tanned leather. Thick
the material warmed up perfectly in the cold weather of a changing climate. On
they wore their own footwear called moccasins
After contacts with Europeans, clothes began to change slightly to
Western European. It was brought in by merchants and traders who successfully
made an exchange with Indian tribes.Coming soon
clothing included broadcloth and chintz, and later silk and velvet. The last two
material was used as jewelry and was most often dressed in
The Iroquois arsenal consisted of bows
and metal axes
. The handles were decorated with carvings and other painted designs. In the early historical period, tribes wore wooden armor
. The need for such armor disappeared when a firearm appeared
weapon. The Iroquois were the first of all American tribes to realize the advantage
musket guns and cannons. Therefore, they successfully adopted
weapons given the replenishment of these formidable weapons.
were good dancers. At solemn ceremonies, for dancing,
a huge number of people gathered. For musical rhythm
used various tools. They were rattles, sticks,
harmonics, pipes, whistles and drums.They were all made from
shells, hooves and feathers of animals, as well as from various fruits
An incredible distinction of the Iroquois was their hairstyle.
The collected bun of hair in the center of the head was ruffled and decorated with various
bright feathers. The characteristic image in a later period may have changed
and long hair.
The first Europeans to come into contact with
the Iroquois were the English and French in the 16th century, who spent
land exploration. But the tribes have the best trade relations
developed with the Dutch in the 17th century. Beaver skins were used
huge demand in Europe, thereby instructing the Iroquois to war with
other territories to replenish the reserves of this production. Dutch
provided the Iroquois with good firearms, thanks to which
they have acquired powerful strength as part of the commonwealth.
The Iroquois were very good at navigating forest areas, they could
disguise and move silently. In any skirmish with the enemy, where was
forest, they won. A quiet retreat and a surprise attack were
the most common tactic for combat.Many historians describe
Iroquois as the most vicious and aggressive warriors who know no mercy to
to your enemies.
In the 8th century
these Indian tribes drove the French out of the New World, taking over
side of the British. This is one of the reasons for France’s loss in the fight for
colonies in North America. In the war of independence, the Iroquois were also
on the side of England, but lost it, giving way to a new nation
lived in the Middle Ages in the territory of North America
. Their distinctive feature was the appearance of a tousled tuft
hair at the back of the head. The original strength was 40
thousands of people until the Indian tribe was engulfed in war and
epidemics of diseases. A significant number of residents were reduced in
as a result of fierce wars against the Iroquois. Ultimately, this
the tribe was so exterminated that by the end of of the XIX century
90,170 their number was only 90,169,240 people
The main occupation of the Hurons was cattle breeding, hunting, agriculture,
fishing, leather goods manufacturing.This tribe participated in
successful trade with other narrow-minded settlers.
Huron dwellings were fairly spacious buildings 12 meters wide
and 8 m high
The structure included material from conifers, elm and ash bark.
The walls of the buildings were intertwined horizontal and vertical
partitions connecting the ends of various materials included in
composition of architecture. The shape was in the form of arched figures. Inside was
spacious and comfortable.Each family was provided with 1 room with a common
corridor. Buildings could have separate storage compartments
reserves of useful resources. They could be grain and firewood. In the settlement
the most basic building of a large size could be located. In him
the council of chiefs was located, in which important issues were resolved
settlement of various situations.
During the decline in in the 19th century
Huron tribes began to migrate from North America to Russian
Siberia, and later to Belarus.Therefore, some of the peoples of this nation,
there are roots of this Indian tribe.
were one of the largest tribes that were part of the confederation called Algonquins
. The tribes inhabited large villages in the places of modern New York.
and by gathering
These were the only tribes with a democratic form of government. Management was carried out by the leaders, which was passed on to the legacy
the next generation. Sometimes the elders were appointed by a special, general
In the first half XVII
90-170 century Mohicans, like many
Indian tribes were drawn into beaver wars with the Mohawks. it
prompted a significant displacement of tribes in the early 1600s
later the Mohicans returned to their former lands. Long-term
wars and the disease of smallpox claimed the lives of many Indians. That’s why
the number of Mohicans declined significantly and led to a decline.
during the colonial wars, the Mohicans were on the side of the French and British,
but during the confrontation for American independence, they sided
the latter. Outstanding Chieftain Hendrik Opomut
people to fight on the side of the pale-faced rebels. But after completion
wars white Americans populated the land in large numbers,
belonging to the Mohicans. Therefore, the red-skinned people had to
move to the northern lands of Wisconsin, where they were invited
friendly mohawk oneida
are the Indian tribes of South America
lived in the eastern part of Brazil. Their main distinguishing
a feature are large rings inserted into the lips and ears. Huge disk
built from a special plant called “ Horisius Ventricos
Such a rather creepy kind of botokudo, greatly frightened the Europeans. TO
moreover, their standard of living was perceived by the Portuguese as appalling and
inadequate.They looked more like animal monkeys to them than
cultured person. This contributed to significant destruction and
displacement of South American tribes into the interior of Brazil.
well-developed muscles, broad and flat faces and a small nose with wide
nostrils. The appearance of these Indians is more like the Mongoloid race. TO
besides, the inhabitants of these tribes themselves, consider some Chinese as their
Botokudo culture is not saturated with rich
culture. They wore practically no clothes and were engaged in nomadic
way of life.The main occupation was hunting and gathering. Weapon
was a kind of thin copies, which were made from thin
branches of trees. Like many tribes, they had a bow and arrow.
The dwellings were a kind of huts collected from branches and
wood. Their height was significantly low and not impressive. The size
did not exceed 1.5 meters
Botokudo had a musical
instrument in the form of a bamboo flute. According to their customs, playing on it,
scared away evil spirits. The South Indians worshiped the Sun, which, according to their
reflection was good.The moon seemed to be a source
negative and evil. During eclipses and hurricanes, the Botocuda tribes shot
from bows to the sky, for their own reasons, in this way to scare away
were Indians living in
Middle Ages on the Labrador Peninsula in Canadian lands.
The northern habitat allowed this people to show a hardened resistance to
cold. The area of residence was among pine and spruce forests,
rocky plains, rivers and lakes.This strategic position allowed
innu, keep your safety from invaders and aggressors.
Innu peoples were successful hunters
and by anglers
For six winter months they hunted assiduously and led a nomadic life, and
at the onset of summer, deployed their camps, where the settled
peace. They took care of the food supply for the future. Mining
processed and sent for storage. Hunting many species
fur-bearing animals, allowed Innu to make very beautiful fur and
leather goods with clothes.
was also quite varied. Many types of fruits and berries
(blueberries, raspberries, strawberries, cherries, wild grapes and apples) was included in
the composition of the diet. The tribe also extracted maple sap from
numerous Canadian trees.
Innu were good traders
fur material. Hunting for a large number of animal species on
territory of the Canadian lands, brought this Indian tribe
Innu was dwelling
cone-shaped wigwams.They were covered with reindeer skins or birch bark.
