2020 MLL Draft Results – FanLax.com
The 20th MLL Collegiate Draft was headlined by record-breaking face-off middy, TD Ierlan of Yale, the school with the most draft picks (5).
The Barrage had the most MLL Draft picks with 10, followed by Denver and New York with nine, Chesapeake with eight, Connecticut with seven and Boston with five.
These are the 2020 MLL Draft results by position:
Pick Team Player College Position
1 NYL TD Ierlan Yale FO
2 CON Michael Kraus Virginia M
3 NYL Colin Burke Utah A
4 BOS Nick Mellen Syracuse D
5 DEN Tom Rigney Army D
6 CHE Will Weitzel Yale M
7 NYL Charlie Trense Notre Dame D
8 CON Aidan Hynes Yale D
9 PHI Mark Evanchick Penn D
10 PHI Jon Mazza Towson M
11 DEN Nick Washuta Vermont G
12 CHE Will Yorke Bucknell A
13 NYL Tommy Wright Penn State LSM
14 PHI Reece Eddy Boston LSM
15 PHI Connor Fletcher Cornell M
17 CON Michael Brown Brown SSDM
18 CHE Chase Levesque Boston LSM
19 PHI Brendan Hoffman Williams M
20 CON Ben Martin Dartmouth A
21 PHI James Wittmeyer Mercyhurst SSDM
22 NYL Sean New Holy Cross D
23 DEN Sean Leahey Providence A
24 CHE Sam Lucchesi Hobart G
25 BOS Jeff Teat Cornell A
26 CHE Pat Aslanian Notre Dame LSM
27 DEN Griffin Peene Air Force D
28 BOS Michael Sowers Princeton A
29 DEN Eric Holden Hobart A
30 NYL Rock Stewart Williams LSM
31 NYL Connor Waldron Holy Cross M
32 CON Brandon Salvatore Cornell LSM
33 PHI Colin Minicus Amherst A
34 BOS Peyton Smith Marist FO
35 DEN Jeff Trainor Umass M
37 NYL Terrence Haggerty Cortland State A
38 CON Will Renz Yale M
39 PHI Justin Schwenk Virginia FO
40 DEN Connor Kirst Villanova M
41 DEN Nate Siekierski Albany G
42 CHE Grant Maloof Towson M
43 NYL Andrew Pettit Lehigh A
44 CON Charlie Bertrand Merrimack A
45 PHI Adam Goldner Upenn M
46 BOS Jason Brewster UMBC D
47 DEN Miles Silva Army A
48 CHE Kevin Kodzis Holy Cross A
2020 MLL Draft Results Announced
May 4, 2020 – Major League Lacrosse (MLL) News Release
The 2020 MLL Draft, presented by Cascade is in the books! The 20th Collegiate Draft in MLL history was headlined by record-breaking faceoff TD Ierlan of Yale, the school with the most draft picks (5).
The Barrage had the most MLL Draft picks with 10, followed by Denver and New York with nine, Chesapeake with eight, Connecticut with seven and Boston with five.
Here are the 2020 MLL Draft results by position:
Pick Player College Position Team
1 TD Ierlan Yale FO NYL
2 Michael Kraus Virginia M CON
3 Colin Burke Utah A NYL
4 Nick Mellen Syracuse D BOS
5 Tom Rigney Army D DEN
6 Will Weitzel Yale M CHE
7 Charlie Trense Notre Dame D NYL
8 Aidan Hynes Yale D CON
9 Mark Evanchick Penn D PHI
10 Jon Mazza Towson M PHI
11 Nick Washuta Vermont G DEN
12 Will Yorke Bucknell A CHE
13 Tommy Wright Penn State LSM NYL
14 Reece Eddy Boston LSM PHI
15 Connor Fletcher Cornell M PHI
16 Matt Gaudet Yale A PHI
17 Michael Brown Brown SSDM CON
18 Chase Levesque Boston LSM CHE
19 Brendan Hoffman Williams M PHI
20 Ben Martin Dartmouth A CON
21 James Wittmeyer Mercyhurst SSDM PHI
22 Sean New Holy Cross D NYL
23 Sean Leahey Providence A DEN
24 Sam Lucchesi Hobart G CHE
25 Jeff Teat Cornell A BOS
26 Pat Aslanian Notre Dame LSM CHE
27 Griffin Peene Air Force D DEN
28 Michael Sowers Princeton A BOS
29 Eric Holden Hobart A DEN
30 Rock Stewart Williams LSM NYL
31 Connor Waldron Holy Cross M NYL
32 Brandon Salvatore Cornell LSM CON
33 Colin Minicus Amherst A PHI
34 Peyton Smith Marist FO BOS
35 Jeff Trainor Umass M DEN
36 Luke Anderson Marquette FO CHE
37 Terrence Haggerty Cortland State A NYL
38 Will Renz Yale M CON
39 Justin Schwenk Virginia FO PHI
40 Connor Kirst Villanova M DEN
41 Nate Siekierski Albany G DEN
42 Grant Maloof Towson M CHE
43 Andrew Pettit Lehigh A NYL
44 Charlie Bertrand Merrimack A CON
45 Adam Goldner Upenn M PHI
46 Jason Brewster UMBC D BOS
47 Miles Silva Army A DEN
48 Kevin Kodzis Holy Cross A CHE
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MLL Draft Grades: Barrage, Cannons Lead the Way
(Inside Lacrosse Photo: Peyton Williams)
Major League Lacrosse held its 20th collegiate draft amid a stormy sea of uncertainty. With college seniors granted an extra year of eligibility due to the cancellation of the 2020 NCAA season, the event was destined to be unpredictable. Still, the draft itself wasn’t short on drama and ended up being an enjoyable experience for everyone who followed along on twitter. Hindsight always ends up judging drafts, but even hindsight will have to wait with the rest of us to see if there will even be an MLL season this summer.
Check out the full draft results here.
In every draft there are winners and losers, even in a time period that redefines exigent circumstances. So, with that in mind, and an extremely large chunk of salt, please enjoy these draft grades in the way they are intended.
I know, I know. I can’t believe it, either. There is no denying that this was [theoretically] the best draft for the Cannons in a decade. Michael Sowers and Jeff Teat playing together on the same attack line is something worth waiting for not just for Cannons fans, but for fans of lacrosse in general. The rest of their picks are almost irrelevant by comparison, but there is a lot of quality in there as well, particularly Nick Mellen. There were rumors that Mellen was definitely going to the Lizards at No. 1, so the Cannons getting him with the fourth pick what they call a quarantine-inspired glow-up.
Best Pick: Michael Sowers, A, Duke; and Jeff Teat, A, Cornell
Sometimes you just have to step back and admire the absolute reversal of strategy that a team takes in a draft. I have bagged on the Cannons drafts for years, and I was right to do so. Go back and look at some of the guys they passed on. I’ll wait. Crazy, right? Well, not this year. Boston picked up a big old sledgehammer and smashed those mediocre expectations to little teeny bits by taking Sowers and Teat. I still can’t believe it happened.
The champs didn’t have to go get a lot of players, because they had the fewest roster holes to fill after fighting off PLL defection. So, they did what very few teams managed to do and only swung for players they thought they could get in a uniform this season. The curse of being practical isn’t as bad as the curse of, say, lycanthropy — but it’s still a limitation. Chesapeake basically picked a stable of complementary players to bolster its mostly untouched 2019 championship roster. Why mess with a great thing? Right? RIGHT?
Best Pick: Will Yorke, A, Bucknell
Yes, Yale’s Will Weitzel is a like-for-almost-kinda-like replacement for Jesse Bernhardt, but Bucknell’s Will Yorke might be the best fit for the flock. Yorke is big, shoots hard, and fits right into a blank hole that the Bayhawks used to jam recently retired Ryan Tucker into as a step-down sniper. Yorke is a much better fit for a high-crease power shooter who has the enviable job of catching feeds from Steele Stanwick and Lyle Thompson, among others.
The Hammerheads blended a unique strategy of drafting the best available player and the best player that fit their system for the entire draft. This is a team that wants to run like wild ponies across the Connecticut countryside, and it went after players it thought could help it execute that equine dream. Look for Brown’s Michael Brown to break in the roster on opening day as his utility as both a shortstick and a pole is valued by the coaching staff. Brown is also the perfect replacement for the departed Donny Moss.
Best Pick: Charlie Bertrand, A/M, Merrimack
With the news that Bertrand is heading back for another year of school — he’s still the best value for talent pick in the entire draft. The Hammerheads took him in the eighth round with the 44th pick. That’s almost the last pick in the draft. Bertrand is going to remember that, and so are all the Merrimack fans. Which, as I can personally attest, is not the type of smoke you want on social media or in real life.
Like Connecticut, Denver went after the best available players, but it hit that switch after it gathered two key positional needs — a top-level defender and a goalkeeper. After taking Rigney and Washuta with their first two picks, the Outlaws went heavy on hustlers and scorers, taking players like Providence’s Sean Leahey and Hobart’s Eric Holden. With Holden suiting up for the Terps in 2021, Denver will have to wait for his services, but considering it got him with the 29th pick and he was one of the most highly sought after fifth-year players in the country is a great sign.
Best Pick: Tom Rigney, D, Army
If Rigney is available for this summer — and indications are that he will be in a similar way that Johnny Surdick was available last season working at West Point — then the Outlaws have made a phenomenal selection to shore up with defensive woes. Rigney was at the top of most teams’ draft boards in terms of sheer defensive intelligence and acumen. He’s not exactly like his former teammate Surdick because he’s not nearly as flashy or fanciful in his upfield runs. But he is a death metal checker who has great feet to stalk even the most spritely of attackmen.
New York: C
Unfortunately, we now know that TD Ierlan won’t be included in New York’s plans for 2020 (and the grade honestly reflects that as well), but he’s a worthy first-round pick and was [almost] New York’s only gamble in the draft. Every other pick had everyone but the most hardcore lacrosse fans up in arms. The Lizards had a lot of positional needs and took a wildly diverse group of players to meet those needs. The problem is that in a draft full of uncertainty, just taking guys you think will be able to play right away, doesn’t mean that those same players should play right away. This draft class has more projects than your grandpa’s woodshed.