Everything depended on the weather conditions of living in one or another area. Their
the height could reach 4 plus meters
. The floor was covered with spruce
covered with spruce branches and sometimes could be supplemented with another flooring made of
bear skins. The lower part of the floor was positioned in such a way that the legs
the resting person were raised to the center of the hearth, for even more
comfortable comfort. It was very warm inside the wigwam, even with strong
frost. It could accommodate and live up to 20 people of the tribe.
Deer hide was a versatile material. With her help
many useful attributes for the economy were produced. From her innu
they even made baskets, bags and shirts.
vessels for liquids were made of birch and spruce. Indians were
big fans of smoking pipes. Material for manufacturing
there were shale, sandstone and spruce. Sometimes the tube could be covered
The Innu’s movement was canoes and wooden rafts made of logs.But
in addition to these two types of transport, the northern people still had
snowshoes (skis) and toboggans (sleds). With their help, innu
could easily overcome the snow barrier.
The Indian religion was a belief in spirits, which, according to
the beliefs of the Innu, ruled over the animals. Thus, the inhabitants expressed
great respect for their master for the food and harvest obtained.
were residents of Canada
and Southeast Alaska
.These Indians distinguished themselves from other tribes by referring themselves to the northwestern culture. Their number in the Middle Ages was 90,169 10,000 people.
The main occupation of the Tlingits was fishing.
. For fishing, the tribes had a variety of structures, including a variety of equipment such as: nets
for fish. During such activities, the Indians made temporary dwellings in the form
huts.There was no agriculture before the arrival of the Europeans. But the Tlingits
knew how to make iron and were excellent craftsmen in wood. From
wood Indians carved beautiful pillars, decorations, dishes, mats,
they made furniture, made baskets. Trade was also developed
clothes, furs and skins.
The Tlingit clothes were elegant and
varied. It was subdivided into summer and winter. Even in the summer the Indians
put on fur capes, and in the cold they added pants and
moccasins. The most valuable material was the skins of beavers, marmots and wolves.Only leaders and elders had the right to wear marten. Clothes were decorated
painted ornaments, as well as masks with heads of animals, which are very
they loved to wear the Tlingits. Such masks could be worn in the event of combat
battles and confrontations with enemies and enemies. These head
capes served, perhaps, the main distinguishing feature of the external
species of Southeast Indians.
The Tlingit diet was rich and
saturated. It included the very beneficial nutrients of fat,
meat of wild animals, molluscs, algae and various fish.
The Tlingit were warlike and brave. Often on numerous canoes
they went on military campaigns. In the arsenal of weapons there were bows and arrows
Their bodies were protected by wooden armor and helmets. At first the tribes
were hostile to the arriving European colonialists, including
Russians. Later, relations with white people improved and even began.
The Tlingit religion was mysterious, mysterious and
mystical.There were many magicians and shamans among the Indian people.
The most magical number was 4, since this number was associated with
4 seasons and 4 cardinal points.
is an Indian people who settled the expanses of Northeast America
in the Middle Ages. The population of the tribes led a sedentary lifestyle and lived in separate groups up to 50 people
. Odshibwe were in the union “ Three fires
which included the Potawatomi and Ottawa tribes.This trinity
fought with the Iroquois and Sioux. Odshibwe were the most powerful Indian
tribes. They controlled their possessions for a long time and could
conquer new lands on their own. Later the French came and
joined the odshibwa as allies. By equipping and showing them new
firearms, the French greatly helped the tribes finally
expel the Sioux from their possessions.
, by gathering
.Harvesting corn, rice and vegetables were the tribe’s most basic occupations. In XVII century
fur trade with Europeans was developed. Dwellings were
cone-shaped wigwams. They were built from birch, willow and
juniper. The Oshhibwe tribes were good artists and designers.
They decorated their dwellings with painted symbols of mathematical,
astronomical and other geometric signs. So carved
sketches could be found even on stones.
The Oshibwe tribes had
developed shamanism and belief in spirits.Shamans successfully acquired skills
treatment of various diseases, learning from each other.
Burials of people took place in specially built small houses, which were marked with special symbols.
The population of the tribe were excellent farmers,
skilled craftsmen in woodwork, leather processing, carpet making.
Ottawa could make a variety of medicines. Important
the source of the dressing was the birch bark, with the help of which
wigwams and water canoes were built.Land cultivation was allocated a large
role. Ottawa grew sunflowers, pumpkins, beans, and maize. On water rivers
wild rice grew, which was harvested on the horse and eaten. After
agriculture, the Indians were engaged in hunting and fishing.
resided in North America
in the Mississippi River Areas
and Rocky Mountains
. The main occupations were hunting
.After mastering the horse, bison hunting improved significantly. it
the large animal was huge in size and brought a solid
extraction of meat. Like other Indian tribes, the Sioux had a well-developed
fur trade. They were good at constructing sea travel,
such as rafts and leather boats. Experienced craftsmen applied on the skin
picturesque ornaments and sewn with beads.
Sioux knew how to fight well,
war was their main hobby. Because of this, in the arsenal of the cold and
small arms, there was a rich variety of paraphernalia.In addition to bows, arrows, knives and spears, the arsenal included tomahawks with various types of tips
for melee enemy attacks.
Sioux wore well-known leather bands on their heads. The feathers in them could
stick only those soldiers who have accomplished a great feat. Their
painted with black and red shades. The chiefs wore a whole bunch
numerous feathers, running along the entire length of the occiput and back
body. Around their necks, the Indians wore a variety of amulets and jewelry. They’re in
in some way served as a protection and medicine against various negativity.The clothes of the Indians were shirts and trousers, decorated with fringes.
from numerous hanging stripes.
The Sioux peoples had dwellings
the most varied and tempting. These included round clay
buildings, dugouts, huts, dwellings covered with tree bark. V
there was always a place for a fire in the middle of the dwelling, and a
Like other Indian tribes, the Sioux developed shamanism.
and belief in spirits. Often the rituals were accompanied by harsh
self-torture, but without human sacrifice.During the holidays
global dances were held in which guests could be invited. V
the center was placed symbolism in the form of the sun, with a round dance around it.
Indians are the indigenous people of North and South America. They got this name because of the historical mistake of Columbus, who was sure that he sailed to India. There are many Indian tribes, but this ranking contains the most famous of them.
10th place. Abenaki
This tribe lived in the United States and Canada.The Abenaki were not sedentary, which gave them an advantage in the war against the Iroquois. They could silently dissolve in the forest and suddenly attack the enemy. If before colonization there were about 80 thousand Indians in the tribe, then after the war with the Europeans there were less than one thousand of them. Now their number reaches 12 thousand, and they live mainly in Quebec (Canada).
9th place. Comanches
One of the most warlike tribes of the southern plains, once numbering 20 thousand.human. Their bravery and courage in battles forced their enemies to treat them with respect. The Comanches were the first to use horses intensively, as well as supply them to other tribes. Men could marry several women, but if the wife was convicted of treason, she could be killed or cut off her nose. Today the Comanches remain about 8 thousand, and they live in Texas, New Mexico and Oklahoma.
8th place. Apaches
Apaches are a nomadic tribe that settled in the Rio Grande, and then moved south to Texas and Mexico.The main occupation was hunting for a buffalo, which became the symbol of the tribe (totem). During the war with the Spaniards, they were almost completely exterminated. In 1743, the Apache leader concluded a truce with them, putting his ax in a pit. This is where the catch phrase “bury the ax of war” came from. Now in New Mexico, there are about one and a half thousand descendants of Apaches.
7th place. Cherokee
A large tribe (50 thousand) that inhabited the slopes of the Appalachians. By the early 19th century, the Cherokee had become one of the most culturally developed tribes in North America.In 1826, the Sequoia chief created the Cherokee syllabary; free schools were opened with teachers from the tribe; and the richest of them owned plantations and black slaves.
6th place. Hurons
Hurons – a tribe numbering 40 thousand people in the 17th century and living in Quebec and Ohio. They were the first to enter into trade relations with the Europeans, and thanks to their mediation, trade between the French and other tribes began to develop.Today, about 4 thousand Hurons live in Canada and the United States.
5th place. Mohicans
Mohicans – once a powerful union of five tribes, numbering about 35 thousand people. But already at the beginning of the 17th century, as a result of bloody wars and epidemics, less than a thousand of them remained. Mostly they disappeared into other tribes, but a small handful of descendants of the famous tribe live in Connecticut today.
4th place. Iroquois
This is the most famous and warlike tribe in North America.Thanks to their ability to learn languages, they successfully traded with Europeans. A distinctive feature of the Iroquois is their hooked-nose masks, which were designed to protect the owner and his family from diseases.
3rd place. The Incas
The Incas are a mysterious tribe that lived at an altitude of 4.5 thousand meters in the mountains of Colombia and Chile. It was a highly developed society that created an irrigation system and used sewerage systems. It still remains a mystery how the Incas managed to achieve such a level of development, and why, where and how the whole tribe suddenly disappeared.
2nd place. Aztecs
The Aztecs were distinguished from other tribes of Central America by their hierarchical structure and rigid centralized government. The priests and the emperor stood at the highest level, and slaves at the lowest. Human sacrifice was widely used, as well as the death penalty, and for any offense.
1st place. Mayan
Maya – the most famous highly developed tribe of Central America, famous for extraordinary works of art and cities entirely hewn from stone.They were also excellent astronomers, and it was they who created the acclaimed calendar ending in 2012.
In the adventure novels of Fenimore Cooper and Mine Reed, which most of us read in childhood, the Indians appear as bloodthirsty uneducated savages. However, more than 2000 nationalities with their own culture, language and customs have settled on the mainland. And the differences between the tribes were often cardinal!
Where did the Indians come from
There are many hypotheses about the origin of the first settlers in North America.Some scientists suggest that these are the descendants of the Egyptians, who knows what sea routes they reached the neighboring continent. Others put forward an extravagant version that the Indians are the descendants of the soldiers who survived the Trojan War. Researchers of the disappeared tribes of Israel insist on Jewish roots. There is an option that people settled in the New World from 50 to 20 thousand years ago, having come from Siberia through the so-called Beringian Bridge – the isthmus between Asia and America that disappeared later. As for the name … Everyone knows the story of how Columbus, who accidentally discovered America, thought that he had arrived in India.
The Europeans who arrived in the New World recognized the Iroquois as the most developed tribe. They were engaged in agriculture, mastered crafts, periodically sluggishly clashed with neighbors. But the main difference was that they, in a sense, created the prototype of modern US policy: their confederation was a democratic and developed system of government. Ladies dominated the council: it was they who decided the fate of the tribe. Later, matriarchy outlived its usefulness – fighting for the supremacy in the extraction of fur, the Iroquois attacked their neighbors, using cruel torture.By the way, they got the name not at all for their hairstyles: in the language of the Algonquin tribe, this word means “vipers” – pacifism is clearly out of fashion. But the Iroquois gave the modern name to the adjacent state – “Canada” in translation from their language means “village”.
The main enemies of the Iroquois are the Hurons. They also competed for a monopoly in the fur trade, so skirmishes were frequent. Against the background of the neighbors, they looked quite peaceful: the vegetarian diet consisted mainly of maize and beans, only on holidays they allowed themselves a ritually prepared dog.The Hurons did not survive the missionary activity of the French – they brought plague and famine to their villages.
The Cherokee resisted the Europeans longer than others, but in the end they were forced to surrender and accept Christianity, to adopt a culture and customs alien to them. The government of the new country forcibly evicted the Cherokee to bad lands, where they died. This tribe was quite civilized: the leader of the Sequoia, for example, developed his own charter, so the Indians knew how to read and write, however, in their own way, and even published newspapers.Cherokee blood flows in the veins of Barack Obama, Johnny Depp, Quentin Tarantino.
Apaches – a symbol of Indian resistance to Europeans. Their leader Geronimo gained worldwide fame: he waged a partisan war for quite a long time, in the end he was caught, but not executed – he was taken to exhibitions and replicated photographs of this peculiar brand of a fading culture. The famous wigwam (“house”) was the main dwelling of the Apaches – the rest of the inhabitants of North America took refuge in conical tents.
Thanks to this Indian tribe
All Indians received the impartial nickname “Redskins”. They were one of the first to meet Europeans on the continent, and the guests, seeing their faces painted with ocher, were terrified and called them that. By the way, the natural skin color of the Indians is white or dark-skinned. In Canada, the tragic story of a woman from this tribe named Demasduit, who died in captivity, is very popular. It was she who left information about the grammar and features of the Beotuk language.
The fall of civilization
Having received horses and weapons from the colonialists, Indian tribes
began to explore the prairie. As the Europeans gradually survived the aborigines from the fertile lands, they had to leave for the steppe. The main source of food for them was the bison, from the skin of which clothes and shoes were also sewn. The classic image of an Indian with an eagle feather headdress, leather boots, a tomahawk and an Indian bow appeared there. But life on the reservations was not sweet: they were forbidden to practice their own religion and their children were taken away.Gradually, from hopelessness, people began to drink too much – their enzyme system could not stand the fight against alcohol, and civilization began to fade away.
Modern Indian tribes
– Cherokee, Navajo, Sioux and Chippewa – live below the poverty line, despite tourism, casinos and the excise-free tobacco trade. Disease, alcoholism and unemployment are a real scourge on reservations. It seems that a great nation is on the verge of final extinction. And today, on August 9, on the International Day of the World’s Indigenous Peoples, I would like to wish not to repeat the mistakes of the European colonialists, but to preserve the culture and customs of people, no matter what nationality they belong to.
Animation program “Path of the Pathfinder”
ETNOMIR, Kaluga region, Borovsky district, Petrovo village
Pupils and students from all over the country visit ETNOMIR all year round. The center successfully cooperates with the leading educational institutions of Russia and the world. We host youth gatherings, changes of children’s summer camps, we host school groups, offering ready-made programs with a set of thematic excursions and master classes.
Coming to the ethnographic park with a group of schoolchildren or students, you can additionally choose an animation program for any educational tour.ETNOMIR presents to your attention games of strength, speed and ingenuity, traditional entertainment of different peoples of the world, exciting quests, gatherings by the fire, ethnic dances and adventures in an Indian tribe. While playing, children expand their understanding of the world around them, experience a natural desire and need to learn new things, develop communication skills, and form a personality.