Best Pick: Andrew Pettit, A, Lehigh
For where New York managed to get Pettit —the last pick in the draft— the potential return is astronomical. As we all know now, not every player who was drafted entered the MLL registration portal — but Pettit did. His talent is undeniable but concerns over his injury history caused him to drop. Still, no one that has watched him roast defenders and sizzle twine at Lehigh, expected him to drop as far as he did. Pettit isn’t going to replace a guy like Rob Pannell in the Lizards’ attack unit, but he’s a really great complement to Dylan Molloy and could easily turn into the next Tommy Palasek with his diverse skillset and ability to score from multiple points on the field.
I’ve never seen a team draft every underrated player —much less every sleeper— in the draft and manage to get every single one of them. Like, this was a breathless accumulation of talent that all have a chance to play somewhere for this franchise. I don’t think any other team can claim that, nor do I think any other franchise could offer that opportunity in 2020 or 2021. There is a world where every single one of these players pulls on a Barrage jersey. It might not be our reality, but it would be really cool.
Best Pick: Connor Fletcher, M, Cornell
It’s hard to pick a favorite among this stellar bunch of draft picks, but when forced to kill one’s darlings it’s hard to ignore the potential of a player like Connor Fletcher. Now, not everyone shares my admiration for Fletcher because all of those other people only care about stats and don’t watch lacrosse. Jeff Teat gets to be Jeff Teat because of guys like Connor Fletcher. There is no other player in this draft who is as accomplished at hammering down an alley and drawing a slide than Fletcher. No one. Pro coaches salivate over that by itself, now attach it to a guy who can shoot and is 6-foot-3, 230 pounds.
2019 MLL Draft Results: Towson’s Alex Woodall Drafted No.1 by Ohio Machine
Welcome to IL’s coverage of the 2019 Major League Lacrosse Draft held in the historic NASCAR Hall of Fame in Charlotte, North Carolina! Stay tuned for updates, live analysis and full results. Don’t forget to come back tomorrow morning for Kyle Devitte’s MLL Draft grades.
If @TheKyleDevitte and I built a time machine last week, traveled to today, wrote down all these picks, came back and wrote them in our mock draft you guys would’ve been like “wow you guys don’t know nothing about nothing none of that’s gonna happen. Dummies.”— Chris Rosenthall (@ChrisRosie22) March 10, 2019
1. Ohio Machine: Alex Woodall, FO, Towson In a shocking move, the Machine have taken the Towson Strongman-turned-FO wiz with the first selection. Woodall will have to beat out Kenny Massa and Greg Puskuldjian for playing time in Ohio, but make no mistake: he is the engine of Towson’s early season success.
2. Florida Launch: Tim Troutner, G, High Point If we were shocked at Woodall, we were even more shocked to see Troutner go this high. Florida came into the draft with Austin Kaut, one of the best goalies in the league, on thier roster. This pick doesn’t make a lot of sense unless Kaut is out.
3. Boston Cannons: Zach Goodrich, M, Towson Nevermind the “D-Mid” classification, Goodrich’s contributions are multi-faceted and intangible to most people who just look at stats. If you watch lacrosse, you know what Goodrich does for the Tigers and if you watched Boston play since… forever, you know that tey haven’t had a guy with Goodrich’s skillset since JJ Morrissey.
4. Boston Cannons: Austin Henningsen, FO, Maryland This is a headscratcher, but not because of Henningsen’s ability. Kevin Resiman and Ted Ottens are already on the Boston roster, so taking a third draw man makes no sense unless the Cannons don’t believe in either one of those guys.
5. Charlotte Hounds: Ryan Conrad, M, Virginia The Hounds need help on offense and Conrad can play anywhere on an offensive or defensive midfield line, so it’s a great pick for versatility; but there are more pressing needs on the front line — like a middie who can dodge a longpole.
6. Denver Outlaws: Max Tuttle, M, Sacred Heart This week, Tuttle just won a game for Sacred Heart in overtime by jumping through the crease, turning his body to avoid contact with a defender and the goalie and scored with a backhand. That’s a Denver Outlaw.
7. Chesapeake Bayhawks: Pat Spencer, A, Loyola The Bayhawks took advantage of the league with this pick. If any player is worth waiting a year for, it’s Pat Spencer. New York waited for Rob Pannell. Ohio waited for Peter Baum. Both those franchises won championships with those players. Coincidence?
8. Dallas Rattlers: Chris Sabia, D, Penn State The first defenseman to go in a deep, deep pool of poles, Sabia is a great replacement for Mike Manley down low. Tough with his checks and tougher with his body, Sabia is half pro wrestler, half lumberjack and now he’s all Rattler.
9. Denver Outlaws: Daniel Bucaro, A, Georgetown This is really high for Bucaro unless you’ve seen Bucaro play, in which case, you already know. Snakebit by injuries for parts of his college career, Bucaro is a beast who is great at drawing and splitting doubles with a smile on his face.
10. Ohio Machine: Nick Spillane, M, Penn State
11. Florida Launch: Sean Eccles, M, UAlbany
12. Boston Cannons: Clarke Petterson, A, Cornell
13. Atlanta Blaze: Brendan Sunday, M/A, Towson
14. Atlanta Blaze: Dylan Gaines, D, Denver
15. Ohio Machine: TJ Comizio, DM, Villanova
16. Chesapeake Bayhawks: Greyson Torain, M, Navy
17. Dallas Rattlers: Craig Chick: LSM/D, Lehigh
18. Denver Outlaws: Chris Aslanian, A, Hobart
19. Ohio Machine: Johnny Surdick, D, Army
20. Chesapeake Bayhawks: Curtis Corley, D, Maryland
21. Boston Cannons: Nick DeCaprio, LSM, Michigan
22. Dallas Rattlers: Isaac Paparo, LSM, UMass
23. Charlotte Hounds: Matt Neufeldt, LSM, Denver
24. New York Lizards: Jack Tigh, M, Yale
25. Chesapeake Bayhawks: Noah Richard, LSM, Marquette
26. Atlanta Blaze: Colton Jackson, M, Denver
27. Boston Cannons: Ryland Rees, LSM, Stony Brook
28. Ohio Machine: Chris Young, A, High Point
29. Florida Launch: Tyler Dunn, M, Penn
30. Boston Cannons: Brent Noseworthy, M, Michigan
31. Dallas Rattlers: Teddy Hatfield, A, Richmond
32. Charlotte Hounds: Austin Fusco, D, Syracuse
33. New York Lizards: John Daniggelis, M, Yale
34. Boston Cannons: Tyson Bomberry, D, Syracuse
35. Dallas Rattlers: Jack Jasinski, A, Ohio State
36. Denver Outlaws: Brandon Jones, D, Air Force
37. Ohio Machine: Matt Borges, D, Ohio State
38. Florida Launch: Joey Sessa, M, Yale
39. Atlanta Blaze: Brett Craig, LSM, Seton Hill
40. Florida Launch: Andrew Kew, A, Tampa
41. Atlanta Blaze: Tyson Gibson, M, Robert Morris
42. New York Lizards: Connor Farrell, FO, LIU Post
43. Chesapeake Bayhawks: Austin French, A, Denver
44. Dallas Rattlers: Joe Saggese, A, Sacred Heart
45. Denver Outlaws: Kyle Marr, A, Johns Hopkins
46. Ohio Machine: Sam Cleveland, A, Colgate
47. Florida Launch: Eric Applegate, A, Jacksonville
48. Dallas Rattlers: Lucas Wittenberg, M, Georgetown
49. Atlanta Blaze: Eddy Bouhall, D, Lehigh
50. Charlotte Hounds: Brendan Gleason, M, Notre Dame
51. New York Lizards: Danny Dolan, G, Maryland
52. Chesapeake Bayhawks: Warren Jeffrey, D, Vermont
53. Dallas Rattlers: Fleet Wallace, D, Cornell
54. Denver Outlaws: Jeff Rowlett, D, North Carolina
55. Boston Cannons: James Burr, A, Boston U
56. Florida Launch: Reid Malas, M, Bucknell
57. New York Lizards: Decker Curran, M, Michigan
58. Atlanta Blaze: Jake McCulloch, M, Cornell
59: Ohio Machine: Alex Heger, G, Robert Morris
60. New York Lizards: Brendan Kearns, A, Providence
61. Chesapeake Bayhawks: John Prendergast, M, Duke
62. Dallas Rattlers: Landon Kramer, M, Sacred Heart
63: Denver Outlaws: Kyle Pless, D, Rutgers
2016 MLL Draft Results And Analysis
The 2016 MLL Draft, Collegiate Edition, is officially in the books. Barring future trades, we now know how each team is really shaping up heading into the spring. There was some great talent available this year, so several teams were able to fill their needs, and add firepower on both ends of the field.
MLL teams used to throw their recent college draftees into the mix right away, but these days you really need to be a truly dynamic player to see time quickly and consistently. This was a strong draft class though, and a good number of the players below could make an impact with their new franchises. When I say a player “can contribute immediately”, it’s meant as a huge compliment.
It’s simply not an easy thing to do in the modern MLL.
Let’s take a look at how it went down!
2016 MLL Draft – Round 1
Atlanta Blaze – Myles Jones, Midfield, Duke – I don’t think anyone was shocked here. Jones became just the second Duke player to be chosen as the first overall player (Ned Crotty was the first in 2010). Jones has improved every year he has been on campus. After his first two years, everyone wanted to see him combine his incredible athleticism with better stick skills and field vision, also known as “putting it all together”. In 2015, he did. He may not be cradling through five MLL defenders like he does now in college, but his ability to feed others after drawing a slide will make Atlanta very dangerous.
Charlotte Hounds – Dylan Donohue, Attack, Syracuse – Donohue, like Jones, has been a poster child for improving your game in college. He did not start his career at Syracuse, but thrived once he was teamed with Kevin Rice. Last year’s Notre Dame game proved that he has a lot more to offer than just being able to finish off of a feed, and do so against a very good defense. He can create on his own and will be leading the Orange in 2016. He should fit in well with Charlotte’s existing attack as he doesn’t mirror anyone else’s skill set on the team.
Florida Launch – Matt Landis, Defense, Notre Dame – Going with defense here made a ton of sense for Florida. They already have an explosive offense, but they have left their goalies on an island way too often over the past few seasons. Adding Landis as that defender is about as sure as you can get. He has been a force in South Bend ever since he arrived on campus. Excellent pick by the Launch.
Charlotte Hounds – Ryan Brown, Attack, Johns Hopkins – Brown is a big time scorer who can take over games. He also played a year at midfield for the Blue Jays, which should offer some of the versatility many MLL teams like. Combining him with Donohue, Joey Sankey, Kevin Crowley and Friends? Charlotte has built themselves a dangerous offense.
Denver Outlaws – Matt Kavanagh, Attack, Notre Dame – The narrative of Kavanagh last season change from lofty expectations to wondering where his production went. The end of the season revealed that he had been playing (severely?) injured nearly all season long helped a little, but season of questions had already been played. If he is healthy and plays true to his expected form, he’s set for a huge 2016 season for the golden domers and should be immediately productive for Denver. What’s even better is he likely won’t play NLL, giving the Outlaws a stellar full-season attackman.
Boston Cannons – Greg Coholan, Midfield, Virginia – Coholan was stellar for the Cavaliers this past season. With James Pannell fighting injuries, Coholan was able to rise up. He also split time between Midfield and Attack, which was not a big part of what the Cannons did a year ago, but with a new coach in Boston, he adds some versatility.
Rochester Rattlers – Matt Dunn, Defense, Maryland – The Rattlers traded up for this pick before the draft, and that was likely to make sure they had a pick of a defender. Last year’s championship game had the Rattlers fading as the game went on and their poles just could not hold back the Lizards anymore. Dunn should fit into the Rochester defense well. He has been a major contributor since he arrived in College Park.
Ohio Machine – Michael Quinn, Defense, Yale – Quinn has started nearly every game since he first showed up to Yale. He anchored a defense that was in the top ten last year in goals against. He led the team in caused turnovers and in ground balls amongst non-faceoff players. He should be a factor immediately for the Machine.
Boston Cannons – Brandon Mullins, Defense, Syracuse – While the Cannons did just trading away Ratliff, they still picked up a pair of long poles in that trade. This leaves them with multiple options at the LSM spot, but there is still an opening in the rotation at close defense. With Brodie Merrill and Mitch Belisle both being in the NLL, this puts Mullins in a great spot to make immediate contributions both this year and next.
2016 MLL Draft – Round 2
Atlanta Blaze – Deemer Class, Midfield, Duke – Combining Class with Jones means an impressive midfield duo is going to be dropped into Atlanta once the Duke season is over. They already have Syracuse grads and former teammates Kevin Rice and Randy Staats, so there is some instant chemistry in that young offensive group.
TRADE!!! Ohio has this pick by trading Dana Wilbur to Chesapeake in a draft day trade
Ohio Machine – Kyle Bernlohr, Goalie, Maryland – This is a stellar pickup by Ohio, who is only carrying two goalies in Scott Rodgers and Adam Fullerton. I would fully expect Bernlohr to compete for the starting job right away.
Florida Launch – Henry West, Midfield, Maryland – West started every game for the Terps and recorded 20 goals, good for fourth on the team. Going to Florida will be a big switch in style, but he should have a shot at making the game day roster once he is available.
Charlotte Hounds – Pat Young, Midfield, Maryland – A UMBC transfer, Young was highly productive for his first three years of NCAA play. The Hounds have a completely different look to them going into this year, but their strength is in the attack. Young is a good pick here for the Hounds. By the way, we’re now 13 picks in and four of Maryland’s seniors have been selected. Terps looking to be a serious contender in 2016. Ok, back to the pro stuff.photo credit: craig chase
Denver Outlaws – Stephen Jahelka, Defense, Harvard – A two time captain, Jahelka only played in two games in 2015 which may have him way under the radar. Denver is looking for a new defensive identity, so it is perfect timing for Jahelka to venture out west.
TRADE!!! Boston traded this pick to Atlanta as part of the Ratliff trade
Atlanta Blaze – Tyler Albrecht, Midfield, Loyola – A scoring midfielder, Albrecht should complement his fellow Blaze teammates well. He has seen consistent field time throughout his career with the Greyhounds.
Ohio Machine – Bryan Cole, Midfield, Maryland– The third Maryland midfielder selected, Cole bring excellent size to Ohio and looks to be a good fit in their high ball movement offense. Ohio’s first lines of middies are pretty set in stone, but Cole should be able to find a spot in the rotation.
Rochester Rattlers – John Edmonds, Attack, Cornell – Edmonds had some big names ahead of him last year in Ithaca, but he is poised to take over as the face of that offense. Rochester is looking to retool their offense a bit after a rough offseason, so Edmonds might be showing up at the perfect time.
Charlotte Hounds – Nick Doktor, Attack, Penn – Penn’s leading scorer in 2015, Doktor is going to lead the Quakers once again. He is more of an assist guy, which means he could mesh perfectly with Dylan Donohue and Ryan Brown.
2016 MLL Draft – Round 3
Atlanta Blaze – Greg Danseglio, Defense, Maryland – Before this year, he spent three years with Virginia where he was seeing playing time in nearly every game as a freshman. We have another Maryland guy off the board, and if this high MLL pick works out like the Blaze coaches think he will, the Terps are stacked with upperclassmen. Danseglio could re-emerge this year as a potential game changer.
Charlotte Hounds – Colin Woolford, Midfield, Denver – What’s really crazy about this pick is that the college team viewed as the Denver Outlaws farm team has so far only had one player drafted, and it was to Charlotte. Woolford is big, tough, and could be a prototypical MLL middie. His potential is as big as his frame.
Florida Launch – Liam Byrnes, LSM, Marquette – This was a huge pick for NCAA reasons. Marquette’s a brand new program who made some noise last year and cracked the rankings. Seeing them get a player drafted already is great news for growth!
TRADE!!! Florida traded this pick to Chesapeake for Nikko Pontrello
Chesapeake Bayhawks – John Maloney, Midfield, Albany – Maloney is a player who when you watched Albany and ignored the attack line for a few plays, stood out immediately. He was absolutely overshadowed but has some great talent.
Denver Outlaws – Matt Hossack, LSM, RIT – Division 3 pick! Hossack has been dominant for and RIT team that hasn’t lost a regular season game since 2013, when they also made a championship appearance. Last season, he took the DIII player of the year award, not defender, player. He also won the midfielder of the year award.
New York Lizards – James Pannell, Attack, Virginia – Another Pannell in the MLL, be afraid! James may not be collecting the same type of hardware that his brother Rob did at Cornell, but do not mistake that for lacking talent. Pannell is a great player who is a central cog in the Cavaliers’ offense. He has had injuries holding him back, but when he was healthy, he loaded up some points against his ACC rivals. Now we get to see them together!
Florida Launch – Steve Pontrello, Midfield, UNC – Pontrello is poised for a huge year with the Tar Heels in 2016. With Joey Sankey and Jimmy Bitter now in the MLL, Pontrello should see his increase even more in of most exciting offenses in the NCAA over the past few years.
Charlotte Hounds – Brendan Caputo, Midfield, Brown – Caputo was fourth on the team in scoring last year for the high scoring Brown squad. He could fit in perfectly with these new look Hounds, and Brown’s up and down, never stop style of play will could with his MLL adjustment.
OK folks, from here on out, I’ll add a few comments for some of the players, but it will mostly just be the draft results:
2016 MLL Draft – Round 4
Charlotte Hounds – Tyler White, Goalie, Towson – White is an outstanding goalie. Unfortunately, this is one of the toughest position to break into in the MLL. The Hounds already have a handful of keepers on the roster, so it will be interesting to see if he is able to make the active roster after his NCAA season wraps up.
Florida Launch – Gunnar Waldt, Goalie, Bryant – Waldt was the difference when Bryant shocked the lacrosse world in their win over Syracuse in 2014’s NCAA opening round. Florida has good goalies already, but they have also shown that they are willing to experiment with this position.
Florida Launch – Robby Haus, Defense, Ohio State
Chesapeake Bayhawks – Mark Glicini, Midfield, Yale – A defensive midfielder, he might be great to team up with Matt Abbott. Not afraid to push the ball in transition, he recorded seven assists on the year to go with one goal.
Denver Outlaws – Sam Llinares, Attack, Hofstra – The returning CAA player of the year, Llinares lead the Pride in scoring and is poised to have a huge senior season. There is potential for him in Denver.
Boston Cannons – Challen Rogers, Midfield, Stony Brook – Stony Brook has been challenging Albany for the Amercia East crown for a few years now. Much of that is due to Rogers in the midfield.
Ohio Machine – Bobby Schmidt, Defense, Bellarmine
Rochester Rattlers – TJ Neubauer, M, Fairfield – With just their third pick of the draft, this was a good grab for Rochester. They need to build up their midfield, and Neubauer should give them a nice option. Fairfield has been very strong the past few years.
New York Lizards – Jacob Richard, Defensive Midfield, Marquette – The second Marquette player taken, having a shot at the defensive side of the ball is the best shot in New York. They are loaded all across the field, and have some established D-mids, so this is tough group to crack.
2016 MLL Draft – Round 5
Atlanta Blaze – Warren Hill, Goalie, Syracuse – If this draft was after the NCAA season, Hill may have been called earlier. He has limited NCAA experience to pull from, but his NJCAA and international record are fantastic. Coach Desko has spoken very well of him and has high hopes. Great potential for Atlanta.
Charlotte Hounds – Goran Murray, Defense, Maryland – Murray was a lock for a starting spot heading into last season, but wound up being ineligible and sat the season out for the Terps. He is also not on the 2016 Maryland roster. With his name being called here, it looks like he may be moving on from college, but it will be interesting to see if he makes it onto the field for the Hounds.
Ohio Machine – Dan Lomas, Attack, High Point – Similar to the Marquette comments, this is great news for a young High Point program. For the second straight year, they are getting their players names’ called, but this is no charity pick. Lomas is a scorer and could be a name you hear a lot in the future.
New York Lizards – Ryan Ambler, Attack, Princeton
Denver Outlaws – BJ Grill, Defense, Marquette – The third Marquette player taken. If you had any doubts as last year’s squad being a one hit wonder, start rethinking that now!
Boston Cannons – Jake Matthai, Midfield, UNC
Ohio Machine – Mike Messenger, Midfield, Limestone – This might be my favorite pick of the draft. Messenger can dominate and is a great fit for Ohio’s offense. He has a great shot at making this team.
New York Lizards – David Manning, Defense, Loyola
2016 MLL Draft – Round 6
Ohio Machine – Cameron Williams, Midfield, Colgate
Charlotte Hounds – Jospeph Radin, Attack, Marist – Marist really was able to point some points up last year. Even though they came short against Syracuse, Radin has some great skills.