Street Game is an interactive adventure that introduces participants to the culture of the Native American Indians!
After the discovery of the American continents and the development of new lands, which were often accompanied by the enslavement and extermination of the indigenous population, the Europeans were amazed by the methods of the Indian struggle.The tribes of the Indians tried to intimidate the strangers, and therefore the most cruel methods of reprisals against people were used. This post will tell you more about the sophisticated methods of killing the invaders.
“The battle cry of the Indians is presented to us as something so terrible that it is impossible to endure it. It is called the sound that will make even the most courageous veteran lower his weapon and leave the line.
It will deafen his hearing, it will freeze his soul. will allow him to hear the order and feel ashamed, and indeed retain any sensations other than the horror of death. “
But it was not so much the battle cry itself, from which the blood in my veins froze, that frightened me, but what it foreshadowed. The Europeans who fought in North America sincerely felt that falling alive into the hands of monstrous painted savages meant a fate more terrible than death.
This led to torture, human sacrifice, cannibalism, and scalping (all of which had ritual significance in Indian culture). This was especially conducive to stirring up their imaginations.
Probably the worst part was roasting alive.One of the British survivors of Monongahela in 1755 was tied to a tree and burned alive between two bonfires. The Indians danced around at this time.
When the agonizing man’s groans became too insistent, one of the warriors ran between the two fires and cut off the hapless genitals, leaving him to bleed to death. Then the howling of the Indians stopped.
Rufus Putman, a private in the Massachusetts provincial army, wrote the following in his diary on July 4, 1757.The soldier, captured by the Indians, “was found fried in the most sad way: his fingernails were torn out, his lips were cut off to the very chin from below and to the very nose from above, his jaw was exposed. The left hand was pressed to the wound, the tomahawk was left in his intestines, the dart pierced it through and remained in place, the little finger on the left hand and the small toe on the left foot were cut off. ”
In the same year, Jesuit Father Roubaud met a group of Ottawa Indians who were leading several English prisoners through the forest with ropes around their necks.Soon after, Roubaud caught up with the fighting party and pitched his tent next to their tents.
He saw a large group of Indians sitting around the fire and eating fried meat on sticks as if it were a lamb on a small spit. When he asked what kind of meat it was, the Ottawa Indians replied: it is a fried Englishman. They pointed to the cauldron in which the rest of the severed body was boiled.
Nearby sat eight prisoners of war, terrified to death, who were forced to watch this bear feast.People were seized with an indescribable horror, similar to that experienced by Odysseus in the poem of Homer, when the monster Scylla dragged his comrades off board the ship and threw them in front of his cave to be devoured at their leisure.
Roubaud, horrified, tried to protest. But the Ottawa Indians did not even want to listen to him. One young warrior told him rudely:
– You have French taste, I have Indian. This is good meat for me.
He then invited Roubaud to join their meal. It looks like the Indian was offended when the priest refused.
The Indians showed particular cruelty towards those who fought with them by their own methods or almost mastered their hunting skills. Therefore, irregular forest guard patrols were at particular risk.
In January 1757, Private Thomas Brown of Captain Thomas Spykman’s unit of Rogers’ Rangers, dressed in green military uniform, was wounded in a battle on a snow-covered field with the Abenaki Indians.
He crawled out of the battlefield and met two other wounded soldiers, one named Baker and the other Captain Spykman himself.
Tormented by pain and horror because of everything that was happening, they thought (and it was very foolish) that they could safely make a fire.
The Abenaki Indians appeared almost overnight. Brown managed to crawl away from the fire and hide in the bush, from which he watched the unfolding tragedy. The Abenaki began by stripping Spykman and scalping him while he was still alive. Then they left, taking Baker with them.
Brown said the following: “Seeing this terrible tragedy, I decided to crawl as far as possible into the forest and die there from my wounds.But since I was close to Captain Spykman, he saw me and begged, for heaven’s sake, to give him a tomahawk so he could commit suicide!
I refused him and persuaded him to pray for mercy, since he could live only a few more minutes in this terrible state on the frozen ground covered with snow. He asked me to tell his wife if I live to the time when I return home about his terrible death. ”
Soon after, Brown was captured by the Abenaki Indians, who returned to the place where they scalped.They intended to put Spykman’s head on a pole. Brown managed to survive in captivity, Baker did not.
“The Indian women split a pine tree into small chips, like little spits, and drove them into its flesh. Then they made a fire. After that they proceeded to perform their ritual ceremony with incantations and dances around it, I was ordered to do the same.
By law I had to agree to save my life … With a heavy heart I played fun, they cut the fetters on him and made him run back and forth.I heard the unfortunate man begged for mercy. Out of unbearable pain and anguish, he threw himself into the fire and disappeared. “
But of all Native American practices, scalping, which continued into the nineteenth century, attracted the greatest attention of horrified Europeans.
Despite a series of ridiculous attempts by some complacent revisionists to argue that scalping originated in Europe (perhaps among the Visigoths, Franks, or Scythians) is quite understandable: it was practiced in North America long before Europeans appeared there.
Scalps played a significant role in North American culture, as they were used for three different purposes (and perhaps served all three): to “replace” the dead people of the tribe (remember how the Indians were always worried about heavy losses incurred in war, therefore, on the decrease in the number of people), in order to appease the spirits of the lost, as well as to alleviate the grief of widows and other relatives.
French veterans of the Seven Years’ War in North America left many written memories of this terrible form of mutilation.Here is an excerpt from Pushaud’s notes:
“Immediately after the soldier fell, they ran up to him, kneeling on his shoulders, clutching a lock of hair in one hand, and a knife in the other. They began to separate the skin from the head and tear it off one by one. They did this very quickly, and then, demonstrating their scalp, they uttered a cry that they called “the cry of death.”
Let us cite the valuable story of a French eyewitness, who is known only by his initials – JCB: “The savage immediately grabbed his knife and quickly made cuts around the hair, starting at the top of the forehead and ending at the back of the head at the level of the neck.Then he stood with his foot on the shoulder of his victim, lying face down, and with both hands pulled the scalp by the hair, starting from the back of the head and moving forward …
After the savage removed the scalp, if he was not afraid of being chased, he stood up and began to scrape off the blood and flesh that remained there.
Then he made a hoop of green branches, pulled the scalp over it like a tambourine, and waited for a while for it to dry in the sun. The skin was dyed red, the hair was gathered in a knot.
The scalp was then attached to a long pole and carried triumphantly on the shoulder to the village or to whatever place was chosen for it. But as he approached every place on his way, he uttered as many screams as he had scalps, announcing his arrival and demonstrating his courage.
Sometimes up to fifteen scalps could be on one pole. If there were too many of them for one pole, then the Indians decorated several poles with scalps. “
There is nothing to underestimate the cruelty and barbarity of the North American Indians.But their actions must be seen both within the context of their warlike cultures and animist religions, and within the larger picture of the general brutality of life in the eighteenth century.