Florida Launch – Devin Dwyer, Attack, Harvard
Chesapeake Bayhawks – Zach Herreywers, Attack, Loyola
Denver Outlaws – Tim Barber, Midfield, Syracuse – Barber is really equal parts midfield and attack. He only has one season of NCAA under his belt, but I would not be shocked to see him on the field in Denver this year. He’s crafty and tough.
Boston Cannons – John Uppgren, Attack, Tufts – Boston went local, grabbing a stellar DIII player who plays not even four miles from Harvard Stadium. Uppgren has some potential for the Cannons a la Mike Stone.
Ohio Machine – Zack Powers, Defense, UNC
Rochester Rattlers – Blaze Riorden, Goalie, Albany – Rochester loves upstate New York guys. Riorden happens to be a Rochester player on top of going to an upstate college. I can’t imagine him replacing John Galloway, but this is a good grab since their primary backup is Army grad Sam Somers. Somers is a great goalie, but West Point grads are always questionable for the first few years due to military commitments.
New York Lizards – Brody Eastwood, Attack, Stony Brook – Coach Spallina had to be thrilled having a shot at Eastwood. He’s a fantastic player who Spallina has probably seen plenty of as the Stony Brook women’s coach. This is a near impossible attack unit to crack, but even if he is just a practice player, he will be a great asset.
2016 MLL Draft – Round 7
Atlanta Blaze – Case Matheis, Attack, Duke – Yet another Blue Devil to this team is a scary thing. The Blaze team could have fantastic chemistry early on in their franchise history. That’s key!
Charlotte Hounds – Evan Connell, Defense, UNC
Chesapeake Bayhawks – Michael Howard, Defense, UVA
Chesapeake Bayhawks – Carter Brown, Attack, Ohio State
Denver Outlaws – Jack Kelly, Goalie, Brown
Boston Cannons – Matt Thistle, Attack, High Point – Another High Point pick, and another kid who can play. Thistle is originally from Massachusetts, giving him a good shot at sticking with the team if he returns home after graduation.
Ohio Machine – Vince Gravino, Attack, Canisius
Rochester Rattlers – Eric DeJohn, Midfield, St. John’s – Another upstate New York native (from Syracuse), he started his career at Syracuse but found himself in a crowded lineup. He has really performed well at St. John’s and has a good shot at helping a rebuilding Rochester midfield.
Charlotte Hounds – Zack Sikora, Defense, Rutgers
2016 MLL Draft – Round 8
Rochester Rattlers – Austin Schutlz, Defense, Army
Charlotte Hounds – Shane Morrell, Attack, Bryant
Florida Launch – Alex Spring, Defense, Bucknell
Chesapeake Bayhawks – Holden Cattoni, Midfield, Johns Hopkins – I was shocked to see Cattoni fall this far, but the Bayhawks landed a great pick here.
Denver Outlaws – Conor Helfrich, FO, Tufts – Another DII player, and a FOGO to boot. The Outlaws are trying to find a long term answer at this spot on the field, so he has a good shot at making the team. Craig Bunker’s career should give Helfrich plenty of hope. Read more on Conor Helfrich HERE.
Boston Cannons – Cameron Bell, Goalie, Endicott – New Boston Cannons coach Sean Quirk was at Endicott up until this past year. When he grabs a former player in his first draft, you have to think his confidence is high in their abilities.
Ohio Machine – Derek Kihembo, Defense, Johns Hopkins
Rochester Rattlers – Sal Tuttle, Attack, Adelphi
New York Lizards – Scott Bieda, Attack, Rutgers
Not a fan of team “Round 6” or the “Fightin’ Round 3″s?
Do you actually follow a specific team?
GOOD! Pick a team to follow, make them yours!
Don’t worry, here’s the team by team breakdown:
Atlanta Blaze – 6 total selections
Round 1 – Pick 1 – Myles Jones, Midfield, Duke
Round 2 – Pick 1 – Deemer Class, Midfield, Duke
Round 2 – Pick 6 – Tyler Albrecht, Midfield, Loyola
Round 3 – Pick 1 – Greg Danseglio, Defense, Maryland
Round 5 – Pick 1 – Warren Hill, Goalie, Syracuse
Round 7 – Pick 1 – Case Matheis, Attack, Duke
Boston Cannons – 7 total selections
Round 1 – Pick 6 – Greg Coholan, Midfield, Virginia
Round 1 – Pick 9 – Brandon Mullins, Defense, Syracuse
Round 4 – Pick 6 – Challen Rogers, Midfield, Stony Brook
Round 5 – Pick 6 – Jake Matthai, Midfield, UNC
Round 6 – Pick 6 – John Uppgren, Attack, Tufts
Round 7 – Pick 6 – Matt Thistle, Attack, High Point
Round 8 – Pick 6 – Cameron Bell, Goalie, Endicott
Charlotte Hounds – 12 total selections
Round 1 – Pick 2 – Dylan Donohue, Attack, Syracuse
Round 1 – Pick 4 – Ryan Brown, Attack, Johns Hopkins
Round 2 – Pick 4 – Pat Young, Midfield, Maryland
Round 2 – Pick 9 – Nick Doktor, Attack, Penn
Round 3 – Pick 2 – Colin Woolford, Midfield, Denver
Round 3 – Pick 8 – Brendan Caputo, Midfield, Brown
Round 4 – Pick 1 – Tyler White, Goalie, Towson
Round 5 – Pick 2 – Goran Murray, Defense, Maryland
Round 6 – Pick 2 – Jospeph Radin, Attack, Marist
Round 7 – Pick 2 – Evan Connell, Defense, UNC
Round 7 – Pick 9 – Zack Sikora, Defense, Rutgers
Round 8 – Pick 2 – Shane Morrell, Attack, Bryant
Chesapeake Bayhawks – 6 total selections
Round 3 – Pick 4 – John Maloney, Midfield, Albany
Round 4 – Pick 4 – Mark Glicini, Midfield, Yale
Round 6 – Pick 4 – Zach Herreywers, Attack, Loyola
Round 7 – Pick 3 – Michael Howard, Defense, UVA
Round 7 – Pick 4 – Carter Brown, Attack, Ohio State
Round 8 – Pick 4 – Holden Cattoni, Midfield, Johns Hopkins
Denver Outlaws – 8 total selections
Round 1 – Pick 5 – Matt Kavanagh, Attack, Notre Dame
Round 2 – Pick 5 – Stephen Jahelka, Defense, Harvard
Round 3 – Pick 5 – Matt Hossack, LSM, RIT
Round 4 – Pick 5 – Sam Llinares, Attack, Hofstra
Round 5 – Pick 5 – BJ Grill, Defense, Marquette
Round 6 – Pick 5 – Tim Barber, Midfield, Syracuse
Round 7 – Pick 5 – Jack Kelly, Goalie, Brown
Round 8 – Pick 5 – Conor Helfrich, FO, Tufts
Florida Launch – 8 total selections
Round 1 – Pick 3 – Matt Landis, Defense, Notre Dame
Round 2 – Pick 3 – Henry West, Midfield, Maryland
Round 3 – Pick 3 – Liam Byrnes LSM Marquette
Round 3 – Pick 7 – Steve Pontrello, Midfield, UNC
Round 4 – Pick 2 – Gunnar Waldt, Goalie, Bryant
Round 4 – Pick 3 – Robby Haus, Defense, Ohio State
Round 6 – Pick 3 – Devin Dwyer, Attack, Harvard
Round 8 – Pick 3 – Alex Spring, Defense, Bucknell
New York Lizards – 6 total selections
Round 3 – Pick 6 – James Pannell Attack Virginia
Round 4 – Pick 9 – Jacob Richard, Defensive Midfield, Marquette
Round 5 – Pick 4 – Ryan Ambler, Attack, Princeton
Round 5 – Pick 8 – David Manning, Defense, Loyola
Round 6 – Pick 9 – Brody Eastwood, Attack, Stony Brook
Round 8 – Pick 9 – Scott Bieda, Attack, Rutgers
Ohio Machine – 10 total selections
Round 1 – Pick 8 – Michael Quinn, Defense, Yale
Round 2 – Pick 2 – Kyle Bernlohr, Goalie, Maryland
Round 2 – Pick 7 – Bryan Cole, Midfield, Maryland
Round 4 – Pick 7 – Bobby Schmidt, Defense, Bellarmine
Round 5 – Pick 3 – Dan Lomas, Attack, High Point
Round 5 – Pick 7 – Mike Messenger, Midfield, Limestone
Round 6 – Pick 1 – Cameron Williams, Midfield, Colgate
Round 6 – Pick 7 – Zack Powers, Defense, UNC
Round 7 – Pick 7 – Vince Gravino, Attack, Canisius
Round 8 – Pick 7 – Derek Kihembo, Defense, Johns Hopkins
Rochester Rattlers – 7 total selections
Round 1 – Pick 7 – Matt Dunn, Defense, Maryland
Round 2 – Pick 8 – John Edmonds, Attack, Cornell
Round 4 – Pick 8 – TJ Neubauer, M, Fairfield
Round 6 – Pick 8 – Blaze Riorden, Goalie, Albany
Round 7 – Pick 8 – Eric DeJohn, Midfield, St. John’s
Round 8 – Pick 1 – Austin Schutlz, Defense, Army
Round 8 – Pick 8 – Sal Tuttle, Attack, Adelphi
Well, that’s it. The 2016 MLL Draft is done, and now players can officially start thinking about their MLL debut, except not really, because they still have a full college season to play! As I said in my opening, cracking an MLL game roster is incredibly tough. To do so against guys who have been prepping for it all year makes it ever harder. Good luck to all the 2016 MLL Draftees!
Fletcher, Teat, Salvatore Selected in 2020 MLL Draft
ITHACA, N.Y. – On the 20th anniversary of the Major League Lacrosse (MLL) Collegiate Draft Presented by Cascade, Cornell men’s lacrosse seniors Connor Fletcher, Jeff Teat, and Brandon Salvatore all saw their names be chosen during the social media-driven draft on Monday night.
MLL teams were able to draft any player who was listed as a senior for the 2020 NCAA lacrosse season. The recent decision by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) to extend the eligibility of 2020 spring athletes did not affect the eligibility to be drafted in the 2020 Collegiate Draft Presented by Cascade. If a drafted player chooses to return to NCAA play for the 2021 season, the team who drafted that player will retain their rights for one year.
With all draft selections being announced via the MLL’s Instagram (@majorleaguelax) and Twitter (@MLL_Lacrosse) accounts, Fletcher was the first to appear on the feed, being selected as the 15th overall pick by the Philadelphia Barrage in the third round. With his top-15 pick, he becomes the Big Red’s 14th top-15 MLL Draft pick in program history.
Teat was the next to be drafted, going as the 25th overall pick in the fifth round to the Boston Cannons. Salvatore followed in the sixth round, being chosen 32nd overall by the Connecticut Hammerheads. This marks the second-straight year that Cornell has had three student-athletes be drafted, and the fifth time in Big Red history. Cornell’s three selections in last night’s draft was also the second-most among all schools, coming in second only to Yale, who had five picks.
Fletcher was named an Inside Lacrosse Media honorable mention All-American following the shortened 2020 season after helping the team to a perfect 5-0 record and a No. 2 national ranking in the USILA Coaches’ Poll. Fletcher started every contest in which he played (50) during his time in a Big Red uniform. As a junior, he had the most balanced numbers of any midfielder on the team with 10 goals and nine assists for 19 points, earning second-team All-Ivy accolades. Fletcher had a brilliant campaign as a rookie, ranking second on the team in points (32) and goals (22). His 22 goals and 32 points are the sixth-most ever scored by a Big Red freshman, while his 10 assists rank eighth overall.
Teat is a two-time Tewaaraton Trophy Nominee, three-time USILA All-American, and four-time Inside Lacrosse Media All-American. He received All-Ivy accolades on three occasions, including unanimous first-team All-Ivy selections in 2018 and 2019. During the 2020 campaign, Teat moved into third all-time in career points (268) at Cornell, also sitting third in the Big Red record books in career assists (152) and ninth in career goals (116). He is just one of two players in Cornell history to post three-straight 30-goal, 30-assist seasons and is just one of four to amass 70 points in three-consecutive campaigns from 2017-19. Teat is also just the eighth player in Ivy League history to score 250 career points.
Salvatore has been a standout defender for the Big Red, being named a USILA All-American, two-time Inside Lacrosse Media All-American, and two-time All-Ivy League selection. Even with a shortened 2020 season, he ranks second all-time in Big Red history in caused turnovers (71). He led the Big Red in this statistical category in each of the last two seasons, causing an impressive 32 turnovers as a junior, a mark which is the third-most in Cornell history for a single season and is just two off of the school record. After posting these impressive numbers, Salvatore was named unanimous first-team All-Ivy, USILA honorable mention All-America, and Inside Lacrosse Media honorable mention All-America as a junior. He followed this up with a third-team All-America selection from Inside Lacrosse as a senior.
To view the full results of the 2020 MLL Draft Presented by Cascade, click here.
2019 MLL Draft Results And Players
via MLL press release
Boston, MA – (February 8, 2019) – Major League Lacrosse (MLL) hosted the 2019 Collegiate Draft presented by Cascade Saturday, March 9 at the NASCAR Hall of Fame in Charlotte, N.C. The Draft was free of charge to attend and featured representatives from every MLL team. Major League Lacrosse streamed the event for the first time in league history, from their website. More than 550 fans, players, league executives, and sponsors attended the event. The Ohio Machine selected Alex Woodall, Towson University’s faceoff specialist, with the first overall pick in the 2019 MLL Draft presented by Cascade.
The other picks, in draft order, were:
|2||Florida||Tim Troutner||High Point|
|6||Denver||Max Tuttle||Sacred Heart|
|8||Dallas||Chris Sabia||Penn State|
|10||Ohio||Nick Spillaine||Penn State|
|24||New York||Jack Tigh||Yale|
|28||Ohio||Chris Young||High Point|
|33||New York||John Daniggelis||Yale|
|36||Denver||Brandon Jones||Air Foce|
|39||Atlanta||Brett Craig||Seton Hill|
|41||Atlanta||Tyson Gibson||Robert Morris|
|42||New York||Connor Farrell||LIU Post|
|44||Dallas||Joe Saggese||Sacred Heart|
|50||Charlotte||Brendan Gleason||Notre Dame|
|51||New York||Dan Dolan||UMD|
|55||Boston||James Burr||Boston University|
|57||New York||Decker Curran||Michigan|
|59||Ohio||Alex Heger||Robert Morris|
|60||New York||Brendan Kearns||Providence|
|62||Dallas||Landon Kramer||Sacred Heart|
About Major League Lacrosse
Major League Lacrosse (MLL), the premier professional outdoor lacrosse league, is headquartered in Boston. MLL has led the sport of lacrosse into the mainstream of competitive team sports since 2001. In the spring of 2018, MLL entered into new leadership for the first time in 17 years when it selected Alexander Brown as the Commissioner. The league is made up of nine teams: The Atlanta Blaze, Boston Cannons, Charlotte Hounds, Chesapeake Bayhawks, Dallas Rattlers, Denver Outlaws, Florida Launch, New York Lizards, and Ohio Machine. The 2019 season opens May 31 and tickets can be found on majorleaguelacrosse.com
(Visited 228 times, 1 visits today)90,000
Major League Lacrosse draft
|None.||name||Nationality||Position||Height||Weight||College||Graduation Year||Secondary School||Hometown||Ref.|
|2||Foster Huggins *||Protection||5’10 ”||180 lb||Loyola||2018||Dallas Episcopal School||Dallas, TX|
|3||Eli Salama||LSM||6’2 ”90,022 205 lbs||RIT||2018||Dr. Charles Best||Coquitlam, British Columbia|
|4||Greg Koholan *||Midfielder||6 ft 1 in90,022 195 lbs||Virginia||2016||Irondequoit||Rochester, New York|
|5||Sam Duggan||Midfielder||6’3 ”90,022 185 lbs||Cornell||2020||Skaneteles||Skaneateles, New York|
|6||Will House||Midfielder||6’0 ”||190 lb||Duke||2015||Palmyra||Palmyra, PA|
|9||Rhys Eddie||Protection||6’0 ”90,022 163 lbs||Boston University||2020||Skaneteles||Skaneateles, New York|
|12||Justin Turri||Midfielder||6’3 ”90,022 205 lbs||Duke||2012||West islip||West Islip, New York|
|14||Justin Gutterding||Attack||6’0 ”||190 lb||Duke||2018||Garden City||Garden City, NY|
|15||John Galloway||Goalkeeper||6’0 ”||175 lb||Syracuse||2011||West Genesee||Syracuse, NY|
|19||Jesse King||Attack||6’3 ”90,022 220 lbs||Ohio State||2015||Claremont||Victoria, British Columbia|
|22||Ned Crotty||Attack||6’2 ”||190 lb||Duke||2010||Delbarton||New Vernon, NJ|
|23||Brett Quiner||Goalkeeper||5’10 ”||190 lb||Albany||2008||Penn Yang Academy||Penn Yang, NY|
|25||Connor Farrell||Throw in||6’2 ”||240 lb||LIU Post||2019||Sahem Vostok||Holtsville, NY|
|27||Brendan Kavanagh||Attack||5’8 ”90,022 160 lbs||Hofstra||2018||Kellenberg||Rockville Center, New York|
|28||James Barclay||Protection||5’11 ”90,022 190 lbs||Providence||2018||Hill Academy||Toronto, Ontario|
|29||Jordan McIntosh||Midfielder||6’2 ”||200 lbs||RIT||2011||Holy Trinity||Oakville, Ontario|
|31 years||John Ranaghan||Midfielder||6’3 ”||215 lbs||Johns Hopkins||2013||Yorktown||Yorktown, NY|
|33||Jordan Wolf||Attack||5’9 ”||170 lb||Duke||2014||Lower Merion||Philadelphia, PA|
|34||Jacob Pulver||Protection||6’0 ”90,022 215 lbs||Cornell||2018||Fayetteville – Manlius||Manlius, New York|
|36||Jesse Bernhardt||Protection||6 ft 1 in90,022 210 lbs||Maryland||2013||Lake Brantley||Longwood Florida|
|40||Michael Manley||Protection||6’2 ”||225 lb||Duke||2012||Penn Yang Academy||Penn Yang, NY|
|42||Ryan Flanagan||LSM||6’5 ”||215 lbs||North Carolina||2011||West Islip||West Islip, New York|
|44||Matt Godet||Attack||6 ft 1 in90,022 220 lbs||Yale||2020||Salisbury||Hamilton, Ontario|
|80||Donnie Moss||Midfielder||6’2 ”90,022 200 lbs||Adelphi||2009||Aquinas Institute||Rochester, New York|
|88||Hunter Forbes||Throw in||5’6 ”90,022 170 lbs||Jacksonville||2018||Woodstock||Woodstock, Georgia|
|91||Ty Thompson *||Attack||6’0 ”||200 lbs||Albany||2014||Salisbury||Onondaga, NY|
Opportunities for a new treatment option for breast milk – PubMed website in RussianInactivation of Cytomegalovirus in Breast Milk Using Ultraviolet-C Irradiation: Opportunities for a New Treatment Option in Breast Milk Banking
Source: https: // www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC49
Competing interests: Lucas Kristen received a PhD from Carag AG, Baar-Switzerland. An experimental setup for this study was filed for an Australian Provisional Patent Application entitled “Apparatus and Methods for Pasteurizing Human Milk”. Appendix No. 20127. Application filing date December 18, 2012 by the applicant is Carag AG, Bahnhofstrasse 9, Baar, Switzerland. Peter Hartmann received an unlimited research grant from Medela AG (Switzerland).No company was involved in the design or conduct of the study or the decision to publish the manuscript. This does not change the authors’ commitment to PLOS ONE’s data and content sharing policies. Other authors have stated that there are no competing interests.
Conceptualization: MLL PH GRS KS.
data curation: HUSBAND.
Formal Analysis: MLL NH JJ EAM PC.
Purchase of funds: MLL GRS PH KS.
Research: MLL NH JJ EAM PC.
Methodology: MLL LC PH GRS.
Project administration: MUSH GRS SC.
Resources: MLL LC PH GRS KS.
Control: MLL GRS PH.
Visualization: MLL NH JJ EAM PC.
Writing – original draft: MLL.
Writing – viewing and editing: MLL NH JJ EAM LC PC PH GRS KS.