Urban dwellers and intellectuals who were in awe of cannibalism, torture, human sacrifice, and scalping enjoyed attending public executions. And under them (before the introduction of the guillotine) men and women sentenced to death died an agonizing death within half an hour.
Europeans did not mind when “traitors” were subjected to the barbaric ritual of executions by hanging, drowning, or quartering, as in 1745 the Jacobite rebels were executed after the uprising.
They did not particularly protest when the heads of the executed were impaled on stakes in front of cities as an ominous warning.
They tolerated hanging on chains, dragging sailors under the keel (usually this punishment ended with a fatal outcome), as well as corporal punishment in the army – so cruel and severe that many soldiers died under the whip.
European soldiers in the eighteenth century were whipped to obey military discipline. American native warriors fought for prestige, glory, or the common good of a clan or tribe.
Moreover, the massive looting, looting and general violence that followed most successful sieges in European wars surpassed anything that the Iroquois or Abenaki were capable of.
Before the Holocaust of terror, like the sack of Magdeburg in the Thirty Years’ War, the atrocities at Fort William Henry pale.In the same 1759, in Quebec, Wolfe was completely satisfied with the shelling of the city with incendiary cannonballs, without worrying about the suffering that the innocent civilians of the city had to endure.
He also left devastated areas behind, using the scorched earth tactics. The war in North America was bloody, brutal, and terrifying. And it is naive to regard it as a struggle of civilization against barbarism.
In addition to what has been said, the specific question of scalping contains an answer.First of all, Europeans (especially irregulars like Rogers’ Rangers) responded to scalping and mutilation in their own way.
Their ability to descend to barbarism was aided by a generous reward of £ 5 per scalp. It was a tangible addition to the ranger’s paycheck.
A spiral of atrocities and oncoming atrocities rose dizzily upward after 1757. Since the fall of Louisburg, soldiers of the victorious Highlander Regiment have been chopping off the heads of all Indians in their path.
One eyewitness reports: “We killed a huge number of Indians. The Rangers and Highlander soldiers did not give any mercy to anyone. We scalped everywhere. But you cannot tell the scalp taken by the French from the scalp taken by the Indians.”
The scalping epidemic by Europeans became so rampant that in June 1759 General Amherst had to issue an emergency order.
“All reconnaissance units, as well as all other units of the army under my command, despite all the opportunities presented, are prohibited from scalping women or children belonging to the enemy.
These should be taken with you whenever possible. If this is not possible, then they should be left in place without causing them any harm. “
But what use could such a military directive be if everyone knew that the civilian authorities were offering a bonus for scalps?
In May 1755, Governor of Massachusetts William Sherle gave £ 40 for the scalp of a male Indian and £ 20 for the scalp of a woman. This seemed to be in line with the “code” of degenerate warriors. floor.In 1756 he appointed a reward of £ 30 for a man, but £ 50 for a woman.
In any case, the despicable practice of assigning a reward for scalps backfired in the most disgusting way: the Indians went to the fraud.
It all started with an obvious deception when the American natives began making “scalps” from horse skins. Then the practice of killing so-called friends and allies was introduced just to make money.
In a reliably documented incident in 1757, a group of Cherokee Indians killed people from the friendly Chikasawi tribe just for a reward.
And finally, as almost every military historian has noted, the Indians became experts at “breeding” scalps. For example, the same Cherokee, by all accounts, became such craftsmen that they could make four scalps from every soldier they killed.
The indigenous people of America are Indians.They are distinguished by a unique and tragic fate. Its uniqueness lies in the fact that this people managed to survive the period of settlement of the continent by Europeans. Tragedy is associated with the conflict between the Indians and the representatives of the white race. Where do the Indians live today? How is their life going? Let’s take a closer look.
An excursion into history
In order to plunge into the life of the Indians, you must first realize who they are. For the first time in Europe they heard about them only at the turn of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, even from the school history course, many remember the famous journey of Christopher Columbus, when in search of India he reached the coast of America.
Sailors immediately christened the local population as Redskins, and by the name of the area – Indians. Although it was a completely different continent, different from the one they wanted to find. So the name was fixed and became common for a huge number of peoples inhabiting two continents. Then, when asked where the Indians live, any educated European would answer that in India.
For the inhabitants of Europe, of course, the found continent was a valuable find on the road to the New World.However, for many Indian tribes living on these lands for about forty thousand years, such an acquaintance was not at all necessary. The arriving Europeans did not want to consolidate relations or bring something new to the life of the indigenous population – they only treacherously took the land, thereby pushing the legitimate inhabitants deep into the state, occupying and equipping territories suitable for European life.
Over time, the tribes of the Indians were completely pushed back beyond the edge of their original habitat, and their territories were settled by Europeans who arrived from overseas in search of India.
The nineteenth century in the history of the Indians
By the middle of the nineteenth century, New Lands were so colonized by Europeans that there were practically no free lands suitable for living for the Redskins. Where did the Indians live during this period of time? It was then that the concept of land reservation appeared. The reserved lands were areas that were poorly suited for agriculture. Such lands were not needed by the Europeans, so they were given to local tribes.
Conflicts always arose between two different cultures and mentalities, which sometimes escalated into outright clashes with victims and wounded. According to an oral agreement between the Europeans and the Indian tribes, it was decided that the Indians have every right to live on the reservation and can receive food and everything they need from the whites. But such charity was extremely rare.
The agreement also included the division of land so that each Indian was represented by 180 acres.It is worth recalling that this land was very bad for farming. The nineteenth century was a turning point in the fate of the Indians – they lost their rights and almost half of their mainland.
New history: a changed attitude towards Indians
In the first half of the twentieth century, the laws of the United States of America made North American Indians citizens of the state. Several decades later, such an action on the part of the authorities was a huge step towards reconciliation between the warring nations.The attitude towards this people was radically revised.
Places where American Redskins live, like themselves, have become of interest to Americans not based on the beliefs of profit, but because they are part of the cultural heritage of their own country. A spirit of pride has emerged in the United States for the staunch indigenous people. The majority of citizens began to conceive ideas of encouraging the Indians for their tolerance, Americans were eager to correct the unfair attitude that their ancestors had bestowed on the indigenous population of America.
Where do Indians live today?
Currently, the red-skinned population of America lives in two main geographical areas of the mainland – North and Latin America. It should be noted here that Latin America is not only South America – it also includes Mexico and a number of islands.
It is worth analyzing the geographical features of the settlement of the Indians separately.
North American Indians
Where do North American Indians live today? Recall that this territorial area is two large-scale states, namely the United States and Canada.
- subtropics in the presented territory;
- coastal areas of the northwestern part of the mainland;
- California is a famous Indian state;
- southeastern United States;
- Great Plains territory.
The main activities of the Indians are hunting, fishing, gathering and procurement of valuable fur. More than 60% of modern Indians live in large states and rural areas throughout the United States.The rest, as a rule, live on the territories of the state reservation.
California – a famous Indian area
Western cinema and popular fiction often paint a picture of Indian living here – in California. This does not mean that country music and films are deceiving: the same facts are given by statistics.
Census of the American population over the past decades confirm that the majority of modern Indians live in California.It is worth noting that representatives of this race in this metropolis have long been mixed with the rest of the population. Over the years, most of them have lost their knowledge of their native language. For example, more than 68% of Indians today do not know any language other than English. Only 20% speak perfectly the dialect of their own people, as well as the state language.
It should be noted that Californian Redskins have certain benefits, for example, for education and admission to higher education institutions.But the majority of Indians do not use the provided benefits. Today, about 65% of children from Indian families receive secondary education, and only 10% receive a bachelor’s degree.
Places of Indian settlement in Latin America
There are Indian settlements in South America:
- The area of almost all of Latin America is inhabited by the heirs of the Maya, Aztec tribes and those who lived in the geographical area of Central America before the European invasion.
- Indians of the Amazon basin represent a separate unity, the main difference of which is their peculiar behavior, preservation of traditions and indigenous laws.
- Communities such as the Indians of Patagonia and Pump also live in this territory.
- Indigenous inhabitants of Tierra del Fuego.
Peru is one of the Latin American countries located on the Pacific Northwest coast of South America. What is the significance of this area for the Indians? It was on the territory of the state that the capital of one of the most influential countries of the indigenous Indians, the Inca Empire, was located.The Indians of South America still consider the country their homeland.
That is why on the territory of Peru, enchanting festivals are held annually in honor of the day of the Peruvian Indians. This day represents the date of remembrance and preservation of cultural traditions of bygone days. The Day of Remembrance of the Indians is one of the most colorful and significant holidays for the residents of the city. Guests and the local population will enjoy a large fair, demonstration of national cuisine, an interesting festival and live music in every corner of Peru.
Nowadays, it is quite difficult to identify certain geographic zones where the Indians live. Most of the representatives of the people live together on their displaced lands, preserving cultural traditions, religion and value orientations in life. Others firmly assimilated with the European population, began to fully adhere to American traditions and legislation, and live in megacities. Most of the latter have forgotten their native language and the history of the great people.
90,000 Facebook will reward good hackers
Facebook will reward for finding “holes” in the security system of the service. According to the social network page WhiteHat , “good” hackers will be paid $ 500 or more. Only those specialists who do not open the “hole” to the public before it is eliminated will receive remuneration.
The same tactic has long been used by Google , regularly rewarded for finding holes in the Chrome browser.For finding bugs in software or Internet services, the corporation offers from 500 to 3 thousand dollars. A similar program has been operating since 2004 at Mozilla, the developer of the Firefox browser. Earlier Microsoft offered 250 thousand dollars for information that will help in catching viruses. The software giant does not pay a reward for finding bugs in software.
Google earlier this year pledged to pay $ 20,000 to any hacker who succeeds in hacking its web browser in the pwn2own competition.As a result, Google had to keep the money for itself, since the “cracker” claiming to be Chrome simply did not show up for the competition.
One of the latest Facebook vulnerabilities was noticed just a week ago, when users could see a full list of their friends’ videos for a week, even if they were hidden from view. For example, the names of clips, their descriptions, thumbnails of images and people “marked” on the video were revealed by mistake. Other recent Facebook security holes include XSS attacks and applications that have nearly complete access to user profiles.
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found in Chrome browser
90,000 CTC Media shares may grow by 79% over the year
Ekaterina Sevryukova, RBK DAILY
Securities of “CTC Media” under the optimistic scenario may grow by 79% by February 2012, to $ 37 per share, experts of the investment bank Morgan Stanley calculated. The scenario assumes a 22% growth in the Russian advertising market in 2011-2012. According to experts, a number of factors can prevent this, including aggravated competition on the TV market and a possible complete ban on beer advertising on TV, which could cost CTC Media 6% of its revenue.
Morgan Stanley has announced a target price for CTC Media shares at $ 25.per share, which implies a 21 percent increase compared to February 2011. According to the optimistic scenario, the share price may rise by 79% to $ 37 per share. The pessimistic scenario assumes that in February 2012 the securities of the media holding may fall in price to $ 9, having lost 57% of the value.
In early March, the media holding announced the results, which industry experts called quite positive. Net profit of “CTC Media” under US GAAP based on unaudited consolidated results for 2010 increased by 45% compared to the previous year and amounted to USD 145.731 million.The consolidated revenue of the company increased by 19% and amounted to 601.3 million USD.
Morgan Stanley analysts consider the creation of its own sales house “Everest-S” as a positive factor. According to the bank, this will add 10 million to CTC Media’s EBITDA. Until 2011, the Video International (VI) group served 13 federal channels. Since January 1, 2011, in accordance with the amendments to the Law “On Advertising”, which limited the seller’s share in the sales of TV advertising from 71 to 35%, VI has already cooperated with eight TV channels: with “First”, with TV channels of the “Prof-Media” holdings ( TV3, MTV, “2×2”), UTV (“Muz-TV” and “Seven”), “National Media Group” (REN, “Channel Five”).And the holdings CTC Media (CTC, Domashny and DTV) and VGTRK (Russia-1, Russia-2) have created their own sales services – Everest-S and RTR-Media, respectively.
Now, under the terms of the agreement, VI provides the CTC Media holding with consulting services and technical support, as well as analytical and research services in the advertising market, including forecasting and reporting, and in return receives remuneration. Previously, the commission to the seller averaged 13% of gross advertising revenue ($ 82.4 million).according to the results of 2010), now the annual remuneration of the seller can amount to 10-12% of the total advertising revenue of the holding, announced recently the general director of the holding Anton Kudryashov.
“U” STS Media “power ratio (a coefficient that measures the dynamics of revenue in comparison with the share of the audience. – RBC daily) is 1.5, which is quite high for the Russian market, due to the fact that formally CTC Media is not directly related to Video International, this figure may come under pressure, “says the Morgan Stanley report.
UBS Investment Bank predicts that by 2013 CTC Media’s revenue may grow to $ 1.055 billion. Investment bank experts say that one of the risks facing the media holding is an increased investment in programming from competing companies. “The CTC audience has suffered due to the success of new successful TV series launched on Gazprom-Media’s NTV and TNT holdings. We also note an increase in investment in programming from the National Media Group,” UBS said in a report.Investment bank experts warn, among other things, that a possible complete ban on beer advertising on television may cause a drop in the TV advertising market turnover by 3%, and CTC Media’s revenue in this case will fall by 6%.
200 REQUESTS PER SECOND: WHAT LOAD WILL THE DIGITAL CENSUS SUPPORT?
“There are three weeks left before the start of the census,” noted Andrey Belousov. – It is necessary to resolve all the remaining issues, in particular, concerning the organization of the work of the census takers.We do not need abstract numbers, we need specific people in all regions of the country who are ready to interview residents or become volunteers. ”
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The ugliest dog in the world is crowned in the USA :: Society :: RBC
Elwood, a two-year-old cross between a Chinese spitz and a Chihuahua, is voted the ugliest dog in the world.These are the results of the competition for the ugliest dog, which took place in the US state of California, reports Associated Press.
The owner of the winning dog, New Jersey resident Karen Quigley, seems quite pleased that it was her pet who got such a strange title.The woman said that for her Elwood is the sweetest and smartest dog in the world.