Pasteurized donor breast milk is provided by milk cans to very premature babies where their maternal supply is insufficient or unavailable.Donated milk is currently being processed by Holder pasteurization, producing a microbiologically safe product, but significantly reducing the immune-protective components. Ultraviolet C (UV-C) irradiation at 254 nm has been shown to be investigated as an alternative treatment and has been shown to retain components such as lactoferrin, lysozyme and secretory IgA significantly better than Gelder’s pasteurization. We describe the inactivation of cytomegalovirus, a virus that is normally excreted in breast milk, using UV-C irradiation.Complete replication was removed with various doses of treatment. However, evidence for viral immediate early proteins in cells was never completely eliminated, indicating that some viral gene transcription was still occurring. In conclusion, UV-C may be a safe alternative to pasteurization for treating human donated milk that retains biological activity. However, our data indicate the need for a careful assessment of CMV inactivation for each device intended for the treatment of breast milk using UV-C irradiation.
All relevant data are included in the document.
Pasteurized Donated Human Milk (PDHM) is an important artificial formula alternative for very premature infants in an increasing number of neonatal intensive care units around the world. Ideally, PDHM is given to very preterm infants whose mothers have difficulty placing or maintaining breast milk. One of the most compelling rationales for providing PDHM instead of commercial premature infant formula is the associated reduction in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a devastating inflammatory bowel condition that is associated with extreme prematurity and can lead to bowel perforation and rapid death .
Donor breast milk is usually processed by Holder pasteurization (heating at 62.5 ° C for 30 minutes),  and reliably produces a microbiologically safe product that reduces bacterial load by 105 colony units per ml  and effectively inactivates cytomegalovirus ( CMV), a virus commonly found in breast milk that can cause severe infection in very premature babies . However, Holder’s pasteurization also reduces the concentration of immunoprotective proteins such as lactoferrin, lysozyme and secretory IgA, potentially contributing to the beneficial effects of breast milk .Accordingly, other breast milk processing methods are being evaluated that eliminate pathogens but retain immune factors. Ultraviolet irradiation (UV-C, 254 nm) has been shown to inactivate potential bacterial contaminants in breast milk (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus) and to preserve lactoferrin, lysozyme [ 6.7].
Although many microbial pathogens in breast milk are introduced unintentionally (eg, cutaneous or intestinal flora introduced during breast pumping), CMV will inevitably be present in many milk donations.In Australia, about 50-80% of women of fertile age are CMV seropositive before pregnancy , and most of them will experience focal CMV reactivation in the mammary glands, followed by excretion of the virus into breast milk for up to 2 months after delivery [9,10 ]. While the term and moderately premature babies are generally asymptomatic after CMV infection postpartum, babies born on
We confirm here that UV-C irradiation can effectively inactivate CMV in breast milk, but caution should be made that the effective dose of UV-C must be carefully determined as new equipment is developed.
Human Foreskin Fibroblasts (HFF) were kindly provided by Professor Jane Allan (UWA, Perth, Australia). They were grown in Modified Dulbecco’s Enrichment Medium (DMEM), High Glucose (GIBCO) supplemented with 8% neonatal bovine serum (NBS) in 5% CO2 at 37 ° C during subculture and in 2% NBS during viral titer assessment.
A cell-adapted CMV strain, AD169 , courtesy of Professor Jane Allan (UWA, Perth, Australia) and distributed to the HFF.A high titer stock was obtained by centrifuging the virus-infected cells (950 x g) for 30 minutes. Reserves were quantified by Tissue Culture Infectious Dose 50.
Frozen pasteurized breast milk was provided in 10 ml aliquots by the Hartmann Human Lactation Research team at the University of Western Australia. Aliquots from the same stock were used for all viral inactivation studies. The use of human milk for this project was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the University of Western Australia (RA / 4/1/2369).All donors have given written consent for their donations to be used in research, and the samples were de-identified prior to being presented to our laboratory. The milk was pasteurized with Holder and stored in a 10 ml aliquot in a -80 ° C freezer prior to use. Aliquots were thawed immediately prior to use.
Virus stocks were diluted 10-fold in DMEM (Sigma-Aldrich supplemented with 5% Pen / Strep (Gibco, Life Technologies) and 2% neonatal bovine serum in sterile 96-well trays.Virus Diluents 100 μl were inoculated into HFF fused cells, which were prepared in 96-well cell culture plates. Cells were incubated for 14 days (5% CO2, 37 ° C) and assessed daily for cytopathic effect (CPE). When the characteristic cytomegal CPE was identified, the well was designated as “+”. The number of positive wells per tray was entered into an online calculator developed by Brett D. Lindenbach (Yale University) based on the Reed and Münch protocol  to obtain a TCID50 / ml value.the cytopathic effect was incubated for 21 days and re-examined to ensure that there was no viral growth.
An ultraviolet device was kindly provided by the Hartmann Human Lactation Research Group (US Patent No. 2014094189, ). It consisted of a wooden box with ultraviolet light (254 nm) attached to the top surface by a metal slide positioned directly under the light, which completely shielded the sample from radiation when closed.180 μl (approximately 0.5 mm deep) breast milk inoculated with a 1: 5 ratio of AD169 virus stock to pasteurized milk () was placed in a machine drilled well on a sterile metal sample plate (0.4 mm deep). A movable stage was used to select the appropriate distance from the light, which was measured from the top of the slide (just below the UV-C light) to the top of the metal borehole on the movable stage using a metal caliper.The UV-C light was turned on for 15 minutes before measuring the dose or irradiating the sample. To deliver the dose, the sample box was placed on top of the prepared sample with a closed slide, the slide was opened for an appropriate amount of time, and then closed and the light box was removed. The sample was immediately treated with TCID50 or immediately frozen at -80 ° C and the TCID50 was evaluated as a batch to avoid processing delays.
The radiation dose was measured using a Gigahertz-Optik xX911 meter with a UV-3718 detector head according to the manufacturer’s methods (Gigahertz-Optik, Puchheim, Germany).
10 ml of breast milk was added with a 1: 5 virus stock ratio to pasteurized milk (x 104 pcs. Aliquots of 1 ml were stored in microcentrifuge tubes and frozen at -20 ° C or stored at 4 ° C. At 24, 48, 72 hours, aliquots were removed, thawed (-20 ° C samples), diluted tenfold and TCID50 was assessed in pre-prepared 96-well trays of confluent HFF cells. When the same contaminated milk sample was repeatedly frozen and thawed, a 10 ml sample was prepared and frozen in a 15 ml tube (Falcon®, Corning®) that was completely thawed before removing 1 ml, which was immediately analyzed with TCID50.The remaining sample was re-frozen.
5 ml of human milk was infected with a ratio of 1: 5 to the stock of pasteurized milk (). Aliquots of this mixture were treated with UV-C light (standard 10 second time interval, variable distance 1-5 cm or standard distance 5 cm, variable time 10-50 seconds) and immediately infected on confluent HFF cells in 24-well cell culture trays … The trays were centrifuged by centrifugation at 2000 xg for 30 minutes (Sigma 4K13) and then incubated for 7 days at 37 ° C, 5% CO2.The medium was removed and the monolayers were washed with Tris-buffered saline for 5 minutes. The monolayers were fixed 1: 1 with methanol: acetone for 10 minutes at room temperature and blocked with 10% normal goat serum in TBS. Cells were washed and incubated with 1: 500 labeled Alexa-Fluor ™ 488 MAB810X (Millipore) in TBS plus 10% goat serum for 30 minutes at 37 ° C. Cells were washed and ProLong® Gold AntiFade holder with DAPI stain (ThermoFisher Scientific) was used under a coverslip and left overnight.The cells were assessed using a TE2000-U fluorescence microscope (Nikon, Japan). To eliminate bias, fields of view of confluent microscopes (10 x objective lens) were selected based on DAPI staining and photographed using a UV-2A filter unit (all wells). The same field was then immediately photographed using block B-2A (for Alexa-Fluor ™ 488 detection) so that the proportion of fluorescently staining cells could be listed. Cells from both fields were automatically enumerated using ImageJ 1 software.48p (NIH, USA) by converting to binary (UV) or adjusting the color threshold before converting to binary (B-2A) to give the percentage of infected cells (DAPI plus double staining with MAB810X) in the field. The particle size was specified as a pixel size from 200 to infinity. Uninfected cells were used as negative controls and cells infected with untreated AD169 were used as positive controls in each assay. 10 fields of view were evaluated for variable distance estimation and 5 fields of view for variable time estimation.
Results are presented as mean ± standard deviation. They were calculated using GraphPad Prism 6 for Windows, version 6.07 (GraphPad Software Inc.)
Milk samples were inoculated with 5.9 x 104 TCID50 / ml AD169, stored at 4 ° C or -20 ° C and evaluated daily with TCID50. Because frozen breast milk can be stored in the freezer for significantly longer, one sample was stored at -20 ° C for 21 days (504 hours).One sample, stored at -20 ° C, was relubricated after removing the sample. The results are shown in Fig. 1 and show that the viable virus was not completely inactivated after long-term storage under these conditions.
Pasteurized breast milk was slaughtered in 1: 5 AD169 aliquots and 0.5 ml aliquots were prepared and stored at 4 ° C or frozen at -20 ° C. After 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours at 4 ° C or -20 ° C samples were removed / thawed and analyzed for TCID50 on human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF).One sample was stored at -20 ° C for 21 days (504 hours). The presence or absence of CPE was determined for each well and calculated using the Reed and Münch Calculator. Results are presented as TCID50 / ml. The superscripts (1-4) under multiple freeze / thaw patterns indicate the amount of time the sample has been thawed.
Breast milk or DMEM culture medium was inoculated with 1.56 x 105 TCID50 / ml AD169 and irradiated for 10 seconds at 254 nm at 1, 2, 3 and 4 cm from UV radiation.Irradiated samples and positive (untreated) control samples were evaluated by TCID50. UV irradiation for 10 seconds of successfully inactivated cytomegalovirus in breast milk, but minimal viability was maintained where the virus was inoculated into the medium (Fig. 2).
Pasteurized breast milk or MEM culture medium was coated with AD169 1: 5 culture. 150 μL of samples were irradiated for 10 seconds at 1, 2, 3, or 4 cm from the UV light source (estimated UV intensity 400, 100, 25 and 4 W / cm2, respectively).The irradiated samples were inoculated onto human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF). The presence or absence of CPE was determined for each well and calculated using the Reed and Münch Calculator. Results are presented as TCID50 / ml. Breast milk samples with values below the detection limit are indicated by (*).