The dog made an indelible impression on the jury – his grayish-brown skin is completely devoid of hair, and a light strand covers a small head. For its external resemblance to the character of the famous science fiction film “Star Wars” the dog, in addition to its nickname, received the nickname “Yoda”.
This was Elwood’s second attempt to win the title of the ugliest dog in the world. Last year in this competition he received a “silver”.It is noteworthy that most of the participants in the competition, dogs of the same breed, are Chinese Spitz. They all have a mohawk-like crest on their heads, tiny eyes and a long tongue.
The success of Elwood was brought about by an unsightly appearance. Meanwhile, it was the exterior features that could, ironically, kill the dog. When she was born, the breeder decided to kill the puppy because he felt that he simply could not be sold. However, K. Quigley decided to take the dog for herself. “Now the entire Internet is replete with photographs of Elwood, people admire him,” – said K.Quigley.
The jury, which awarded Elwood the title of the ugliest dog in the world, did not ignore his owner. Her cash reward was $ 1,000.
90,000 From wampum to “Ithaca hour” History and the present of private money: History: Library: Lenta.ru
Private money did not come from a good life: the first American colonists and companies emerging from the Great Depression experimented with it.At the end of the twentieth century, their function has changed – non-state emission centers are now called upon to perform social functions.
In the 17th century, America was interested in the British crown exclusively as a source of resources: tobacco, forests, animal skins and much more. From the empire to the New World, the goods needed to keep the colonists working. It was assumed that the settlers would buy them for money in the store, but then a problem arose: they had enough coins, so that there was not enough for everyone.
The solution to the problem turned out to be simple, but it took several years to come to it: the colonists began to use the “currency” of local residents. The Indians who lived near the whites had their own money for several centuries. True, no one minted them and did not depict the profiles of European politicians. They consisted of pieces of mollusk shells, which the natives ate.
These pieces were strung on a thread. At the time of the transaction, such beads were untied, the beads were counted and a new necklace was assembled from them.Often, whole belts were made, as well as other devices that the owner wore on himself, thus demonstrating his wealth or relation to any tribe.
Despite the fact that shells can be found only on the coast of the ocean, they traded with the help of the wampum (the so-called beads) and at a significant distance from it, in the interior of the mainland. For example, the Iroquois tribe managed to collect the largest known collection of such beads, not living in coastal areas. Only a few tribes made wampum, and almost everyone made deals with it.
The colonists also joined this non-state monetary system. Very soon the word “clam” became for them literally an analogue of the word “money”. Wampum made up for the shortage of coins in the American market. People even took out loans in shell necklaces – for example, the governor of New Amsterdam (now New York) once borrowed a large amount of wampum from an Anglo-American bank.
Native beads became the official currency of New England from 1637 to 1661. The crown decided that it was time to end the ugliness with shells, and banned the circulation of the wampum, along the way began supplying a sufficient number of coins to America.However, the native currency did not give up for a long time – cases of its use were encountered until the 20th century.
Wampum represents the so-called private money in its purest form. They were not issued by the state, and they were the universal equivalent of the value of goods or services. The settlers began to use such money forcibly, due to the shortage of the usual currency. Nevertheless, they performed their function.
Leaders of six Indian tribes demonstrate their wampum belts, Canada, 1871
Now private money is considered not only and not so much as something that can replace the “real” government.Local non-government currencies, according to many economists, can contribute to a healthier market by boosting the economy in the area where they circulate. Such money makes it possible to “tie” the population to retail outlets operating in it, helping them compete with the stores of large corporations.
First you need to decide what should be called non-state money? The above example shows that they do not have to be printed: it is enough for a particular commodity to become the universal equivalent of the value of other commodities during barter transactions.On the other hand, truly private money is issued by individuals or companies, associations. The purpose of their existence is to provide an advantage over state money.
Similar currency systems have repeatedly appeared throughout the existence of human civilization. For example, not all American colonists solved the problem of lack of banks and money with the help of a wampum. Many settlements issued their money – both on paper and in the form of metal coins.
American logging and mining companies, far from civilization, used their own currency to extend credit obligations to their employees (in other words, not to pay “real” government money). They were offered to buy them in special stores owned by the same company.
The world economic crisis, which began with the collapse of the American stock markets in 1929, was remembered by contemporaries as a real disaster.A terrible drop in industrial production, the impoverishment of the middle class, millions of unemployed, a decline in the birth rate – such conditions have become a favorable environment for the emergence of a huge number of substitutes for state currencies.
People had little money in their hands, and they did not seek to spend it in conditions of instability, which contributed to the further decline of the economy. It would seem that the situation is hopeless, but where the state is powerless, people tend to self-organize.By 1933, there were over 400 “creaks” in the United States — types of private money. Their names usually depended on the area in which they were produced, as well as on who released them. There were “prosperity checks”, “pre-tax banknotes”, “restoration certificates” in use.
One of the most famous, albeit not very successful, was the “Recovery Certificate” issued by Winfield Keslow, owner of the American newspaper The Caslow Weekly. He used these certificates to pay his employees.Their uniqueness lay in the fact that they were self-destructing. It was assumed that during a transaction, a two-cent stamp would be glued to the reverse side of each of them, and when there were 54 such stamps, the certificate would go out of circulation.
Winfield Keslow Certificates
Photo: Heritage Auctions
Alas, such a “sales tax” did not allow this currency to spread in the end, and the actions of Keslow himself caused the mistrust of business representatives in it. The one-dollar certificate was more expensive than the federal currency (let’s not forget the need to stick a two-cent stamp) for no reason.The last straw was that the publisher of The Caslow Weekly himself refused to accept the money he issued as payment for advertising space in the newspaper. Despite the fact that the certificates were supposed to self-destruct, Keslow managed to flood the local market with them – in total, they were issued in the amount of about a million dollars.
The Evanston, Illinois Independent Retailer Association used a similar squeak scheme, but unlike publisher The Caslow Weekly, their money was a success.In the course of the transaction, it was also necessary to stick a two-cent stamp on the reverse side of the banknote. The tax made sense: the squeak was meant to only buy goods from the association stores, and the sellers actually paid the customer acquisition tax. Despite the fact that the margin was falling, the turnover and profit increased.
The same fact led to the fact that local residents began to actively use the currency of the association for transactions with each other. After all, they were sure of its value, they knew for sure that with the help of the money of the association, one could buy goods at certain points.The inhabitants, in contrast to the owners of these stores, did not need to glue stamps to creak. It was enough just to exchange it for the desired thing or service.
The saturation of the Soviet economy with money was always very low. If it was filled with money supply, the last goods would disappear from the shelves. Actually, this is exactly what happened during perestroika – the money supply by 1991 amounted to 73 percent of GDP, and there was no small business and a developed consumer sector.
In the early 90s, the saturation of the economy with money dropped to scanty figures (9.8-19 percent of GDP), which, of course, led to a real flourishing of the production of regional and private monetary units.Yegor Gaidar, being the deputy prime minister of the Russian government, signed a circular in 1992 that practically stimulates the regions to issue their own money. Its provisions could be interpreted quite broadly, because the document was considered, among other things, as a permit for the issue of private currency.
In addition to the well-known money of the subjects of the federation – Ural francs, “nemtsovka” and others – all kinds of checks, coupons and settlement tickets tried to pay off the employees of the owners of enterprises. The Suzunskaya pig factory had checks – “pig bucks”, the Kiselevskaya shoe factory gave employees salaries in “stepashki” (they were called that because the factory director was called Stepan Krekhov), coupons of the Karakonskaya coal mine in Belovo were called “khryapovki”, since the director of the mine had surname Khryap.
At the famous rock concert held at the Tushino airfield in September 1991, an amusing incident took place: in conditions of the most severe inflation, the role of money began to be played by “Angus bucks” – pieces of paper that looked like dollars, but with the face of Angus Young, the guitarist of the AC group / DC, who were thrown into the crowd during the concert. For them, within a short time, it was possible to buy, say, drinks, moreover, the cost of one “Angusbucks” exceeded the cost of one ruble.
These times are a thing of the past – presumably, until the next big crisis, the ghost of which always peeps over the shoulder of the “ordinary, small” thing that we are experiencing now.
The fate of the “certificate of recovery” was shared by many private currencies of that time, but this chapter in the history of money has shown the best way possible that local currencies do not harm the regional economies in any way, being adapted to stimulate demand for goods and services of local businesses. It is this function of theirs – the fight against large corporations and assistance to regional entrepreneurs – that becomes the main one in the post-crisis time.
One of the most interesting local money systems is called LETS. It was born in the early 1980s and still exists today, and was invented by Michael Linton and David Weston. The rationale is that this network structure allows barter relationships between individuals to be organized based on a transaction accounting system.
It is based on points – a conditional currency pegged in value to the currency of the state in which the user lives. You can earn points, for example, by working in the garden of one of the program participants, and spend, say, at a hairdresser participating in LETS, or shop at a corresponding store.However, one way or another, “money” (most often virtual, but sometimes paper, as well as metal or plastic chips) in each of the local programs received their own names, and often quite strange: bats, beaks, bobbins, dolls, etc. credits.
The local organization itself is, in fact, only an arbiter in disputes between users and the information service. Those wishing to join pay a small fee to open an account and describe the goods and services they provide or seek.This information is entered into the general list – previously such lists were printed and distributed to participants, but now, of course, they are published online. Transactions are recorded by an accountant, debiting points from one person’s account and depositing them into another’s account.
Initially, the LETS programs were enthusiastic, honest people who were extremely interested in everything new, but as they grew, the system began to be threatened by individuals who only bought and did not sell anything. Let’s not forget that this is a barter system and points by themselves have no value.A point system is needed so that a person who wants to exchange a product or service with another person does not look for exactly what he needs. In fact, a debt obligation, calculated in points, is taken from the buyer, which he must work out or give, and if only take and give nothing, then the system is threatened with bankruptcy.
The problem was simple: the number of members of each LETS program did not exceed 200 people, so that such a community was easier to control. This rule also eliminated the second difficulty – the need for the existence of large-scale accounting.
Both difficulties were circumvented by Paul Glover, an American activist from Ithaca. In 1991 he created a more flexible barter system based on private paper money called Ithaca Hour. They bore the motto In Ithaca We Trust (“We believe in Ithaca” – a reference to the motto printed on American dollars, “We believe in God”), and they were issued in five denominations: from 1/8 hour to 2 hours.
Why an hour? The value of one “Ithaca Hour” was $ 10, which is the average hourly wage in the city in 1991.Glover’s barter system functioned very much like LETS, with one important difference: People didn’t have to go to an accountant to record a transaction. To do this, it was enough to exchange the required number of “Ithaca Hours” for a product or service.
One might argue that this principle is no different from the functioning of the federal monetary system. However, this is not the case. A certain number of Ithaca Hours are issued when a new member joins the system.In addition, a small amount of “hours” is produced for Ithaca non-profit organizations and to cover the costs of the system itself.
By 2001, the system had attracted more than a thousand participants and with the help of it, transactions were made for about two million dollars. Glover’s experience was used in many other American cities – by the end of the 90s, there were about 85 such initiatives in the country. Programs have been deployed, including in Canada and other English-speaking countries, as well as in Japan and Italy.
Compared to LETS, Ithaka Clock had a clear advantage: there was no need to record all transactions and the impossibility of accumulating debt obligations, since transactions were secured by local currency. Of course, there are also disadvantages. Some participants may have accumulated an excess amount of money, which reduced the liquidity of the system. Others speculated with “watches,” which also destabilized her. Finally, it was very difficult to monitor the growth of the money supply.
Both LETS and Ithaca Clock have had and continue to have a positive impact on the economies of the communities in which they walked.First of all, they provided an opportunity for individuals who did not have a sufficient amount of state currency to make transactions. This also affected the development of local small businesses.
The above programs are general systems for the exchange of goods and services, but there are also more specialized ones. For example, in Japan there are many public initiatives in which volunteers helping the elderly and disabled receive so-called tickets for care – a reward for a certain number of hours spent with disabled citizens.
Interestingly, the different activities under these health programs are evaluated differently. For example, food served between 9 am and 5 pm has a lower credit rating than food served at other times, and helping around the house and going to the grocery store is cheaper than caring for a disabled person. You cannot buy anything for “tickets for care” but care – volunteers give them to their relatives and friends who need help. Statistics show the successful application of such systems: since their inception in 1991, the number of volunteers helping the elderly and disabled has increased significantly.
As for the usual squeaks produced by companies, they continue to exist regardless of the crisis. They, however, are not paid a salary – with the help of them on the territory belonging to these firms, you can buy goods or services. A striking example of such a currency is the Disney dollar, which is in circulation on the territory of Disneylands, cruise ships and company stores.
On the obverse of the Disney dollar are Mickey Mouse, Minnie Mouse, Donald Duck, Goofy, Pluto or some of the attractions from the firm’s parks.They can be sold in Disney stores, and they also circulate on a private Disney island located in the Caribbean. Why do customers buy these squeaks? Because, especially for a child, it is very entertaining to pay with banknotes with the image of your favorite cartoon characters. In addition, there are special series of Disney dollars that provide the client with a bonus system.
One way or another, but the era of physical money is drawing to a close. Payments through electronic systems are automatically accounted for, and this effectively blurs the very notion of money as something sacred.Non-cash money that has no physical representation is psychologically much easier to spend.
New non-state money is emerging on the Internet, which is a real problem for the state. For example, transfers made in the decentralized currency Bitcoin, although they are counted in the general chain, are completely anonymous, which is why it has recently become a favorite tool for traders of all kinds of prohibited goods. Of course, bitcoins are very different from the standard private currency, since this system does not have an emission center and distributes control over the release of new money, which is mined on powerful computers by performing resource-intensive tasks.
Photo: Karen Bleier / AFP
But there are many quite standard private currencies on the network. Airlines are actively distributing bonuses for flight miles, energy companies issue points for kilowatt-hours used, and large Internet companies, such as Facebook or Yandex, issue their own money.