Breast milk inoculated with 2.2 x 103 TCID50 / ml AD169 was irradiated for 10 seconds at 254 nm at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 cm from UV radiation. Irradiated samples and positive (untreated) sample were evaluated with TCID50 (Fig.3A). The same aliquot was treated under the same irradiation conditions and incubated for 7 days before staining with MABX, which was specific for non-structural immediate early protein. Infected cells were listed and presented as% infected cells: total cells (FIG. 3B). The minimum effective dose of UV-C was 53 mJ / cm2 (Fig. 3C).
A-C. UV-C exposure to breast milk for 10 seconds from 1 to 5 cm from the UV source. Pasteurized breast milk was coated with AD169 1: 5 culture.The irradiated samples were diluted tenfold and inoculated into human HFF and TCID50, calculated according to the method described by Reed and Munch . A. Results are presented as TCID50 / mL. Breast milk samples with values below the detection limit are indicated by (*). B. Irradiated samples were inoculated onto HFF, centrifuged and cells analyzed by immunofluorescence 7 days after infection. Results are presented as% of infected cells. C: Ultraviolet dose. D-F. UV-C exposure to spiked breast milk at a distance of 5 cm from the UV source for different durations.D: Pasteurized breast milk was coated with AD169 and the samples were irradiated 5 cm from the UV source for 10-50 seconds. The irradiated samples were evaluated for TCID50. Breast milk samples with values below the detection limit are indicated by (*). E. Irradiated samples were inoculated onto HFF, centrifuged and cells analyzed by immunofluorescence 7 days after infection. Results are presented as% immunofluorescently labeled cells. *
Breast milk inoculated with 3.1 x 103 TCID50 / ml AD169 was irradiated 5 cm from UV radiation for 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 seconds.Irradiated samples and positive (untreated) sample were evaluated with TCID50 (Figure 3D). The same aliquot was treated under the same irradiation conditions and incubated for 7 days before staining with MABX. Infected cells were listed and presented as% of infected cells: total cells. The results are shown in Fig. 3E. At an exposure of 30 seconds (85 mJ / cm2), 2% of the cells were immunofluorescent. At an exposure of 40 seconds (114 mJ / cm2), less than 1% of the cells were immunofluorescent.This result was not improved after 50 seconds of irradiation (143 mJ / cm2, Fig. 3F). The UV dose was measured as described above (Fig. 3G). Figure 4 shows an example of a typical staining obtained using DAPI and MABX.
Uninfected HFF cells (DAPI), B: Uninfected cells (MABX) C, D: AD169 infected cells without UV-C treatment, C: DAPI, D: MABX. E, F: cells infected with AD169, 10 seconds UV-C treatment (5 cm), E. DAPI, F: MABX, G, H: cells infected with AD169, 50 seconds UV-C treatment (5 cm) G: DAPI, H: MABX.
UV irradiation (200-280nm) is currently widely used to eliminate microbial contamination in the food industry. We are currently investigating the ability of 254 nm UV-C, which has previously been shown to reduce bacterial viability while maintaining the biological activity of milk [6,7], for its ability to inactivate cytomegalovirus.
Both optimal (1 cm) and suboptimal (5 cm) UV-C irradiation protocols were evaluated, with the latter showing efficacy when sustained exposure was provided.Irradiation of CMV-infected breast milk with 64 mJ / cm2 UV-C has been shown to eliminate the replicative virus and reduce the detection of the intracellular CMV protein to less than 1% of cells in culture. Although replication competence was not demonstrated (as determined by the absence of CPE, FIG. 3A), residual intracellular viral proteins were detected using a monoclonal antibody. Irradiation with UV-C is known to affect cell viability by inducing DNA damage, such as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, which interfere with DNA replication .MABX is specific for a non-structural immediate early protein and it can theoretically be transcribed without full replication and virion production. Limited immediate early transcription with CMV latency was previously demonstrated in vitro in mouse lung tissue after infection with murine cytomegalovir, and no translation of early or late proteins was found . Thus, residual cells showing fluorescent staining after prolonged irradiation (40 and 50 seconds, 140 and 180 mJ / cm2, respectively), therefore, cannot indicate a future productive infection.This is evidenced by long incubation (up to three weeks) of the identically treated virus in 96 well trays (for TCID50) that do not produce plaque (AD169 is a cell culture adapted virus and produces identifiable CPE for 7 days). To further assess replication competence, future studies will assess the transcription of late CMV genes after UV-C treatment. This will be important because we cannot completely rule out the possibility of viral replication occurring.
Some natural suppression of CMV replication is suggested by the different effects of CMV inoculated into the medium (less effective inactivation at all treatment distances) than pasteurized breast milk (Fig. 2). All viruses detected were at the limit of detection, but the result was consistent and demonstrates that cell culture is not a suitable substitute for breast milk when assessing UV-C exposure. Interestingly, UV-C is expected to be more efficiently absorbed into culture media than more opaque breast milk.One of the obstacles to using this technology to treat fluids such as milk is the difficulty of radiation penetration (estimated at 0.5 mm), and new methodologies will need to be developed to handle large volumes of milk .
Ingestion of breast milk containing viable CMV can lead to postpartum infection in very premature infants . The severity of infection varies, and the negative impact on long-term developmental outcomes is consistently seen in infected infants.Illustrating the confusion surrounding this area, while some researchers have concluded that postpartum CMV infection is a relatively mild and self-limiting infection with no obvious long-term consequences , others have published case studies of infants who are seriously affected by infection [12,21 ] and a recent multicenter study have demonstrated an association between postnatal CMV infection and an increased risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia . In 2010, an assessment of the current postpartum literature on CMV infections concluded that no claim could be justified by either approving or not recommending breast milk treatment when CMV was secreted by the uterus .Very few long-term studies have been conducted, and they are hampered by the small number of participants producing insufficiently strong studies [24,25]. A recent report describing intellectual impairment in adolescents suggests that the long-term effects can be measured .
Many neonatal intensive care units currently freeze breast milk at -20 ° C for 3 days prior to feeding very preterm infants to reduce CMV titers. The efficacy of this treatment has been controversial with some investigators showing significant reductions in viral titer and some showing little benefit (discussed in ), including a recent study that reported a randomized trial of frozen milk that did not show a decrease in C infection .We found no decrease in CMV viability associated with storage at -20 ° C and had little effect on viability after 21 days (504 hours) storage. Although these experiments were performed using an adapted CMV cell strain, AD169, these data may illustrate a worst-case scenario at the peak of CMV excretion in breast milk (see ). Of course, other researchers have concluded that freezing breast milk does not ultimately protect susceptible infants from infection .It is possible that the low titer of CMV excreted in breast milk is inactivated by freezing, but this effect is overloaded, since more virus is excreted during lactation . Early CMV infection should not be a contraindication for breastfeeding or breastfeeding in general. However, the risk to populations receiving donor breast milk (usually very premature babies
Pathology reports associated with postpartum CMV infection in infants born before 28 weeks of age are relatively rare, and it is possible that severe symptoms and adverse long-term outcomes are sometimes diluted by age categories that are too broad.As the survival of infants born between 23 and 25 weeks of age improves globally, the long-term consequences of postpartum CMV infection may become more evident. Pasteurization of breast shepherds from CMV seropositive mothers is carried out in some neonatal institutions. However, a recent report from the switch from pasteurization to the provision of unprocessed expressed breast milk in the Austrian neonatal unit showed a modest decrease in NEC and an increase in CMV cases without an increase in mortality, indicating that the benefits of conventional Holder pasteurization for this population are minimal. and may even be harmful .An alternative milk processing method that effectively inactivates CMV while maintaining other immune defenses may reduce illness in infants in the neonatal intensive care unit.
UV-C treated breast milk retains significant biological activity, effectively killing bacteria and inactivating the replicative ability of CMV in breast milk. Other potential pathogens that are also excreted in breast milk, such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus, must be evaluated before this alternative treatment is approved for use in the context of a breast milk bank.
Professor Jeffrey Schellam passed away before the final version of this manuscript was submitted. Dr. Megan Lloyd accepts responsibility for the integrity and accuracy of the collected and analyzed data. The authors would like to thank the donors who contributed breast milk for research to the Hartmann Human Lactation Research Group.
RECOGNITION OF HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGES WITH USE OF CLUSTER ENSEMBLE AND SEMISUPERVISED LEARNING.Abstract
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North Carolina Courage
At North Carolina Courage is a professional women’s soccer team based in Cary, North Carolina.It was founded in 2017 after Steven Malik acquired the National Women’s Football League (NWSL) franchise rights from the Western New York Flash.  Courage is part of the North Carolina men’s team from the United Football League and plays their home games at Salen Stadium in WakeMed Football Park.
In 2018, Courage became the first team in NWSL history to win Shield and Championship in the same season. In 2019, the team became the first team to win the championship at home.
- 2019: Team North Carolina Courage became NWSL Champions for the second season in a row after beating the Chicago Red Stars 4–0 in the NWSL Championship held in Cary, North Carolina. Debinha was named the MVP of the NWSL after scoring the fastest goal in NWSL history. The team won the NWSL Shield for the third time in years on Saturday, September 21, after beating Utah Royals FC. The team’s overall record is 15W-4D-5L.
- 2018: Team North Carolina Courage had their best season in NWSL history, losing just one of 26 games played in a season.Courage also competed and won first place in the first International Women’s Champions Cup. Heather O’Reilly scored the only goal against Olympique Lyon. After capturing the NWSL Shield, the team defeated the Portland Thorns in the 2018 NWSL Championship 3–0. Jessica MacDonald was named the MVP of the NWSL Championship after scoring two goals in the match.
- 2017: The North Carolina Courage moved to Cary, North Carolina in 2017 from western New York.The team played for Washington Spirit in their first leg and defeated Team 1-0 with a goal from McCall Zerboni. Courage won the 2017 NWSL Shield and advanced to the 2017 NWSL Championship after beating the Chicago Red Stars 1–0 in the NWSL semi-finals. The team fell 1-0 to Portland Thorns in the 2017 NWSL Championship.
Team name, coat of arms and colors
Team name is a tribute to the original. Carolina Courage – who won the 2002 Women’s United Football Association (WUSA) Founders Cup – as a stylized lioness that, with very minor changes, matches the lioness head on the WUSA team badge.The badge features elements from the North Carolina flag with both a star and a color scheme, the latter being consistent with the NCFC brand. The lower right point of the star represents the Exploration Triangle, a geographic region that includes Chapel Hill, Durham, and Raleigh. Courage’s primary colors include Atlantic Blue, Cardinal Red, and Southern Gold. 
The North Carolina Courage team plays their home games at WakeMed Soccer Park, the football stadium is shared by North Carolina, the team in the United Football League is also owned by Steven Malick.
The football complex consists of a purpose-built main stadium, two lighted training fields and four additional fields. The main stadium and 2 lighted fields (2 and 3) are all FIFA sized according to international rules (120 yards x 75 yards). The main stadium has a capacity of 10,000 with expansion in 2012. Field 2 also has 1,000 permanent stands.
The park is located on 150 acres (0.61 km. 2 ) that the state of North Carolina has leased to Wake County.The money to build the football park came from $ 14.5 million spent on hotel rooms in the county and taxes on cooked food and beverages. The City of Carey took over responsibility for operations and maintenance in 2004 with the Metropolitan Football League. On January 26, 2006, the City of Carey amended the lease to allow the property to be subleased to Triangle Professional Soccer during 2011 to exclusively advertise the complex’s professional soccer and lacrosse events.This deal was extended for a new group of owners until 2014. 
On December 6, 2016, along with the name change, North Carolina FC announced plans to build a 24,000-seat stadium. 
Year after year
|Season||NWSL Regular season||Position||Playoff NWSL|
PlayersCurrent squad 91,363 As of 12 November 2020
- As of October 30, 2020
Yahoo! Sports in the US and on the NWSL website for international viewers. 
In 2018, Courage games continued to stream on Go90, the NWSL website and select games continued to stream on Lifetime.After Go90 was shut down by Verizon on July 30, all games were available for streaming on the NWSL site. 
In 2017, Courage games were broadcast exclusively by Go90 to a US audience and through the NWSL website to an international audience.  As part of a three-year agreement with A&E Networks, Lifespan broadcasts one Game of the Week NWSL on Saturday afternoon.   For the 2017 season, Courage was featured in national lifespan Game of the Week NWSL airs June 3, July 1, August 19, and July 15, 2017. “The North Carolina Courage will feature in five NWSL Game of the Week broadcasts.” Wawel. April 1, 2017 Retrieved April 26, 2017.
Mythical man-month 45 years later / Raiffeisenbank blog / HabrFor the first time I heard about the book of Frederick Brooks ten years ago, while still studying at the university. It was strongly advised by our supervisor to read it.As often happens in such cases, when someone advises you to read something, then you politely say something like “yes, yes, soon, I will certainly do this”, add the next item to your grow list (at best) and happily forget about it.
After a couple of years I returned to this book and finally got acquainted with it. By that time, I already had several years of work in the IT industry. And when I started reading, I was surprised how much the book, written in 1975, and even in the field of software development, is still relevant!
This year the next reprint finally came out, so I decided to purchase it in paper form and read it again.And together with you to discuss some quotes that are still relevant today.
A word about the author of this book
Frederick Brooks was the project manager for the development of IBM OS / 360 (a group of operating systems developed by IBM for the System / 360 mainframe). To speed up development, he attempted to attract even more developers, but the decision turned out to be fatal. To prevent anyone else from stepping on the same rake, Brooks subsequently wrote a series of essays that we now know as “The Mythical Man-Month.”It is believed that every project manager should read this book.
Fine dining takes time
This is the epigraph that precedes the second chapter of the book, and it begins with the words:
All programmers are optimists.
Remember how many times you promised the team that you would complete this task in a couple of hours, but in the end had to spend the whole day? But the initial estimate of labor costs, most likely, was made precisely on the basis that this task will take, well, a maximum of half a day.The longer we try to predict, the greater the error is introduced by such underestimated tasks. Of course, an experienced product always in mind multiplies by Pi, but not every experienced product can shift the deadlines of their project across the entire company.
For the sake of justice, it should be noted that the opposite often happens: we re-lay down on some task, and in the end we do it much faster.
Previously, development work was measured in man-months.Brooks says this unit of measure is quite dangerous. It follows that people and months are interchangeable. This is true for picking cotton or digging trenches, but even approximately not true for software development. First of all, due to the fact that the distribution of work is impossible due to restrictions in the sequence of execution of certain sections. As the saying goes, nine women cannot give birth to a child in one month.
Fortunately, in our time with the advent of agile methodologies, we have already moved away from the estimation of tasks with reference to real time.We estimate only the relative complexity of tasks.
Brooks draws a graphic analogy between cooking and software development:
Nice when you’re promised to make an omelet in two minutes. But when two minutes have passed, and the omelet is not ready yet, the client has two options – to continue waiting or to eat it raw. The cook may suggest another option – add fire. As a result, nothing can save the omelet: it will burn on one side and will be raw on the other.He also gives a rule of thumb that coding in our work only takes ⅙ of the time we spend on a task. Does his assessment match yours?
Planning errors often consist in the fact that the schedule does not include the time for some areas of work after the development itself. For example, for testing. At the same time, a deadline is already on the horizon, and it becomes clear that the work will not be completed on time.
The first thought that comes to mind when the deadline is threatened is to add new people to the team. But it is better to give up this idea right away. Because then the team will spend resources on bringing new colleagues up to date, instead of continuing to work on the project.
Since Brooks got stuck with this while developing IBM OS / 360, he formulated this law:
If the project does not meet the deadline, then adding manpower will delay it even further.
Brooks begins chapter three with the following statement:
Very good professional programmers are 10 times more productive than weak ones with the same level of training and two years of experience.Continuing this thought, he says that a small, high-quality team (no more than 10 people) is best – the fewer brains, the better. In your opinion, what is the maximum allowed team size?
There is also a downside to this solution: such a team will create really large systems for a very long time. How to get out of the situation? It’s very simple: let each team have one highly qualified specialist (“surgeon”) and several people at his side, who provide him with all kinds of assistance.
Brooks even gives an approximate composition of the team, describing the role of each team member.
So what is Brooks’ dreamteam:
A surgical team organization with a chief programmer achieves product integrity through multi-head design and overall productivity through multiple assistants with radically reduced communication.
Effect of the second system
Surely many of you have had to work with such colleagues (or even be in such a situation yourself), when an already more or less experienced developer tries to foresee all options for the further development of the system in advance and reload in advance with all sorts of abstractions, complicating the readability of the code and increasing its complexity? Brooks calls this the “second system effect.”
The second system is the most dangerous for the person who designs it. When he works on his third and later, all instances of his previous experience will confirm each other regarding the general characteristics of such systems, and their differences will determine those parts of his experience that are private and non-general.
The general tendency is to design the second system with a large margin, using all the ideas and excesses that were carefully rejected in the first.
It is difficult to add or refute anything here.I completely agree with the author. The solution to this problem is, in my opinion, the KISS principle (“keep it simple, stupid”). Because in modern realities, any attempt to guess the further development of the system is a thankless task.
There is nothing permanent in this world except impermanence.
Brooks cites the example of chemical engineers to illustrate this idea.They have long understood that a process that is successfully carried out in a laboratory cannot be repeated on an industrial scale. An intermediate stage, called a pilot installation, is required in order to gain experience in vertical scaling of the system.
Plan to dump the first version – you will anyway.
As you may have guessed, we are talking about MVP (“minimum viable product”). This is a kind of prototype that allows you to test a particular business hypothesis. Continuing with the previous topic, during the MVP stage, you should turn off the internal perfectionist.And if the result of the experiment turns out to be positive, then it will be faster to write the second version “as expected” from scratch.
Two steps forward and one step back
Brooks makes an interesting observation that gradually any system tends to accumulate bugs that appear in it with each new release. The number of new modules in the system increases linearly with the release number. At the same time, the number of affected modules grows exponentially.
All fixes tend to destroy the structure, increase entropy and disorganize the system.
I completely agree with this thesis. This is especially true, in my opinion, for a microservice architecture.
Over time, it becomes more difficult to make changes to the system, and fixes do not give noticeable results. In this case, it becomes necessary to rewrite the system from scratch. The key is to be prepared for this.
And thunder struck
Sophocles also said that no one loves a messenger who brings bad news. And so that in due time no one would be in the place of such a messenger, one should strictly adhere to the previously agreed terms.But how can you make sure that a large project meets these deadlines? First of all, have such a schedule of .
In this graph, each event from the list of events, called checkpoints, has a date. Control points should be specific, measurable events. A person will rarely lie about the progress of a checkpoint if the checkpoint is so clear that they cannot fool themselves. But if the milestone is vague, the boss (or product) often perceives the report differently than the person reporting to him.In this case, the situation (without malice, subconsciously) is presented in a more optimistic way.
Do you often come across a situation when a task is “almost done”? The task should have been done today, but the developer says it will most likely be done tomorrow. At first glance, the one-day lag from the chart does not look too catastrophic. However, Brooks argues that each such lag is an element of disaster, because they tend to accumulate.A series of such one-day lags reduces the overall momentum of the entire team.
The author proposes to determine the criticality of the lag with the help of timing diagrams, which will clearly show whether we have a margin of time in the form of waiting for the readiness of other components, or other work will not be able to continue until the current one is completed.
Brooks suggests embedding the documentation for the program directly into the source code. Thus, it will keep the documentation up to date at all times.As soon as the programmer needs to make changes to the code, he will immediately see the documentation for this code and immediately correct it. It turns out that in 1975 Brooks anticipated something that we know today as javadoc. In the comments, he suggests explaining not only the “how”, but also the “why.” The purpose is critical to understanding.
However, there is another point of view on this issue. For example, Martin (Robert, not George), author of Clean Code, argues that comments are evil. Even being among the source code, they can still become irrelevant.“Don’t waste time writing comments,” Martin says. Instead, he suggests taking a closer look at the process of naming variables, methods, and classes. If everything is done correctly, then there is no need for comments. And what point of view do you adhere to, do you document your code directly in the source?
Incremental development model
We must create a basic polling loop of the real-time system with subroutine calls (stubs) for all functions, while the subroutines themselves must be empty.Compile and test it. She will walk in circles, literally doing nothing, but doing it right.
Next, we implement any of these stubs and our system, without changing its structure and without stopping, already begins to do something useful. It is important to note that at each stage we have a working system. Is this not the principle of continuous integration, aka CI (continuous integration)?
Step by step, replacing the stub with an implementation, we gradually kind of grow our system.Since we have a working system at any given time, we can:
- start testing from the side of users very early;
- apply the development strategy for the budget, that is, in the event of a budget deficit, we simply will not implement any unimportant modules without destroying the structure of the entire system.
Why did the book need to be republished
Here I would just like to quote Brooks, in which he sneers at himself.He describes an incident that happened on the plane: